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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of Screening for Coronary Artery Disease Using CT Angiography on Mortality and Cardiac Events in High-Risk Patients With Diabetes: The FACTOR-64 Randomized Clinical Trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, yet CAD often is asymptomatic prior to myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary death.
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Community Mobilization to Reduce Drug Use, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Objectives. We implemented an intervention to reduce drug use in an urban commune in northern Vietnam. Methods. We encouraged the intervention commune to accept responsibility for developing their own intervention strategies based on a community mobilization model used in southern, rural China. We selected a comparison commune, which had demographic characteristics and a drug history similar to the intervention commune. The 2-year incidence of new drug users was estimated retrospectively in the intervention and comparison communes between baseline (2003) and follow-up (2009). Results. Increased incidence of new (noninjecting) drug users between 2003 and 2009 in the intervention commune was lower than that in the comparison commune, and these participants expressed more positive attitudes toward local authority and people with drug use and HIV/AIDS. Increased condom use during last intercourse with female sex workers and with female casual partners was observed in the intervention commune. HIV prevalence and positive opioid tests decreased more in the intervention commune. Conclusions. Our results suggested that the community mobilization had a positive influence in the intervention commune. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302101).
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Cyclic chlorine trap-doping for transparent, conductive, thermally stable and damage-free graphene.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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We propose a novel doping method of graphene using the cyclic trap-doping method with low energy chlorine adsorption. Low energy chlorine adsorption for graphene chlorination avoided defect (D-band) formation during the doping by maintaining the ?-bonding of the graphene, which affects conductivity. In addition, by trapping chlorine dopants between the graphene layers, the sheet resistance could be decreased by ?88% under optimized conditions. Among the reported doping methods, including chemical, plasma, and photochemical methods, the proposed doping method is believed to be the most promising for producing graphene with extremely high transmittance, low sheet resistance, high thermal stability, and high flexibility for use in various flexible electronic devices. The results of Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance showed that this method is also non-destructive and controllable. The sheet resistance of the doped tri-layer graphene was 70 ? per sq. at transmittance of 94%, and which was maintained for more than 100 h in a vacuum at 230 °C. Moreover, the defect intensity of graphene was not increased during the cyclic trap-doping.
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Visual Recognition Memory Test Performance was Improved in Older Adults by Extending Encoding Time and Repeating Test Trials.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of extension of the encoding time and repetition of a test trial would improve the visual recognition memory performance in older adults. Methods: We evaluated visual memory performance in young and older adults on a Yes-No recognition memory test under four different conditions. The conditions consisted of combinations of encoding times of two and four seconds (E2 and E4) and first and second retrieval practice test trials (T1 and T2): E2T1, E2T2, E4T1 and E4T2. Performance was evaluated by measuring hit rates, false alarm rates, discrimination ability and response bias. Results: Older adults showed better improvement of hit rate and discrimination ability under the E4T2 conditions whereas young adults showed better memory performance under the E2T2 conditions. Conclusion: A longer encoding time and repetition of the test was effective in improving the visual memory performance in terms of the hit rates and discrimination ability of older adults. The results suggest that this strategy should be useful in providing a suitable work environment for older workers.
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Characterization of k-complexes and slow wave activity in a neural mass model.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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NREM sleep is characterized by two hallmarks, namely K-complexes (KCs) during sleep stage N2 and cortical slow oscillations (SOs) during sleep stage N3. While the underlying dynamics on the neuronal level is well known and can be easily measured, the resulting behavior on the macroscopic population level remains unclear. On the basis of an extended neural mass model of the cortex, we suggest a new interpretation of the mechanisms responsible for the generation of KCs and SOs. As the cortex transitions from wake to deep sleep, in our model it approaches an oscillatory regime via a Hopf bifurcation. Importantly, there is a canard phenomenon arising from a homoclinic bifurcation, whose orbit determines the shape of large amplitude SOs. A KC corresponds to a single excursion along the homoclinic orbit, while SOs are noise-driven oscillations around a stable focus. The model generates both time series and spectra that strikingly resemble real electroencephalogram data and points out possible differences between the different stages of natural sleep.
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A new lignan glycoside from the aerial parts and cytotoxic investigation of Uvaria rufa.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Uvaria rufa (Dunal) Blume collected from Vietnam yielded one new lignan glycoside, ufaside (1), along with six known compounds, oxoanolobine (2), ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), catechin (4), epicatechin (5), daucosterol (6) and glutin-5-en-3-one (7). Their chemical structures were determined by using NMR, HR-MS spectroscopic analyses and in comparison with the reported data. A cytotoxic analysis of U. rufa herb extracts was performed for the first time using nine human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, LNCaP, MKN7, SW480, KB, LU-1, HepG2 and HL-60) derived from different tumour types. Of these seven constituents, compounds 2 and 3 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (LU-1) with IC50 values of 9.22 ± 1.02 ?g/mL and 10.21 ± 1.16 ?g/mL, respectively.
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IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer.
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Diarrhoeal diseases among adult population in an agricultural community Hanam province, Vietnam, with high wastewater and excreta re-use.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Despite the potential health risks of wastewater and excreta use as fertiliser in agriculture, it is still widespread in Vietnam. However, the importance of diarrheal risk in adults' associated with the combined exposures to both excreta and wastewater use in agriculture is largely unknown. This study was carried out to determine diarrhoeal incidence and associated risk factors among the adult population exposed to wastewater and excreta used in agriculture in Hanam province, Vietnam.
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Reassurance as a key outcome valued by emergency ambulance service users: a qualitative interview study.
Health Expect
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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There is an increasing need to assess the performance of emergency ambulance services using measures other than the time taken for an ambulance to arrive on scene. In line with government policy, patients and carers can help to shape new measures of ambulance service performance.
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Generic Synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam (Insecta: Hymenoptera), Part II-Cerapachyinae, Aenictinae, Dorylinae, Leptanillinae, Amblyoponinae, Ponerinae, Ectatomminae and Proceratiinae.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Of the subfamilies and genera known from Vietnam, the following taxa are treated in this second part of the series entitled "Generic Synopsis of the Formicidae of Vietnam": Cerapachyinae: Cerapachys, Simopone; Aenictinae: Aenictus; Dorylinae: Dorylus; Leptanillinae: Leptanilla, Protanilla; Amblyoponinae: Myopopone, Mystrium, Opamyrma, Prionopelta, Stigmatomma; Ponerinae: Anochetus, Brachyponera, Buniapone, Centromyrmex, Cryptopone, Diacamma, Ectomomyrmex, Euponera, Harpegnathos, Hypoponera, Leptogenys, Mesoponera, Odontomachus, Odontoponera, Parvaponera, Platythyrea, Ponera, Pseudoneoponera; Ectatomminae: Gnamptogenys; Proceratiinae: Discothyrea, Probolomyrmex, Proceratium. For each of these subfamilies we provide keys to genera (when there is more than one genus) known from Vietnam. For each genus we provide a synopsis and a list of Vietnamese species. 
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Combined therapy with GABA and proinsulin/alum acts synergistically to restore long-term normoglycemia by modulating T-cell autoimmunity and promoting ?-cell replication in newly diabetic NOD mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Antigen-based therapies (ABTs) fail to restore normoglycemia in newly diabetic NOD mice, perhaps because too few ?-cells remain by the time that ABT-induced regulatory responses arise and spread. We hypothesized that combining a fast-acting anti-inflammatory agent with an ABT could limit pathogenic responses while ABT-induced regulatory responses arose and spread. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration can inhibit inflammation, enhance regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses, and promote ?-cell replication in mice. We examined the effect of combining a prototypic ABT, proinsulin/alum, with GABA treatment in newly diabetic NOD mice. Proinsulin/alum monotherapy failed to correct hyperglycemia, while GABA monotherapy restored normoglycemia for a short period. Combined treatment restored normoglycemia in the long term with apparent permanent remission in some mice. Proinsulin/alum monotherapy induced interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-10-secreting T-cell responses that spread to other ?-cell autoantigens. GABA monotherapy induced moderate IL-10 (but not IL-4) responses to ?-cell autoantigens. Combined treatment synergistically reduced spontaneous type 1 T-helper cell responses to autoantigens, ABT-induced IL-4 and humoral responses, and insulitis, but enhanced IL-10 and Treg responses and promoted ?-cell replication in the islets. Thus, combining ABT with GABA can inhibit pathogenic T-cell responses, induce Treg responses, promote ?-cell replication, and effectively restore normoglycemia in newly diabetic NOD mice. Since these treatments appear safe for humans, they hold promise for type 1 diabetes intervention.
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Embedding the shapes of regions of interest into a Clinical Document Architecture document.
Health Informatics J
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Sharing a medical image visually annotated by a region of interest with a remotely located specialist for consultation is a good practice. It may, however, require a special-purpose (and most likely expensive) system to send and view them, which is an unfeasible solution in developing countries such as Vietnam. In this study, we design and implement interoperable methods based on the HL7 Clinical Document Architecture and the eXtensible Markup Language Stylesheet Language for Transformation standards to seamlessly exchange and visually present the shapes of regions of interest using web browsers. We also propose a new integration architecture for a Clinical Document Architecture generator that enables embedding of regions of interest and simultaneous auto-generation of corresponding style sheets. Using the Clinical Document Architecture document and style sheet, a sender can transmit clinical documents and medical images together with coordinate values of regions of interest to recipients. Recipients can easily view the documents and display embedded regions of interest by rendering them in their web browser of choice.
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A simple in vitro method for evaluating dendritic cell-based vaccinations.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Dendritic cell (DC) therapy is a promising therapy for cancer-targeting treatments. Recently, DCs have been used for treatment of some cancers. We aimed to develop an in vitro assay to evaluate DC therapy in cancer treatment using a breast cancer model.
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Scenario planning for community development in Vietnam: a new tool for integrated health approaches?
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Like many countries in Southeast Asia, Vietnam's rapid population and economic growth has met challenges in infrastructure development, especially sanitation in rural areas.
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Haptoglobin genotyping of Vietnamese: Global distribution of HP(del), complete deletion allele of the HP gene.
Leg Med (Tokyo)
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The haptoglobin (HP) gene deletion allele (HP(del)) is responsible for anhaptoglobinemia and a genetic risk factor for anaphylaxis reaction after transfusion due to production of the anti-HP antibody. The distribution of this allele has been explored by several groups including ours. Here, we studied the frequency of HP(del) in addition to the distribution of common HP genotypes in 293 Vietnamese. The HP(del) was encountered with the frequency of 0.020. The present result suggested that this deletion allele is restricted to East and Southeast Asians. Thus, this allele seems to be a potential ancestry informative marker for these populations.
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The relationship between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and survival in patients with advanced cancer: a prospective cohort study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Malnutrition and elevated inflammatory markers have a negative impact on clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Few studies have investigated the associations between inflammatory makers, nutritional status and survival. This study investigates the association between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced cancer.
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Juvenile reentry and aftercare interventions: is mentoring a promising direction?
J Evid Based Soc Work
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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This study uses systematic review methods to investigate the use of mentoring programs to assist young people in successfully transitioning back into their communities following a juvenile correctional placement. Few studies were found that used comparison or control groups and measured recidivism outcomes. The results of the studies were mixed, with one study finding no differences between groups, and the other two studies finding some recidivism reductions among youth who received the intervention. However, the absence of detailed information on the interventions, weak research designs, and the diversity of the mentoring programs contributed to an overall dearth of knowledge about the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing recidivism.
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Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms using different molecular beacon multiplexed within a suspended core optical fiber.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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We report a novel approach to genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using molecular beacons in conjunction with a suspended core optical fiber (SCF). Target DNA sequences corresponding to the wild- or mutant-type have been accurately recognized by immobilizing two different molecular beacons on the core of a SCF. The two molecular beacons differ by one base in the loop-probe and utilize different fluorescent indicators. Single-color fluorescence enhancement was obtained when the immobilized SCFs were filled with a solution containing either wild-type or mutant-type sequence (homozygous sample), while filling the immobilized SCF with solution containing both wild- and mutant-type sequences resulted in dual-color fluorescence enhancement, indicating a heterozygous sample. The genotyping was realized amplification-free and with ultra low-volume for the required DNA solution (nano-liter). This is, to our knowledge, the first genotyping device based on the combination of optical fiber and molecular beacons.
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Arsenic removal from drinking water by a household sand filter in Vietnam - Effect of filter usage practices on arsenic removal efficiency and microbiological water quality.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Household sand filters are applied to treat arsenic- and iron-containing anoxic groundwater that is used as drinking water in rural areas of North Vietnam. These filters immobilize poisonous arsenic (As) via co-oxidation with Fe(II) and sorption to or co-precipitation with the formed Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides. However, information is lacking regarding the effect of the frequency and duration of filter use as well as of filter sand replacement on the residual As concentrations in the filtered water and on the presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the filtered and stored water. We therefore scrutinized a household sand filter with respect to As removal efficiency and the presence of fecal indicator bacteria in treated water as a function of filter operation before and after sand replacement. Quantification of As in the filtered water showed that periods of intense daily use followed by periods of non-use and even sand replacement did not significantly (p<0.05) affect As removal efficiency. The As concentration was reduced during filtration from 115.1±3.4?gL(-1) in the groundwater to 5.3±0.7?gL(-1) in the filtered water (95% removal). The first flush of water from the filter contained As concentrations below the drinking water limit and suggests that this water can be used without risk for human health. Colony forming units (CFUs) of coliform bacteria increased during filtration and storage from 5±4 per 100mL in the groundwater to 5.1±1.5×10(3) and 15±1.4×10(3) per 100mL in the filtered water and in the water from the storage tank, respectively. After filter sand replacement, CFUs of Escherichia coli of <100 per 100mL were quantified. None of the samples contained CFUs of Enterococcus spp. No critical enrichment of fecal indicator bacteria belonging to E. coli or Enterococcus spp. was observed in the treated drinking water by qPCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene. The results demonstrate the efficient and reliable performance of household sand filters regarding As removal, but indicate a potential risk for human health arising from the enrichment of coliform bacteria during filtration and from E. coli cells that are introduced by sand replacement.
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A memristive hyperchaotic system without equilibrium.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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A new memristive system is presented in this paper. The peculiarity of the model is that it does not display any equilibria and exhibits periodic, chaotic, and also hyperchaotic dynamics in a particular range of the parameters space. The behavior of the proposed system is investigated through numerical simulations, such as phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections, and circuital implementation confirmed the hyperchaotic dynamic.
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Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.
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Demethylating drugs as novel analgesics for cancer pain.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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In this study, we evaluated the analgesic potential of demethylating drugs on oral cancer pain. Although demethylating drugs could affect expression of many genes, we focused on the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene pathway, because of its role in pain processing. We determined the antinociceptive effect of OPRM1 re-expression in a mouse oral cancer model.
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Automated dual capillary electrophoresis system with hydrodynamic injection for the concurrent determination of cations and anions.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The capillary electrophoresis instrument developed for the concurrent determination of cations and anions features two separate capillaries and individual detectors to allow independent optimization for each group of ions. The capillaries are joined in a common injector block. The sample is drawn into the injector with a small membrane pump and automated simultaneous injection into both capillaries is achieved by pressurization of the fluid with compressed air. Flushing of the injector and of the capillaries with the background electrolyte is also carried out automatically by the same means. The buffer consisted of 12mM histidine and 2mM 18-crown-6 adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid and was suitable for the contactless conductivity detection employed. The system was optimized for the determination of cationic NH4(+) and anionic NO3(-) and NO2(-), and linear calibration curves from about 20?M up to about 1.5mM were obtained for these ions. In a test run over 8h, the reproducibility for the peak areas was within ±7%. For demonstration, the instrument was successfully applied to the concurrent monitoring of the concentrations of the three ions during the biological removal of ammonium from contaminated groundwater in a sequencing batch reactor, where NO3(-) and NO2(-) are formed as intermediate products.
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Adenosine triphosphate drives head and neck cancer pain through P2X2/3 heterotrimers.
Acta Neuropathol Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Cancer pain creates a poor quality of life and decreases survival. The basic neurobiology of cancer pain is poorly understood. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the ATP ionotropic receptor subunits, P2X2 and P2X3, mediate cancer pain in animal models; however, it is unknown whether this mechanism operates in human, and if so, what the relative contribution of P2X2- and P2X3-containing trimeric channels to cancer pain is. Here, we studied head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which causes the highest level of function-induced pain relative to other types of cancer.
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Methylated and unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in street dust from Vietnam and India: occurrence, distribution and in vitro toxicity evaluation.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MePAHs), unsubstituted PAHs and AhR-mediated activities were determined in street dust collected from Vietnam and India using a combined approach of chemical analysis and in vitro reporter gene assay. MePAHs and PAHs diagnostic ratios indicated that the main sources of MePAHs in Vietnam were pyrogenic emissions, whereas in India there were mixed sources of pyrogenic and petrogenic emissions. AhR-mediated activities determined by using DR-CALUX assay were observed in urban street dust at mean 40, 29 and 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw for Hanoi, Bangalore and New Delhi, respectively. MePAHs and PAHs contributed only 5% or less to AhR-mediated activity in street dust, indicating the occurrence of unknown AhR agonists. The principal contributors to Theoretical-TEQs among target compounds were methyl benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]- and benzo[k]fluoranthene. The present study indicates importance of MePAHs in evaluation of toxic risk related to AhR-mediated activity in urban polluted areas.
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Assessing health risk due to exposure to arsenic in drinking water in Hanam Province, Vietnam.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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We assessed health risks related to Arsenic (As) in contaminated drinking water in Hanam, applying the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework, which promotes stakeholder involvement in risk assessments. As concentrations in 300 tube-well water samples, before and after filtration, were analyzed and the water consumption levels in 150 households were estimated. Skin cancer risk was characterized using Cancer Slope Factor index and lifetime average daily dose with a probabilistic approach. The results showed that arsenic concentrations in tube-well water ranged from 8-579 ppb (mean 301 ppb) before filtration and current sand filters used by the households did not meet the standard for As removal. Arsenic daily consumption of 40% of the adults exceeded the level of TDI (Tolerable Daily Intake) at 1 µg/kg/day. The average skin cancer risk in adults due to consuming filtered tube-well water for drinking purpose were 25.3 × 10-5 (using only well water) and 7.6 × 10-5 (using both well and rain water). The skin cancer risk would be 11.5 times higher if the water was not filtered. Improvement of filtration measures or the replacement of the current drinking water sources to minimize the health risks to the local population is urgently needed.
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Clinical experience with an L-proline–stabilized 10 %intravenous immunoglobulin (Privigen®): real-life effectiveness and tolerability.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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This retrospective study evaluated the effectiveness and tolerability in clinical practice of an L-proline-stabilized 10 % intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG; Privigen®) in patients with primary (PID) or secondary immunodeficiency (SID).
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User localization in complex environments by multimodal combination of GPS, WiFi, RFID, and pedometer technologies.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Many user localization technologies and methods have been proposed for either indoor or outdoor environments. However, each technology has its own drawbacks. Recently, many researches and designs have been proposed to build a combination of multiple localization technologies system which can provide higher precision results and solve the limitation in each localization technology alone. In this paper, a conceptual design of a general localization platform using combination of multiple localization technologies is introduced. The combination is realized by dividing spaces into grid points. To demonstrate this platform, a system with GPS, RFID, WiFi, and pedometer technologies is established. Experiment results show that the accuracy and availability are improved in comparison with each technology individually.
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Volar perforators of common digital arteries: An anatomical study.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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The palmar triangle is an area vascularized by perforator arteries arising from the common digital palmar arteries. The aim of this article was to perform an anatomical study of common digital palmar arteries perforators. Twelve injected specimens were included in this study. The purpose was to quantify the number of perforator arteries of each common digital palmar arteries in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intermetacarpal space, measure distances between them, between the distal perforator and corresponding commissure, and the distance between the proximal perforator and the superficial palmar arch. Four to eight perforators were arising from common digital palmar arteries of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intermetacarpal space. The average distance between perforator arteries was 6.5 mm, between superficial palmar arch and proximal perforator artery - 8.2 mm, between the distal perforator artery and corresponding commissure - 6.3 mm.
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Occurrence of perchlorate and thiocyanate in human serum from e-waste recycling and reference sites in Vietnam: association with thyroid hormone and iodide levels.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Perchlorate (ClO4 (-)) and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) interfere with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium/iodide symporter, and thereby these anions may affect the production of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland. Although human exposure to perchlorate and thiocyanate has been studied in the United States and Europe, few investigations have been performed in Asian countries. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide in 131 serum samples collected from 2 locations in Northern Vietnam, Bui Dau (BD; electrical and electronic waste [e-waste] recycling site) and Doung Quang (DQ; rural site) and examined the association between serum levels of these anions with levels of THs. The median concentrations of perchlorate, thiocyanate, and iodide detected in the serum of Vietnamese subjects were 0.104, 2020, and 3.11 ng mL(-1), respectively. Perchlorate levels were significantly greater in serum of the BD population (median 0.116 ng mL(-1)) than those in the DQ population (median 0.086 ng mL(-1)), which indicated greater exposure from e-waste recycling operations by the former. Serum concentrations of thiocyanate were not significantly different between the BD and DQ populations, but increased levels of this anion were observed among smokers. Iodide was a significant positive predictor of serum levels of FT3 and TT3 and a significant negative predictor of thyroid-stimulating hormone in males. When the association between serum levels of perchlorate or thiocyanate and THs was assessed using a stepwise multiple linear regression model, no significant correlations were found. In addition to greater concentrations of perchlorate detected in the e-waste recycling population, however, given that lower concentrations of iodide were observed in the serum of Vietnamese females, detailed risk assessments on TH homeostasis for females inhabiting e-waste recycling sites, especially for pregnant women and their neonates, are required.
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Ecohealth as a field: looking forward.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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This forum paper proposes a reflection on the "field of ecohealth" and on how best to sustain a supportive environment that enables the evolution of diverse partnerships and forms of collaboration in the field. It is based on the results of a preconference workshop held in October 2012, in Kunming, China at the fourth biennial conference of the International Association for Ecology and Health. Attended by 105 persons from 38 countries, this workshop aimed to have a large-group and encompassing discussion about ecohealth as an emerging field, touching on subjects such as actors, processes, structures, standards, and resources. Notes taken were used to conduct a qualitative thematic analysis combined with a semantic network analysis. Commonalities highlighted by these discussions draw a portrait of a field in which human health, complex systems thinking, action, and ecosystem health are considered central issues. The need to reach outside of academia to government and the general public was identified as a shared goal. A disconnect between participants' main concerns and what they perceived as the main concerns of funding agencies emerged as a primary roadblock for the future.
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Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children's body mass index.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children's body mass index (BMI).
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[Dislocation of the thumb extensor tendons: an anatomical, clinical study and new classification].
Chir Main
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The authors report on 11 cases of ulnar dislocation of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) due to rupture of the dorsal aponeurosis at the thumb metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint. This condition is rare. By performing a descriptive study of this injury, we were able to establish a classification system for thumb extensor tendon dislocation. The series included 11 patients with a mean age of 27years. All patients presented with either varus or rotational thumb injury. This resulted in an active extension deficit in the thumb MCP joint with EPL dislocation behind the MCP. Surgery was required in all cases. We defined three different injury presentations: 1) dissociated form with isolated EPL dislocation, but the EPB still in place; 2) complete form with dislocation of both tendons on the ulnar side of the MCP; 3) dissociated or complete form associated with a severe sprain of the lateral collateral ligament of the thumb MCP joint. The surgical treatment was adapted to each case. A classification into three types of dislocation of the extensor tendons at the MCP joint of the thumb was established. This rare condition must be identified at the time of thumb MCP joint injury and also when harvesting the EPB. This new classification system has a diagnostic and therapeutic role as it precisely describes the dislocation type and the resulting damage. Only a surgical treatment can produce good repairs.
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Organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) in human breast milk from several Asian countries.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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In this study, the concentrations of 10 organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) were determined in 89 human breast milk samples collected from Japan, the Philippines and Vietnam. Among the targeted PFRs, tris(2-chloroexyl) phosphate (TCEP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the predominant compounds and were detected in more than 60% of samples in all three countries. The concentrations of PFRs in human breast milk were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the Philippines (median 70 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) than those in Japan (median 22 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and Vietnam (median 10 ng g(-1) lipid wt.). The present results suggest that the usage of products containing PFRs in the Philippines is higher than those of Japan and Vietnam. Comparing with a previous literature survey in Sweden, the levels of PFRs in human breast milk from the Philippines were 1.5-2 times higher, whereas levels in Japan and Vietnam were 4-20 times lower, suggesting that these differences might be due to their variation in the usage of flame-retarded products utilized in each country. When daily intake of PFRs to infants via human breast milk was estimated, some individuals accumulated tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) and TCEP were close to reference dose (RfD). This is the first report to identify PFRs in human breast milk samples from Asian countries.
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IB4(+) and TRPV1(+) sensory neurons mediate pain but not proliferation in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Cancer pain severely limits function and significantly reduces quality of life. Subtypes of sensory neurons involved in cancer pain and proliferation are not clear.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of D-alanine-D-alanine ligase from OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii K0420859.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Acinetobacter baumannii causes bacteraemia, pneumonia, other respiratory-tract and urinary-tract infections in humans. OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing A. baumannii K0420859 (A. baumannii OXA-23) is resistant to carbapenem, a common antibacterial drug. To develop an efficient and novel antibacterial drug against A. baumannii OXA-23, D-alanine-D-alanine ligase, which is essential in bacterial cell-wall synthesis, is of interest. Here, the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (AbDdl) gene from A. baumannii OXA-23 was cloned and expressed, and the AbDdl protein was purified and crystallized; this enzyme can be used as a novel target for an antibacterial drug against A. baumannii OXA-23. The AbDdl crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.8?Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 113.4, b = 116.7, c = 176.5?Å, a corresponding VM of 2.8?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 56.3%, and six protomers in the asymmetric unit.
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Coronary artery disease and cancer mortality in a cohort of workers exposed to vinyl chloride, carbon disulfide, rotating shift work, and o-toluidine at a chemical manufacturing plant.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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We updated through 2007 the mortality experience of 1,874 workers employed at a New York State chemical manufacturing plant between 1946 and 2006.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor mediated activities in road dust from a metropolitan area, Hanoi-Vietnam: contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and human risk assessment.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Dioxin-Responsive Chemical-Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) was applied to assess the total toxic activity of the mixture of PAHs and related compounds as well as dioxin-related compounds in road dust from urban areas of Hanoi, Vietnam. Road dust from Hanoi contained significantly higher DR-CALUX activities (3 to 39, mean 20 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw) than those from a rural site (2 to 13, mean 5 ng CALUX-TEQ/g dw). The total concentrations of 24 major PAHs (?24PAHs) in urban road dust (0.1 to 5.5, mean 2.5 ?g/g dw) were also 6 times higher than those in rural road dust (0.08 to 1.5, mean 0.4 ?g/g dw). Diagnostic ratios of PAHs indicated vehicular engine combustion as the major PAH emission source in both sites. PAHs accounted for 0.8 to 60% (mean 10%) and 2 to 76% (mean 20%) of the measured CALUX-TEQs in road dust for Hanoi the rural site, respectively. Benzo[b]-/benzo[k]fluoranthenes were the major TEQ contributors among PAHs, whereas DRCs contributed <0.1% to CALUX-TEQs for both rural and urban sites. These results suggest TEQ contribution of other aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists in road dust. Significant PAH concentrations in urban dust indicated high mutagenic and carcinogenic potencies. Estimated results of incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that Vietnamese populations, especially those in urban areas such as Hanoi, are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact. This is the first study on the exposure risk of AhR agonists, including PAHs and DRCs, in urban road dust from a developing country using a combined bio-chemical analytical approach.
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Dioxin-related compounds in breast milk of women from Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: levels, toxic equivalents and relevance of non-dietary exposure.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Although informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) are hotspots of both polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs), human exposure to the latter has not been studied in details. This study investigated the accumulation levels and profiles of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) in breast milk samples from women living in two Vietnamese EWRSs and estimated the intake contribution from e-waste-related exposure. Screening results using Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) showed higher dioxin-like (DL) activities in samples from the EWRS Bui Dau than in those from the EWRS Trang Minh and a reference site (2.3-10 vs 1.7-4.8 and 0.60-5.7 pg CALUX-TEQ/g lipid, n=10, 6 and 9, respectively). Chemical analysis results of selected samples show that the WHO-TEQ levels of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PBDD/Fs in EWRS samples were not significantly higher than in those from the reference site (0.22-7.4 vs 1.1-3.0 pg/g lipid) and within the Vietnamese background range, but women involved in recycling accumulated higher concentrations of PCDFs (13-15 vs 2.3-8.8 pg/g lipid) and PBDFs (1.1-1.5 vs <1.1 pg/g lipid). By comparing the DRC profile in milk of these women with the reported profile in house dust from the same site, dust ingestion was estimated to contribute most of the intake for tetraBDF, 37 per cent to 55 per cent for penta-octaCDFs, but less than twenty per cent for PCDDs and DL-PCBs, and 26 per cent for total WHO-TEQs. The DL activities in some EWRS milk samples were not fully explained by chemical data, suggesting contribution from unidentified compounds. The estimated WHO-TEQ intake doses for breastfed infants (1.3-33 pg/kg/d) mostly exceeded the tolerable value, especially for those living in the EWRSs; and unidentified DRCs might increase further the dioxin-related health risk.
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[Fracture of a pyrolytic carbon proximal interphalangeal prosthesis: clinical case].
Chir Main
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Pyrolytic carbon prostheses are one of the options for the treatment of arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Deficiency of the extensor mechanism, instability, dislocation and infection are the most frequent causes described for revision. We report the case of a female patient who underwent a PIP arthroplasty with a pyrolytic carbon implant of her right long finger; she suffered from an implant fracture only 11 months after surgery, a rare complication of this kind of implant; it makes think to fragility of this kind of implant.
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Distinct allelic expression patterns of imprinted IGF2 in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2) is an imprinting gene, which mediates cell growth and apoptosis. The loss of imprinting (LOI) of IGF2 has been associated with the development of cancer. In the present study, loss LOI of IGF2 in lung cancer was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in combination with DNA sequencing of samples collected by laser capture microdissection. The status of each sample was assigned as imprinting when PCR-RFLP revealed only one band or sequence with a single peak; otherwise, the case was classified as LOI. LOI was identified in eight out of 13 adenocarcinoma cases (62%), but was not detected in any of the nine squamous cell carcinoma cases (0%). These results suggest that IGF2 LOI is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma, but not squamous cell carcinoma, and that LOI may be detected through increased IGF2 expression levels.
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A comparison of ketamine and morphine analgesia in prehospital trauma care: a cluster randomized clinical trial in rural Quang Tri province, Vietnam.
Prehosp Emerg Care
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The use of opioid analgesics in prehospital trauma care has been reported to have negative side effects on the airway and circulation. Several studies of urban trauma management have recommend ketamine as a safe and efficient analgesic. To date, however, no controlled trials of prehospital opioid analgesics versus ketamine in rural trauma management have been published.
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Toxic metal levels in children residing in a smelting craft village in Vietnam: a pilot biomonitoring study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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In Vietnam, environmental pollution caused by small-scale domestic smelting of automobile batteries into lead ingot is a growing concern. The village of Nghia Lo is a smelting craft village located roughly 25 km southeast of Hanoi in the Red River Delta. Despite the concern of toxic metal exposure in the village, biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of this study was to determine the body burden of toxic metals in children residing in a smelting craft village.
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Decitabine rescues Cisplatin resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cisplatin resistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) reduces survival. In this study we hypothesized that methylation of key genes mediates cisplatin resistance. We determined whether a demethylating drug, decitabine, could augment the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of cisplatin on SCC-25/CP, a cisplatin-resistant tongue SCC cell line. We showed that decitabine treatment restored cisplatin sensitivity in SCC-25/CP and significantly reduced the cisplatin dose required to induce apoptosis. We then created a xenograft model with SCC-25/CP and determined that decitabine and cisplatin combination treatment resulted in significantly reduced tumor growth and mechanical allodynia compared to control. To establish a gene classifier we quantified methylation in cancer tissue of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant HNSCC patients. Cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant patient tumors had distinct methylation profiles. When we quantified methylation and expression of genes in the classifier in HNSCC cells in vitro, we showed that decitabine treatment of cisplatin-resistant HNSCC cells reversed methylation and gene expression toward a cisplatin-sensitive profile. The study provides direct evidence that decitabine restores cisplatin sensitivity in in vitro and in vivo models of HNSCC. Combination treatment of cisplatin and decitabine significantly reduces HNSCC growth and HNSCC pain. Furthermore, gene methylation could be used as a biomarker of cisplatin-resistance.
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Identifying the impediments and enablers of ecohealth for a case study on health and environmental sanitation in Hà Nam, Vietnam.
Infect Dis Poverty
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To date, research has shown an increasing use of the term "ecohealth" in literature, but few researchers have explicitly described how it has been used. We investigated a project on health and environmental sanitation (the conceptual framework of which included the pillars of ecohealth) to identify the impediments and enablers of ecohealth and investigate how it can move from concept to practice.
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Community-level income inequality and HIV prevalence among persons who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Socioeconomic status has a robust positive relationship with several health outcomes at the individual and population levels, but in the case of HIV prevalence, income inequality may be a better predictor than absolute level of income. Most studies showing a relationship between income inequality and HIV have used entire countries as the unit of analysis. In this study, we examine the association between income inequality at the community level and HIV prevalence in a sample of persons who inject drugs (PWID) in a concentrated epidemic setting. We recruited PWID and non-PWID community participants in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, and administered a cross-sectional questionnaire; PWID were tested for HIV. We used ecologic regression to model HIV burden in our PWID study population on GINI indices of inequality calculated from total reported incomes of non-PWID community members in each commune. We also modeled HIV burden on interaction terms between GINI index and median commune income, and finally used a multi-level model to control for community level inequality and individual level income. HIV burden among PWID was significantly correlated with the commune GINI coefficient (r = 0.53, p = 0.002). HIV burden was also associated with GINI coefficient (? = 0.082, p = 0.008) and with median commune income (? =?-0.018, p = 0.023) in ecological regression. In the multi-level model, higher GINI coefficient at the community level was associated with higher odds of individual HIV infection in PWID (OR = 1.46 per 0.01, p = 0.003) while higher personal income was associated with reduced odds of infection (OR = 0.98 per $10, p = 0.022). This study demonstrates a context where income inequality is associated with HIV prevalence at the community level in a concentrated epidemic. It further suggests that community level socioeconomic factors, both contextual and compositional, could be indirect determinants of HIV infection in PWID.
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Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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An earlier investigation found increased bladder cancer incidence among workers at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant that used o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene. The cohort was expanded to include additional workers (n=1875) and updated through 2007 to assess bladder cancer with improved exposure characterisation.
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Surfactant-assisted size control of hydroxyapatite nanorods for bone tissue engineering.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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This study presents the physicochemical characterization of the pluronic surfactant-assisted size control of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Rod-shaped HAp nanoparticles were synthesized via a simple route by hydrothermal treatment and with the assistance of the triblock co-polymer PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 (P123). The films of poly (d, l) lactic acid (PDLLA) were prepared as a substrate to spread synthesized HAp nanorods. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field electron scanning microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and composition of the HAp samples. Results showed that regular rod-shaped HAp nanoparticles (with a mean length of 120nm and a mean width of 28nm) were successfully produced. Moreover, synthesized HAp nanorods revealed the rapid formation of bone-like apatite with a distinctive morphology, similar to flower-like apatite; the formation was observed as early as 7 days after incubation in stimulated body fluids. This study is a positive addition to the ongoing research on the preparation of HAp nanostructures toward the development of biocompatible composite scaffolds for BTE applications.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Kangiella koreensis.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In bacteria, some alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the opposite reaction as part of fermentation to ensure a constant supply of NAD(+). The adh gene from Kangiella koreensis was cloned and the protein (KkADH) was expressed, purified and crystallized. A KkADH crystal diffracted to 2.5?Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 94.1, b = 80.9, c = 115.6?Å, ? = 111.9°. Four monomers were present in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding VM of 2.55?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51.8%.
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Rapid infusion rituximab for maintenance therapy: is it feasible?
Leuk Res Treatment
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Rituximab is an anti-CD-20 monoclonal antibody used in the management of lymphoproliferative disorders. The use of maintenance rituximab has improved progression free survival and overall survival in follicular lymphomas. Although rapid rituximab infusions have been studied extensively, there is little data on the use of rapid infusions during maintenance therapy for low grade lymphomas. The primary objective of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the incidence of Grade 3 and 4 toxicities with maintenance rapid infusion rituximab according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 (CTC v. 4). Secondary objectives included evaluating all grade infusion related adverse events and correlation of adverse events with varying schedules of rituximab maintenance therapy. All patients who received rapid infusion rituximab as maintenance therapy for low grade lymphoma between December 2007 and November 2011 were included. Rapid rituximab infusions were administered over 90 minutes. Demographic, laboratory and clinical data were collected. A total of 109 patients received 647 rapid rituximab infusions. Three patients experienced an adverse reaction which resulted in one grade 1 infusion reaction and three grade 3 infusion reactions. No patients required hospitalization. All 3 patients received pharmacological and/or supportive care to relieve symptoms associated with the reaction.
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Retardation of arsenic transport through a Pleistocene aquifer.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Groundwater drawn daily from shallow alluvial sands by millions of wells over large areas of south and southeast Asia exposes an estimated population of over a hundred million people to toxic levels of arsenic. Holocene aquifers are the source of widespread arsenic poisoning across the region. In contrast, Pleistocene sands deposited in this region more than 12,000 years ago mostly do not host groundwater with high levels of arsenic. Pleistocene aquifers are increasingly used as a safe source of drinking water and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions low levels of arsenic can be maintained. Here we reconstruct the initial phase of contamination of a Pleistocene aquifer near Hanoi, Vietnam. We demonstrate that changes in groundwater flow conditions and the redox state of the aquifer sands induced by groundwater pumping caused the lateral intrusion of arsenic contamination more than 120 metres from a Holocene aquifer into a previously uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifer. We also find that arsenic adsorbs onto the aquifer sands and that there is a 16-20-fold retardation in the extent of the contamination relative to the reconstructed lateral movement of groundwater over the same period. Our findings suggest that arsenic contamination of Pleistocene aquifers in south and southeast Asia as a consequence of increasing levels of groundwater pumping may have been delayed by the retardation of arsenic transport.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of cellobiose 2-epimerase from Dictyoglomus turgidum DSM 6724.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Cellobiose 2-epimerase epimerizes and isomerizes ?-1,4- and ?-1,4-gluco-oligosaccharides. N-Acyl-D-glucosamine 2-epimerase (DT_epimerase) from Dictyoglomus turgidum has an unusually high catalytic activity towards its substrate cellobiose. DT_epimerase was expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals were obtained of both His-tagged DT_epimerase and untagged DT_epimerase. The crystals of His-tagged DT_epimerase diffracted to 2.6?Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2?, with unit-cell parameters a=63.9, b=85.1, c=79.8?Å, ?=110.8°. With a Matthews coefficient VM of 2.18?Å3?Da(-1), two protomers were expected to be present in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 43.74%. The crystals of untagged DT_epimerase diffracted to 1.85?Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2?2?2?, with unit-cell parameters a=55.9, b=80.0, c=93.7?Å. One protomer in the asymmetric unit was expected, with a corresponding VM of 2.26?Å3?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 45.6%.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of alanine racemase from Acinetobacter baumannii OXA-23.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Acinetobacter baumannii has received much attention owing to its exceptional ability to develop resistance to currently available antibiotics. Alanine racemase (ALR) catalyzes the racemization of L-alanine to D-alanine with pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The D-alanine product is an essential component of the bacterial cell wall and ALR is a potential target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. The alr gene from A. baumannii was cloned and the protein (AbALR) was expressed, purified and crystallized. The AbALR crystal diffracted to 2.3?Å resolution and belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 55.1, b = 85.0, c = 167.7?Å. Two protomers were present in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding V(M) value of 2.3?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47.5%.
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Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of peptide deformylase from Campylobacter jejuni.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major foodborne pathogens causing human infection. Peptide deformylase, a metallohydrolase, catalyzes the deformylation of N-formylated methionine in newly synthesized polypeptides in prokaryotes and some eukaryotic organelles. The deformylation process is an essential step in protein synthesis and has attracted much attention as a potential target for the development of novel antibacterial agents. Here, the cloned codon-optimized def gene from C. jejuni was synthesized and the protein was expressed, purified and crystallized. C. jejuni peptide deformylase crystals obtained at pH 7.0 and pH 6.5 diffracted to 2.9?Å resolution and belonged to the trigonal space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a=b=105.7, c=58.0?Å. One monomer existed in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding VM of 3.1?Å3?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 60.4%.
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Sequencing Analysis of the ATOH7 Gene in Individuals with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia.
Ophthalmic Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Abstract Background: The Atonal Homolog 7 (ATOH7) gene has been implicated in association studies with optic nerve head diameter size. Hence, we screened optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) patient DNA samples from Australia, France, and the United States for sequence variants in theATOH7 gene using Sanger sequencing. Methods: Sanger sequencing of theATOH7 gene was performed on 34 affected individual DNA samples. Sequencing was also carried out in three unaffected family members to confirm segregation of identified single nucleotide variations. Results: Seven sequence variations were identified in ATOH7. No disease-causing sequence changes in the ATOH7 gene was discovered in the ONH patient samples. Conclusions: Mutations within the ATOH7 gene are not implicated in the pathogenesis of optic nerve hypoplasia in our patient cohort.
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Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632?g/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51?g/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ?50?g/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1?g/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435?g/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam.
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Emergence of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in hospitals in Vietnam.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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BACKGROUND: 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed clinical strains of 16S rRNA methylase-producing Acinetobactor baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from clinical isolates in medical settings in Vietnam. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, 101 clinical strains of A. baumannii and 15 of P. aeruginosa were isolated from patients in an ICU in two medical settings in Vietnam. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined using the microdilution method and epidemiological analysis was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and MLST. Genes encoding the 16S rRNA methylases, OXAs and CTX-Ms were analyzed by PCR and sequence analysis. RESULTS: 16S rRNA methylase-producing Gram-negative pathogens were detected in two hospitals in Vietnam. Of the 101 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and the 15 of P. aeruginosa isolated from two intensive care units in these hospitals, 72 (71.3%) were highly resistant to amikacin, arbekacin and gentamicin, with MICs greater than 1,024 mg/L. The 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB were produced by 61 and 9 isolates of A. baumannii, respectively, and RmtB was produced by 2 isolates of P. aeruginosa. Moreover, 52 of the A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases harbored both blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-51-like genes. Most A. baumannii isolates producing 16S rRNA methylase obtained in hospital A in Hanoi were ST91 and ST231, whereas most from hospital B in Ho Chi Minh City were ST136, ST195, and ST254.The two P. aeruginosa isolates harboring rmtB showed different patterns on PFGE, one each corresponding to ST217 and ST313. CONCLUSIONS: Gram-negative bacteria producing the 16S rRNA methylases ArmA and RmtB are emerging in medical settings in Vietnam. A. baumannii isolates in northern and southern regions of Vietnam may be of different lineages.
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Effects of an HIV peer prevention intervention on sexual and injecting risk behaviors among injecting drug users and their risk partners in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Globally, 30% of new HIV infections outside sub-Saharan Africa involve injecting drug users (IDU) and in many countries, including Vietnam, HIV epidemics are concentrated among IDU. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam, to evaluate whether a peer oriented behavioral intervention could reduce injecting and sexual HIV risk behaviors among IDU and their network members. 419 HIV-negative index IDU aged 18 years or older and 516 injecting and sexual network members were enrolled. Each index participant was randomly assigned to receive a series of six small group peer educator-training sessions and three booster sessions in addition to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) (intervention; n = 210) or HTC only (control; n = 209). Follow-up, including HTC, was conducted at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-intervention. The proportion of unprotected sex dropped significantly from 49% to 27% (SE (difference) = 3%, p < 0.01) between baseline and the 3-month visit among all index-network member pairs. However, at 12 months, post-intervention, intervention participants had a 14% greater decline in unprotected sex relative to control participants (Wald test = 10.8, df = 4, p = 0.03). This intervention effect is explained by trial participants assigned to the control arm who missed at least one standardized HTC session during follow-up and subsequently reported increased unprotected sex. The proportion of observed needle/syringe sharing dropped significantly between baseline and the 3-month visit (14% vs. 3%, SE (difference) = 2%, p < 0.01) and persisted until 12 months, but there was no difference across trial arms (Wald test = 3.74, df = 3, p = 0.44).
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Individual-level socioeconomic status and community-level inequality as determinants of stigma towards persons living with HIV who inject drugs in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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HIV infection may be affected by multiple complex socioeconomic status (SES) factors, especially individual socioeconomic disadvantage and community-level inequality. At the same time, stigma towards HIV and marginalized groups has exacerbated persistent concentrated epidemics among key populations, such as persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Vietnam. Stigma researchers argue that stigma fundamentally depends on the existence of economic power differences in a community. In rapidly growing economies like Vietnam, the increasing gap in income and education levels, as well as an individuals absolute income and education, may create social conditions that facilitate stigma related to injecting drug use and HIV.
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Sequence of novel agents in multiple myeloma: an instrumental variable analysis.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Lenalidomide and bortezomib have not been compared prospectively and are currently used in sequence for patients with multiple myeloma; however, it is unknown whether a sequence of administration could result in improved outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed electronic records of patients with multiple myeloma who had used both agents in sequence at our institution: 97 patients had lenalidomide first and 111 had bortezomib first. On multivariable analysis, the sequence of therapy was not associated with outcome. These findings were confirmed with instrumental variable analyses. Finally, use of bortezomib first was associated with improved survival for patients with baseline renal insufficiency.
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Health care workers hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Handwashing with soap or another antisepsis disinfectant solution is a common practice in Vietnam, but the availability and quality of tap water is unpredictable. We assessed the risk for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 5 hand hygiene methods in a tertiary Vietnamese hospital.
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Mutations in SCO2 are associated with autosomal-dominant high-grade myopia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Myopia, or near-sightedness, is an ocular refractive error of unfocused image quality in front of the retinal plane. Individuals with high-grade myopia (dioptric power greater than -6.00) are predisposed to ocular morbidities such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic maculopathy. Nonsyndromic, high-grade myopia is highly heritable, and to date multiple gene loci have been reported. We performed exome sequencing in 4 individuals from an 11-member family of European descent from the United States. Affected individuals had a mean dioptric spherical equivalent of -22.00 sphere. A premature stop codon mutation c.157C>T (p.Gln53*) cosegregating with disease was discovered within SCO2 that maps to chromosome 22q13.33. Subsequent analyses identified three additional mutations in three highly myopic unrelated individuals (c.341G>A, c.418G>A, and c.776C>T). To determine differential gene expression in a developmental mouse model, we induced myopia by applying a -15.00D lens over one eye. Messenger RNA levels of SCO2 were significantly downregulated in myopic mouse retinae. Immunohistochemistry in mouse eyes confirmed SCO2 protein localization in retina, retinal pigment epithelium, and sclera. SCO2 encodes for a copper homeostasis protein influential in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity. Copper deficiencies have been linked with photoreceptor loss and myopia with increased scleral wall elasticity. Retinal thinning has been reported with an SC02 variant. Human mutation identification with support from an induced myopic animal provides biological insights of myopic development.
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Association mapping of the high-grade myopia MYP3 locus reveals novel candidates UHRF1BP1L, PTPRR, and PPFIA2.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Myopia, or nearsightedness, is a common ocular genetic disease for which over 20 candidate genomic loci have been identified. The high-grade myopia locus, MYP3, has been reported on chromosome 12q21-23 by four independent linkage studies.
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Ubiquitous occurrence of sulfonamides in tropical Asian waters.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2013
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Seven sulfonamides, trimethoprim, five macrolides, lincomycin and three tetracyclines were measured in 150 water samples of sewage, livestock and aquaculture wastewater, and river and coastal waters, in five tropical Asian countries. The sum of the concentrations of the target antibiotics in sewage and heavily sewage-impacted waters were at sub- to low-ppb levels. The most abundant antibiotic was sulfamethoxazole (SMX), followed by lincomycin and sulfathiazole. The average concentration of SMX in sewage or heavily sewage-impacted waters was 1720 ng/L in Vietnam (Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Can Tho; n=15), 802ng/L in the Philippines (Manila; n=4), 538 ng/L in India (Kolkata; n=4), 282 ng/L in Indonesia (Jakarta; n=10), and 76 ng/L in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur; n=6). These concentrations were higher than those in Japan, China, Europe, the US and Canada. A predominance of sulfonamides, especially SMX, is notable in these tropical countries. The higher average concentrations, and the predominance of SMX, can be ascribed to the lower cost of the antibiotics. Both the concentration and composition of antibiotics in livestock and aquaculture wastewater varied widely. In many cases, sulfamethazine (SMT), oxytetracycline (OTC), lincomycin, and SMX were predominant in livestock and aquaculture wastewater. Both human and animal antibiotics were widely distributed in the respective receiving waters (i.e., the Mekong River and Manila Bay). SMT/SMX ratios indicate a significant contribution from livestock wastewater to the Mekong River and nearby canals, with an estimated ~10% of river water SMX derived from such wastewater. Mass flow calculations estimate that 12 tons of SMX is discharged annually from the Mekong River into the South China Sea. Riverine inputs of antibiotics may significantly increase the concentration of such antibiotics in the coastal waters.
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Portable capillary electrophoresis instrument with automated injector and contactless conductivity detection.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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A portable capillary electrophoresis instrument featuring an automated, robust, valve-based injection system was developed. This significantly facilitates operation in the field compared to previous injection approaches. These generally required delicate manual operations which are difficult to perform outside the laboratory environment. The novel system relies on pressurized air for solution delivery and a micromembrane pump for sample aspiration. Contactless conductivity detection was employed for its versatility and low power requirement. The instrument has a compact design, with all components arranged in a briefcase with dimensions of 45 × 35 × 15 cm (w × d × h) and a weight of about 8 kg. It can operate continuously for 9 h in the battery-powered mode. Depending on the task at hand, the injection system allows easy optimization for high separation efficiency, for fast separations, or for low limits of detection. To illustrate these features, the separation of four anions within 16 s is demonstrated as well as the determination of nitrite below 1 ?M. The determination of phosphate at a sewage treatment plant was carried out to demonstrate a field application.
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E6 and E7 variants of human papillomavirus-16 and -52 in Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) has several intragenotypic variants with different geographical and ethnic distributions. This study aimed to elucidate the distribution patterns of E6 and E7 (E6/E7) intragenotypic variants of HPV type 16 (HPV-16), which is most common worldwide, and HPV-52, which is common in Asian countries such as Japan, the Philippines, and Vietnam. In previous studies, genomic DNA samples extracted from cervical swabs were collected from female sex workers in these three countries and found to be positive for HPV-16 or HPV-52. Samples were amplified further for their E6/E7 genes using type-specific primers and analyzed genetically. Seventy-nine HPV-16 E6/E7 genes were analyzed successfully and grouped into three lineages: European (Prototype), European (Asian), and African-2. The prevalences of HPV-16 European (Prototype)/European (Asian) lineages were 19.4%/80.6% (n = 31) in Japan, 75.0%/20.8% (n = 24) in the Philippines, and 0%/95.8% (n = 24) in Vietnam. The 109 HPV-52 E6/E7 genes analyzed successfully were grouped into four lineages, A-D; the prevalences of lineages A/B/C/D were, respectively, 5.1%/92.3%/0%/2.6% in Japan (n = 39), 34.4%/62.5%/0%/3.1% in the Philippines (n = 32), and 15.8%/73.7%/7.9%/2.6% in Vietnam (n = 38). The distribution patterns of HPV-16 and HPV-52 lineages in these countries differed significantly (P < 0.000001 and P = 0.0048, respectively). There was no significant relationship between abnormal cervical cytology and either HPV-16 E6/E7 lineages or specific amino acid mutations, such as E6 D25E, E6 L83V, and E7 N29S. Analysis of HPV-16 and HPV-52 E6/E7 genes can be a useful molecular-epidemiological tool to distinguish geographical diffusion routes of these HPV types in Asia.
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Whole exome sequencing identifies a mutation for a novel form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis is an extremely rare condition. The classical form, affecting Native American Haliwa-Saponi tribe members, is called hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis (HBID). Herein, we present a new form of corneal intraepithelial dyskeratosis for which we identified the causative gene by using deep sequencing technology.
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The relationship between Agent Orange and prostate specific antigen: a comparison of a hotspot and a non-sprayed area in Vietnam.
Environ Health Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The aim of this study was to explore the impact of Agent Orange exposure for prostate cancer with a comparison of the prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels between a hotspot and a non-sprayed area.
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Effect of ganciclovir for the treatment of severe cytomegalovirus-associated pneumonia in children without a specific immunocompromised state.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of gancyclovir (GCV) treatment for severe cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated pneumonia in immunocompetent children.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.