The effects of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) incorporated in the hole transporting layer (HTL) of Poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy] benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene-2, 6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexy)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophened iyl]] (PTB7): [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) based solar cells are being systematically investigated in terms of the optical properties, electrical properties and photovoltaic performance. The impacts of AuNPs on the optical response of the devices are modeled by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. The size of the AuNPs used in this work is around 50-70 nm, so that 10-20 nm penetrated from the HTL into the active layer. We found that the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the devices with AuNPs are significantly enhanced from 7.5%, for the control device, to 8.0%, 8.1% and 8.2% for Au nanosphere-, nanorod- and nanocube-incorporated devices respectively. Among the photovoltaic parameters of the AuNP devices, the short circuit current density (JSC) exhibits the largest improvement, which can be attributed to the improved optical properties of the devices. Based on the calculation results, the scattering cross section for the samples in the presence of AuNPs can be enhanced by a factor of ~1010-1013 and Au nanocubes exhibit superior scattering cross section compared to the Au nanospheres and nanorods with the same linear dimension. From the experimental impedance spectroscopy results, we found that the addition of AuNPs had little effect on the electrical properties of the device. The device performance is also found to be sensitive to the concentration and morphology of the AuNPs.
We presented an unusual case of hematuria caused by a solitary bladder metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma. A confident diagnosis of secondary adenocarcinoma of the bladder was made by clinical suspicion based on patient's past history, careful examination of tumor morphology, and a directed panel (cytokeratin [CK] 7/CK20/thyroid transcription factor 1) of immunohistochemistry. We sought, through sharing our experience in the investigative and diagnostic process, to contribute to the better understanding of this unusual cause of hematuria.
Abstract Introduction: There are different types of transurethral prostatic surgery but the complication profiles are different. This study aims to compare the heat damage zones (HDZ) created by the five different technologies in a pig liver model. Materials & Methods: Monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, GreenlightTM laser of 120W and 180W were used to remove fresh pig liver tissue in a simulated model. Each procedure was repeated in five specimens. Two blocks were selected from each specimen to measure the three deepest HDZ. Results: The mean of HDZ was 295?m, 234?m, 192?m, 673?m and 567?m respectively for monopolar resection, bipolar resection, electrovaporization, GreenlightTM laser 120W and GreenlightTM laser 180W respectively. GreenlightTM laser produced a 1-3 times deeper HDZ than the other energy sources (p=0.000). Conclusion: Both 120W and 180W green light laser produced deeper HDZ than the other energy sources. Urologists need to be aware of the HDZ that caused tissue damage outside the operative field.
Large cohort studies on smoking and mortality in older people are scarce and few studies examined smokers aged 85+ years separately. We estimated the risks of all-cause and cause specific mortality due to smoking in an elderly Chinese cohort in Hong Kong.
Abstract An educational intervention (EI) is useful in preparing patients for orthopaedic surgery. This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a brief EI on pain level, anxiety, pain inference on sleep, and sleep satisfaction among Chinese patients undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery. The intervention group received usual care plus 20-minute EI which comprised a combination of patient education and a breathing relaxation exercise (BRE) whereas the control group received usual care only. The outcomes were evaluated before the EI and at days 2, 4 and 7 post-surgery. One hundred and fifty-two participants completed the study. The intervention group had significantly lower pain levels (Brief pain inventory), anxiety levels (The Chinese state Anxiety scale), and lower pain inference scores on mood and better sleep satisfaction. Therefore, a brief EI with a BRE is a feasible and useful intervention that can improve post-operative outcomes in emergency orthopaedic surgery.
A synthetic method to chemoselectively prepare 1H-cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes, cis-cyclopenten-2-yl ?-diketones, and bicyclo[3.2.0]hepta-1,5-dienes efficiently by gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-diyne esters is described. These three product classes were accessed divergently by taking advantage of the electronic and steric differences between a phosphine and NHC (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) ligand in the respective gold(I) complexes and that of gold(III) complex combined with substrate substitution patterns and optimized reaction conditions. In the presence of [PhCNAuIPr](+)SbF6(-) (IPr = 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidine) as the catalyst, substrates with a pendant aryl group at the acetate alkynyl position were found to undergo preferential 1,3-acyloxy migration/5-exo-dig cyclization/Friedel-Crafts reaction to give 1H-cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes. In contrast, the analogous reactions with PicAuCl2 (Pic =2-picolinate) were found to proceed by selective 1,3-acyloxy migration/5-exo-dig cyclization/1,5-acyl migration to afford cis-cyclopenten-2-yl ?-diketones. Changing the catalyst to [MeCNAu(JohnPhos)](+)SbF6(-) (JohnPhos = (1,1'-biphenyl-2-yl)-di-tert-butylphosphine) and the acetate alkynyl position from an aryl to vinyl substituent in the starting ester led to 1,3-acyloxy migration/5-exo-dig cyclization/Prins-type [2 + 2]-cycloaddition to provide bicyclo[3.2.0]hepta-1,5-dienes.
We noticed that a significant proportion of our patients with head and neck mucoepidermoid carcinoma (HNMEC) had second primary malignancies. To our knowledge, such an association has never been described. The aim of our study is to elucidate the association between second primary malignancies and HNMEC.
STAT3 modulates the transcription of a wide variety of regulatory genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and other critical cellular functions. Constitutive activation of STAT3 has been detected in a wide spectrum of human malignancies. A pharmacophore model constructed from a training set of STAT3 inhibitors binding to the SH2 domain was used to screen an in-house database of compounds, from which azepine 1 emerged as a top candidate. Compound 1 inhibited STAT3 DNA-binding activity in vitro and attenuated STAT3-directed transcription in cellulo with comparable potency to the well-known STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201. A fluorescence polarization assay revealed that compound 1 targeted the SH2 domain of STAT3. Furthermore, compound 1 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in cells without affecting the total expression of STAT3. This study also validates the use of pharmacophore modeling to identify inhibitors of protein-protein interactions.
A synthetic approach that provides access to cis-cyclohepta-4,8-diene-fused pyrrolidines efficiently through Au(I) -catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6,8-dienyne carbonates and esters at a low catalyst loading of 2?mol?% is reported. Starting carbonates and esters with a pendant alkyl group on the terminal alkenyl carbon center were found to favor tandem 1,2-acyloxy migration/cyclopropanation followed by Cope rearrangement of the resulting cis-3-azabicyclo[3.1.0]hexane intermediate. On the other hand, substrates containing a terminal diene or starting materials in which the distal alkene moiety bears a phenyl substituent were observed to undergo competitive but reversible 1,3-acyloxy migration prior to the nitrogen-containing bicyclic ring formation. The delineated reaction mechanism also provides experimental evidence for the reversible interconversion between the oft-proposed organogold intermediates obtained in this step of the tandem process.
Tumor necrosis factor ?-converting enzyme (TACE) plays a critical role in diverse physiological processes such as inflammation, hematopoiesis, and development. In this study, a pharmacophore model constructed from a training set of TACE inhibitors was used to screen an in-house database of organic compounds, from which compound 1 emerged as a top candidate. In a cell-free assay, compound 1 inhibited TACE enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, compound 1 inhibited the production of soluble TNF-? in human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells without impacting nitric oxide production, and exhibited anti-proliferative activity against THP-1 cells. We envisage that compound 1 may be employed as a useful scaffold for the development of more potent TACE inhibitors. This study also validates the use of pharmacophore modeling to identify enzyme inhibitors.
The aim of the study is to assess the characteristics and outcome of anorectal malformation (ARM) patients who underwent single-stage repair of perineal fistula without colostomy according to the Krickenbeck classification.
E-cadherin expression in the head and neck epithelium is essential for the morphogenesis and homeostasis of epithelial tissues. The cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts are required for the anchorage-dependent growth of epithelial cells. Further, survival and proliferation require physical tethering created by proper cell-cell adhesion. Otherwise, the squamous epithelial cells will undergo programmed cell death. Head and neck cancers can escape from anoikis and enter into the epithelial-mesenchymal transition stages via the modulation of E-cadherin expression with epigenetic mechanisms. At epigenetic level, gene expression control is not dependent on the DNA sequence. In the context of E-cadherin regulation in head and neck cancers, 2 major mechanisms including de novo promoter hypermethylation and microRNA dysregulation are most extensively studied. Both of them control E-cadherin expression at transcription level and subsequently hinder the overall E-cadherin protein level in the head and neck cancer cells. Increasing evidence suggested that microRNA mediated E-cadherin expression in the head and neck cancers by directly/indirectly targeting the transcription suppressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2.
We report investigations on the influences of post-deposition treatments on the performance of solution-processed methylammonium lead triiodide (CH3NH3PbI3)-based planar solar cells. The prepared films were stored in pure N2 at room temperature or annealed in pure O2 at room temperature, 45°C, 65°C and 85°C for 12?hours prior to the deposition of the metal electrodes. It is found that annealing in O2 leads to substantial increase in the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the devices. Furthermore, strong dependence on the annealing temperature for the PCEs of the devices suggests that a thermally activated process may underlie the observed phenomenon. It is believed that the annealing process may facilitate the diffusion of O2 into the spiro-MeOTAD for inducing p-doping of the hole transport material. Furthermore, the process can result in lowering the localized state density at the grain boundaries as well as the bulk of perovskite. Utilizing thermal assisted O2 annealing, high efficiency devices with good reproducibility were attained. A PCE of 15.4% with an open circuit voltage (VOC) 1.04?V, short circuit current density (JSC) 23?mA/cm(2), and fill factor 0.64 had been achieved for our champion device.
An efficient silver triflate-catalyzed tandem hydroamination/hydroarylation cascade generating 1'-allylspiro[indene-1,2'-indolin]-3'-ones from 1-(2-allylamino)phenyl-4-hydroxy-but-2-yn-1-ones is described. The reaction conditions are mild and general in scope and proceed to highly functionalized spiro-targets in high yield. This novel class of molecule possesses both the privileged indene and indolin-3-one scaffold, which may lead to possible pharmacological applications.
Antibacterial activity of nanomaterials is strongly dependent on their properties, and their stability and toxicity can be varied using surface coatings. We investigated the effect of different surface modifying molecules on the antibacterial properties of two ZnO nanoparticle samples. We found that the starting surface properties of the nanoparticles have significant effects on the attachment of the surface modifying molecules and consequent antibacterial activity. Two out of five investigated surface modifying molecules not only had a significant difference in the magnitude of their effect on different nanoparticles, but also resulted in the opposite effects on two ZnO nanoparticle samples (an enhancement of antibacterial activity for one and a reduction of antibacterial activity for the other ZnO sample). This indicates that no general rule on the effect of a specific molecule on the toxicity of a metal oxide nanoparticle can be derived without knowing the nanoparticle properties, due to the fact that surface modifier attachment onto the surface is affected by the initial surface properties.
Routine acupuncture incorporates wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) for its analgesic effect, but WAA is not widely used in clinics due to incomplete knowledge of its effectiveness and concerns about less clinical research and because less people know it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and possible adverse effects of WAA or WAA adjuvants in the treatment of pain symptoms. This study compared WAA or WAA adjuvant with the following therapies: western medication (WM), sham acupuncture (SA), or body acupuncture (BA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched systematically in related electronic databases by two independent reviewers. 33 RCTs were finally included, in which 7 RCTs were selected for meta-analysis. It was found that WAA or WAA adjuvant was significantly more effective than WM, SA, or BA in pain relief. There was nothing different between WAA and SA in adverse events, but WAA was marginally significantly safer than WM. Although both WAA and WAA adjuvant appeared to be more effective than WM, SA, or BA in the treatment of pain symptoms with few side effects, further studies with better and more rigorously designed are still necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety issue of WAA due to the poor methodology and small sample size of previous studies.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major global health issue. Infection by the HCV can cause acute and chronic liver diseases and may lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or liver failure. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 3% of the world population have been infected with HCV and the worldwide prevalence is between 1% and 8% in pregnant women and between 0.05% and 5% in children. Following the introduction of blood product screening, vertical transmission becomes the leading cause of childhood HCV infection. The prevalence of pediatric HCV infection varies from 0.05% to 0.36% in developed countries and between 1.8% and 5% in the developing world. All children born to women with anti-HCV antibodies should be checked for HCV infection. Though universal screening is controversial, selective antenatal HCV screening on high-risk populations is highly recommended and should be tested probably. Multiple risk factors were shown to increase the possibility of HCV vertical transmission, including coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus, intravenous drug use and elevated maternal HCV viral load, while breastfeeding and HCV genotypes have been studied to have little impact. At present, no clinical intervention has been clearly studied and proved to reduce the HCV vertical transmission risk. Cesarean section should not be recommended as a procedure to prevent vertical transmission, however, breastfeeding is generally not forbidden. The high prevalence of global HCV infection necessitates renewed efforts in primary prevention, including vaccine development, as well as new approaches to reduce the burden of chronic liver disease. Future researches should focus on the interruption of vertical transmission, developments of HCV vaccine and direct-acting antivirals in infancy and early childhood.
In the West, self-rated health reliably predicts death, but conceptualizations of health and cause-composition of mortality may be contextually specific. Little is known as to how self-rated health predicts death in non-Western settings.
It was previously demonstrated that microRNA-199a (miR-199a) was down-regulated in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) partially caused by hypermethylation of its promoter. miR-199a is encoded by two loci in the human genome, miR-199a-1 on chromosome (Chr) 19 and miR-199a-2 on Chr 1. Both loci encode the same miR-199a. Another microRNA, microRNA-214 (miR-214), also locates on Chr 1. Previous study revealed that it is co-transcribed with miR-199a-2. However, the biological significance of the co-expression of miR-199a and miR-214 remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined that miR-199a and miR-214 were concordantly expressed in NT2 cells and TGCT patient tissues. After 5-aza treatment, miR-199-3p/5p and miR-214 expression was significantly increased. Silencing of DNMT1with siRNA restored the expression of miR-199a and miR-214, accompanied by de-methylation of the promoters of miR-199a-1/2. TP53 down-regulated the expression of DNMT1 in NT2 cells and overexpression of TP53 restored the expression of miR-199-3p/5p and miR-214. In addition, silencing of PSMD10 up-regulated the expression of TP53, while miR-214 over-expression resulted in PSMD10 down-regulation and TP53 up-regulation. Collectively, our findings highlighted a miR-199a/miR-214/PSMD10/TP53/DNMT1 self-regulatory network, which might be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of TGCT.
Background. Tianjiu therapy has established efficacy against chronic asthma with related symptoms or the medication need during asthma attack. This study aimed to explore the optimal duration of Tianjiu therapy for asthma. Methods. This study was a self-comparison-to-the-baseline study, which comparing treatment with Tianjiu therapy for 1 year and 2 years in the same 102 chronic asthma patients. Totally 6 sessions of Tianjiu treatment were provided, 3 sessions in a year as a course of treatment and totally two years treatment. The primary endpoint was the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients and the frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack. Results. The frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack significantly improved (? (2) = 46.276, P = 0.000). But the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients added by 1.38 points (95% CI, 0.25 to 2.51), 2.93 ± 0.41 in 1-year group and 4.31 ± 0.41 in the 2-years group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The effect of 2 years Tianjiu therapy was not as effective as 1 year such treatment for asthma, but the second year Tianjiu therapy was still needed because it has a role to consolidate the curative effect of Tianjiu therapy for asthma.
Endothelial cells are crucially involved in wound healing angiogenesis, restoring blood flow to wound tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) possesses significant wound healing effect in diabetic foot ulcer rats with promising in vitro proangiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Here, we present the comparative global proteome analysis of NF3-treated HUVEC in static or scratch conditions, screening the comprehensive molecular targets in governing the proangiogenic response in wound healing. Our results suggest plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, specifically down-regulated in static condition and Annexin A1 and Annexin A2, up-regulated in scratch condition, as principal proteins responsible for the proangiogenesis in wound healing. We also identified a panel of cytoskeleton regulatory proteins in static and scratch condition, mediating the migratory behavior of NF3-treated HUVEC. The key proteins in static state include myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, SPAST, tropomyosin (TPM)2, and Vimentin while that in scratch state contained prelamin-A/C, TPM1, TPM2, and Vimentin. In addition, NF3 was shown to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cell interaction, and ROS defense in HUVEC. Proliferation and migration assays further confirmed the identified principal proteins plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and Annexin A2 which are responsible for NF3-induced proangiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. This is the first study on the global proteome expression of NF3-treated HUVEC with the identification of the differences at the molecular level, between static and scratch conditions involved in wound healing angiogenesis.
Maternal parental self-efficacy is a crucial factor for facilitating the smooth transition into motherhood, particularly for primiparas. The aims of this study were to examine the predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy and its relationship with social support, postnatal depression (PND), and socio-demographic variables of primiparas during the early postnatal period. A descriptive correlational study design was adopted. The instruments, Perceived Maternal Parental Self-Efficacy, Perinatal Infant Care Social Support, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were used to collect data from a purposive sample of 122 primiparas on the day of discharge (1-3 days post delivery) in a tertiary public hospital in Singapore. There were significant correlations among maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and postnatal depression. The main predictors of maternal parental self-efficacy were social support, ethnicity, maternal age, and family income. The maternal parental self-efficacy, social support, and PND should be routinely assessed to provide necessary support to needy mothers.
Curcumin suppresses proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis by regulating multiple signalling pathways and miRNAs in a wide variety of human malignancies. miRNAs play crucial roles in various steps of carcinogenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC); thus, they could serve as critical therapeutic targets for NPC treatment. Curcumin could provide a novel strategy to block or induce specific miRNAs for miRNA-based gene therapies. Nevertheless, there are no reports to date on the miRNAs regulated by curcumin in NPC. In the present study, we have carried out an miRNA microarray to identify the miRNAs regulated by curcumin in NPC. Curcumin treatment down-regulated the expression of hsa-miR-125a-5p, hsa-miR-574-3p and hsa-miR-210 as determined by miRNA microarray analysis and qPCR (real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR). Forced expression of miR-125a-5p enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of HONE1 cells. Primary NPC exhibited a significantly higher expression level of miR-125a-5p than healthy controls. miR-125a-5p inhibited the expression of tumour protein 53 (TP53), and curcumin treatment up-regulated the expression of TP53. Taken together, these results indicate that curcumin exerted inhibitory effects on NPC by inhibiting the expression of miR-125a-5p and, subsequently, enhancing the expression of TP53. Curcumin could provide a novel strategy to block miR-125a-5p for miRNA-based gene therapies in NPC.
Two of the recent major research topics in optoelectronic devices are discussed: the development of new organic materials (both molecular and polymeric) for the active layer of organic optoelectronic devices (particularly organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)), and light management, including light extraction for OLEDs and light trapping for organic solar cells (OSCs). In the first section, recent developments of phosphorescent transition metal complexes for OLEDs in the past 3-4 years are reviewed. The discussion is focused on the development of metal complexes based on iridium, platinum, and a few other transition metals. In the second part, different light-management strategies in the design of OLEDs with improved light extraction, and of OSCs with improved light trapping is discussed.
This study aimed to determine whether definable profiles existed in a cohort of nursing staff with regard to demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, stress, cultural values and coping abilities. A survey was conducted in one hospital in Singapore from June to July 2012, and 814 full-time staff nurses completed a self-report questionnaire (89% response rate). Demographic characteristics, job satisfaction, acculturation, work environment, perceived stress, cultural values, ways of coping and intention to leave current workplace were assessed as outcomes. The two-step cluster analysis revealed three clusters. Nurses in cluster 1 (n?=?222) had lower acculturation scores than nurses in cluster 3. Cluster 2 (n?=?362) was a group of younger nurses who reported higher intention to leave (22.4%), stress level and job dissatisfaction than the other two clusters. Nurses in cluster 3 (n?=?230) were mostly Singaporean and reported the lowest intention to leave (13.0%). Resources should be allocated to specifically address the needs of younger nurses and hopefully retain them in the profession. Management should focus their retention strategies on junior nurses and provide a work environment that helps to strengthen their intention to remain in nursing by increasing their job satisfaction.
This study determined the prevalence of lifetime and current smoking and the correlates of current smoking in nurses working in psychiatric and general hospitals in China. Of 807 distributed questionnaires, 799 nurses who were working in two psychiatric hospitals (n=387, 48.4%), and one general hospital (n=412, 51.6%) had analyzable data. Socio-demographic, alcohol use and smoking data were collected with a self-reported questionnaire. Work-related stress was evaluated with the Nurse Stress Inventory. In the whole sample, the lifetime smoking prevalence was 7.6% (females=2.1% vs. males=48.9%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=14.5% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). The prevalence of current smoking was 7.1% (females=2.1% vs. males=44.7%, p<0.0001; psychiatric nurses=13.4% vs. non-psychiatric nurses=1.2%, p<0.0001). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, age 30 years or older, male gender, having children, being a psychiatric nurse and alcohol consumption were positively associated with smoking, while being a nursing officer was negatively associated with smoking (r(2) = 0.513, p<0.0001). Considering the harmful effects of smoking as well as second-hand smoking in the presence of children, effective measures to promote smoking cessation for male, older and psychiatric nurses and those with children are warranted.
In Western countries, diabetes mellitus is positively associated with death from all- and specific-causes including cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. In a Chinese setting with a different disease pattern: high diabetes rates in a relatively non-obese population with low ischemic heart disease (IHD) rates where diabetes is positively associated with IHD, we examined the association of self-reported diabetes with death among older people.
Anorectal malformation (ARM) in newborns with no fistula at presentation resembles intestinal obstruction. The aim of this study is to study the factors associated with bowel perforation in this group of patients.
L-Asparaginase (L-ASP) is a key component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its mechanism of action, however, is still poorly understood, in part because of its dual asparaginase and glutaminase activities. Here, we show that L-ASP's glutaminase activity is not always required for the enzyme's anticancer effect. We first used molecular dynamics simulations of the clinically standard Escherichia coli L-ASP to predict what mutated forms could be engineered to retain activity against asparagine but not glutamine. Dynamic mapping of enzyme substrate contacts identified Q59 as a promising mutagenesis target for that purpose. Saturation mutagenesis followed by enzymatic screening identified Q59L as a variant that retains asparaginase activity but shows undetectable glutaminase activity. Unlike wild-type L-ASP, Q59L is inactive against cancer cells that express measurable asparagine synthetase (ASNS). Q59L is potently active, however, against ASNS-negative cells. Those observations indicate that the glutaminase activity of L-ASP is necessary for anticancer activity against ASNS-positive cell types but not ASNS-negative cell types. Because the clinical toxicity of L-ASP is thought to stem from its glutaminase activity, these findings suggest the hypothesis that glutaminase-negative variants of L-ASP would provide larger therapeutic indices than wild-type L-ASP for ASNS-negative cancers.
Numerous studies have reported the prevention of falls through exercise among cognitively healthy older people. This study aimed to determine whether the current evidence supports that physical exercise is also efficacious in preventing falls in older adults with cognitive impairment.
A simple and versatile procedure was developed for the synthesis of pyrazino[2,3-b]thieno[3,4-e]pyrazine derivatives with intramolecular charge transfer character. The compounds obtained exhibited a narrower band gap compared to those with one pyrazine bridge.
To verify the accuracy of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsy (TRUS Bx), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their combination in evaluating the laterality of prostate cancer and to determine the accuracy of MRI in assessing extra-capsular extension of prostate cancer.
Complications aroused from Meckel's diverticulum tend to developed in children. Children presented with abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, intussusception or gastrointestinal bleeding may actually suffered from complicated Meckel's diverticulum. With the advancement of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in children, the use of laparoscopy in the diagnosis and subsequent laparoscopic excision of Meckel's diverticulum has gained popularity. Recently, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has emerged as a new technique in minimally invasive surgery. This review offers the overview in the development of MIS in the management of children suffered from Meckel's diverticulum. The current evidence in different laparoscopic techniques, including conventional laparoscopy, SILS, the use of special laparoscopic instruments, intracorporeal diverticulectomy and extracorporeal diverticulectomy in the management of Meckel's diverticulum in children were revealed.
Downregulation of E-cadherin in solid tumors with regional migration and systematic metastasis is well recognized. In view of its significance in tumorigenesis and solid cancer progression, studies on the regulatory mechanisms are important for the development of target treatment and prediction of clinical behavior for cancer patients. The vertebrate zinc finger E-box binding homeobox (ZEB) protein family comprises 2 major members: ZEB1 and ZEB2. Both contain the motif for specific binding to multiple enhancer boxes (E-boxes) located within the short-range transcription regulatory regions of the E-cadherin gene. Binding of ZEB1 and ZEB2 to the spaced E-cadherin E-boxes has been implicated in the regulation of E-cadherin expression in multiple human cancers. The widespread functions of ZEB proteins in human malignancies indicate their significance. Given the significance of E-cadherin in the solid tumors, a deeper understanding of the functional role of ZEB proteins in solid tumors could provide insights in the design of target therapy against the migratory nature of solid cancers.
To develop and examine the effectiveness of a home-based self-help psychoeducation programme on health-related quality of life, stress level, anxiety and depression symptoms, self-efficacy, cardiac risk factors and health service use of outpatients with coronary heart disease.
Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia.
Virtual patient simulation has grown substantially in health care education. A virtual patient simulation was developed as a refresher training course to reinforce nursing clinical performance in assessing and managing deteriorating patients.
Recent studies suggested that non-protein-coding genes are implicated in the tumorigenic process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In the present study, we aimed to identify the differentially expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) using data available in the public domain.
A synthetic method to prepare o-phenolic esters efficiently by gold(I)-catalyzed benzannulation of 5-hydroxy-3-oxoalk-6-ynoate esters under mild conditions that did not require the exclusion of air or moisture is described.
Background. This retrospective study reviewed 213 asymptomatic neonates with common bile duct (CBD) dilatations diagnosed via ultrasound to evaluate their incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods. From August 2001 to July 2010, 18,230 abdominal ultrasound scans were performed as newborn screening. There were 213 (1.17%) cases of CBD dilatation. Dilatation of neonatal CBD was defined when its diameter was ?2?mm. The neonates' birth history, CBD size, and follow-up results were analyzed. Results. In the 213 infants, four cystic dilatations (1.88%, 4/213) that were eventually diagnosed as choledochal cysts (CC). Among 209 neonates with fusiform dilatations (size 2.0-6.7?mm), 77 had ultrasound follow-up and 87% of them resolved spontaneously which were diagnosed as transient CBD dilatation (TCBDD). Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Patients with initial CBD size ?3?mm had significantly lower resolution rate and neonates whose mothers are older than 35 years took longer time to resolve. Conclusion. The incidence of CBD dilatation in asymptomatic neonates was 1.17%. Eighty percent of TCBDDs resolved within 6 months. Regular ultrasound follow-up every 6 months may be appropriate for asymptomatic neonates with fusiform CBD dilatations to ensure resolution or progression.
Abstract An educational intervention (EI) is useful in preparing patients for orthopaedic surgery. This quasi-experimental study examined the effect of a brief EI on pain level, anxiety, pain inference on sleep, and sleep satisfaction among Chinese patients undergoing emergency orthopaedic surgery. The intervention group received usual care plus 20-minute EI which comprised a combination of patient education and a breathing relaxation exercise (BRE) whereas the control group received usual care only. The outcomes were evaluated before the EI and at days 2, 4 and 7 post-surgery. One hundred and fifty two participants completed the study. The intervention group had significantly lower pain levels (Brief pain inventory), anxiety levels (The Chinese state Anxiety scale), and lower pain inference scores on mood and better sleep satisfaction. Therefore, a brief EI with a breathing relaxation exercise is a feasible and useful intervention that can improve post-operative outcomes in emergency orthopaedic surgery.
We report the discovery of an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) by an integrated virtual screening approach. Piperacillin 1 inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based systems with high selectivity. Furthermore, piperacillin 1 was able to inhibit the degradation of the NAE downstream protein substrate p27(kip1). Our molecular modeling and kinetic studies suggested that this compound may act as a non-covalent ATP-competitive inhibitor of NAE.
Colorectal cancer is a major public health problem. There is growing support for colorectal cancer survivors who are experiencing problems after cancer treatment to engage in self-management programs to reduce symptom distress. However, there is inconclusive evidence as to the effectiveness of such program especially in Asian region.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of an interpersonal-psychotherapy-oriented postnatal psychoeducation programme on postpartum depressive symptoms, social support and maternal role competence in Chinese first-time mothers.
Massive epistaxis due to ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is an often fatal complication of radiation treatment for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We review the clinical characteristics and predictors of survival in patients suffering from this serious complication after radiotherapy.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of Meckel's diverticula at different ages, genders, and pathology in order to serve as a reminder to clinicians when evaluating potential cases and to help obtain an early diagnosis. Methods. We collected information of patients with Meckel's diverticulum diagnosed at Mackay Memorial Hospital in Taiwan from 1984 to 2009. After performing a thorough review of their charts, the clinical features of the Meckel's diverticula were analyzed according to age groups, gender, and pathology. Result. A total of 126 patients, with 90 males and 36 females, were enrolled in this study. Seventy-five patients were symptomatic and 51 Meckel's diverticula were found incidentally during surgery for other diseases. Among symptomatic patients, 39% of pediatric patients and 5% of adult patients had intestinal hemorrhage. Twenty-eight percent of pediatric patients and 67% of adult patients had inflammation of Meckel's diverticulum. Forty-six percent of males and 16% of females had inflammation. Conversely, 27% of males and 58% percent of females had intestinal obstruction. When Meckel's diverticulum had ectopic gastric mucosa, it tended to cause intestinal hemorrhage when the patient is young. Conclusions. Age, gender, and pathology affect the clinical presentations of Meckel's diverticula.
In this study, we applied structure-based virtual screening techniques to identify natural product or natural product-like inhibitors of iNOS. The iNOS inhibitory activity of the hit compounds was characterized using cellular assays and an in vivo zebrafish larvae model. The natural product-like compound 1 inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages, without exerting cytotoxic effects on the cells. Significantly, compound 1 was able to reverse MPTP-induced locomotion deficiency and neurotoxicity in an in vivo zebrafish larval model. Hence, compound 1 could be considered as a scaffold for the further development of iNOS inhibitors for potential anti-inflammatory or anti-neurodegenerative applications.
This study tested the psychometric properties of a Chinese version of the level of expressed emotion scale in Hong Kong Chinese patients with severe mental illness and their family caregivers. First, the semantic equivalence with the original English version and test-retest reliability at 2-week interval of the Chinese version was examined. After that, the reproducibility, construct validity, and internal consistency of the Chinese version were tested. The Chinese version indicated good semantic equivalence with the English version (kappa values = 0.76-0.95 and ICC = 0.81-0.92), test-retest reliability (r = 0.89-0.95, P < 0.01), and internal consistency (Cronbach's ? = 0.86-0.92). Among 262 patients with severe mental illness and their caregivers, the 50-item Chinese version had substantial loadings on one of the four factors identified (intrusiveness/hostility, attitude towards patient, tolerance, and emotional involvement), accounting for 71.8% of the total variance of expressed emotion. In confirmatory factor analysis, the identified four-factor model showed the best fit based on all fit indices (? (2)/df = 1.93, P = 0.75; AGFI = 0.96; TLI = 1.02; RMSEA = 0.031; WRMR = 0.78) to the collected data. The four-factor Chinese version also indicated a good concurrent validity with significant correlations with family functioning (r = -0.54) and family burden (r = 0.49) and a satisfactory reproducibility over six months (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.90). The mean scores of the overall and subscale of the Chinese version in patients with unipolar disorder were higher than in other illness groups (schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and bipolar disorder; P < 0.01). The Chinese version demonstrates sound psychometric properties to measure families' expressed emotion in Chinese patients with severe mental illness, which are found varied across countries.
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection caused severe pneumonia and multiorgan dysfunction and had a higher crude fatality rate (around 50% vs 10%) than SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. To understand the pathogenesis, we studied viral replication, cytokine/chemokine response, and antigen presentation in MERS-CoV-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) versus SARS-CoV-infected MDMs. Only MERS-CoV can replicate in MDMs. Both viruses were unable to significantly stimulate the expression of antiviral cytokines (interferon ? [IFN-?] and IFN-?) but induced comparable levels of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin 6. Notably, MERS-CoV induced significantly higher expression levels of interleukin 12, IFN-?, and chemokines (IP-10/CXCL-10, MCP-1/CCL-2, MIP-1?/CCL-3, RANTES/CCL-5, and interleukin 8) than SARS-CoV. The expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and costimulatory molecules were significantly higher in MERS-CoV-infected MDMs than in SARS-CoV-infected cells. MERS-CoV replication was validated by immunostaining of infected MDMs and ex vivo lung tissue. We conclusively showed that MERS-CoV can establish a productive infection in human macrophages. The aberrant induction of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines could be important in the disease pathogenesis.
A synthetic method to stereoselectively prepare 4-(cyclohexa-1,3-dienyl)-1,3-dioxolanes in good to excellent yields by gold(I)-catalyzed [2+2+1] cycloaddition of 1,6-diyne carbonates and esters with aldehydes is described. The cascade process involves 1,2-acyloxy migration followed by cyclopropenation and cycloreversion. This leads to an unprecedented [2+2+1] cycloaddition of the resulting alkenylgold carbenoid species, examples of which are extremely rare, with two aldehyde molecules at catalyst loadings as low as 1?mol?%. The usefulness of this cycloisomerization chemistry was further demonstrated by the transformation of one example to the corresponding phenol.
The recent revolution of genomics techniques has allowed the detection of various sequence features and biological variations on whole-genome scale. However, these high-resolution data present significant challenges for experimental biologists to understand and analyze. The conventional way is to use genome browsers to locate and visualize regions of interest. But it lacks user-friendly data mining functionality. Here we present a protocol that allows rapid annotation of genomic coordinate data by using TileMapper. Interesting biological annotations from large-scale genomic data, such as transcriptome analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation on chip, or methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) studies generated from the tiling microarrays and other platforms, could be analyzed without requiring computational skills. The outputs are saved in tabulated format, which permit flexible and simple processing in spreadsheet software, or to be exported to other pipelines for subsequent analysis.
The toxicity of metal oxide nanomaterials and their antimicrobial activity is attracting increasing attention. Among these materials, MgO is particularly interesting as a low cost, environmentally-friendly material. The toxicity of MgO, similar to other metal oxide nanomaterials, is commonly attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the toxicity of three different MgO nanoparticle samples, and clearly demonstrated robust toxicity towards Escherichia coli bacterial cells in the absence of ROS production for two MgO nanoparticle samples. Proteomics data also clearly demonstrate the absence of oxidative stress and indicate that the primary mechanism of cell death is related to the cell membrane damage, which does not appear to be due to lipid peroxidation.
In observational studies of Western populations, moderate alcohol use is usually associated with lower cancer mortality rates. However, moderate alcohol use (regular drinking of moderate amounts) is socially patterned. Evidence from other contexts can clarify such observations. We examined the association of moderate alcohol use with death from cancer in older Chinese adults from a developed non-Western setting, where occasional alcohol drinking (less than once per week of small amounts) is typical.
A method to prepare 1-substituted 3-sulfonyl-1H-pyrroles efficiently that relies on the gold(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of N-substituted N-sulfonyl-aminobut-3-yn-2-ols is described. The method was shown to be applicable to a broad range of 1,7-enyne alcohols containing electron-withdrawing, electron-donating, and sterically demanding substrate combinations. The mechanism is suggested to involve activation of the propargylic alcohol by the Au(I) catalyst, which causes the intramolecular nucleophilic addition of the sulfonamide unit to the alkyne moiety. The resulting nitrogen-containing heterocyclic intermediate undergoes dehydration and deaurative 1,3-sulfonyl migration, a process that remains rare in gold catalysis, to give the aromatic nitrogen-containing product.
We report the use of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for direct colourimetric polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical specimens. The colourimetric assay comprised of 2 Au NP probes functionalized with Staphylococcus aureus 23S rRNA- and mecA-specific oligonucleotides. In this study, 72 clinical samples were tested, which included positive blood culture (n=23), urine (n=8), respiratory samples (n=23), as well as wound swabs, pus and body fluid (n=18). Results were recorded qualitatively by direct visual examination and quantitatively by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Using conventional bacterial culture as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this colourimetric assay were 97.14%, 91.89%, 91.89% and 97.14%, respectively, which were comparable to that of commercial real-time PCR assays with a lower cost per reaction. Our assay also showed good agreement with bacterial culture (?=0.889). The overall detection limit was 500ng target amplicon, which was comparable to or better than other similar Au NP biosensors. Interestingly, our data revealed the possible relationship between Au NP probe-target hybridization site and assay performance, which might provide hints for design of the Au NP biosensors for nucleic acid detection. To conclude, our study was the first report on the use of Au NP colourimetric assay for direct detection of MRSA in various types of clinical specimens. Further evaluation of the assay is needed in large-scale trials which can also allow for some modifications to streamline the procedures for routine use.
To investigate the long-term effects of motivational interviewing on clinical outcomes, psychological outcomes, health-related quality of life among cardiac rehabilitation patients with poor motivation.
Laribacter hongkongensis is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, motile, S-shaped, urease-positive bacillus associated with invasive infections in liver cirrhosis patients and community-acquired gastroenteritis. Most cases of L hongkongensis infections occur in eastern countries. Information is lacking on the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the identification of bacteria important in eastern countries. Using the Bruker database extended with 21 L hongkongensis reference strains, all 240 L hongkongensis isolates recovered from patients, fish, frogs and water were correctly identified, with 224 (93.3%) strains having top match scores ?2.0. Notably, the strain of Chromobacterium violaceum was not reliably identified although it is included in the database. MALDI-TOF MS is useful for the accurate routine identification of L hongkongensis after adding reference L hongkongensis main spectra to the database. The number of strains for each species in MALDI-TOF MS databases should be expanded to cover intraspecies variability.
To synthesize the evidence in published studies that used a salutogenic framework to explore the relationship between generalized resistance resources, a sense of coherence, health and the quality of life in people aged 65 years and over.
Hemorrhagic stroke is more common in non-Western settings and does not always share risk factors with other cardiovascular diseases. The association of smoking with hemorrhagic stroke subtypes has not been established. We examined the association of cigarette smoking with hemorrhagic stroke, by subtype (intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage), in a large cohort of older Chinese from Hong Kong.
A synthetic method to prepare 2,4a-dihydro-1H-fluorenes efficiently from gold(I)-catalyzed 1,2-acyloxy migration/cyclopropenation/Nazarov cyclization of 1,6-diyne carbonates and esters is described. The suggested reaction pathway provides rare examples of [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement in this class of compounds as well as the involvement of an in situ formed cyclopropene intermediate in gold catalysis. Experimental and ONIOM(QM:QM) [our own n-layered integrated molecular orbital and molecular mechanics(quantum mechanics:quantum mechanics)] computational studies based on the proposed Au carbenoid species provide insight into this unique selectivity.
Annealing is a common method to improve the efficiency of polymer photovoltaic cells. Annealing changes the microphase separation in a polymer blend film and typically also results in a change in its optical properties. We investigated the optical properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):[6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) before and after thermal annealing using spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmission measurements, with simultaneous fitting of samples with different thicknesses to ensure reliability of extracted index of refraction values. We found that, after annealing, it is necessary to consider an anisotropic model to describe the properties of P3HT:PCBM blend films, which reflects the increased order of P3HT chains as a result of annealing. Different fitting models (simple anisotropic layer, graded isotropic, graded anisotropic model, generalized oscillator, and oscillator model including Huang-Rhys vibronic envelope) have been compared and discussed. The effect of the number of samples used for fitting and surface roughness corrections is also discussed.
Fully conjugated metallosupramolecular self-assembled multilayer films were controllably fabricated based on bibenzonitril-phthalocyaninato ruthenium(II) (BBPR) and 4,4-bipyridine (BP) via axially coordination interaction between ruthenium ions and the pyridine groups on the modified substrates. The substrates were first functionalized by 4-(pyridine-4-ylethynyl)benzenic diazonium salt (PBD) through photodecomposition of diazonium group under UV irradiation. As a result, the pyridine-containing functional groups were vertically and covalently anchored onto the surface of substrate and got a stable monolayer. Soluble ruthenium phthalocyanine, axially coordinated by labile benzonitrile groups, was used to fabricate the layer-by-layer self-assembled films with BP through ligand-exchanging reaction between benzonitrile and pyridine in each self-assembled cycle. The UV-vis analysis results demonstrated the successful fabrication of bi(4,4-bipyridine)phthalocyaninato ruthenium(II) (BPPR) metallosupramolecular ultrathin films with definite structures on PBD-modified substrate. Under illumination, the BPPR self-assembled multilayer films displayed a quick response to light. The maximum current density reached 120 nA/cm(2) at six bilayers. The Eg, HOMO, and LUMO of the six-bilayer were quantitatively measured to be 1.68, -5.29, and -3.61 eV, respectively. This strategy supplies a facile method to get full-conjugated metallosupramolecules and a platform for developing higher performance solar cell from the point of adjusting dye aggregate state structure.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.