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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Zinc and Zinc Transporters in Macrophages and Their Roles in Efferocytosis in COPD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2 transporters responding differently to zinc deficiency signals and that these play important roles in macrophage efferocytosis.
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Enhanced cytotoxic function of natural killer and natural killer T-like cells associated with decreased CD94 (Kp43) in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease airway.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells represent a small but important proportion of effector lymphocytes that we have previously shown to be major sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzymes. We hypothesized that these cells would be increased in the airway in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), accompanied by reduced expression of the inhibitory receptor CD94 (Kp43) and increased expression of cytotoxic mediators granzyme B and perforin.
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Lectins offer new perspectives in the development of macrophage-targeted therapies for COPD/emphysema.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using ?-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with ?-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies.
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Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer ± chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema) we have shown a reduced ability of lung and alveolar (AM) macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic cells (defective efferocytosis), associated with evidence of secondary cellular necrosis and a resultant inflammatory response in the airway. It is unknown whether this defect is present in cancer (no COPD) and if so, whether this results from soluble mediators produced by cancer cells. We investigated efferocytosis in AM (26 controls, 15 healthy smokers, 37 COPD, 20 COPD+ non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 8 patients with NSCLC without COPD) and tumor and tumor-free lung tissue macrophages (21 NSCLC with/13 without COPD). To investigate the effects of soluble mediators produced by lung cancer cells we then treated AM or U937 macrophages with cancer cell line supernatant and assessed their efferocytosis ability. We qualitatively identified Arachidonic Acid (AA) metabolites in cancer cells by LC-ESI-MSMS, and assessed the effects of COX inhibition (using indomethacin) on efferocytosis. Decreased efferocytosis was noted in all cancer/COPD groups in all compartments. Conditioned media from cancer cell cultures decreased the efferocytosis ability of both AM and U937 macrophages with the most pronounced effects occurring with supernatant from SCLC (an aggressive lung cancer type). AA metabolites identified in cancer cells included PGE2. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on efferocytosis, and the involvement of the COX-2 pathway were shown. Efferocytosis is decreased in COPD/emphysema and lung cancer; the latter at least partially a result of inhibition by soluble mediators produced by cancer cells that include PGE2.
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Regulation of CRIg expression and phagocytosis in human macrophages by arachidonate, dexamethasone, and cytokines.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Although the importance of the macrophage complement receptor immunoglobulin (CRIg) in the phagocytosis of complement opsonized bacteria and in inflammation has been established, the regulation of CRIg expression remains undefined. Because cellular activation during inflammation leads to the release of arachidonate, a stimulator of leukocyte function, we sought to determine whether arachidonate regulates CRIg expression. Adding arachidonate to maturing human macrophages and to prematured CRIg(+) macrophages caused a significant decrease in the expression of cell-surface CRIg and CRIg mRNA. This effect was independent of the metabolism of arachidonate via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways, because it was not inhibited by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Studies with specific pharmacological inhibitors of arachidonate-mediated signaling pathways showed that protein kinase C was involved. Administration of dexamethasone to macrophages caused an increase in CRIg expression. Studies with proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokines showed that IL-10 increased, but interferon-?, IL-4, and transforming growth factor-?1 decreased CRIg expression on macrophages. This down- and up-regulation of CRIg expression was reflected in a decrease and increase, respectively, in the phagocytosis of complement opsonized Candida albicans. These data suggest that a unique inflammatory mediator network regulates CRIg expression and point to a mechanism by which arachidonate and dexamethasone have reciprocal effects on inflammation.
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Cigarette smoke-induced changes to alveolar macrophage phenotype and function are improved by treatment with procysteine.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Defective efferocytosis may perpetuate inflammation in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrophages may phenotypically polarize to classically activated M1 (proinflammatory; regulation of antigen presentation) or alternatively activated M2 (poor antigen presentation; improved efferocytosis) markers. In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived macrophages from control subjects and smoker/ex-smoker COPD subjects, we investigated M1 markers (antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex [MHC] Classes I and II), complement receptors (CRs), the high-affinity Fc receptor involved with immunoglobulin binding for phagocytosis (Fc-gamma receptor, Fc?R1), M2 markers (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin [DC-SIGN] and arginase), and macrophage function (efferocytosis and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS). The availability of glutathione (GSH) in BAL was assessed, because GSH is essential for both M1 function and efferocytosis. We used a murine model to investigate macrophage phenotype/function further in response to cigarette smoke. In lung tissue (disaggregated) and BAL, we investigated CRs, the available GSH, arginase, and efferocytosis. We further investigated the therapeutic effects of an oral administration of a GSH precursor, cysteine l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (procysteine). Significantly decreased efferocytosis, available GSH, and M1 antigen-presenting molecules were evident in both COPD groups, with increased DC-SIGN and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Increased CR-3 was evident in the current-smoker COPD group. In smoke-exposed mice, we found decreased efferocytosis (BAL and tissue) and available GSH, and increased arginase, CR-3, and CR-4. Treatment with procysteine significantly increased GSH, efferocytosis (BAL: control group, 26.2%; smoke-exposed group, 17.66%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 27.8%; tissue: control group, 35.9%; smoke-exposed group, 21.6%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 34.5%), and decreased CR-4 in lung tissue. Macrophages in COPD are of a mixed phenotype and function. The increased efferocytosis and availability of GSH in response to procysteine indicates that this treatment may be useful as adjunct therapy for improving macrophage function in COPD and in susceptible smokers.
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Regulation of neutrophil-mediated killing of Staphylococcus aureus and chemotaxis by c-jun NH2 terminal kinase.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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The role of JNK in neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of microbial pathogens remains unclear. Using a recently described cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of the JNK pathway, based on the JBD of JIP-1, coupled to the protein transduction domain of HIV-TAT (TAT-JIP), in association with control peptides, we demonstrate that the JNK pathway plays a major role in regulating human neutrophil chemotaxis and killing of microbial pathogens. Serum-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus elicited JNK activation and c-jun phosphorylation. The activation of the JNK pathway and bactericidal activity were inhibited by the TAT-JIP peptide. The stimulation of oxygen radical generation by S. aureus was dependent on the JNK signaling pathway, as was the phagocytosis of serum-opsonized bacteria. Chemotaxis to activated serum complement but not random migration was inhibited by the TAT-JIP peptide. The findings demonstrate a major role for the JNK signaling pathway in neutrophil-mediated defense against microbial pathogens.
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Increased proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and reduced granzyme B in lung cancer: mechanism for immune evasion?
Lung Cancer
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Cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells mount immune responses to cancer via cytotoxic pathways including granzyme B. Cancer cells are also known to develop immune evasion mechanisms. We hypothesised that lung cancer cells would over-express the granzyme B-inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and down-regulate granzyme B expression by neighbouring CD8(+) T-cells. We investigated PI-9 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and primary lung cancer cells obtained at curative lung resection from cancer patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Granzyme B and PI-9 expression was also determined in CD8(+) T-cells from the cancer and non-cancer areas of resected lung tissue and from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We then evaluated the effects of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines on granzyme B expression and the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T-cells. PI-9 was highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines. Increased PI-9 expression was also observed in primary cancer cells vs. epithelial cells from non-cancer tissue or bronchial brushing-derived normal primary large airway epithelial cells. Expression significantly correlated with cancer stage. Significantly reduced granzyme B was noted in CD8(+) T-cells from cancer vs. non-cancer tissue. Granzyme B production by CD8(+) T-cells was reduced in the presence of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that lung cancer cells utilise their increased PI-9 expression to protect from granzyme B-mediated cytotoxicity as an immune evasion mechanism, a function that increases with lung cancer stage.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.