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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Melanotic tumors of the nervous system are characterized by distinct mutational, chromosomal and epigenomic profiles.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Melanotic tumors of the nervous system show overlapping histological characteristics but differ substantially in their biological behavior. In order to achieve a better delineation of such tumors, we performed an in-depth molecular characterization. 18 melanocytomas, 12 melanomas, 14 melanotic and 14 conventional schwannomas (control group) were investigated for methylome patterns (450k array), gene mutations associated with melanotic tumors and copy number variants (CNV). The methylome fingerprints assigned tumors to entity-specific groups. Methylation groups also showed a substantial overlap with histology-based diagnosis suggesting that they represent true biological entities. On the molecular level, melanotic schwannomas were characterized by a complex karyotype with recurrent monosomy of chromosome 22q and variable whole chromosomal gains and recurrent losses commonly involving chromosomes 1, 17p and 21. Melanocytomas carried GNAQ/11 mutations and presented with CNV involving chromosome 3 and 6. Melanomas were frequently mutated in the TERT promoter, harbored additional oncogene mutations and showed recurrent chromosomal losses involving chromosome 9, 10 and 6q as well as gains of 22q. Together, melanotic nervous system tumors have several distinct mutational and chromosomal alterations and can reliably be distinguished by methylome profiling.
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Assessing CpG island methylator phenotype, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation from epigenome-wide data in the biomarker cohort of the NOA-04 trial.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Molecular biomarkers including isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDH1/2) mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation may improve prognostication and guide treatment decisions for patients with World Health Organization (WHO) anaplastic gliomas. At present, each marker is individually tested by distinct assays. Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays (HM450) enable the determination of large-scale methylation profiles and genome-wide DNA copy number changes. Algorithms have been developed to detect the glioma CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP) associated with IDH1/2 mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and MGMT promoter methylation using a single assay.
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Arhgap36-dependent activation of Gli transcription factors.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation and Gli-dependent transcription play critical roles in embryonic patterning, tissue homeostasis, and tumorigenesis. By conducting a genome-scale cDNA overexpression screen, we have identified the Rho GAP family member Arhgap36 as a positive regulator of the Hh pathway in vitro and in vivo. Arhgap36 acts in a Smoothened (Smo)-independent manner to inhibit Gli repressor formation and to promote the activation of full-length Gli proteins. Arhgap36 concurrently induces the accumulation of Gli proteins in the primary cilium, and its ability to induce Gli-dependent transcription requires kinesin family member 3a and intraflagellar transport protein 88, proteins that are essential for ciliogenesis. Arhgap36 also functionally and biochemically interacts with Suppressor of Fused. Transcriptional profiling further reveals that Arhgap36 is overexpressed in murine medulloblastomas that acquire resistance to chemical Smo inhibitors and that ARHGAP36 isoforms capable of Gli activation are up-regulated in a subset of human medulloblastomas. Our findings reveal a new mechanism of Gli transcription factor activation and implicate ARHGAP36 dysregulation in the onset and/or progression of GLI-dependent cancers.
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Integrated DNA methylation and copy-number profiling identify three clinically and biologically relevant groups of anaplastic glioma.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The outcome of patients with anaplastic gliomas varies considerably. Whether a molecular classification of anaplastic gliomas based on large-scale genomic or epigenomic analyses is superior to histopathology for reflecting distinct biological groups, predicting outcomes and guiding therapy decisions has yet to be determined. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis, using a platform which also allows the detection of copy-number aberrations, was performed in a cohort of 228 patients with anaplastic gliomas (astrocytomas, oligoastrocytomas, and oligodendrogliomas), including 115 patients of the NOA-04 trial. We further compared these tumors with a group of 55 glioblastomas. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation patterns revealed two main groups correlated with IDH status: CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positive (77.5 %) or negative (22.5 %). CIMP(pos) (IDH mutant) tumors showed a further separation based on copy-number status of chromosome arms 1p and 19q. CIMP(neg) (IDH wild type) tumors showed hallmark copy-number alterations of glioblastomas, and clustered together with CIMP(neg) glioblastomas without forming separate groups based on WHO grade. Notably, there was no molecular evidence for a distinct biological entity representing anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Tumor classification based on CIMP and 1p/19q status was significantly associated with survival, allowing a better prediction of outcome than the current histopathological classification: patients with CIMP(pos) tumors with 1p/19q codeletion (CIMP-codel) had the best prognosis, followed by patients with CIMP(pos) tumors but intact 1p/19q status (CIMP-non-codel). Patients with CIMP(neg) anaplastic gliomas (GBM-like) had the worst prognosis. Collectively, our data suggest that anaplastic gliomas can be grouped by IDH and 1p/19q status into three molecular groups that show clear links to underlying biology and a significant association with clinical outcome in a prospective trial cohort.
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Prognostic significance of clinical, histopathological, and molecular characteristics of medulloblastomas in the prospective HIT2000 multicenter clinical trial cohort.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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This study aimed to prospectively evaluate clinical, histopathological and molecular variables for outcome prediction in medulloblastoma patients. Patients from the HIT2000 cooperative clinical trial were prospectively enrolled based on the availability of sufficient tumor material and complete clinical information. This revealed a cohort of 184 patients (median age 7.6 years), which was randomly split at a 2:1 ratio into a training (n = 127), and a test (n = 57) dataset in order to build and test a risk score for this population. Independent validation was performed in a non-overlapping cohort (n = 83). All samples were subjected to thorough histopathological investigation, CTNNB1 mutation analysis, quantitative PCR, MLPA and FISH analyses for cytogenetic variables, and methylome analysis. By univariable analysis, clinical factors (M-stage), histopathological variables (large cell component, endothelial proliferation, synaptophysin pattern), and molecular features (chromosome 6q status, MYC amplification, subgrouping) were found to be prognostic. Molecular consensus subgrouping (WNT, SHH, Group 3, Group 4) was validated as an independent feature to stratify patients into different risk groups. When comparing methods for the identification of WNT-driven medulloblastoma, this study identified CTNNB1 sequencing and methylation profiling to most reliably identify these patients. After removing patients with particularly favorable (CTNNB1 mutation, extensive nodularity) or unfavorable (MYC amplification) markers, a risk score for the remaining "intermediate molecular risk" population dependent on age, M-stage, pattern of synaptophysin expression, and MYCN copy-number status was identified, with speckled synaptophysin expression indicating worse outcome. Test and independent validation of the score confirmed significant discrimination of patients by risk profile. Methylation subgrouping and CTNNB1 mutation status represent robust tools for the risk stratification of medulloblastoma. A simple clinico-pathological risk score was identified, which was confirmed in a test set and by independent clinical validation.
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Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies, with recurrent changes identified in each of the four distinct tumour subgroups (WNT-pathway-activated, SHH-pathway-activated, and the less-well-characterized Group 3 and Group 4), many cases still lack an obvious genetic driver. Here we present whole-genome bisulphite-sequencing data from thirty-four human and five murine tumours plus eight human and three murine normal controls, augmented with matched whole-genome, RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data. This comprehensive data set allowed us to decipher several features underlying the interplay between the genome, epigenome and transcriptome, and its effects on medulloblastoma pathophysiology. Most notable were highly prevalent regions of hypomethylation correlating with increased gene expression, extending tens of kilobases downstream of transcription start sites. Focal regions of low methylation linked to transcription-factor-binding sites shed light on differential transcriptional networks between subgroups, whereas increased methylation due to re-normalization of repressed chromatin in DNA methylation valleys was positively correlated with gene expression. Large, partially methylated domains affecting up to one-third of the genome showed increased mutation rates and gene silencing in a subgroup-specific fashion. Epigenetic alterations also affected novel medulloblastoma candidate genes (for example, LIN28B), resulting in alternative promoter usage and/or differential messenger RNA/microRNA expression. Analysis of mouse medulloblastoma and precursor-cell methylation demonstrated a somatic origin for many alterations. Our data provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of transcription and genome organization in medulloblastoma pathogenesis, which are probably also of importance in a wider developmental and disease context.
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Genome sequencing of SHH medulloblastoma predicts genotype-related response to smoothened inhibition.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors recently entered clinical trials for sonic-hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma (SHH-MB). Clinical response is highly variable. To understand the mechanism(s) of primary resistance and identify pathways cooperating with aberrant SHH signaling, we sequenced and profiled a large cohort of SHH-MBs (n = 133). SHH pathway mutations involved PTCH1 (across all age groups), SUFU (infants, including germline), and SMO (adults). Children >3 years old harbored an excess of downstream MYCN and GLI2 amplifications and frequent TP53 mutations, often in the germline, all of which were rare in infants and adults. Functional assays in different SHH-MB xenograft models demonstrated that SHH-MBs harboring a PTCH1 mutation were responsive to SMO inhibition, whereas tumors harboring an SUFU mutation or MYCN amplification were primarily resistant.
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Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.
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Embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), ependymoblastoma, and medulloepithelioma share molecular similarity and comprise a single clinicopathological entity.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Three histological variants are known within the family of embryonal rosette-forming neuroepithelial brain tumors. These include embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes (ETANTR), ependymoblastoma (EBL), and medulloepithelioma (MEPL). In this study, we performed a comprehensive clinical, pathological, and molecular analysis of 97 cases of these rare brain neoplasms, including genome-wide DNA methylation and copy number profiling of 41 tumors. We identified uniform molecular signatures in all tumors irrespective of histological patterns, indicating that ETANTR, EBL, and MEPL comprise a single biological entity. As such, future WHO classification schemes should consider lumping these variants into a single diagnostic category, such as embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR). We recommend combined LIN28A immunohistochemistry and FISH analysis of the 19q13.42 locus for molecular diagnosis of this tumor category. Recognition of this distinct pediatric brain tumor entity based on the fact that the three histological variants are molecularly and clinically uniform will help to distinguish ETMR from other embryonal CNS tumors and to better understand the biology of these highly aggressive and therapy-resistant pediatric CNS malignancies, possibly leading to alternate treatment strategies.
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Tagmentation-based whole-genome bisulfite sequencing.
Nat Protoc
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Epigenetic modifications such as carbon 5 methylation of the cytosine base in a CpG dinucleotide context are involved in the onset and progression of human diseases. A comprehensive understanding of the role of genome-wide DNA methylation patterns, the methylome, requires quantitative determination of the methylation states of all CpG sites in a genome. So far, analyses of the complete methylome by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) are rare because of the required large DNA quantities, substantial bioinformatic resources and high sequencing costs. Here we describe a detailed protocol for tagmentation-based WGBS (T-WGBS) and demonstrate its reliability in comparison with conventional WGBS. In T-WGBS, a hyperactive Tn5 transposase fragments the DNA and appends sequencing adapters in a single step. T-WGBS requires not more than 20 ng of input DNA; hence, the protocol allows the comprehensive methylome analysis of limited amounts of DNA isolated from precious biological specimens. The T-WGBS library preparation takes 2 d.
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Integrative DNA methylation and gene expression analysis in high-grade soft tissue sarcomas.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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High-grade soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous, complex group of aggressive malignant tumors showing mesenchymal differentiation. Recently, soft tissue sarcomas have increasingly been classified on the basis of underlying genetic alterations; however, the role of aberrant DNA methylation in these tumors is not well understood and, consequently, the usefulness of methylation-based classification is unclear.
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Methylation of the TERT promoter and risk stratification of childhood brain tumours: an integrative genomic and molecular study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Identification of robust biomarkers of malignancy and methods to establish disease progression is a major goal in paediatric neuro-oncology. We investigated whether methylation of the TERT promoter can be a biomarker for malignancy and patient outcome in paediatric brain tumours.
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Genome-wide identification of translationally inhibited and degraded miR-155 targets using RNA-interacting protein-IP.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, small, non-coding RNAs, which fine-tune protein expression by degrading and/or translationally inhibiting mRNAs. Manipulation of miRNA expression in animal models frequently results in severe phenotypes indicating their relevance in controlling cellular functions, most likely by interacting with multiple targets. To better understand the effect of miRNA activities, genome-wide analysis of their targets are required. MicroRNA profiling as well as transcriptome analysis upon enforced miRNA expression were frequently used to investigate their relevance. However, these approaches often fail to identify relevant miRNAs targets. Therefore, we tested the precision of RNA-interacting protein immunoprecipitation (RIP) using AGO2-specific antibodies, a core component of the "RNA-induced silencing complex" (RISC), followed by RNA sequencing (Seq) in a defined cellular system, the HEK293T cells with stable, ectopic expression of miR-155. Thereby, we identified 100 AGO2-associated mRNAs in miR-155-expressing cells, of which 67 were in silico predicted miR-155 target genes. An integrated analysis of the corresponding expression profiles indicated that these targets were either regulated by mRNA decay or by translational repression. Of the identified miR-155 targets, 17 were related to cell cycle control, suggesting their involvement in the observed increase in cell proliferation of HEK293T cells upon miR-155 expression. Additional, secondary changes within the gene expression profile were detected and might contribute to this phenotype as well. Interestingly, by analyzing RIP-Seq data of HEK-293T cells and two B-cell lines we identified a recurrent disproportional enrichment of several miRNAs, including miR-155 and miRNAs of the miR-17-92 cluster, in the AGO2-associated precipitates, suggesting discrepancies in miRNA expression and activity.
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Reduced H3K27me3 and DNA hypomethylation are major drivers of gene expression in K27M mutant pediatric high-grade gliomas.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Two recurrent mutations, K27M and G34R/V, within histone variant H3.3 were recently identified in ?50% of pHGGs. Both mutations define clinically and biologically distinct subgroups of pHGGs. Here, we provide further insight about the dominant-negative effect of K27M mutant H3.3, leading to a global reduction of the repressive histone mark H3K27me3. We demonstrate that this is caused by aberrant recruitment of the PRC2 complex to K27M mutant H3.3 and enzymatic inhibition of the H3K27me3-establishing methyltransferase EZH2. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing in primary pHGGs, we show that reduced H3K27me3 levels and DNA hypomethylation act in concert to activate gene expression in K27M mutant pHGGs.
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Recurrent somatic alterations of FGFR1 and NTRK2 in pilocytic astrocytoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood brain tumor, is typically associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations. Surgically inaccessible midline tumors are therapeutically challenging, showing sustained tendency for progression and often becoming a chronic disease with substantial morbidities. Here we describe whole-genome sequencing of 96 pilocytic astrocytomas, with matched RNA sequencing (n = 73), conducted by the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. We identified recurrent activating mutations in FGFR1 and PTPN11 and new NTRK2 fusion genes in non-cerebellar tumors. New BRAF-activating changes were also observed. MAPK pathway alterations affected all tumors analyzed, with no other significant mutations identified, indicating that pilocytic astrocytoma is predominantly a single-pathway disease. Notably, we identified the same FGFR1 mutations in a subset of H3F3A-mutated pediatric glioblastoma with additional alterations in the NF1 gene. Our findings thus identify new potential therapeutic targets in distinct subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma and childhood glioblastoma.
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Differential expression and methylation of brain developmental genes define location-specific subsets of pilocytic astrocytoma.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common brain tumors in pediatric patients and can cause significant morbidity, including chronic neurological deficiencies. They are characterized by activating alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, but little else is known about their development. To map the global DNA methylation profiles of these tumors, we analyzed 62 PAs and 7 normal cerebellum samples using Illumina 450K microarrays. These data revealed two subgroups of PA that separate according to tumor location (infratentorial versus supratentorial), and identified key neural developmental genes that are differentially methylated between the two groups, including NR2E1 and EN2. Integration with transcriptome microarray data highlighted significant expression differences, which were unexpectedly associated with a strong positive correlation between methylation and expression. Differentially methylated probes were often identified within the gene body and/or regions up- or downstream of the gene, rather than at the transcription start site. We also identified a large number of differentially methylated genes between cerebellar PAs and normal cerebellum, which were again enriched for developmental genes. In addition, we found a significant association between differentially methylated genes and SUZ12 binding sites, indicating potential disruption of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2). Taken together, these data suggest that PA from different locations in the brain may arise from region-specific cells of origin, and highlight the potential disruption of key developmental regulators during tumorigenesis. These findings have implications for future basic research and clinical trials, as therapeutic targets and drug sensitivity may differ according to tumor location.
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BCAT1 promotes cell proliferation through amino acid catabolism in gliomas carrying wild-type IDH1.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Here we show that glioblastoma express high levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1), the enzyme that initiates the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). Expression of BCAT1 was exclusive to tumors carrying wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 genes and was highly correlated with methylation patterns in the BCAT1 promoter region. BCAT1 expression was dependent on the concentration of ?-ketoglutarate substrate in glioma cell lines and could be suppressed by ectopic overexpression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes, providing a link between IDH1 function and BCAT1 expression. Suppression of BCAT1 in glioma cell lines blocked the excretion of glutamate and led to reduced proliferation and invasiveness in vitro, as well as significant decreases in tumor growth in a glioblastoma xenograft model. These findings suggest a central role for BCAT1 in glioma pathogenesis, making BCAT1 and BCAA metabolism attractive targets for the development of targeted therapeutic approaches to treat patients with glioblastoma.
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MicroRNA sequence and expression analysis in breast tumors by deep sequencing.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate many genes critical for tumorigenesis. We profiled miRNAs from 11 normal breast tissues, 17 noninvasive, 151 invasive breast carcinomas, and 6 cell lines by in-house-developed barcoded Solexa sequencing. miRNAs were organized in genomic clusters representing promoter-controlled miRNA expression and sequence families representing seed sequence-dependent miRNA target regulation. Unsupervised clustering of samples by miRNA sequence families best reflected the clustering based on mRNA expression available for this sample set. Clustering and comparative analysis of miRNA read frequencies showed that normal breast samples were separated from most noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinomas by increased miR-21 (the most abundant miRNA in carcinomas) and multiple decreased miRNA families (including miR-98/let-7), with most miRNA changes apparent already in the noninvasive carcinomas. In addition, patients that went on to develop metastasis showed increased expression of mir-423, and triple-negative breast carcinomas were most distinct from other tumor subtypes due to upregulation of the mir~17-92 cluster. However, absolute miRNA levels between normal breast and carcinomas did not reveal any significant differences. We also discovered two polymorphic nucleotide variations among the more abundant miRNAs miR-181a (T19G) and miR-185 (T16G), but we did not identify nucleotide variations expected for classical tumor suppressor function associated with miRNAs. The differentiation of tumor subtypes and prediction of metastasis based on miRNA levels is statistically possible but is not driven by deregulation of abundant miRNAs, implicating far fewer miRNAs in tumorigenic processes than previously suggested.
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Protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15B is a survival factor for ER?-positive breast cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
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Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at both the clinical and molecular levels. This heterogeneity may give rise to different therapy responses. Molecular profiling has facilitated identification of signatures for stratifying patients who would potentially benefit from given therapies. Previously, we reported on a subset of genes with the potential for predicting response of primary breast cancer to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Herein, we report that patients with luminal (estrogen receptor ? [ER?]-expressing) breast cancer were enriched for nonresponders. To identify novel factors that contribute to the survival of breast cancer cells, a loss-of-function screen was performed with a subset of genes overexpressed in patients with disease resistant to chemotherapy. This approach led us to identify protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15B (PPP1R15B) as a factor with a potentially essential role in the survival of ER?-positive breast cancer cells. Functional analyses showed that PPP1R15B depletion results in impaired proliferation due to unsuccessful transition of cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle, and apoptosis induction. Moreover, our data revealed a regulatory role for PPP1R15B in activating ER?. Furthermore, a high level of PPP1R15B mRNA expression was associated with poor outcome following tamoxifen-based therapy. Accordingly, knockdown of PPP1R15B expression sensitized tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells to tamoxifen while reducing ER? abundance in these cells. Our findings reveal a novel role for PPP1R15B in the survival and therapy response of ER?-positive breast cancer and may open new avenues for tumor subtype-specific therapeutic strategies in the era of personalized medicine.
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Recurrent mutation of the ID3 gene in Burkitt lymphoma identified by integrated genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing.
Nat. Genet.
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Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression. Nevertheless, MYC deregulation alone seems not to be sufficient to drive Burkitt lymphomagenesis. By whole-genome, whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of four prototypical Burkitt lymphomas with immunoglobulin gene (IG)-MYC translocation, we identified seven recurrently mutated genes. One of these genes, ID3, mapped to a region of focal homozygous loss in Burkitt lymphoma. In an extended cohort, 36 of 53 molecularly defined Burkitt lymphomas (68%) carried potentially damaging mutations of ID3. These were strongly enriched at somatic hypermutation motifs. Only 6 of 47 other B-cell lymphomas with the IG-MYC translocation (13%) carried ID3 mutations. These findings suggest that cooperation between ID3 inactivation and IG-MYC translocation is a hallmark of Burkitt lymphomagenesis.
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Hotspot mutations in H3F3A and IDH1 define distinct epigenetic and biological subgroups of glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumor that carries a dismal prognosis and displays considerable heterogeneity. We have recently identified recurrent H3F3A mutations affecting two critical amino acids (K27 and G34) of histone H3.3 in one-third of pediatric GBM. Here, we show that each H3F3A mutation defines an epigenetic subgroup of GBM with a distinct global methylation pattern, and that they are mutually exclusive with IDH1 mutations, which characterize a third mutation-defined subgroup. Three further epigenetic subgroups were enriched for hallmark genetic events of adult GBM and/or established transcriptomic signatures. We also demonstrate that the two H3F3A mutations give rise to GBMs in separate anatomic compartments, with differential regulation of transcription factors OLIG1, OLIG2, and FOXG1, possibly reflecting different cellular origins.
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Bioinformatic analysis of barcoded cDNA libraries for small RNA profiling by next-generation sequencing.
Methods
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The characterization of post-transcriptional gene regulation by small regulatory RNAs of 20-30 nt length, particularly miRNAs and piRNAs, has become a major focus of research in recent years. A prerequisite for the characterization of small RNAs is their identification and quantification across different developmental stages, normal and diseased tissues, as well as model cell lines. Here we present a step-by-step protocol for the bioinformatic analysis of barcoded cDNA libraries for small RNA profiling generated by Illumina sequencing, thereby facilitating miRNA and other small RNA profiling of large sample collections.
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Dissecting the genomic complexity underlying medulloblastoma.
Nature
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Medulloblastoma is an aggressively growing tumour, arising in the cerebellum or medulla/brain stem. It is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, and shows tremendous biological and clinical heterogeneity. Despite recent treatment advances, approximately 40% of children experience tumour recurrence, and 30% will die from their disease. Those who survive often have a significantly reduced quality of life. Four tumour subgroups with distinct clinical, biological and genetic profiles are currently identified. WNT tumours, showing activated wingless pathway signalling, carry a favourable prognosis under current treatment regimens. SHH tumours show hedgehog pathway activation, and have an intermediate prognosis. Group 3 and 4 tumours are molecularly less well characterized, and also present the greatest clinical challenges. The full repertoire of genetic events driving this distinction, however, remains unclear. Here we describe an integrative deep-sequencing analysis of 125 tumour-normal pairs, conducted as part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) PedBrain Tumor Project. Tetraploidy was identified as a frequent early event in Group 3 and 4 tumours, and a positive correlation between patient age and mutation rate was observed. Several recurrent mutations were identified, both in known medulloblastoma-related genes (CTNNB1, PTCH1, MLL2, SMARCA4) and in genes not previously linked to this tumour (DDX3X, CTDNEP1, KDM6A, TBR1), often in subgroup-specific patterns. RNA sequencing confirmed these alterations, and revealed the expression of what are, to our knowledge, the first medulloblastoma fusion genes identified. Chromatin modifiers were frequently altered across all subgroups. These findings enhance our understanding of the genomic complexity and heterogeneity underlying medulloblastoma, and provide several potential targets for new therapeutics, especially for Group 3 and 4 patients.
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Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma.
Nature
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a lethal brain tumour in adults and children. However, DNA copy number and gene expression signatures indicate differences between adult and paediatric cases. To explore the genetic events underlying this distinction, we sequenced the exomes of 48 paediatric GBM samples. Somatic mutations in the H3.3-ATRX-DAXX chromatin remodelling pathway were identified in 44% of tumours (21/48). Recurrent mutations in H3F3A, which encodes the replication-independent histone 3 variant H3.3, were observed in 31% of tumours, and led to amino acid substitutions at two critical positions within the histone tail (K27M, G34R/G34V) involved in key regulatory post-translational modifications. Mutations in ATRX (?-thalassaemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) and DAXX (death-domain associated protein), encoding two subunits of a chromatin remodelling complex required for H3.3 incorporation at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres, were identified in 31% of samples overall, and in 100% of tumours harbouring a G34R or G34V H3.3 mutation. Somatic TP53 mutations were identified in 54% of all cases, and in 86% of samples with H3F3A and/or ATRX mutations. Screening of a large cohort of gliomas of various grades and histologies (n = 784) showed H3F3A mutations to be specific to GBM and highly prevalent in children and young adults. Furthermore, the presence of H3F3A/ATRX-DAXX/TP53 mutations was strongly associated with alternative lengthening of telomeres and specific gene expression profiles. This is, to our knowledge, the first report to highlight recurrent mutations in a regulatory histone in humans, and our data suggest that defects of the chromatin architecture underlie paediatric and young adult GBM pathogenesis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.