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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The geographic diversity of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from pulmonary samples: an NTM-NET collaborative study.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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A significant knowledge gap exists concerning the geographical distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation worldwide. To provide a snapshot of NTM species distribution, global partners in the NTM-Network European Trials Group (NET) framework (www.ntm-net.org), a branch of the Tuberculosis Network European Trials Group (TB-NET), provided identification results of the total number of patients in 2008 in whom NTM were isolated from pulmonary samples. From these data, we visualised the relative distribution of the different NTM found per continent and per country. We received species identification data for 20 182 patients, from 62 laboratories in 30 countries across six continents. 91 different NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria predominated in most countries, followed by M. gordonae and M. xenopi. Important differences in geographical distribution of MAC species as well as M. xenopi, M. kansasii and rapid-growing mycobacteria were observed. This snapshot demonstrates that the species distribution among NTM isolates from pulmonary specimens in the year 2008 differed by continent and differed by country within these continents. These differences in species distribution may partly determine the frequency and manifestations of pulmonary NTM disease in each geographical location.
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Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories for diagnosis of TB and drug-resistance, but their costs have not been fully elucidated.
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Eligibility for isoniazid preventive therapy in South African gold mines.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The "Thibela TB" cluster randomised trial of community-wide isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) to reduce tuberculosis incidence in the South African gold mines.
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Programmatically selected multidrug-resistant strains drive the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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South Africa shows one of the highest global burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Since 2002, MDR-TB in South Africa has been treated by a standardized combination therapy, which until 2010 included ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Since 2010, ethambutol has been replaced by cycloserine or terizidone. The effect of standardized treatment on the acquisition of XDR-TB is not currently known.
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Population structure of multi- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Genotyping of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis (TB) patients in four South African provinces (Western Cape, Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, and Gauteng) revealed a distinct population structure of the MDR strains in all four regions, despite the evidence of substantial human migration between these settings. In all analyzed provinces, a negative correlation between strain diversity and an increasing level of drug resistance (from MDR-TB to extensively drug-resistant TB [XDR-TB]) was observed. Strains predominating in XDR-TB in the Western and Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces were strongly associated with harboring an inhA promoter mutation, potentially suggesting a role of these mutations in XDR-TB development in South Africa. Approximately 50% of XDR-TB cases detected in the Western Cape were due to strains probably originating from the Eastern Cape. This situation may illustrate how failure of efficient health care delivery in one setting can burden health clinics in other areas.
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Emergence and treatment of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis in South Africa.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) has reached alarming proportions in South Africa, draining valuable resources that are needed to fight drug susceptible TB. It is currently estimated that 9.6% of all TB cases have multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB, thereby ranking South Africa as one of the highest MDR-TB burden countries in the world. Molecular epidemiological studies have demonstrated the complexity of the epidemic and have clearly shown that the epidemic is driven by transmission as a consequence of low cases detection and diagnostic delay. The latter has in turn fueled the amplification of drug resistance, ultimately leading to the emergence of extensively drug resistant (XDR)-TB. Despite the introduction of new drugs to combat this scourge, culture conversion rates for XDR-TB remain below 20%. Failure to achieve cure may be explained from DNA sequencing results which have demonstrated mutations in 7 genes encoding resistance to at least 8 anti-TB drugs. This review shows how molecular epidemiology has provided novel insights into the MDR-TB epidemic in South Africa and thereby has highlighted the challenges that need to be addressed regarding the diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB. An important step towards for curbing this epidemic will be collaboration between clinicians, laboratories and researchers to establish scientific knowledge and medical expertise to more efficiently guide public health policy.
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Symptom and chest radiographic screening for infectious tuberculosis prior to starting isoniazid preventive therapy: yield and proportion missed at screening.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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This analysis describes the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis at screening prior to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT); the additional yield of tuberculosis using chest radiography versus symptoms alone, and risk factors for tuberculosis missed by screening.
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Tuberculosis outcomes and drug susceptibility in individuals exposed to isoniazid preventive therapy in a high HIV prevalence setting.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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Despite World Health Organization recommendations, concerns about promoting resistance have impeded implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for tuberculosis (TB). We describe characteristics of TB in individuals previously exposed to IPT as part of Thibela TB, a cluster-randomized trial of community-wide IPT in gold miners in South Africa.
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"Proof-of-concept" evaluation of an automated sputum smear microscopy system for tuberculosis diagnosis.
PLoS ONE
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"TBDx" is an innovative smear microscopy system that automatically loads slides onto a microscope, focuses and digitally captures images and then classifies smears as positive or negative using computerised algorithms.
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Performance characteristics of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF test in a tuberculosis prevalence survey.
PLoS ONE
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Xpert MTB/RIF ("Xpert") is a molecular test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. Performance characteristics have been established for its use during passive tuberculosis (TB) case detection in symptomatic TB suspects, but Xpert performance has not been assessed in other settings. Objectives were to determine Xpert performance and costs in the context of a TB prevalence survey.
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Genotype MTBDRplus for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in strains from gold miners in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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GenoType MTBDRplus is a molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance. Assay performance as applied directly to consecutive unselected sputum samples has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the MTBDRplus test for direct detection of M. tuberculosis (in sputum) and for drug resistance in consecutively submitted sputum samples. In this cross-sectional study in South Africa, one sputum specimen from each person suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis was tested by smear microscopy, direct MTBDRplus, and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture with MGIT drug susceptibility testing. MGIT results were the reference standard. We tested 2,510 sputum samples, and 529 (21.1%) were positive for M. tuberculosis by MGIT. Direct MTBDRplus identified M. tuberculosis in 256 of 529 specimens (sensitivity, 48.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.1, 52.7). The sensitivity of MTBDRplus for M. tuberculosis detection by sputum smear status was as follows: smear negative, 13.7% (95% CI, 9.8, 18.4); smear scanty, 46.2% (95% CI, 19.2, 74.9); smear 1+, 69.1% (95% CI, 55.2, 80.9); smear 2+, 86.3% (95% CI, 73.7, 94.3); smear 3+, 89.8% (95% CI, 83.7, 94.2). Direct MTBDRplus testing was negative for 1,594/1,612 sputum samples that were culture negative for M. tuberculosis (specificity, 98.9%; 95% CI, 98.2, 99.3). For specimens positive for M. tuberculosis by MTBDRplus, this assays sensitivity and specificity for rifampin resistance were 85.7% (95% CI, 57.2, 98.2) and 96.6% (95% CI, 93.2, 98.6) and for isoniazid resistance they were 62.1% (95% CI, 42.3, 79.3) and 97.9% (95% CI, 94.8, 99.4). For sputum testing, the sensitivity of MTBDRplus is directly related to the specimens bacillary burden. Our results support recommendations that the MTBDRplus test not be used for direct testing of smear-negative or paucibacillary sputum samples.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.