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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
?? T cells promote inflammation and insulin resistance during high fat diet-induced obesity in mice.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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?? T cells are resident in AT and increase during diet-induced obesity. Their possible contribution to the inflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity was investigated in mice after a 5 to 10 week milk HFD. The HFD resulted in significant increases in CD44(hi), CD62L(lo), and TNF-?(+) ?? T cells in eAT of WT mice. Mice deficient in all ?? T cells (TCR?(-/-)) or only V?4 and V?6 subsets (V?4/6(-/-)) were compared with WT mice with regard to proinflammatory cytokine production and macrophage accumulation in eAT. Obesity among these mouse strains did not differ, but obese TCR?(-/-) and V?4/6(-/-) mice had significantly reduced eAT expression of F4/80, a macrophage marker, and inflammatory mediators CCL2 and IL-6 compared with WT mice. Obese TCR?(-/-) mice had significantly reduced CD11c(+) and TNF-?(+) macrophage accumulation in eAT after 5 and 10 weeks on the HFD, and obese V?4/6(-/-) mice had significantly increased CD206(+) macrophages in eAT after 5 weeks on the diet and significantly reduced macrophages after 10 weeks. Obese TCR?(-/-) mice had significant reductions in systemic insulin resistance and inflammation in liver and skeletal muscle after longer-term HFD feeding (10 and 24 weeks). In vitro studies revealed that isolated ?? T cells directly stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage TNF-? expression but did not stimulate inflammatory mediator expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings are consistent with a role for ?? T cells in the proinflammatory response that accompanies diet-induced obesity.
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Selective detection of 1000 B. anthracis spores within 15 minutes using a peptide functionalized SERS assay.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assay has been designed to detect Bacillus anthracis spores. The assay consists of silver nanoparticles embedded in a porous glass structure that have been functionalized with ATYPLPIR, a peptide developed to discriminately bind B. anthracis versus other species of Bacillus. Once bound, acetic acid was used to release the biomarker dipicolinic acid from the spores, which was detected by SERS through the addition of silver colloids. This SERS assay was used to selectively bind B. anthracis with a 100-fold selectivity versus B. cereus, and to detect B. anthracis Ames at concentrations of 1000 spores per mL within 15 minutes. The SERS assay measurements provide a basis for the development of systems that can detect spores collected from the air or from water supplies.
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Contrast constancy revisited: The perceived contrast of sinusoidal gratings above threshold.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The contrast sensitivity function of the human visual system, measured with sinusoidal luminance gratings, has an inverted U shape with a peak around 2-4?c/deg. Above threshold, it is thought that luminance gratings of equal physical contrasts but of distinguishably different spatial frequencies are all perceived as having similar contrasts, a phenomenon that has been termed contrast constancy. However, when suprathreshold contrast matches were measured for pairs of luminance gratings whose spatial frequencies were indistinguishable, the matching curves were not flat and followed a similar inverted U shape form as the contrast sensitivity function at threshold. It was therefore suggested that contrast constancy may only be revealed when matching the contrasts of clearly distinguishable spatial frequencies. Here, observers matched the perceived contrasts of suprathreshold luminance gratings of similar but visibly different spatial frequencies between 0.25 and 16?c/deg. The results show that, much like the contrast sensitivity function at threshold, observers are more sensitive to intermediate spatial frequencies (1-6?c/deg) than they are to either higher or to lower spatial frequencies. This tuning is evident when matching reference contrasts of 30-80%, implying a significant role in everyday vision. To demonstrate that these results were not due to local adaptation, the experiment was repeated with shorter stimulus duration, producing the same results. The extent of departure from contrast constancy found in the present study is compared to previously reported suprathreshold measurements. The results are also discussed with consideration to limitations with display apparatus such as monitor blur.
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The association of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to salt with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs.
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The prevalence and impact of prescription controlled substance use among injured patients at a Level I trauma center.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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There has been increasing attention focused on the epidemic of prescription drug use in the United States, but little is known about its effects in trauma. The purpose of this study was to define the prevalence of prescription controlled substance use among trauma patients and determine its effects on outcome.
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Wavelet analysis of quadriceps power spectra and amplitude under varying levels of contraction intensity and velocity.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We investigated the effect of contraction intensity [100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)] and movement velocity (50°, 100°, 200°, and 400°/s) on surface electromyography root mean square amplitude (SEMGRMS ) and median frequency (SEMGMDF ) of rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and vastus medialis (VM).
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Urinary albumin excretion from spot urine samples predict all-cause and stroke mortality in Africans.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Increased urinary albumin excretion reflects general vascular damage and predicts adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Albuminuria can be determined from easily collected spot urine samples, especially in low-resource settings. However, no prognostic evidence exists for Africans.
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Comparisons of Costs between Black Caribbean and White British Patients with Advanced Multiple Sclerosis in the UK.
Mult Scler Int
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is now more common among black and minority ethnic groups in the UK but little is known about the costs of care amongst different ethnic groups. Objective. This study examined and compared service use and costs for people severely affected with MS from Black Caribbean (BC) and White British (WB) backgrounds in the UK and identified predictors of cost for both groups. Method. Population-based cross-sectional study of 43 BC and 43 WB patients with MS (EDSS ? 6) and their informal caregivers recruited from an MS service in southeast London. Interviews collected data on health and social service use and informal care support. Costs were calculated using UK unit cost data. Using regression analyses we compared costs between the ethnic groups and identified possible predictors of cost. Results. The mean (SD) costs for the WB and BC groups were £ 25,778 ( £ 39,387) and £ 23,186 ( £ 30,433), respectively. Results identified no significant difference in total cost between the two ethnic groups. The EDSS score alone was a significant predictor of cost. Conclusion. Similar costs between ethnic groups indicate that with regard to this MS service and geographical area, access to care was not affected by ethnicity.
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Protocol for the implementation and evaluation of a community-based intervention seeking to reduce dietary salt intake in Lithgow, Australia.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Excess dietary salt is a leading risk for health. Multiple health, government, industry and community organisations have identified the need to reduce consumption of dietary salt. This project seeks to implement and evaluate a community-based salt reduction intervention.
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Salt intake assessed by 24 h urinary sodium excretion in a random and opportunistic sample in Australia.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The gold standard method for measuring population sodium intake is based on a 24 h urine collection carried out in a random population sample. However, because participant burden is high, response rates are typically low with less than one in four agreeing to provide specimens. At this low level of response it is possible that simply asking for volunteers would produce the same results.
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Attenuated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation in obese mice with combined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell deficiency.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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High-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice is characterized by accumulation of ?? T cells in adipose tissue. However, the contribution of ?? T cells to obesity-induced inflammation of skeletal muscle, a major organ of glucose uptake, is unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ?? T cells on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory state of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obesity. Furthermore, we investigated whether CD4+IFN?+ (TH1) cells are involved in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction that accompanies obesity.
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Integrin-dependent neutrophil migration in the injured mouse cornea.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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As an early responder to an inflammatory stimulus, neutrophils (PMNs) must exit the vasculature and migrate through the extravascular tissue to the site of insult, which is often remote from the point of extravasation. Following a central epithelial corneal abrasion, PMNs recruited from the peripheral limbal vasculature migrate into the avascular corneal stroma. In vitro studies suggest PMN locomotion over 2-D surfaces is dependent on integrin binding while migration within 3-D matrices can be integrin-independent. Electron micrographs of injured mouse corneas show migrating PMNs make extensive surface contact not only with collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but also keratocytes. Evidence supporting involvement of integrins in corneal inflammation has prompted research and development of integrin blocking agents for use as anti-inflammatory therapies. However, the role of integrin binding (cell-cell; cell-ECM) during stromal migration in the inflamed cornea has previously not been clearly defined. In this study in vivo time lapse imaging sequences provided the means to quantify cell motility while observing PMN interactions with keratocytes and other stromal components in the living eye. The relative contribution of ?1, ?2 and ?3 integrins to PMN locomotion in the inflamed mouse cornea was investigated using blocking antibodies against the respective integrins. Of the 3 integrin families (?1, ?2 and ?3) investigated for their potential role in PMN migration, only ?1 antibody blockade produced a significant, but partial, reduction in PMN motility. The preferential migration of PMNs along the keratocyte network was not affected by integrin blockade. Hence, the dominant mechanism for PMN motility within the corneal stroma appears to be integrin-independent as does the restriction of PMN migration paths to the keratocyte network.
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The health of Hunter Valley communities in proximity to coal mining and power generation, general practice data, 1998-2010.
N S W Public Health Bull
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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An analysis of general practice data for rural communities in close proximity to coal mining and coal-fired power generation in the Hunter Valley region of NSW was conducted to identify unusual patterns of illness.
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Essential Role of CD11a in CD8+ T-Cell Accumulation and Activation in Adipose Tissue.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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T cells, particularly CD8(+) T cells, are major participants in obesity-linked adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. We examined the mechanisms of CD8(+) T-cell accumulation and activation in AT and the role of CD11a, a ?2 integrin.
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Evaluation of microbial flora in eyes with a Boston type 1 Keratoprosthesis.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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To evaluate the microbial flora of eyes with a Boston Keratoprosthesis (K-Pro).
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Tolerance to feeding damage by cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) among genotypes representing adapted germplasm pools of United States upland cotton.
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Cotton fleahopper [Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter)] (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Texas and Oklahoma because of their feeding on small floral buds which are termed squares. Damage to early season squares can reduce yield, delay crop maturity and increase the risk of crop loss because of late season insect pests and adverse weather. Insecticide applications are the only control tactic. The objectives of this study were to determine the tolerance to cotton fleahopper injury to squares among upland cotton genotypes representing the adapted germplasm pools and breeding lines available to cotton breeders in the United States and to evaluate leaf hairiness as a resistant trait. Results of the choice and no-choice trials indicated that four entries, Stoneville 474, Suregrow 747, Deltapine 50, and TAM 96WD-22 h, were more tolerant to cotton fleahopper injury relative to the other 11 entries. In choice trials, cotton fleahopper density was significantly correlated with the density of trichomes on leaves, bracts and stems. However, there was no correlation between cotton fleahopper density and percent square damage in the choice trials, suggesting that in some genotypes the response to feeding injury is mediated by host plant resistance factors expressed as tolerance. Results of the no-choice studies also indicate that some genotypes express tolerance to cotton fleahopper feeding.
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The comparison of the empty can and full can techniques and a new diagonal horizontal adduction test for supraspinatus muscle testing using cross-sectional analysis through ultrasonography.
Int J Sports Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Several examination tests are currently used for diagnosing a supraspinatus lesion. The empty can (EC) test is currently considered the gold standard for testing, but full can (FC) testing is also utilized. Both of these tests do not fully eliminate the deltoid synergistic when resistance is applied. A new diagonal horizontal adduction (DHA) technique has been developed for evaluation of the supraspinatus that has not yet been compared with the existing techniques (EC/FC). Cross-sectional analysis (CSA) change during contraction as an ultrasonographic means of visualizing and measuring contraction of the supraspinatus has been reported previously.
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Testosterone and acute stress are associated with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African men: the SABPA study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Low testosterone, acute and chronic stress and hypercoagulation are all associated with hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. The interaction between these factors and future risk for coronary artery disease in Africans has not been fully elucidated. In this study, associations of testosterone, acute cardiovascular and coagulation stress responses with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African and Caucasian men in a South African cohort were investigated.
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NK cells are necessary for recovery of corneal CD11c+ dendritic cells after epithelial abrasion injury.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Mechanisms controlling CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs during corneal epithelial wound healing were investigated in a murine model of corneal abrasion. Selective depletion of NKp46(+) CD3- NK cells that normally migrate into the cornea after epithelial abrasion resulted in >85% reduction of the epithelial CD11c(+) MHCII(+) DCs, normally present during and after epithelial wound closure. Transfer (i.v.) of spleen NK cells into NK cell-depleted mice significantly restored levels of corneal epithelial DCs (P<0.01). Immigrated NK cells were predominately positive for IFN-?, and topical corneal anti-IFN-? reduced epithelial DCs by 79% (P<0.01). IFN-?(-/-) mice had 69% fewer DCs than WT controls (P<0.01), and topical rIFN-? applied to NK cell-depleted corneas increased epithelial DCs significantly (P<0.01). The contribution of ICAM-1, an adhesion molecule involved in leukocyte migration, expressed on healing corneal epithelium, was evaluated. ICAM-1(-/-) mice exhibited >70% reduction in epithelial DC recovery in the first 48 h after epithelial abrasion (P<0.01). These interventions reveal an early turnover of DCs in the epithelium after injury, and ICAM-1, NK cells, and IFN-? are necessary for the immigration phase of this turnover.
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Serum methylarginines and incident depression in a cohort of older adults.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in depression. This study measured serum concentrations of l-arginine, asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine in a representative sample of older community-dwelling adults and determined their association with incident depression over 6-years of follow-up.
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Histone induced platelet aggregation is inhibited by normal albumin.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Histones are small, nuclear proteins that serve to package DNA. Recent reports suggest that extracellular histones, including histone H4, may contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis; they promote platelet aggregation and thrombosis when released into the circulation during inflammation or cell death. The mechanisms by which the body minimizes the deleterious effects of circulating histones are unclear. Because histones can bind to plasma proteins, including albumin, we hypothesized that normal albumin can prevent histones from activating platelets.
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Health effects of the September 2009 dust storm in Sydney, Australia: did emergency department visits and hospital admissions increase?
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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During September 2009, a large dust storm was experienced in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Extremely high levels of particulate matter were recorded, with daily average levels of coarse matter (<10 ?m) peaking over 11,000 ?g/m3 and fine (<2.5 ?m) over 1,600 ?g/m3. We conducted an analysis to determine whether the dust storm was associated with increases in all-cause, cardiovascular, respiratory and asthma-related emergency department presentations and hospital admissions.
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CD11a polymorphisms regulate TH2 cell homing and TH2-related disease.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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TH2-dependent diseases vary in severity according to genotype, but relevant gene polymorphisms remain largely unknown. The integrin CD11a is a critical determinant of allergic responses, and allelic variants of this gene might influence allergic phenotypes.
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Navigating public health chemicals policy in Australia: a policy makers and practitioners guide.
N S W Public Health Bull
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Chemicals are ubiquitous in everyday life. Environmental health practitioners rely on a complex web of regulators and policy bodies to ensure the protection of public health, yet few understand the full extent of this web. A lack of understanding can hamper public health response and impede policy development. In this paper we map the public health chemicals policy landscape in Australia and conclude that an understanding of this system is essential for effective environmental health responses and policy development.
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Major incidents in Kenya: the case for emergency services development and training.
Prehosp Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Kenyas major incidents profile is dominated by droughts, floods, fires, terrorism, poisoning, collapsed buildings, accidents in the transport sector and disease/epidemics. With no integrated emergency services and a lack of resources, many incidents in Kenya escalate to such an extent that they become major incidents. Lack of specific training of emergency services personnel to respond to major incidents, poor coordination of major incident management activities, and a lack of standard operational procedures and emergency operation plans have all been shown to expose victims to increased morbidity and mortality. This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000-2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.
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Carbohydrate nutrition and development of adiposity during adolescence.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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To examine the prospective association between glycemic index, glycemic load (GL) of diets and intakes of carbohydrates, sugars, fiber, and the main carbohydrate containing food groups (e.g., soft drinks) with changes in percent body fat, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference among adolescents.
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Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]) where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001]), and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]). Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.
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Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT). In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1) in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HI)CD11b(HI) macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.
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Prenatal methyl-donor supplementation augments colitis in young adult mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have become highly prevalent in developed countries. Environmentally triggered exaggerated immune responses against the intestinal microbiome are thought to mediate the disorders. The potential dietary origins of the disease group have been implicated. However, the effects of environmental influences on prenatal developmental programming in respect to orchestrating postnatal microbiome composition and predilection towards mammalian colitis have not been examined. We tested how transient prenatal exposure to methyl donor micronutrient (MD) supplemented diets may impact predilection towards IBD in a murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model. Prenatal MD supplementation was sufficient to modulate colonic mucosal Ppara expression (3.2 fold increase; p=0.022) and worsen DSS colitis in young adulthood. The prenatal dietary exposure shifted the postnatal colonic mucosal and cecal content microbiomes. Transfer of the gut microbiome from prenatally MD supplemented young adult animals into germ free mice resulted in increased colitis susceptibility in the recipients compared to controls. Therefore, the prenatal dietary intervention induced the postnatal nurturing of a colitogenic microbiome. Our results show that prenatal nutritional programming can modulate the mammalian host to harbor a colitogenic microbiome. These findings may be relevant for the nutritional developmental origins of IBD.
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Serum methylarginines and spirometry-measured lung function in older adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Methylarginines are endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors that have been implicated in animal models of lung disease but have not previously been examined for their association with spirometric measures of lung function in humans.
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Assessment of hospital disaster preparedness for the 2010 FIFA World Cup using an internet-based, long-distance tabletop drill.
Prehosp Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
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The State University of New York at Downstate (SUNY) conducted a web-based long-distance tabletop drill (LDTT) designed to identify vulnerabilities in safety, security, communications, supplies, incident management, and surge capacity for a number of hospitals preceding the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The tabletop drill simulated a stampede and crush-type disaster at the Green Point Stadium in Cape Town, South Africa in anticipation of 2010 FIFA World Cup. The LDTT, entitled "Western Cape-Abilities", was conducted between May and September 2009, and encompassed nine hospitals in the Western Cape of South Africa. The main purpose of this drill was to identify strengths and weaknesses in disaster preparedness among nine state and private hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. These hospitals were tasked to respond to the ill and injured during the 2010 World Cup.
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Correlation and agreement of self-assessed and objective skin disease severity in a cross-sectional study of patients with acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Previous studies have shown variable correlation of patients self-assessed skin severity measures and clinician-assessed objective measures of severity. But, generally, correlation has not been as good as might be expected for conditions in which the objective physical extent of skin disease is apparent to the sufferer to an extent that is not applicable in many other diseases.
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Hospital disaster planning in the Western cape, South Africa.
Prehosp Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to describe the current state of disaster preparedness in hospitals in the public sector in the Western Cape, South Africa with the advent of the FIFA 2010 Soccer World Cup. The objectives included the completion of a self-reported assessment of readiness at all Western Cape public sector hospitals, to identify best practice and shortfalls in these facilities, as well as putting forward recommendations for improving disaster preparedness at these hospitals.Methods: The National Department of Health, as part of the planning for the FIFA 2010 World Cup, appointed an expert committee to coordinate improvements in disaster medicine throughout the country. This workgroup developed a Self Reported Hospital Assessment Questionnaire, which was sent to all hospitals across the country. Data only were collected from public hospitals in the Western Cape and entered onto a purpose-built database. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Sciences Faculty Research Committee of the University of Cape Town.Results: Twenty-seven of the 41 (68%) public hospitals provided completed data on disaster planning. The study was able to ascertain what infrastructure is available and what planning already has been implemented at these institutions.Recommendations: Most hospitals in the Western Cape have a disaster plan for their facility. Certain areas need more focus and attention; these include: (1) increasing collaborative partnerships; (2) improving HAZMAT response resources; (3) specific plans for vulnerable populations; (4) contingency plans for communication failure; (5) visitor, media and VIP dedicated areas and personnel; (6) evacuation and surge capacity plans; and (7) increased attention to training and disaster plan exercises.
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Thermal desorption and vapor transport characteristics in an explosive trace detector.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Swipe-based explosive trace detectors rely on thermal desorption to vaporize explosive particles collected on a swipe. The vaporized material is carried by air flows from the desorption unit to the inlet of the chemical analyzer, typically an ion mobility spectrometer. We have observed that the amount of explosives detected from a swipe varies with the physical location of explosives collected on the swipe. There are two issues that may contribute to this effect: inhomogeneous or insufficient heating of the swipe during desorption and low velocity air flows that inefficiently transport desorbed vapor during the instruments analysis time. To better characterize this effect, we have simulated the air movements within a generic desorption unit using commercially available computational fluid dynamics software. Simulations are three dimensional, symmetric and solved under steady, laminar flow conditions. The calculated velocity field correlates directly with experimental detector response to the high explosive RDX. Results suggest that the limiting factor in this model thermal desorption unit is the flow-field around the swipe and flow rate into the detector, rather than heat transfer to the swipe itself. Buoyancy effects due to heating dominate the flow-field and produce a vertical bulk fluid motion within the domain that opposes much of the flow drawn into the analyzer.
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Endothelium-derived GM-CSF influences expression of oncostatin M.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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During and after transendothelial migration, neutrophils undergo a number of phenotypic changes resulting from encounters with endothelium-derived factors. This report uses an in vitro model with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and isolated human neutrophils to examine the effects of two locally derived cytokines, granulocyte (G)-macrophage (M) colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF, on oncostatin M (OSM) expression. Neutrophils contacting activated HUVEC expressed and released increased amounts of oncostatin M (OSM), a proinflammatory cytokine known to induce polymorphonuclear neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis. Neutrophil transendothelial migration resulted in threefold higher OSM expression and protein levels compared with nontransmigrated cells. Addition of anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody reduced OSM expression level but anti-G-CSF was without effect. GM-CSF but not G-CSF protein addition to cultures of isolated neutrophils resulted in a significant increase in OSM protein secretion. However, inhibition of ?(2) integrins by neutralizing antibody significantly reduced GM-CSF-induced OSM production indicating this phenomenon is adhesion dependent. Thus cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells can produce sufficient quantities of GM-CSF to influence in an adhesion-dependent manner, the phenotypic characteristics of neutrophils resulting in the latters transmigration. Both transmigration and adhesion phenomenon lead to increased production of OSM by neutrophils that then play a major role in inflammatory response.
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Utilization of sonography and a stress device in the assessment of partial tears of the ulnar collateral ligament in throwers.
Int J Sports Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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The non-invasive assessment of medial elbow pain in throwers can be challenging. Valgus stress transmitted to the elbow during the late cocking and acceleration phases of the throwing motion can result in injury to the medial ligamentous structures of the elbow, bony surfaces, and common tendon of the forearm flexors. The utilization of musculoskeletal (MSK) ultrasound in combination with the Telos Stress Device (TSD) (Austin & Associates Fallston, MD) can be an alternate quick assessment when radiography is not be available.
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Raman spectroscopy using 1550 nm (retina-safe) laser excitation.
Appl Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
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During the past decade, the use of portable Raman analyzers for field measurements has grown dramatically. However, most analyzers use 785 nm excitation lasers that can cause permanent eye damage. To overcome this safety concern, we have built a portable Fourier transform (FT) Raman analyzer using a 1550 nm retina-safe excitation laser and have compared its performance to our 1064 nm FT-Raman analyzer, which uses the same optical design. Raman theory predicts approximately five times lower peak intensities at 1550 nm. Although we found that intensities were as much as 20 times less intense, the analyzer is still capable of measuring spectra of sufficient quality to identify and differentiate chemicals.
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CCL20, ?? T cells, and IL-22 in corneal epithelial healing.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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After corneal epithelial abrasion, leukocytes and platelets rapidly enter the corneal stroma, and CCR6(+) IL-17(+) ?? T cells migrate into the epithelium. ?? T-cell-deficient (TCR?(-/-)) mice have significantly reduced inflammation and epithelial wound healing. Epithelial CCL20 mRNA increased 19-fold at 3 h, and protein increased ? 16-fold at 6 h after injury. Systemic or topical treatment of wild-type C57BL/6 mice with anti-CCL20 reduced ?? T-cell accumulation in the cornea by >50% with a concomitant decrease in epithelial healing and stromal inflammation. In addition to CCR6 and IL-17, corneal ?? T cells stained positively for ROR?t, IL-23R, and IL-22. Anti-IL-22 reduced peak cell division of the healing epithelium by 52%. Treatment of TCR?(-/-) mice with rIL-22 significantly promoted wound closure, with peak epithelial cell division increased >3-fold. In addition, rIL-22 restored neutrophil and platelet influx in the TCR?(-/-) mice to wild-type levels and increased CXCL1 production by wounded corneal explants >2-fold. These results indicate that an important aspect of the healing response to corneal epithelial abrasion includes CCL20-dependent influx of CCR6(+) IL-17(+) IL-22(+) ?? T cells and that IL-22 contributes to the inflammatory response and promotes epithelial healing.
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Is there brief temporal buffering of successive visual inputs?
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove)
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The part-report advantage has been used to identify short-lived forms of visual storage (Sperling, 1960). We adopt the part-report paradigm to test whether visual memory can preserve, for a brief time, successive inputs and their temporal order. In our experiments, two successive arrays, each of 4 digits, were presented on each trial. The two arrays were spatially coincident, and each was followed by a random pattern-mask. In the part-report conditions, an auditory cue indicated whether the participant should report the first array or the second array. The results consistently showed a part-report advantage, which ranged in size from 16% to 37%. Delaying the cue by 500 ms abolished most of this advantage, in that performance was then similar to that in whole-report conditions. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the part-report superiority we measure is not achieved by (a) making eye movements that spatially displace the second array relative to the first; (b) extracting information from a single snapshot containing an integrated representation of the targets and masks; or (c) transferring a subset of material to a phonological store. We propose instead that observers have access to a limited, rapidly decaying representation of successive visual inputs stored in temporal sequence.
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Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet (ND) or restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue (AT), and blood monocytes of obese mice.
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Depot-specific and hypercaloric diet-induced effects on the osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation potential of adipose-derived stromal cells.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can be differentiated in vitro into several mesenchyme-derived cell types. We had previously described depot-specific differences in the adipocyte differentiation of ADSCs, and consequently we hypothesized that there may also be depot-specific differences in osteoblast differentiation of ADSCs. For this study, the osteoblast differentiation potential of rat subcutaneous ADSCs (scADSCs) and perirenal visceral ADSCs (pvADSCs) was compared. Osteoblast differentiation media (OM) induced markers of the osteoblastic phenotype in scADSCs, but not in pvADSCs. ADSCs harvested from rats with diet-induced visceral obesity (DIO) exhibited reduced osteoinduction, compared to lean controls, but adipocyte differentiation was not affected. Expression of the pro-osteogenic transcription factor Msx2 was significantly higher in naïve scADSCs from lean and DIO rats than in pvADSCs. Our findings indicate that ADSCs from different anatomical sites are uniquely pre-programmed in vivo in a depot-specific manner, and that diet-induced metabolic disturbances translate into reduced osteoblast differentiation of ADSCs.
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IL-17 and VEGF are necessary for efficient corneal nerve regeneration.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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The contribution of acute inflammation to sensory nerve regeneration was investigated in the murine cornea using a model of corneal abrasion that removes the stratified epithelium and subbasal nerve plexus. Abrasion induced accumulation of IL-17(+) CCR6(+) ?? T cells, neutrophils, and platelets in the cornea followed by full restoration of the epithelium and ?19% regeneration of sensory nerves within 96 hours. Mice deficient in ?? T cells (TCR?(-/-)) or wild-type mice treated systemically with anti-IL-17 had >50% reduction in leukocyte and platelet infiltration and >50% reduction in nerve regeneration. Strategies used to prevent neutrophil and platelet accumulation (eg, wild-type mice treated with anti-Ly6G or anti-GP1b? antibody to deplete neutrophils or platelets) also resulted in >50% reductions in corneal nerve density. Infiltrating neutrophils and platelets stained positively for VEGF-A, tissue levels of VEGF-A peaked coincidentally with peak tissue levels of neutrophils and platelets, depletion of neutrophils before injury reduced tissue VEGF-A levels by >70%, and wild-type mice treated systemically with anti-VEGF-A antibody exhibited >80% reduction in corneal nerve regeneration. Given the known trophic effects of VEGF-A for neurite growth, the results in this report demonstrate a previously unrecognized beneficial role for the ?? T cell-dependent inflammatory cascade involving IL-17, neutrophils, platelets, and VEGF-A in corneal nerve regeneration.
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Maternal methyl-donor supplementation induces prolonged murine offspring colitis susceptibility in association with mucosal epigenetic and microbiomic changes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Developmental epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, have been recognized as potential pathogenic factors in inflammatory bowel diseases, the hallmark of which is an exaggerated immune response against luminal microbes. A methyl-donor (MD) diet can modify DNA methylation at select murine genomic loci during early development. The components of the MDs are routinely incorporated into prenatal human supplements. Therefore, we studied the effects of maternal MD supplementation on offspring colitis susceptibility and colonic mucosal DNA methylation and gene expression changes in mice as a model. Additionally, we investigated the offspring mucosal microbiomic response to the maternal dietary supplementation. Colitis was induced by dextran sulfate sodium. Colonic mucosa from offspring of MD-supplemented mothers following reversal to control diet at weaning was interrogated by methylation-specific microarrays and pyrosequencing at postnatal days 30 (P30) and P90. Transcriptomic changes were analyzed by microarray profiling and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The mucosal microbiome was studied by high throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA. Maternal MD supplementation induced a striking susceptibility to colitis in offspring. This phenotype was associated with colonic mucosal DNA methylation and expression changes. Metagenomic analyses did not reveal consistent bacteriomic differences between P30 and P90, but showed a prolonged effect of the diet on the offspring mucosal microbiome. In conclusion, maternal MD supplementation increases offspring colitis susceptibility that associates with persistent epigenetic and prolonged microbiomic changes. These findings underscore that epigenomic reprogramming relevant to mammalian colitis can occur during early development in response to maternal dietary modifications.
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Binding of Efb from Staphylococcus aureus to fibrinogen blocks neutrophil adherence.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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In addition to its pivotal role in hemostasis, fibrinogen (Fg) and provisional fibrin matrices play important roles in inflammation and regulate innate immune responses by interacting with leukocytes. Efb (the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein) is a secreted Staphylococcus aureus protein that engages host Fg and complement C3. However, the molecular details underlying the Efb-Fg interaction and the biological relevance of this interaction have not been determined. In the present study, we characterize the interaction of Efb with Fg. We demonstrate that the Fg binding activity is located within the intrinsically disordered N-terminal half of Efb (Efb-N) and that the D fragment of Fg is the region that mediates Efb-N binding. More detailed studies of the Efb-N-Fg interactions using ELISA and surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that Efb-N exhibits a much higher affinity for Fg than typically observed with Fg-binding MSCRAMMs (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules), and data obtained from ELISA analyses using truncated Efb-N constructs demonstrate that Efb-N contains two binding sites located within residues 30-67 and 68-98, respectively. Efb-N inhibits neutrophil adhesion to immobilized Fg by binding to Fg and blocking the interaction of the protein with the leukocyte integrin receptor, ?(M)?(2). A motif in the Fg ? chain previously shown to be central to the ?(M)?(2) interaction was shown to be functionally distinguishable from the Efb-N binding site, suggesting that the Fg-Efb interaction indirectly impedes Fg engagement by ?(M)?(2). Taken together, these studies provide insights into how Efb interacts with Fg and suggest that Efb may support bacterial virulence at least in part by impeding Fg-driven leukocyte adhesion events.
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Colonic mucosal DNA methylation, immune response, and microbiome patterns in Toll-like receptor 2-knockout mice.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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The connection between intestinal microbiota and host physiology is increasingly becoming recognized. The details of this dynamic interaction, however, remain to be explored. Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) is important for its role in bacterial recognition, intestinal inflammation, and obesity-related metabolic changes. Therefore, we sought to determine the epigenomic and metagenomic consequences of Tlr2 deficiency in the colonic mucosa of mice to gain insights into biological pathways that shape the interface between the gut microbiota and the mammalian host. Colonic mucosa from wild type (WT) and Tlr2(-/-) C57BL/6 mice was interrogated by microarrays specific for DNA methylation and gene expression. The mucosal microbiome was studied by next-generation pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The expression of genes involved in immune processes was significantly modified by the absence of Tlr2, a number of which correlated with DNA methylation changes. The epigenomic and transcriptomic modifications associated with alteration in mucosal microbial composition. Several bacterial species, including members of the Firmicutes were significantly different in abundance between WT and Tlr2(-/-) animals. This manuscript highlights the intimate interrelationships between expression of immune-related genes and immunity pathways in the host with compositional and functional differences of the mammalian microbiome.
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Wound healing characteristics of ICAM-1 null mice devoid of all isoforms of ICAM-1.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) permits leukocyte-endothelial adhesion and transmigration during inflammation. Membrane-bound ICAM-1 knockout mice have been used to understand this molecules role in wound-healing, but expressed spliced isoforms of ICAM-1 that may have impacted results. We aimed to characterize wound-healing in an ICAM-1 null model devoid of all ICAM-1 isoforms.
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Development of a mass-gathering medical resource matrix for a developing world scenario.
Prehosp Disaster Med
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2010
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Mass gatherings have a higher patient presentation rate than is found within the general population. Despite this fact, many mass gatherings are occurring without suitable medical coverage. South Africa has had no standard approach or model to determine the number of medical personnel needed to deploy to an event. The awarding of the FIFA (Federation International de Football Association) 2010 World Cup to South Africa has provided the impetus for the development of such a model. The model presented in this paper is based on existing recommendations that originate from the United Kingdom. This paper outlines the modifications that have been made to this model to ensure that adequate medical resources still are provided, albeit in a developing country where medical resources may not be as plentiful.
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Platelets enhance neutrophil transendothelial migration via P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Platelets are increasingly recognized as important for inflammation in addition to thrombosis. Platelets promote the adhesion of neutrophils [polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)] to the endothelium; P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 have been suggested to participate in these interactions. Whether platelets also promote PMN transmigration across the endothelium is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that platelets enhance PMN transmigration across the inflamed endothelium and that PSGL-1 is involved. We studied the effects of platelets on PMN transmigration in vivo and in vitro using a well-characterized corneal injury model in C57BL/6 mice and IL-1?-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under static and dynamic conditions. In vivo, platelet depletion altered PMN emigration from limbal microvessels after injury, with decreased emigration 6 and 12 h after injury. Both PSGL-1-/- and P-selectin-/- mice, but not Mac-1-/- mice, also had reduced PMN emigration at 12 h after injury relative to wild-type control mice. In the in vitro HUVEC model, platelets enhanced PMN transendothelial migration under static and dynamic conditions independent of firm adhesion. Anti-PSGL-1 antibodies markedly inhibited platelet-PMN aggregates, as assessed by flow cytometry, and attenuated the effect of platelets on PMN transmigration under static conditions without affecting firm adhesion. These data support the notion that platelets enhance neutrophil transmigration across the inflamed endothelium both in vivo and in vitro, via a PSGL-1-dependent mechanism.
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Diet-induced obesity alters signalling pathways and induces atrophy and apoptosis in skeletal muscle in a prediabetic rat model.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2010
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Pro-inflammatory and stress-activated signalling pathways are important role players in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Obesity and type II diabetes are associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation and elevated tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) levels. There is increasing evidence that TNF-? may play a critical role in skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the effects of obesity-induced insulin resistance on these signalling pathways are poorly understood in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the present study addressed the effects of obesity-induced insulin resistance on the activity of the ubiquitin ligases, nuclear factor-B, p38 MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling pathways in the gastrocnemius muscle and compared these with muscle of standard chow-fed control rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to a control diet group (standard commercial chow; 60% carbohydrates, 30% protein and 10% fat) or a cafeteria diet group (65% carbohydrates, 19% protein and 16% fat) for 16 weeks. Blood analysis was conducted to determine the impact of the model of obesity on circulating insulin, glucose, free fatty acids, TNF-? and angiotensin II concentrations. The experimental animals were 18% heavier and had 68% greater visceral fat mass than their control counterparts and were dyslipidaemic. Significant increases in the ubiquitin ligase and MuRF-1, as well as in caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage were observed in the muscle of obese animals compared with the control rats. We propose that dyslipidaemia may be a mechanism for the activation of inflammatory/stress-activated signalling pathways in obesity and type II diabetes, which will lead to apoptosis and atrophy in skeletal muscle.
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Effect of the cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist rimonabant on inflammation in mice with diet-induced obesity.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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We studied whether cannabinoid receptor (CB1) blockade with rimonabant has an anti-inflammatory effect in obese mice, and whether this effect depends on weight loss and/or diet consumption. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice were treated orally with rimonabant (HFD-R) or vehicle (HFD-V) for 4 weeks. Paired-feeding was conducted in two additional groups of obese mice to achieve either the same body weight (HFD-BW) or the same HFD intake (HFD DI) as HFD-R. All these groups of mice were maintained on HFD throughout, with mice on normal diet (ND) throughout as lean controls. Rimonabant treatment of obese mice induced marked diet-intake reduction and weight loss during the first week, which was followed by maintenance of low body weight but not diet-intake reduction. Lower HFD intake was required to reach the same degree of weight loss in HFD-BW. HFD-DI had similar weight loss initially, but then started to gain weight, reaching a higher body weight than HFD-R. Despite the same degree of weight loss, HFD-R had less fat mass and lower adipogenic gene expression than HFD-BW. Compared to HFD-V or HFD-DI, HFD-R had reduced inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) and/or liver indicated primarily by lower monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels. However, MCP-1 levels were not significantly different between HFD-R and HFD-BW. In vitro incubation of rimonabant with AT explants did not change MCP-1 levels. Thus, rimonabant induced weight loss in obese mice by diet-intake-dependent and -independent fashions. Rimonabant decreased inflammation in obese mice, possibly through a primary effect on weight reduction.
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Early differential expression of oncostatin M in obstructive nephropathy.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Interstitial fibrosis plays a major role in progression of renal diseases. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a cytokine that regulates cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. Renal tissue from patients with chronic obstructive nephropathy was examined for OSM expression. The elevated levels in diseased human kidneys suggested possible correlation between OSM level and kidney tissue fibrosis. Indeed, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), a model of renal fibrosis, increased OSM and OSM receptor (OSM-R) expression in a time-dependent manner within hours following UUO. In vitro, OSM overexpression in tubular epithelial cells (TECs) resulted in epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. cDNA microarray technology identified up-regulated expression of immune modulators in obstructed compared with sham-operated kidneys. In vitro, OSM treatment up-regulated CC chemokine ligand CCL7, and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)-14 mRNA in kidney fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment of UUO mice with neutralizing anti-OSM antibody decreased renal chemokines expression. In conclusion, OSM is up-regulated in kidney tissue early after urinary obstruction. Therefore, OSM might play an important role in initiation of renal fibrogenesis, possibly by inducing myofibroblast transdifferentiation of TECs as well as leukocyte infiltration. This process may, in turn, contribute in part to progression of obstructive nephropathy and makes OSM a promising therapeutic target in renal fibrosis.
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The validation of a self-report measure and physical activity of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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To validate a self-report measure of physical activity for both Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children, and to describe their physical activity participation.
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Association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the women of child bearing age: a case-control study in Bangladesh.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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The role of nutritional factors in arsenic metabolism and toxicity is yet to be fully elucidated. A low protein diet results in decreased excretion of DMA and increased tissue retention of arsenic in experimental studies. Malnourished women carry a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Chronic exposure to high arsenic (>50 microg/L) through drinking water also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The synergistic effects (if any) of malnutrition and chronic arsenic exposure may worsen the adverse pregnancy outcomes. This population based case control study reports the association between chronic arsenic exposure and nutritional status among the rural women in Bangladesh. 348 cases (BMI < 18.5) and 360 controls (BMI 18.5-24.99) were recruited from a baseline survey conducted among 2,341 women. An excess risk for malnutrition was observed among the participants chronically exposed to higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water after adjusting for potential confounders such as participants age, religion, education, monthly household income and history of oral contraceptive pills. Women exposed to arsenic >50 microg/L were at 1.9 times (Odds Ratio = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.6) increased risk of malnutrition compared to unexposed. The findings of this study suggest that chronic arsenic exposure is likely to contribute to poor nutritional status among women of 20-45 years.
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Haiti: The South African perspective.
S. Afr. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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BACKGROUND AND PROBLEM STATEMENT: The South African response to the Haitian earthquake consisted of two independent non-government organisations (NGOs) working separately with minimal contact. Both teams experienced problems during the deployment, mainly owing to not following the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG) guidelines.
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Tumor-derived intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mediates tumor-associated leukocyte infiltration in orthotopic pancreatic xenografts.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Tumor infiltration of immune cells (polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs] and macrophages) was initially thought to be an attempt by the host organism to combat malignancy. It appears, however, that certain subsets of chronically activated immune cells likely promote tumor growth, facilitate tumor cell survival and aid in metastasis. The association between tumor cells and tumor-associated PMNs has been demonstrated in several types of cancer, but the presence of tumor-associated PMNs in pancreatic cancer has not been well studied in vivo. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and has a physiological role in PMN tight adhesion of leukocytes via interaction with the ligands LFA-1 and Mac-1. Increased ICAM-1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of ICAM-1 and tumor-associated PMNs in pancreatic cancer progression using ICAM-1-null (ICAM-1(-/-)) mice. We hypothesize that ICAM-1 null mice have decreased pancreatic cancer progression. Surprisingly, there is no significant difference in pancreatic cancer progression in wild-type versus ICAM-1 null mice. Interestingly, we found that tumor-derived ICAM-1 co-localizes with host PMNs at the leading edge of the tumor in ICAM-1 null mice. These results suggest that tumor-derived ICAM-1 is a sufficient ligand for tumor-associated PMNs and may play a role in subsequent tumor growth and metastasis.
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ICAM-1 mediates surface contact between neutrophils and keratocytes following corneal epithelial abrasion in the mouse.
Exp. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Corneal epithelial abrasion elicits an inflammatory response involving neutrophil (PMN) recruitment from the limbal vessels into the corneal stroma. These migrating PMNs make surface contact with collagen and stromal keratocytes. Using mice deficient in PMN integrin CD18, we previously showed that PMN contact with stromal keratocytes is CD18-dependent, while contact with collagen is CD18-independent. In the present study, we wished to extend these observations and determine if ICAM-1, a known ligand for CD18, mediates PMN contact with keratocytes during corneal wound healing. Uninjured and injured right corneas from C57Bl/6 wild type (WT) mice and ICAM-1(-/-) mice were processed for transmission electron microscopy and imaged for morphometric analysis. PMN migration, stromal thickness, and ICAM-1 staining were evaluated using light microscopy. Twelve hours after epithelial abrasion, PMN surface contact with paralimbal keratocytes in ICAM-1(-/-) corneas was reduced to  ˜ 50% of that observed in WT corneas; PMN surface contact with collagen was not affected. Stromal thickness (edema), keratocyte network surface area and keratocyte shape were similar in ICAM-1(-/-) and WT corneas. WT keratocyte ICAM-1 expression was detected at baseline and ICAM-1 staining intensity increased following injury. Since ICAM-1 is readily detected on mouse keratocytes and PMN-keratocyte surface contact in ICAM-1(-/-) mice is markedly reduced, the data suggest PMN adhesive interactions with keratocyte-stromal networks is in part regulated by keratocyte ICAM-1 expression.
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Respiratory health effects of exposure to low-NOx unflued gas heaters in the classroom: a double-blind, cluster-randomized, crossover study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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There are long-standing concerns about adverse effects of gas appliances on respiratory health. However, the potential adverse effect of low-NOx (nitrogen oxide) unflued gas heaters on childrens health has not been assessed.
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Epigenetic maturation in colonic mucosa continues beyond infancy in mice.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Monozygotic twin and other epidemiologic studies indicate that epigenetic processes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases that commonly affect the colonic mucosa. The peak onset of these disorders in young adulthood suggests that epigenetic changes normally occurring in the colonic mucosa shortly before adulthood could be important etiologic factors. We assessed developmental changes in colitis susceptibility during the physiologically relevant period of childhood in mice [postnatal day 30 (P30) to P90] and concurrent changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in murine colonic mucosa. Susceptibility to colitis was tested in C57BL/6J mice with the dextran sulfate sodium colitis model. Methylation specific amplification microarray (MSAM) was used to screen for changes in DNA methylation, with validation by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Gene expression changes were analyzed by microarray expression profiling and real time RT-PCR. Mice were more susceptible to chemically induced colitis at P90 than at P30. DNA methylation changes, however, were not extensive; of 23 743 genomic intervals interrogated, only 271 underwent significant methylation alteration during this developmental period. We found an excellent correlation between the MSAM and bisulfite pyrosequencing at 11 gene associated intervals validated (R(2) = 0.89). Importantly, at the genes encoding galectin-1 (Lgals1), and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 or Smad3, both previously implicated in murine colitis, developmental changes in DNA methylation from P30 to P90 were inversely correlated with expression. Colonic mucosal epigenetic maturation continues through early adulthood in the mouse, and may contribute to the age-associated increase in colitis susceptibility. Transcript Profiling: Gene Expression Omnibus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/), accession numbers: GSE18031 (DNA methylation arrays), GSE19506 (gene expression arrays).
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Differential levels of mRNA transcripts encoding immunologic mediators in mammary gland secretions from dairy cows with subclinical environmental Streptococci infections.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Dry-off, and the period around parturition, are associated with increased susceptibility to intramammary infections in dairy cows. The immunological profiles of mammary gland secretions during these periods are not well described. The objective of the present study was to better characterize association(s) between chronic subclinical Environmental Streptococci infections at dry-off and relative levels of mRNA transcripts encoding multiple immunologic mediators present in cells derived from mammary gland secretions at dry-off and continuing through parturition. The chronic subclinical bacterial infections in the present study were characterized by multiple isolations of Streptococcus species and elevated SSC for a minimum of three weeks prior to dry-off. The majority of differences between principal and control quarters were identified at dry-off. Transcript levels of IL-17, IL2R? and iNOS were increased while pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10, were reduced. Following antibiotic treatment of mammary glands, IL-17 transcripts remained elevated over the course of the study, indicative of a persistent insult. IL-4 transcript levels were modestly elevated at 7 days following dry-off and significantly elevated at 14 days, consistent with activated T(H)1 and T(H)2 lymphocytes in the principal quarters, respectively. From a temporal perspective, transcript levels of IL-8 decreased in all animals through the dry-off period animals and returned to pre-dry-off levels at parturition; levels of iNOS peaked at parturition. Five of the six principal cows experienced recurrent bacterial mastitis during the subsequent lactation; four were in the same quarter as was initially infected with Streptococcus and three of these four were due to coliforms. Taken together, this apparent chronic susceptibility of select mammary glands to bacterial infection would suggest a physiologic and/or immunologic dysfunction. Identification of factor(s) that contribute to the predisposition of mammary glands to developing mastitis should facilitate development of new control strategies.
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The construction of a tetraploid cotton genome wide comprehensive reference map.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Integration of multiple genomic maps provides a higher density of markers and greater genome coverage, which not only facilitates the identification and positioning of QTLs and candidate genes, but it also provides a basic structure for the genome sequence assembly. However, the diversity in markers and populations used in individual mapping studies limits the ability to fully integrate the available data. By concentrating on marker orders rather than marker distances, published map data could be used to produce a comprehensive reference map (CRM) that includes a majority of known markers with optimally estimated order of those markers across the genome. In this study, a tetraploid cotton genome-wide CRM was constructed from 28 public cotton genetic maps. The initial CRM contained 7,424 markers and represented over 93% of the combined mapping information from the 28 individual maps. The current output is stored and displayed through CottonDB (http://www.cottondb.org), the public cotton genome database.
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CD11c expression in adipose tissue and blood and its role in diet-induced obesity.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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To examine CD11c, a beta(2)-integrin, on adipose tissue (AT) leukocytes and blood monocytes and its role in diet-induced obesity.
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Survey effect on use of eye care by older persons with correctable visual impairment.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2009
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To assess changes in the pattern of eye care utilization among older Australians with correctable visual impairment, identified in an eye survey.
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Physical activity of older Australians measured by pedometry.
Australas J Ageing
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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To established population norms for pedometer determined step counts in older Australians.
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Tlr2 is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a murine model.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2009
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Obesity and its associated comorbidities, termed metabolic syndrome, are increasingly prevalent, and they pose a serious threat to the health of individuals and populations. Gene-environment interactions have been scrutinized since the kinetics of the increased prevalence of obesity would argue against a purely genetic etiology. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), widely expressed and highly conserved transmembrane receptors, are at the intersection of diet and metabolism, and may therefore be important determinants of weight gain and its sequellae. We sought specifically to determine the role of Tlr2 in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome utilizing two dietary models that approximate contemporary diet compositions. Using C57BL/6 Hsd mice (wild type, WT) and mice with a targeted mutation in Tlr2 (Tlr2(-/-)), we showed that mice lacking TLR2 are substantially protected from diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatic steatosis. In adipose tissue, Tlr2 deletion was associated with attenuation of adipocyte hypertrophy, as well as diminished macrophage infiltration and inflammatory cytokine expression.-Himes, R. W., Smith, C. W. Tlr2 is critical for diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a murine model.
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ICAM-1 is necessary for epithelial recruitment of gammadelta T cells and efficient corneal wound healing.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Wound healing and inflammation are both significantly reduced in mice that lack gammadelta T cells. Here, the role of epithelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in gammadelta T cell migration in corneal wound healing was assessed. Wild-type mice had an approximate fivefold increase in epithelial gammadelta T cells at 24 hours after epithelial abrasion. ICAM-1(-/-) mice had 50.9% (P < 0.01) fewer gammadelta T cells resident in unwounded corneal epithelium, which failed to increase in response to epithelial abrasion. Anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody in wild-type mice reduced epithelial gammadelta T cells to a number comparable to that of ICAM-1(-/-) mice, and mice deficient in lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a/CD18), a principal leukocyte receptor for ICAM-1, exhibited a 48% reduction (P < 0.01) in peak epithelial gammadelta T cells. Re-epithelialization and epithelial cell division were both significantly reduced ( approximately 50% at 18 hours, P < 0.01) after abrasion in ICAM-1(-/-) mice versus wild-type, and at 96 hours, recovery of epithelial thickness was only 66% (P < 0.01) of wild-type. ICAM-1 expression by corneal epithelium in response to epithelial abrasion appears to be critical for accumulation of gammadelta T cells in the epithelium, and deficiency of ICAM-1 significantly delays wound healing. Since gammadelta T cells are necessary for efficient epithelial wound healing, ICAM-1 may contribute to wound healing by facilitating gammadelta T cell migration into the corneal epithelium.
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Distribution patterns of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma.
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Imported fire ant colonies were quantified in 1,000-m(2) circular subplots spaced approximately 125 m apart on a sheep and goat farm in Oklahoma. Social form (percent polygyny), mound density, cumulative above-ground mound volume, and average mound volume were subjected to multiple regression analyses to examine trends related to landscape metrics and habitat characteristics. Monogyne populations were spatially autocorrelated, and polygyne mounds tended to be smaller and more numerous. A model incorporating the effects of percent polygyny, canopy cover, and 1-d cumulative incident solar radiation explained 34% of the variation in mound density. Percent polygyny was not significantly related to cumulative mound volume, which provides a better estimate of overall ant biomass. A model incorporating the effects of 1-d cumulative incident solar radiation on the summer solstice, elevation, canopy cover, distance from cisterns, distance from water, and distance from trees explained 42% of the variation in cumulative mound volume. Monogyne mounds in areas that were flat and close to water in low-lying areas were largest. Results indicate that remotely sensed data in combination with publicly available U.S. Geological Survey data may be useful in predicting areas of high and low fire ant abundance at a field scale.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.