Signaling through the G protein-coupled kinin receptors B1 (kB1R) and B2 (kB2R) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses mediated by activation of the kallikrein-kinin system. The kB2R is constitutively expressed and rapidly desensitized in response to agonist whereas kB1R expression is upregulated by inflammatory stimuli and it is resistant to internalization and desensitization. Here we show that the kB1R heterodimerizes with kB2Rs in co-transfected HEK293 cells and natively expressing endothelial cells, resulting in significant internalization and desensitization of the kB1R response in cells pre-treated with kB2R agonist. However, pre-treatment of cells with kB1R agonist did not affect subsequent kB2R responses. Agonists of other G protein-coupled receptors (thrombin, lysophosphatidic acid) had no effect on a subsequent kB1R response. The loss of kB1R response after pretreatment with kB2R agonist was partially reversed with kB2R mutant Y129S, which blocks kB2R signaling without affecting endocytosis, or T342A, which signals like wild type but is not endocytosed. Co-endocytosis of the kB1R with kB2R was dependent on ?-arrestin and clathrin-coated pits but not caveolae. The sorting pathway of kB1R and kB2R after endocytosis differed as recycling of kB1R to the cell surface was much slower than that of kB2R. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, pre-treatment with kB2R agonist inhibited kB1R-mediated increase in transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) caused by kB1R stimulation (to generate nitric oxide) and blocked the profound drop in TER caused by kB1R activation in the presence of pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, kB1R function can be downregulated by kB2R co-endocytosis and signaling, suggesting new approaches to control kB1R signaling in pathological conditions.
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of membrane proteins that play key roles in transducing extracellular signals to intracellular proteins to generate cellular responses. The kinin GPCRs, named B1 (B1R) and B2 (B2R), are responsible for mediating the biological responses to kinin peptides released from the precursor kininogens. Bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (KD) are agonists for B2Rs, whereas their carboxypeptidase (CP)-generated metabolites, des-Arg(9)-BK or des-Arg(10)-KD, are specific agonists for B1Rs. Here, we review the evidence for a critical role of membrane-bound CPM in facilitating B1R signaling by its ability to directly activate the receptor via conformational crosstalk as well as generate its specific agonist. In endothelial cells, the CPM/B1R interaction facilitates B1R-dependent high-output nitric oxide under inflammatory conditions.
Endothelial barrier function is regulated by adherens junctions (AJs) and caveolae-mediated transcellular pathways. The opening of AJs that is observed in caveolin-1(-/-) (Cav-1(-/-)) endothelium suggests that Cav-1 is necessary for AJ assembly or maintenance. Here, using endothelial cells isolated from Cav-1(-/-) mice, we show that Cav-1 deficiency induced the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite. We assessed S-nitrosylation and nitration of AJ-associated proteins to identify downstream NO redox signaling targets. We found that the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) p190RhoGAP-A was selectively nitrated at Tyr1105, resulting in impaired GAP activity and RhoA activation. Inhibition of eNOS or RhoA restored AJ integrity and diminished endothelial hyperpermeability in Cav-1(-/-) mice. Thrombin, a mediator of increased endothelial permeability, also induced nitration of p120-catenin-associated p190RhoGAP-A. Thus, eNOS-dependent nitration of p190RhoGAP-A represents a crucial mechanism for AJ disassembly and resultant increased endothelial permeability.
G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling is affected by formation of GPCR homo- or heterodimers, but GPCR regulation by other cell surface proteins is not well understood. We reported that the kinin B1 receptor (B1R) heterodimerizes with membrane carboxypeptidase M (CPM), facilitating receptor signaling via CPM-mediated conversion of bradykinin or kallidin to des-Arg kinin B1R agonists. Here, we found that a catalytically inactive CPM mutant that still binds substrate (CPM-E264Q) also facilitates efficient B1R signaling by B2 receptor agonists bradykinin or kallidin. This response required co-expression of B1R and CPM-E264Q in the same cell, was disrupted by antibody that dissociates CPM from B1R, and was not found with a CPM-E264Q-B1R fusion protein. An additional mutation that reduced the affinity of CPM for C-terminal Arg and increased the affinity for C-terminal Lys inhibited the B1R response to bradykinin (with C-terminal Arg) but generated a response to Lys(9)-bradykinin. CPM-E264Q-mediated activation of B1Rs by bradykinin resulted in increased intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a B1R FRET construct, similar to that generated directly by a B1R agonist. In cytokine-treated human lung microvascular endothelial cells, disruption of B1R-CPM heterodimers inhibited B1R-dependent NO production stimulated by bradykinin and blocked the increased endothelial permeability caused by treatment with bradykinin and pyrogallol (a superoxide generator). Thus, CPM and B1Rs on cell membranes form a critical complex that potentiates B1R signaling. Kinin peptide binding to CPM causes a conformational change in the B1R leading to intracellular signaling and reveals a new mode of GPCR activation by a cell surface peptidase.
Caveolin-1 (Cav1), the scaffolding protein of caveolae, has been shown to play an important role in host defense and inflammation. However, the underlying molecular basis for these actions remains elusive. Here, using double mutant mice with genetic deletions of Cav1 and NOS3, we show that chronic endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation secondary to loss of Cav1 serves a crucial immunomodulatory function through tyrosine nitration-mediated impairment of interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK)4, a signaling component required for nuclear factor-kappaB activation and innate immunity. We observed an eNOS-dependent decrease in the plasma concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and marked improvement of survival in Cav1(-/-) mice following lipopolysaccharide challenge. Activation of eNOS secondary to loss of Cav1 resulted in decreased activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge, and thereby protected the animals from lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. IRAK4 was prominently nitrated in Cav1-deficient endothelial cells, whereas eNOS deletion in Cav1-deficient endothelial cells resulted in marked decrease of IRAK4 nitration and restored the inflammatory response after lipopolysaccharide challenge. Furthermore, in vitro nitration of IRAK4 resulted in impairment of the kinase activity. Thus, eNOS activation secondary to loss of Cav1 signals dampening of the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide through IRAK4 nitration and the resultant impairment of kinase activity, and consequently mitigates inflammatory lung injury.
A major source of "high-output" NO in inflammation is inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). iNOS is primarily transcriptionally regulated and is thought to function as an uncontrolled generator of high NO. We found that iNOS in cytokine-stimulated human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs) is highly regulated post-translationally via activation of the B1 kinin G protein-coupled receptor (B1R). We report here that B1R-mediated iNOS activation was significantly inhibited by knockdown of beta-arrestin 2 with siRNA in cytokine-treated HLMVECs or HEK293 cells transfected with iNOS and B1R. In contrast, beta-arrestin 1 siRNA had no effect. The prolonged phase of B1R-dependent ERK activation was also inhibited by beta-arrestin 2 knockdown. Furthermore, robust ERK activation by the epidermal growth factor receptor (a beta-arrestin 2 independent pathway) had no effect on iNOS-derived NO production. beta-arrestin 2 and iNOS coimmunoprecipitated, and there was significant fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CFP-iNOS and beta-arrestin 2-YFP (but not beta-arrestin 1-YFP) that increased 3-fold after B1R stimulation. These data show that beta-arrestin 2 mediates B1R-dependent high-output NO by scaffolding iNOS and ERK to allow post-translational activation of iNOS. This could play a critical role in mediating endothelial function in inflammation.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an unremitting disease defined by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right-sided heart failure. Using mice with genetic deletions of caveolin 1 (Cav1) and eNOS (Nos3), we demonstrate here that chronic eNOS activation secondary to loss of caveolin-1 can lead to PH. Consistent with a role for eNOS in the pathogenesis of PH, the pulmonary vascular remodeling and PH phenotype of Cav1-/- mice were absent in Cav1-/-Nos3-/- mice. Further, treatment of Cav1-/- mice with either MnTMPyP (a superoxide scavenger) or l-NAME (a NOS inhibitor) reversed their pulmonary vascular pathology and PH phenotype. Activation of eNOS in Cav1-/- lungs led to the impairment of PKG activity through tyrosine nitration. Moreover, the PH phenotype in Cav1-/- lungs could be rescued by overexpression of PKG-1. The clinical relevance of the data was indicated by the observation that lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension demonstrated increased eNOS activation and PKG nitration and reduced caveolin-1 expression. Together, these data show that loss of caveolin-1 leads to hyperactive eNOS and subsequent tyrosine nitration-dependent impairment of PKG activity, which results in PH. Thus, targeting of PKG nitration represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PH.
High levels of NO generated in the vasculature under inflammatory conditions are usually attributed to inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), but the role of the constitutively expressed endothelial NOS (eNOS) is unclear. In normal human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC), bradykinin (BK) activates kinin B2 receptor (B2R) signaling that results in Ca(2+)-dependent activation of eNOS and transient NO. In inflamed HLMVEC (pretreated with interleukin-1? and interferon-?), we found enhanced binding of eNOS to calcium-calmodulin at basal Ca(2+) levels, thereby increasing its basal activity that was dependent on extracellular l-Arg. Furthermore, B2R stimulation generated prolonged high output eNOS-derived NO that is independent of increased intracellular Ca(2+) and is mediated by a novel G?(i)-, MEK1/2-, and JNK1/2-dependent pathway. This high output NO stimulated with BK was blocked with a B2R antagonist, eNOS siRNA, or eNOS inhibitor but not iNOS inhibitor. Moreover, B2R-mediated NO production and JNK phosphorylation were inhibited with MEK1/2 and JNK inhibitors or MEK1/2 and JNK1/2 siRNA but not with ERK1/2 inhibitor. BK induced Ca(2+)-dependent eNOS phosphorylation at Ser(1177), Thr(495), and Ser(114) in cytokine-treated HLMVEC, but these modifications were not dependent on JNK1/2 activation and were not responsible for prolonged NO output. Cytokine treatment did not alter the expression of B2R, G?(q/11), G?(i1,2), JNK, or eNOS. B2R activation in control endothelial cells enhanced migration, but in cytokine-treated HLMVEC it reduced migration. Both responses were NO-dependent. Understanding how JNK regulates prolonged eNOS-derived NO may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of disorders involving vascular inflammation.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) extravasation requires selectin-mediated tethering, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent firm adhesion, and platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1)-mediated transendothelial migration. An important unanswered question is whether ICAM-1-activated signaling contributes to PMN transmigration mediated by PECAM-1. We tested this concept and the roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Src activated by PMN ligation of ICAM-1 in mediating PECAM-1-dependent PMN transmigration. We observed that lung PMN infiltration in vivo induced in carrageenan-injected WT mice was significantly reduced in ICAM-1(-/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice. Crosslinking WT mouse ICAM-1 expressed in human endothelial cells (ECs), but not the phospho-defective Tyr(518)Phe ICAM-1 mutant, induced SHP-2-dependent Src Tyr530 dephosphorylation that resulted in Src activation. ICAM-1 activation also stimulated phosphorylation of Akt (p-Ser473) and eNOS (p-Ser1177), thereby increasing NO production. PMN migration across EC monolayers was abolished in cells expressing the Tyr(518)Phe ICAM-1 mutant or by pretreatment with either the Src inhibitor PP2 or eNOS inhibitor L-NAME. Importantly, phospho-ICAM-1 induction of Src signaling induced PECAM-1 Tyr686 phosphorylation and increased EC surface anti-PECAM-1 mAb-binding activity. These results collectively show that ICAM-1-activated Src and eNOS signaling sequentially induce PECAM-1-mediated PMN transendothelial migration. Both Src and eNOS inhibition may be important therapeutic targets to prevent or limit vascular inflammation.
Kinin B1 and B2 receptors (kB1R and kB2R) play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. In some cases, kB1R or kB2R activation can have overlapping or complementary beneficial effects, thus an activator of both receptors might be advantageous. We found that replacement of the C-terminal Arg in the natural kB2R activators bradykinin (BK) or kallidin (KD) with Lys (K(9)-BK or K(10)-KD) resulted in agonists that effectively stimulate the downstream signaling of both the kB1R and kB2R as measured by increased inositol turnover, intracellular calcium, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, arachidonic acid release and NO production. However, K(9)-BK and K(10)-KD displayed some characteristics of biased agonism for kB2Rs as indicated by the rapid kinetics of ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by K(9)-BK or K(10)-KD compared with the prolonged response mediated by BK or KD. In contrast, kinetics of ERK phosphorylation stimulated by K(10)-KD activation of the kB1R was the same as that induced by known kB1R agonist des-Arg(10)-KD. Furthermore, the endocytosis of kB2Rs mediated by K(9)-BK and K(10)-KD was remarkably less than that induced by BK and KD respectively. K(10)-KD stimulated kB1R and kB2R-dependent calcium responses and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in bovine endothelial cells. In cytokine-treated human endothelial cells, K(10)-KD stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a transient peak of NO production that was primarily kB2R-dependent. K(10)-KD also stimulated prolonged NO production that was both kB1R and kB2R-dependent. These data provide the first examples of dual agonists of kB1R and kB2R, and a biased agonist of kB2R and may provide useful clues for developing dual modulators of kB1Rs and kB2Rs for potential therapeutic use.
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