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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapid synthesis of isoquinolinones by intramolecular coupling of amides and ketones.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Amides and ketones were intramolecularly coupled in the presence of KOt-Bu/DMF. The reaction provided good yields of a variety of isoquinolinones. A reaction mechanism of radical addition and subsequent E2-elimination is proposed.
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Structures, Dynamics, and Water Permeation Free Energy across Bilayers of Lipid A and Its Analog Studied with Molecular Dynamics Simulation.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Fundamental studies of the supramolecular layer structures, dynamics and water permeation free energy of hexa-acyl-chain Lipid A and its analogue of tetra-acyl chains would be useful for polymer membranes design for endotoxin removal in water treatment, drug delivery and other biotechnologies. In this work, we studied their supramolecular bilayer by using molecular dynamics simulations and efficient free energy computations. Our simulation accuracy was verified by the agreement between the bilayer structural properties (structure factor, bilayer thickness, and the area per lipid) and lateral diffusion coefficient in our simulation and experimental measurements. More importantly, our simulation for the first time illustrated hexagonal compact packing of the hydrocarbon acyl chains within a leaflet of Lipid A membrane (at 298 K and water content of 40 wt %), which is consistent with experiments. In contrast, Lipid A analogue is found with less ordered ripple structures at the same condition. Our study also demonstrated slower dynamics and larger and broader free energy barrier (?23 kJ/mol) for water permeation for Lipid A, compared with that of Lipid A analogue. Moreover, the analysis of dynamics showed that highly hydrated hydrophilic diglucosamine backbone is structurally stable, whereas the interdigitated hydrophobic acyl chain tails inside the membrane with faster dynamics screen the aqueous environment from the lipid interior and also reinforce the membrane's structural stability.
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[Effects of Bortezomib Combined with 5-azacytidine on the Apoptosis of K562 Cells and Expression of SHIP mRNA].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine on the apoptosis of K562 cells and expressiom of SHIP mRNA. The K562 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of bortezomib, 5-azacytidine or their combination for 24 hours. Then, the expression of SHIP mRNA was detected by RT-PCR,the cell proliferation was analyzed by using MTT assay and flow cytometry. The results showed that 5-20 nmol/L bortezomib could effectively inhibit the proliferation of K562 and this inhibitory effect gradually enhanced along with the increase of bortezomib concentration, the group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine showed more inhibitory effect on K562 cells than that of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.The bortezomib could promote the apoptosis of K562 cells in a dose-dependent manner,and this apoptotic effect was higher in group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine than that in group of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.Bortezomib could down-regulated the expression of SHIP mRNA in a dose-dependent manner,and this down-requlated effect was higher in group of bortezomib combined with 5-azacytidine than that in group of bortezomib or 5-azacytidine alone.It is concluded that bortezomib and 5-azacytidine can induce apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of SHIP mRNA in K562 cells.The combination of bortezomib with 5-azacytidine displays a synergetic effect.
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Overexpression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha promotes tumor progression and indicates poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Dysregulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR?) has been documented in various cancers. However, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. We and others have examined that upregulation of PDGFR? might be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we report that PDGFR? plays a critical role in HCC progression and prognosis. The expression of PDGFR? was markedly higher in human HCC compared to adjacent liver tissues. Although PDGFRA mRNA was decreased in HCC, but PDGF-A mRNA was dramatically increased in HCC. Overexpression of PDGFR? was strongly correlated with microvessel density (MVD) of HCC (p<0.05), as well as macroscopic vascular invasion of the tumors (p<0.05). HCC patients with high PDGFR? expression displayed a shorter overall survival and a higher recurrence rate than those with low PDGFR? expression (p<0.05, respectively). Additionally, stable overexpression of PDGFR? in hepatoma cells promoted cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in vitro. Similarly, an in vivo assay showed that PDGFR? overexpression in hepatoma cells exhibited remarkably tumorigenic potential in tumor size and weight in vivo, which displayed markedly elevated MVD than controls. Thus, our study provided the evidence that PDGFR? may serve as a candidate prognostic marker and a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Platysmacheilus nudiventris (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Platysmacheilus nudiventris (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Gobioninae), an endemic Chinese cyprinid fish, was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,603?bp, including 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding control region (D-loop). The overall-based composition is 30.2% A, 26.9% T, 16.7% G and 26.1% C, with high A+T content (57.1%). The results will provide useful data for further studies on species identification, evolutionary and population genetic studies of P. nudiventris and its related species.
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Enhancement of 1.53???m emission in erbium/cerium-doped germanosilicate glass pumped by common 808??nm laser diode.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Erbium-doped germanosilicate glasses with various cerium ions contents have been prepared. Optical absorption and 1.53 ?m emission spectra were measured to characterize the spectroscopic performances of prepared samples. A detailed study of 1.53 ?m spectroscopic properties was carried out when pumped by an 808 nm laser diode. Moreover, an energy level diagram and an energy transfer mechanism between Er3+ and Ce3+ were proposed to elucidate the enhanced 1.53 ?m fluorescence. It is found that the prepared samples have optimal spectroscopic properties when the Ce3+ concentration is fixed to 0.5 mol. %. High spontaneous radiative transition probability (172.66??s-1), large effective emission bandwidth (74 nm), and emission cross section (9.49×10-21??cm2 indicate that 808 nm pumped Er3+/Ce3+ codoped germanosilicate glass might be a suitable material for a broadband optical amplifier.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of Xenophysogobio nudicorpa was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequence of X. nudicorpa is a circular molecule of 16,616?bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of X. nudicorpa is 30.5% A, 26.0% C, 16.8% G, and 26.7% T, with a relatively high A+T content (57.2%). The results could provide useful data for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics in X. nudicorpa and related species.
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Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Children in Northeast China and Assessment of Risk of Zoonotic Transmission.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The prevalence (7.5%, 19/255) and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in children of various age categories and clinical presentations were determined herein. The co-occurrence of the known genotypes (CS-4, EbpC, and Henan-IV) in children and pigs in the same study area, the phylogenetic characterization of novel genotypes (NEC1 to NEC5), and the assessment of potential risk factors associated with zoonotic transmission robustly suggested that pigs could be a significant source of human E. bieneusi infections in northeast China.
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Engineering 3D Bio-artificial Heart Muscle: The Acellular Ventricular Extracellular Matrix Model.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Current therapies in left ventricular systolic dysfunction and end stage heart failure include mechanical assist devices and/or transplant. The development of a tissue-engineered integrative platform would present a therapeutic option which overcomes the limitations associated with current treatment modalities. This study provides a foundation for the fabrication and preliminary viability of the Acellular Ventricular Extracellular Matrix (AVEM) model. AVEM were fabricated by culturing 4 million rat neonatal cardiac cells around an excised acellular ventricular segment. AVEM generated a maximum spontaneous contractile force of 388.3µN and demonstrated a Frank-Starling relationship at varying pretensions. Histological assessment displayed cell cohesion and adhesion within the AVEM as a result of passive cell seeding.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Tridentiger bifasciatus and Tridentiger barbatus (Perciformes, Gobiidae): a mitogenomic perspective on the phylogenetic relationships of Gobiidae.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The fishes of suborder Gobioidei is the largest group of those in present living Perciformes, which contains about 2,200 species belonging to 270 genera of 9 families in the world. The monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of gobies have been controversial and disputable for a long time. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the shimofuri goby Tridentiger bifasciatus (T. bifasciatus) and shokihaze goby Tridentiger barbatus (T. barbatus) were firstly determined. The two mitochondrial genomes were both consisted of 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one major control region (CR). They shared similar features with those of other gobies in terms of gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. The CR was absence of typical conserved blocks (CSB-E, and CSB-F) respectively for the T. bifasciatus and T. barbatus. Phylogenomic analyses, which based on 12 concatenated protein-coding genes and complete mitochondrial genome sequences, revealed that there were two groups within the Gobiidae. A large group consisted of the Amblyopinae, Gobionellinae, Oxudercinae and Sicydiinae, and Amblyopinae was nested in Oxudercinae and they were both paraphyletic to Sicydiinae. The other group was the Gobiinae. As a whole, our phylogenetic data was different from the traditionally classification of Gobiidae, but supported the new phylogenetic taxonomy view of Thacker (Copeia 2009:93-104, 2009).
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Sinibrama taeniatus (Cyprinidae: Cultrinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of Sinibrama taeniatus was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequence of S. taeniatus was a circular molecule of 16,623?bp in length. It consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of S. taeniatus was 31.3% A, 26.8% C, 16.1% G, and 25.8% T, with a relatively high A?+?T content (57.1%). The results could provide useful data for studying genetic diversity and phylogenetics in S. taeniatus and related species.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Clouded angelshark (Squatina nebulosa).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Squatina nebulosa was determined first in the present study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,698 nucleotides, encoding a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 1 control region and 1 origin of the light strand replication. The overall base composition of Squatina nebulosa is T 31.4%, C 24.1%, A 30.7%, and G 13.8%, and the A?+?T content is higher than G?+?C content. These mitogenome sequence data will play an important role in population genetics and phylogenetic analysis of the Suqatinids.
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Polyphosphoester-based nanoparticles with viscous flow core enhanced therapeutic efficacy by improved intracellular drug release.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The intracellular drug release rate from the hydrophobic core of self-assembled nanoparticles can significantly affect the therapeutic efficacy. Currently, the hydrophobic core of many polymeric nanoparticles which are usually composed of poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL), polylactide (PLA), or poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) may hinder the diffusion of drug from the core because of their glassy state at room temperature. To investigate the effect of the hydrophobic core state on therapeutic efficacy, we synthesized an amphiphilic diblock copolymers of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic polyphosphoester, which were in a viscous flow state at room temperature. The obtained copolymers self-assembled into core-shell nanoparticles, which efficiently encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) in the hydrophobic polyphosphoester core (NP(PPE)/DOX). As speculated, compared with the nanoparticles bearing glassy core (hydrophobic PLA core, NP(PLA)/DOX), the encapsulated DOX was more rapidly released from NP(PPE)/DOX with viscous flow core, resulting in significantly increased cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the improved intracellular drug release from viscous flow core enhances the inhibition of tumor growth, suggesting the nanoparticles bearing viscous flow core show great potential in cancer therapy.
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Neuronal necrosis is regulated by a conserved chromatin-modifying cascade.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Neuronal necrosis induced by calcium overload causes devastating brain dysfunction in diseases such as stroke and brain trauma. It has been considered a stochastic event lacking genetic regulation, and pharmacological means to suppress neuronal necrosis are lacking. Using a Drosophila model of calcium overloading, we found JIL-1/mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1/2 is a regulator of neuronal necrosis through phosphorylation of histone H3 serine 28 (H3S28ph). Further, we identified its downstream events including displacement of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and activation of Trithorax (Trx). To test the role of JIL-1/PRC1/Trx cascade in mammals, we studied the necrosis induced by glutamate in rat cortical neuron cultures and rodent models of brain ischemia and found the cascade is activated in these conditions and inhibition of the cascade suppresses necrosis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our research demonstrates that neuronal necrosis is regulated by a chromatin-modifying cascade, and this discovery may provide potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for neuronal necrosis.
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Ethynyl and ?-stacked thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine base pairs enhanced fluorescence quenching via photoinduced electron transfer and simple and sensitive mercury ion sensing.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Ethynyl triggered enhanced fluorescence quenching effect was first reported based on photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between fluorophore and ethynyl. Ethynyl and 6-carboxyl-fluorescein (FAM) were labeled at the 5'- and 3'-termini of a poly d(T) sequence containing three thymine units, respectively. In the presence of Hg(2+), Hg(2+) binds to two thymine residues through T-Hg(2+)-T interactions and the formed T-Hg(2+)-T base pairs bring FAM and ethynyl from two matched sequences into close proximity. On the one hand, ?-stacked T-Hg(2+)-T mediates and accepts electron transfer of the excited state of FAM and quenches the fluorescence through PET. On the other hand, ?-stacked interactions between ethynyl and FAM also provide a de-excitation process for the excited state of FAM via PET and trigger an enhanced fluorescence quenching. On the basis of fluorescence quenching, a simple, rapid, and sensitive Hg(2+) sensor was constructed; under optimum conditions, a good linear relationship was obtained over the concentration range of 5-150nM for Hg(2+) and a very low detection limit (0.42nM) was reached. The developed system was further designed as a cysteine (Cys) sensor based on fluorescence recovery resulted from the strong interaction between Cys and Hg(2+); the proposed Cys sensor has a linear range of 10-550nM and a detection limit of 2.5nM. The two sensors were used for analysis of real samples and the satisfactory results were achieved.
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Structures of Chlorinated Fullerenes, IPR C96 Cl20 and Non-classical C94 Cl28 and C92 Cl32 : Evidence of the Existence of Three New Isomers of C96.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Chlorination of various HPLC fractions of C96 with a mixture of VCl4 and SbCl5 at 340-360?°C and single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of the products led to the identification of three new IPR isomers of C96 . The C96 (175) isomer forms a stable chloride, C96 (175)Cl20 , while chlorides of two other new isomers, C96 (114) and C96 (80), undergo cage shrinkage yielding C94 (NC1)Cl28 and C96 (NC2)Cl32 with non-classical (NC) cages. These two NC chlorides contain, respectively, one and two heptagons flanked by pairs of fused pentagons and are stabilized by chlorine attachment to the emerging pentagon-pentagon junctions. Thus, the number of the experimentally confirmed C96 isomers has reached nine, which corroborates the empirical rule that the C6n fullerenes exhibit particularly rich isomerism.
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Secretion of adipocytes and macrophages under conditions of inflammation and/or insulin resistance and effect of adipocytes on preadipocytes under these conditions.
Biochemistry Mosc.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to examine changes in preadipocytes following the coculture of preadipocytes and adipocytes and the effects on the secretion of adipocytes and macrophages following induction of inflammation and insulin resistance. Mature adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide and insulin to establish models of inflammation and insulin resistance, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-? in all adipocyte treatment groups were significantly greater compared with the control, and that of adiponectin was less (P<0.05). In the RAW264.7 macrophages, the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-? were greater than those in the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of this study confirmed that adipocytes and macrophages increased the secretion of inflammatory factors under conditions of induced inflammation and insulin resistance. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes when cocultured with adipocytes under conditions of inflammation and/or insulin resistance, and the phenotype of preadipocytes did not change.
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Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Homatula potanini (Cypriniformes, Nemacheilidae, Nemachilinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract Homatula potanini is an endemic and one of ornamental fishes in the upper stream of the Yangtze River and its tributaries. However, wild populations of H. potanini declined sharply due to anthropological activity in the Jinsha River during the past decades. In present study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of H. potanini was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence is a circular molecule of 16,569?bp in size. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of H. potanini is 30.1% A, 26.9% C, 16.7% G, and 26.3% T, with a relatively high A?+?T content (56.4%). The results could provide useful data for studies on genetic structure and rational resource conservation in H. potanini.
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Chlorination of two isomers of c86 fullerene: molecular structures of c86 (16)cl16 , c86 (17)cl18 , c86 (17)cl20 , and c86 (17)cl22.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Chlorination of a mixture of C86 isomers no. 16 (Cs ) and no. 17 (C2 ) with VCl4 or a (TiCl4 +Br2 ) mixture afforded crystalline chlorides with 16 to 22 Cl atoms per fullerene cage. Single crystal X-ray diffraction with the use of synchrotron radiation enabled us to determine the chlorination patterns of C86 (16)Cl16 , C86 (17)Cl18 , C86 (17)Cl20 , and C86 (17)Cl22 . At these degrees of chlorination, addition patterns of C86 (16) and C86 (17) chlorides have some features in common, owing to the close similarity in the cage structures of both isomers. The average energy of C?Cl bonds decreases with increasing number of attached Cl atoms.
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Discovery of novel non-ATP competitive FGFR1 inhibitors and evaluation of their anti-tumor activity in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests that high expression of FGFR1 is closely related to the development of lung cancer especially in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), to which non-ATP competitive inhibitors represent an effective therapeutical approach due to their good specificity. Herein, a series of NDGA analogues with the framework of bisaryl-1,4-dien-3-one as novel FGFR1 inhibitors have been designed and screened. Among them Aea4 and Aea25 showed strong FGFR1`inhibition and high selectivity over other receptor kinases. The kinase inhibitory assay in different ATP concentrations and computer-assistant molecular docking showed that the FGFR1 inhibition mode of both Aea4 and Aea25 was non-ATP-competitive. The in vitro and in vivo study on anticancer efficacy of Aea4 and Aea25 against non-small cell lung cancer involves inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest with no toxicity. Thus, these two novel non-ATP competitive inhibitors derived from NDGA may have a great therapeutic potential in the treatment of NSCLC. This work also provides a structural lead for the design of new non-ATP-competitive FGFR1 inhibitors.
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Psycho-oncologic interventions to reduce distress in cancer patients: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical studies published in People's Republic of China.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This study aimed to summarize the current result of controlled clinical studies published in China and analyzed the effect of psycho-oncologic interventions on distress of cancer patients.
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GxE Interactions between FOXO Genotypes and Tea Drinking Are Significantly Associated with Cognitive Disability at Advanced Ages in China.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health benefits of particular nutritional interventions, including tea drinking, may, in part, depend upon individual genetic profiles.
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Control of critical coupling in a coiled coaxial cable resonator.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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This paper reports a coiled coaxial cable resonator fabricated by cutting a slot in a spring-like coiled coaxial cable to produce a periodic perturbation. Electromagnetic coupling between two neighboring slots was observed. By manipulating the number of slots, critical coupling of the coiled coaxial cable resonator can be well controlled. An ultrahigh signal-to-noise ratio (over 50 dB) at the resonant frequency band was experimentally achieved from a coiled coaxial cable resonator with 38 turns. A theoretic model is developed to understand the device physics. The proposed device can be potentially used as a high quality and flexibly designed band-stop filter or a sensor in structural health monitoring.
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Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er(3+) doped germanate glass.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Er(3+) doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses with different Er(3+) concentrations were prepared. J-O intensity parameters were computed to estimate the structural changes due to the additions of Y2O3 and Nb2O5. The main mid-infrared spectroscopic features were investigated. To shed light on the observed mid-infrared radiative behavior, 975?nm and 1.53??m emission spectra along with their decay lifetimes were also discussed. Moreover, the energy transfer processes of (4)I11/2 and (4)I13/2 level were quantitatively analyzed. In view of the experimental lifetimes, the simplified rate equation was utilized to calculate the energy transfer upconversion processes of upper and lower laser level of 2.7??m emission. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the observed 2.7??m fluorescence phenomena. Finally, the stimulated emission and gain cross sections were calculated and the results indicate that Er(3+) doped germanate glasses have great potential for mid-infrared application.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Schizothorax chongi (Fang, 1936) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae, Schizothoracinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Abstract Schizothorax chongi is an endemic and important polyploidy fish in the upper stream of the Yangtze River. S. chongi represents a typical model species to study historical adaptation and evolution in the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence of S. chongi was first determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome sequence of S. chongi is a circular molecule of 16,584?bp in length. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and a control region (D-loop). The gene nucleotide composition of S. chongi is 29.6% A, 27.1% C, 17.9% G, and 25.4% T, with a high AT content (55.0%). The results could provide useful data for further studies on phylogenetics, conservation genetics and rational resource management for S. chongi.
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New trifluoromethylated derivatives of metal nitride clusterfullerenes: Sc?N@I(h)-C?? (CF?)?? and Sc?N@D(5h)-C?? (CF?)??.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Trifluoromethylated derivatives of Sc3N@I(h)-C80 and Sc3N@D(5h)-C80 were synthesized by the reaction with CF3I at 440?°C. HPLC separation of the mixture of Sc3N@D(5h)-C80(CF3)n derivatives resulted in isolation and X-ray structure determination of Sc3N@D(5h)-C80(CF3)16, which represents a precursor of the known Sc3N@D(5h)-C80(CF3)18. Among the CF3 derivatives of Sc3N@I(h)-C80, two new isomers of Sc3N@I(h)-C80(CF3)14 (Sc-14-VI and Sc-14-VII) were isolated by HPLC, and their molecular structures were determined by X-ray diffraction, thus enabling a comprehensive comparison of altogether seven isomers. Two types of addition patterns with different orientations of the Sc3N cluster relative to the I(h)-C80 fullerene cage were established. In particular, Sc-14-VII represents a direct precursor of the known Sc3N@I(h)-C80(CF3)16-II. All molecular structures exhibit an ordered position of a Sc3N cluster inside the fullerene C80 cage.
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Improvement of ventilation-induced lung injury in a rodent model by inhibition of inhibitory ?B kinase.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Inhibition of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation is a well-know strategy to ameliorate ventilation-induced lung injury (VILI). Inhibitory ?B kinase (IKK) plays a key role in the regulation of NF-?B activation. In this study, we determined whether inhibition of IKK by an IKK inhibitor exerts lung protection in a rat model of VILI.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Grammistes sexlineatus (Perciformes, Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Grammistes sexlineatus was first determined and studied in the present study. The mitochondrial genome was 16,502 nucleotides that contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one putative control region. The overall base composition of G. sexlineatus was T 23.74%, C 31.05%, A 28.79%, and G 16.42%, with a slight A?+?T bias of 52.53%. The gene order and composition of G. sexlineatus mitogenome was similar to the most vertebrate. Meanwhile, a termination-associated sequence (TAS) and the conserved sequence blocks (CSB-2 and CSB-3) were determined in G. sexlineatus control region. The mitochondrial genome would play key role in phylogenetics analysis of the Serranidae.
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Establishing the Framework to Support Bioartificial Heart Fabrication Using Fibrin-Based Three-Dimensional Artificial Heart Muscle.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Only 3000 heart transplants are performed in the USA every year, leaving some 30?000-70?000 Americans without proper care. Current treatment modalities for heart failure have saved many lives yet still do not correct the underlying problems of congestive heart failure. Tissue engineering represents a potential field of study wherein a combination of cells, scaffolds, and/or bioreactors can be utilized to create constructs to mimic, replace, and/or repair defective tissue. The focus of this study was to generate a bioartificial heart (BAH) model using artificial heart muscle (AHM), composed of fibrin gel and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, and a decellularized scaffold, formed by subjecting an adult rat heart to a series of decellularization solutions. By suturing the AHM around the outside of the decellularized heart and culturing while suspended in media, we were able to retain functional cardiac cells on the scaffold as evinced by visible contractility. Observed contractility rate was correlated with biopotential measurements to confirm essential functionality of cardiac constructs. Cross-sections of the BAH show successful decellularization of the scaffold and contiguous cell-rich AHM around the perimeter of the heart.
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Gastroesophageal reflux in chronic cough and cough syncope and the effect of antireflux treatment: case report and literature review.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antireflux treatment on gastroesophageal reflux (GER)-related cough syncope.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Pareuchiloglanis sinensis (Siluriformes: Sisoridae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Pareuchiloglanis sinensis, an endemic Chinese sisorid fish, was determined by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments. The complete mtDNA genome sequence of P. sinensis is 16,593?bp in length, with a gene content of 13 protein-coding, 2 ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNA genes, and a typical gene arrangement identical to many other reported fishes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 30.6% A, 24.2% T, 16.0% G and 29.2% C, with a relatively high A?+?T content (54.8%). This will provide a useful tool for understanding the genetic diversity, population structure and conservation status of P. sinensis in future.
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Putting a terbium-monometallic cyanide cluster into the C82 fullerene cage: TbCN@C2(5)-C82.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The first terbium (Tb)-monometallic cyanide clusterfullerene (CYCF), TbCN@C82, has been successfully synthesized and isolated, whose molecular structure was determined unambiguously as TbCN@C2(5)-C82 by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The C2(5)-C82 isomeric cage represents a new cage capable of encapsulating a monometallic cyanide cluster. The C-N bond length within the encaged TbCN cluster is determined to be 0.94(5) Å, which is smaller by at least 0.17 Å than those of the reported C-N triplet bonds in traditional cyanide/nitrile compounds and cyano coordination complexes. An electronic configuration of [Tb(3+)(CN)(-)](2+)@[C82](2-) was proposed for TbCN@C82.
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Galangin dampens mice lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Galangin, an active ingredient of Alpinia galangal, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Inflammation and oxidative stress are known to play vital effect in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, we determined whether galangin exerts lung protection in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Male BALB/c mice were randomized to receive galangin or vehicle intraperitoneal injection 3 h after LPS challenge. Samples were harvested 24 h post LPS administration. Galangin administration decreased biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation, and improved oxygenation and lung edema in a dose-dependent manner. These protective effects of galangin were associated with inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-?B and upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Galangin reduces LPS-induced ALI by inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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Boolean logic tree of graphene-based chemical system for molecular computation and intelligent molecular search query.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The most serious, and yet unsolved, problem of constructing molecular computing devices consists in connecting all of these molecular events into a usable device. This report demonstrates the use of Boolean logic tree for analyzing the chemical event network based on graphene, organic dye, thrombin aptamer, and Fenton reaction, organizing and connecting these basic chemical events. And this chemical event network can be utilized to implement fluorescent combinatorial logic (including basic logic gates and complex integrated logic circuits) and fuzzy logic computing. On the basis of the Boolean logic tree analysis and logic computing, these basic chemical events can be considered as programmable "words" and chemical interactions as "syntax" logic rules to construct molecular search engine for performing intelligent molecular search query. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced logic program based on molecules for application in biosensing, nanotechnology, and drug delivery.
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Delivering stem cells to the healthy heart on biological sutures: effects on regional mechanical function.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Current cardiac cell therapies cannot effectively target and retain cells in a specific area of the heart. Cell-seeded biological sutures were previously developed to overcome this limitation, demonstrating targeted delivery with > 60% cell retention. In this study, both cell-seeded and non-seeded fibrin-based biological sutures were implanted into normal functioning rat hearts to determine the effects on mechanical function and fibrotic response. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used based on previous work and established cardioprotective effects. Non-seeded or hMSC-seeded sutures were implanted into healthy athymic rat hearts. Before cell seeding, hMSCs were passively loaded with quantum dot nanoparticles. One week after implantation, regional stroke work index and systolic area of contraction (SAC) were evaluated on the epicardial surface above the suture. Cell delivery and retention were confirmed by quantum dot tracking, and the fibrotic tissue area was evaluated. Non-seeded biological sutures decreased SAC near the suture from 0.20 ± 0.01 measured in sham hearts to 0.08 ± 0.02, whereas hMSC-seeded biological sutures dampened the decrease in SAC (0.15 ± 0.02). Non-seeded sutures also displayed a small amount of fibrosis around the sutures (1.0 ± 0.1 mm(2) ). Sutures seeded with hMSCs displayed a significant reduction in fibrosis (0.5 ± 0.1 mm(2) , p < 0.001), with quantum dot-labelled hMSCs found along the suture track. These results show that the addition of hMSCs attenuates the fibrotic response observed with non-seeded sutures, leading to improved regional mechanics of the implantation region. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Lophius litulon (Lophiiforms, Lophiidae) and comparison of light strand replication origin in Lophiidae.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of yellow goosefish Lophius litulon (L. litulon) was determined. The genome was 16,431?bp in length, and comprised 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA gene and 22 transfer RNA genes, with 2 main non-coding regions. Its gene order and composition was similar to most of the vertebrates. The overall base composition of L. litulon was 28.6% A; 29.1% C; 16.8% G; 25.5% T, with a slight AT bias of 54.1%. The origin of L-strand replication in L. litulon was located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY). Motif TCCGG was found in the origin of light strand replication (OL) of L. litulon, which was common in other mitogenome of Lophiidae. This mitogenome data would play key role in future studying phylogenetic analysis of the Lophiidae.
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Optimizing a spontaneously contracting heart tissue patch with rat neonatal cardiac cells on fibrin gel.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Engineered cardiac tissues have been constructed with primary or stem cell-derived cardiac cells on natural or synthetic scaffolds. They represent a tremendous potential for the treatment of injured areas through the addition of tensional support and delivery of sufficient cells. In this study, 1-6 million (M) neonatal cardiac cells were seeded on fibrin gels to fabricate cardiac tissue patches, and the effects of culture time and cell density on spontaneous contraction rates, twitch forces and paced response frequencies were measured. Electrocardiograms and signal volume index of connexin 43 were also analysed. Patches of 1-6 M cell densities exhibited maximal contraction rates in the range 305-410 beats/min (bpm) within the first 4 days after plating; low cell density (1-3 M) patches sustained rhythmic contraction longer than high cell density patches (4-6 M). Patches with 1-6 M cell densities generated contractile forces in the range 2.245-14.065 mN/mm(3) on days 4-6. Upon patch formation, a paced response frequency of approximately 6 Hz was obtained, and decreased to approximately 3 Hz after 6 days of culture. High cell density patches contained a thicker real cardiac tissue layer, which generated higher R-wave amplitudes; however, low-density patches had a greater signal volume index of connexin 43. In addition, all patches manifested endothelial cell growth and robust nuclear division. The present study demonstrates that the proper time for in vivo implantation of this cardiac construct is just at patch formation, and patches with 3-4 M cell densities are the best candidates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Tunable mid-infrared luminescence from Er(3+) -doped germanate glass.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Er(3+) -doped germanate glasses with superior thermal stability were prepared. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters and important spectroscopic properties were discussed in detail. Upon 800 nm and 980 nm LD pumping, 2.7 µm fluorescence characteristics were investigated and it was found that the effective 2.7 µm emission bandwidth can reach to 101.79 nm in prepared glasses. The tunability of the 2.7 µm emission band can be realized by adjusting the Er(3+) content. Moreover, a high-emission cross-section (11.09 ×10(-21) cm(2) ), large gain bandwidth (772.30 ×10(-28) cm(3) ) and gain coefficient (6.72 cm(-1) ) were obtained in the prepared sample. Hence, Er(3+) -doped germanate glass might be a promising mid-infrared material for tunable amplifiers or lasers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Coaxial cable Bragg grating assisted microwave coupler.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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This paper reports a microwave coupler based on two parallel coaxial cable Bragg gratings fabricated by drilling U-grooves across the cables at periodic distance along the cable direction. Electromagnetic field couplings between two cables were observed at discrete frequencies through both near and far ends detections. The coupling frequency and strength can be precisely controlled by varying the grating period and length. The coupling bandwidth may also be controlled through specific grating design. The device physics was also described through transfer matrix which matched well with the experimental results.
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Discovery and identification of new non-ATP competitive FGFR1 inhibitors with therapeutic potential on non-small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinases have been regarded as a target for cancer treatment, and there is much interest in inhibiting FGF/FGFR signaling by small molecules as a therapeutic approach to cancer. Generally, inhibitors mimics ATP structure and block the binding between ATP and FGFR kinase. Here, two novel, non-ATP-competitive, selective, irreversible FGFR1 inhibitors, A114 and A117, were identified via kinase inhibitory assay from 156 synthetic bisaryl-1,4-dien-3-one derivatives. A "DFG-OUT" inactive conformation binding mode with FGFR1 was predicted by molecular docking. A114 and A117 showed significant anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo via targeting FGFR1.
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Prediction of nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve before thyroid surgery--experience with 1825 cases.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) is a rare anatomic anomaly, which often co-occurs with aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA). With this large case series, we present our experience of predicting the presence of NRLN by the means of chest X-ray film, thoracic computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography.
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Long-term outcomes of patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease following a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure: a prospective observational study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is the most common digestive disease, affecting one third of the world's population. The minimally invasive endoscopic Stretta procedure is being increasingly used as an alternative strategy to manage refractory GERD. However, long-term benefits of this procedure have to be further evaluated in clinical settings. This prospective observational study was therefore conducted to evaluate the outcome of patients with refractory GERD 5 years after the Stretta procedure.
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Fuzzy logic sensing of G-quadruplex DNA and its cleavage reagents based on reduced graphene oxide.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Herein, by combining the merits of nanotechnology and fuzzy logic theory, we develop a simple, label-free, and general strategy based on an organic dye-graphene hybrid system for fluorescence intelligent sensing of G-quadruplexes (G4) formation, hydroxyl radical (HO?), and Fe(2+) in vitro. By exploiting acridine orange (AO) dyes-graphene as a nanofilter and nanoswitch and the ability of graphene to interact with DNA with different structures, our approach can efficiently distinguish, quantitatively detect target analytes. In vitro assays with G4DNA demonstrated increases in fluorescence intensity of the AO-rGO system with a linear range of 16-338 nM and a detection limit as low as 2.0 nM. The requenched fluorescence of the G4TBA-AO-rGO system has a non-linear response to Fenton reagent. But this requenching reduces the fluorescence intensity in a manner proportional to the logarithm to the base 10 of the concentration of Fenton reagent in the range of 0.1-100 ?M and 100-2000 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, we develop a novel and intelligent sensing method based on fuzzy logic which mimics human reasoning, solves complex and non-linear problems, and transforms the numerical output into the language description output for potential application in biochemical systems, environmental monitoring systems, and molecular-level fuzzy logic computing system.
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Broadband near-infrared emission property in Er3+/Ce3+ co-doped silica-germanate glass for fiber amplifier.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Er(3+) doped and Er(3+)/Ce(3+) co-doped silica-germanate glasses were synthesized by high-temperature melt-quenching technique. A detailed study of the 1.53?m spectroscopic properties and thermal stability was presented in this work. The absorption spectra, 1.53?m emission spectra and fluorescence lifetimes were measured and investigated, along with the quantitative calculations and analyses of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, stimulated absorption and emission cross-sections and the product of FWHM×?em(p). It was found that the prepared samples have outstanding thermal stability (Tg=585°C), large FWHM (77nm and 108nm) and high stimulated emission cross-sections (9.55×10(-28)cm(3) and 8.72×10(-28)cm(3)) of Er(3+). The 1.53?m fluorescence intensity improved significantly with the introduction of Ce(3+). Furthermore, the wavelength dependent gain coefficient G(?) of (4)I13/2?(4)I15/2 transition of Er(3+) was determined by means of the absorption and emission cross-sections. The results indicate that the developed glass co-doped with Er(3+)/Ce(3+) is a promising gain medium applied for broadband amplifier pumped with a 980nm laser diode.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Odontesthes sp. (Atheriniforms, Atherinopsidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Abstract In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of Odontesthes sp. has been studied first. The genome is 16,528?bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 putative control region. The mitochondrial genome of Odontesthes sp. had common features about gene arrangement and tRNA structures compared with those of other teleost fishes. The overall base composition of Odontesthes sp. is T 27.3%, C 29.4%, A 26.0% and G 17.3%, with a slight A?+?T bias of 53.3%. Meanwhile, the conserved motif 5'-GCCGG-3' was determined in the origin of light-strand replication of Odontesthes sp. The mitochondrial genome of this species would play an important role in the phylogenetics of Atherinopsidae.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the urohaze-goby Glossogobius olivaceus (Perciformes, Gobiidae) and structure comparison of light strand replication origin in Gobioidei.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Abstract The genome of Glossogobius olivaceus (G. olivaceus) was 16,568?bp in length with a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and 2 non-coding region (the control region and origin of the light strand replication). The conserved motif 5'-GCCGG-3' was determined in the origin of light strand replication of G. olivaceus. The G. olivaceus mitogenome base composition was: T 25.65%, C 29.82% A 27.17% and G 17.36%, with a slight A?+?T bias of 52.82%, which was similar to most of the vertebrate mitogenomes. The mitochondrial genome of G. olivaceus had common features regarding gene arrangement and tRNA structures compared with those of other bony fishes.
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Analysis of structure origin and luminescence properties of Yb(3+)-Er(3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glass.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The near infrared luminescence properties of Yb(3+)-Er(3+) co-doped fluorophosphate glasses have been investigated. The various effects on structure and 1.53 ?m emission were analyzed as a function of Yb(3+) concentration. The energy transfer mechanism was proposed. High measured lifetime (10.75 ms), large effective full widths at half maximum (73.71 nm) and large gain per unit length (62.8 × 10(-)(24)cm(2)s) have been achieved in prepared glass. The present glass co-doped with 6mol% YbF3 and 2 mol% ErF3 showed magnificent luminescence properties for telecommunication application.
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A new strategy to construct acyclic nucleosides via Ag(I)-catalyzed addition of pronucleophiles to 9-allenyl-9H-purines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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A new strategy to construct acyclic nucleosides with diverse side chains was developed. With Ag(I) salts as catalysts, the hydrocarboxylation, hydroamination, and hydrocarbonation reactions proceeded well, affording acyclic nucleosides in good yields (41 examples, 60-98% yields). Meanwhile, these reactions exhibited high chemoselectivities and E-selectivities.
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A reversible and stable flake-like LiCoO2 cathode for lithium ion batteries.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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A dense and thick flake-like cathode structure was demonstrated to have a preferential crystallographic orientation for Li(+) migration and a better tolerance to cracking, both of which enable a reversible and stable capacity at moderate rates from 0.1 to 2 C.
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Purification and evaluation of the enzymatic properties of a novel fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus oryzae: a potential biocatalyst for the synthesis of sucrose 6-acetate.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A novel fructosyltransferase (AoFT) capable of synthesizing sucrose 6-acetate (S6A) from sucrose and glucose 6-acetate has been purified to homogeneity from Aspergillus oryzae ZZ-01. Its molecular mass was ~50 kDa by SDS-PAGE; optimal activity was at 45 °C and it was stable from pH 4.5 to 7.5 with an optimum pH of 6. Mg(2+), K(+) (5 mM), propanol, toluene (50%, v/v), Tween 20 or Triton X-100 (1%, w/v) increased the transfructosylation activity by 20, 17, 17, 10, 25 and 20%, respectively. An overall conversion of 32% was achieved under optimal conditions over 24 h. This is the first report that the purified and characterized the fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus capable of synthesis of S6A from sucrose and glucose 6-acetate.
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Enhancing therapeutic effects of docetaxel-loaded dendritic copolymer nanoparticles by co-treatment with autophagy inhibitor on breast cancer.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dendrimers are synthetic nanocarriers that comprise a highly branched spherical polymer as new, efficient tools for drug delivery. However, the fate of nanocarriers after being internalized into cells has seldom been studied. Docetaxel loaded dendritic copolymer H40-poly(D,L-lactide) nanoparticles, referred to as "DTX-H40-PLA NPs", were prepared and used as a model to evaluate whether the NPs were sequestered by autophagy and fused with lysosomes. Besides being degraded through the endolysosomal pathway, the DTX-loaded H40-PLA NPs were also sequestered by autophagosomes and degraded through the autolysosomal pathway. DTX-loaded H40-PLA NPs may stop exerting beneficial effects after inducing autophagy of human MCF-7 cancer cells. Co-delivery of autophagy inhibitor such as chloroquine and chemotherapeutic drug DTX by dendritic copolymer NPs greatly enhanced cancer cell killing in vitro, and decreased both the volume and weight of the tumors in severe combined immunodeficient mice. These findings provide valuable evidence for development of nanomedicine such as dendritic copolymer NPs for clinical application.
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Genotypic distribution and phylogenetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in diarrheic chickens and pigs in multiple cities, China: potential zoonotic transmission.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study investigated diarrheic broiler and layer chickens (<50 days; n=14) and pigs of three age groups (preweaned <30 days, weaned ?30 to 60 days, and growing >60 days; n=64) for E. bieneusi genotypes in northeast China and evaluated the potential roles of chickens and pigs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. Two 45-day-old layer chickens in city Jixi, Heilongjiang province and one 23-day-old broiler chicken in city Songyuan, Jilin province were identified to harbor a human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV and a new genotype named CC-1, respectively, by nested PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Eleven of 64 (17.2%) duodenal mucosal specimens from pigs in city Tianjin, city Tongliao of Inner Mongolia, cities Jilin and Songyuan of Jilin province, and cities Daqing, Harbin, and Suihua of Heilongjiang province, were positive for E. bieneusi, with the infection rates of weaned pigs (35%, 7/20) significantly higher than preweaned ones (3.6%, 1/28; P<0.05). Nucleotide sequences of the ITS were obtained from 6 pig specimens, belonging to 3 known genotypes CHN7, EbpC, and Henan-IV. That the previous reports have described the occurrence of genotypes EbpC and Henan-IV in humans and EbpC in wastewater in central China and the clustering of genotypes CC-1 and CHN7 into a major phylogenetic group of E. bieneusi genotypes with zoonotic potential indicated that chickens and pigs could be potential sources of human micorsporidiosis. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the existence of zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes in diarrheic chickens.
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High-glucose inhibits human fibroblast cell migration in wound healing via repression of bFGF-regulating JNK phosphorylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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One of the major symptoms of diabetes mellitus (DM) is delayed wound healing, which affects large populations of patients worldwide. However, the underlying mechanism behind this illness remains elusive. Skin wound healing requires a series of coordinated processes, including fibroblast cell proliferation and migration. Here, we simulate DM by application of high glucose (HG) in human foreskin primary fibroblast cells to analyze the molecular mechanism of DM effects on wound healing. The results indicate that HG, at a concentration of 30 mM, delay cell migration, but not cell proliferation. bFGF is known to promote cell migration that partially rescues HG effects on cell migration. Molecular and cell biology studies demonstrated that HG enhanced ROS production and repressed JNK phosphorylation, but did not affect Rac1 activity. JNK and Rac1 activation were known to be important for bFGF regulated cell migration. To further confirm DM effects on skin repair, a type 1 diabetic rat model was established, and we observed the efficacy of bFGF on both normal and diabetic rat skin repair. Furthermore, proteomic studies identified an increase of Annexin A2 protein nitration in HG-stressed fibroblasts and the nitration was protected by activation of bFGF signaling. Treatment with FGFR1 and JNK inhibitors delayed cell migration and increased Annexin A2 nitration levels, indicating that Annexin A2 nitration is modulated by bFGF signaling via activation of JNK. Together with these results, our data suggests that the HG-mediated delay of cell migration is linked to the inhibition of bFGF signaling, specifically through JNK suppression.
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A mitogenomic perspective on the phylogenetic position of the Hapalogenys genus (Acanthopterygii: Perciformes) and the evolutionary origin of Perciformes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Hapalogenys genus was the most controversial and problematic in phylogenetic position of Percoidei. In this study, we rechecked the taxonomic status of Hapalogenys in Percoidei using complete mitochondrial genome data. We purposefully added a new complete mitochondrial sequence from chosen species of Hapalogenys and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large complete mitochondrial data set. The resultant tree topologies were congruent from partitioned Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods. The results indicated that Hapalogenys was distantly related to Haemulidae and could be removed from Haemulidae. The results supported the Hapalogeny was upgraded to a family rank titled Hapalogenyidae, and it should be recognized in a separate family of Hapalogenyidae. A relaxed molecular-clock Bayesian analysis indicated that the divergence times of Perciformes groups had a much older than the available old fossil records. The origin of the common ancestral lineage of Perciformes fish was estimated in the late Jurassic about 149 Myr ago.
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Impact of cigarette smoking on outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery in patients with hepatitis B.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cigarette smoking is a potential risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) initiation, partially through interaction with hepatitis B virus (HBV). We examined the hypothesis that cigarette smoking might be associated with HBV-related HCC recurrence and patient survival after curative surgery.
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An Oxygen-Chelate Complex, Palladium Bis-acetylacetonate, Induces Apoptosis in H460 Cells via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway Rather than Interacting with DNA.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Current precious-metal-containing anticancer agents are mostly chelated with N-containing ligands and function by interacting with DNA. In the present study, Pd(acac)2, a Pd(II) complex containing four O-donor ligands, has been evaluated as an active anticancer agent. Pd(acac)2 showed no interaction with N-ligand-containing DNA and the S-ligand-containing DMSO, probably because of the two six-member chelate rings that limit the release of the central Pd nuclei to bind to other ligands. Importantly, we found that Pd(acac)2 exhibited better growth inhibitory effects than cisplatin in several cancer cells. Treatment with Pd(acac)2 significantly induced apoptosis in H460 cells. Mechanistically, Pd(acac)2 induced the activation of a series of key components in ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by caspase cleavage and activation, while cisplatin showed no similar effects. CHOP knockdown by specific siRNA significantly attenuated Pd(acac)2-induced cell apoptosis. Finally, Pd(acac)2 significantly inhibits H460 cell growth in xenograft mouse models. Taken together, these mechanistic insights on Pd(acac)2 provide us with a novel mechanism and strategy for the development of precious-metal-based anticancer drugs.
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Cage Shrinkage of Fullerene via a C2 Loss: from IPR C90(28)Cl24 to Nonclassical, Heptagon-Containing C88Cl22/24.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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A new case of chlorination-promoted fullerene cage shrinkage is reported. Chlorination of C90 (isolated pentagon rule isomer no. 28) with VCl4 afforded C88Cl22 with a nonclassic carbon cage (NCC) containing 1 heptagon and 13 pentagons including 2 fused pairs flanking the heptagon. The pathway of C2 abstraction from the C90 cage is suggested on the basis of density functional theory calculations.
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Intramolecular Dehydrative Coupling of Tertiary Amines and Ketones Promoted by KO-t-Bu/DMF: A New Synthesis of Indole Derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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A new synthesis of indole derivatives has been achieved through intramolecular dehydrative coupling of tertiary amines and ketones promoted by KO-t-Bu/DMF. The reaction probably proceeds via an ?-amino alkyl radical pathway.
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Efficient cyclization of tertiary amines and alkenes promoted by KOt-Bu-DMF.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Nitrogen heterocycles could be prepared in good yields via intramolecular cyclization of tertiary amines and alkenes promoted by KOt-Bu-DMF.
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Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery with a Single Channel Versus Conventional Laparoscopic Varicocele Ligation: A Prospective Randomized Study.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Abstract Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of single channel laparoscopy in the treatment of patients with varicocele. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients with clinically palpable varicoceles were randomly assigned to receive laparoendoscopic single-site with a single channel varicocele ligation (LESS[sc]-VL) (n=45) or conventional transperitoneal laparoscopic varicocele ligation (CTL-VL) (n=45). Patient characteristics, perioperative details, total procedural cost, time to return to work, visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, semen parameters, and cosmetic results were recorded. Results: There were no differences in operative time (P=0.102), postoperative hospitalization time (P=0.130), total cost (P=0.112), or postoperative complications (P>0.05) between the two groups. Time to return to normal activities was shorter in the LESS(sc)-VL group than that in the CTL-VL group (P=0.018). The mean of all semen parameters were improved statistically 3 months after ligation (P<0.001). The VAS incision pain score was significantly lower 6 and 24 hours after surgery in patients who underwent LESS(sc)-VL(P<0.05). Patients who underwent LESS(sc)-VL had a better cosmetic result, reflected by both the verbal response scale and the numeric scale (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). Conclusions: LESS(sc)-VL is a safe and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative for varicocelectomy. Compared with CTL-VL, LESS(sc)-VL may decrease postoperative pain and hide the surgical incision better within the umbilicus.
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Bingel-Hirsch monoadducts of TiSc2N@Ih-C80versus Sc3N@Ih-C80: reactivity improvement via internal metal atom substitution.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The first Bingel-Hirsch reaction of TiSc2N@Ih-C80 afforded two unconventional singly bonded monoadducts, revealing the dramatically improved reactivity compared to Sc3N@Ih-C80 and obvious change in the addition pattern.
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Unusual features of control region and a novel NADH 6 genes in mitochondrial genome of the finespot goby, Chaeturichthys stigmatias (Perciformes, Gobiidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Abstract In this article, we determined the complete mitogenome of finespot goby Chaeturichthys stigmatias with emphasis on the arranged gene order and gene feature with published Gobiidae species. The C. stigmatias mtDNA was 18,562?bp in length (56.94% AT), and comprised 37 genes (13 protein genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs) that was typical for mitochondrial genome of Gobiidae species. Unusually, the NADH 6 gene was very large in length compared with other Gobiidae species. Mitogenome of C. stigmatias had a long putative control region with high AT content (71.28%). Within this sequence, we determined repeat regions, the termination-associated sequence and the conserved sequence block for this region. The origin of L-strand replication in C. stigmatias was located in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY). The conserved motif (5-GCCGG-3) was also determined at the base of the stem in the tRNA-Cys gene. This study will provide a better understanding of Gobiidae mitogenomes and offer useful information for future studies concerning Gobiidae mitogenome evolution.
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[Analysis of cracking gas compressor fouling by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The fouling from the different sections of the cracked gas compressor in Daqing Petrochemical Corporation was analyzed by pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS). All the samples were cracked in RJ-1 tube furnace cracker at the cracking temperature of 500 degrees C, and separated with a 60 m DB-1 capillary column. An electron impact ionization (EI) source was used with the ionizing voltage of 70 eV. The results showed the formation of fouling was closely related with cyclopentadiene which accounted for about 50% of the cracking products. Other components detected were 1-butylene, propylene, methane and n-butane. This Py/GC-MS method can be used as an effective approach to analyze the causes of fouling in the petrochemical plants.
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The effect of autophagy inhibitors on drug delivery using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles in cancer treatment.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers (NPs) have been widely used for drug delivery. However, there has been little research on their fate after internalized into the cells. We show in this research by using docetaxel as a model anticancer drug, which is formulated in the cholic acid conjugated nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA NPs) that the NPs induce autophagy of the cancer cells and thus may hinder the advantages of the nanomedicine. Moreover, we show both in vitro and in vivo that co-administration of autophagy inhibitors such as 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and Chloroquine (CQ) could greatly enhance the therapeutic effects of the nanoparticle formulation. The IC50 values of the drug formulated in the PLGA NPs after 24 h treatment with no autophagy inhibitor or in combination with 10 mm 3-MA or 30 ?m CQ are 38.27 ± 1.23, 6.7 ± 1.05, 4.78 ± 1.75 ?g/mL, which implie 5.7 or 8,0 fold efficient by the autophagy inhibition respectively. Moreover, both the volume and the weight of the shrunk tumor of the mice after 20 day treatment with the PLGA NPs formulation combined with 3-MA or CQ are found to be only about a half in comparison with the treatment with the PLGA NPs formulation alone. In this research, we reported such a new mechanism of cancer cells to have PLGA NPs captured and degraded by auto-lysosomes. The findings provide advanced knowledge for development of nanomedicine for clinical application.
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First isomers of pristine c104 fullerene structurally confirmed as chlorides, c104 (258)cl16 and c104 (812)cl24.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Isolation and characterization of very large fullerenes is hampered by a drastic decrease of their content in fullerene soot with increasing fullerene size and a simultaneous increase of the number of possible IPR (Isolated Pentagon Rule) isomers. In the present work, fractions containing mixtures of C102 and C104 were isolated in very small quantities (several dozens of micrograms) by multi-step recycling HPLC from an arc-discharge fullerene soot. Two such fractions were used for chlorination with a VCl4 /SbCl5 mixture in glass ampoules at 350-360?°C. The resulting chlorides were investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. By this means, two IPR isomers of C104 , numbers 258 and 812 (of 823 topologically possible isomers), have been confirmed for the first time as chlorides, C1 -C104 (258)Cl16 and D2 -C104 (812)Cl24 , respectively, while an admixture of C2 -C104 (811)Cl24 was assumed to be present in the latter chloride. DFT calculations showed that pristine C104 (812) belongs to rather stable C104 cages, whereas C104 (258) is much less stable.
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[Effect of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation,apoptosis and SHIP gene expression in K562 cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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This study was aimed to investigate the effects of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on proliferation, apoptosis and the SHIP expression of K562 cells. K562 cells were treated with bortezomib of different concentrations. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and SHIP mRNA expression was assayed by RT-PCR.The results showed that after being treated with 10, 20, 50 and 100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the inhibitory rates of K562 cells were (5.76 ± 1.47)%,(10.55 ± 1.59)%, (17.14 ± 2.05)% and (27.69 ± 3.57)% respectively, and were higher than that in control (1.30 ± 0.10); when K562 cells were treated with 20 nmol/L bortezomib for 24, 48 and 72 h, the inhibitory rates of cell proliferation were (10.55 ± 1.59)%, (16.33 ± 2.53)% and (19.78 ± 1.56)% respectively, there was statistic difference of cell proliferation rate between 24 h group and 48 h group (P < 0.05). After being treated with 10,20,50,100 nmol/L bortezomib for 24 h, the apoptotic rates of K562 cells were (12.7 ± 0.6)%, (26.9 ± 0.9)%, (32.6 ± 1.2)% and (72.5 ± 1.5)% respectively,and all hyher than that in control (1.0 ± 0.5)% (P < 0.05). According to results of RT-PCR detection, the expression level of SHIP mRNA was obviously up-regulated after treatment with bortezomin, and showed statistical difference in comparison with control. It is concluded that bortezomib inhibits proliferation of K562 cells in time and concentration-tependent manner and induces apoptosis through up-regulation of SHIP gene.
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A Tale of Two Retinal Domains: Near-Optimal Sampling of Achromatic Contrasts in Natural Scenes through Asymmetric Photoreceptor Distribution.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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For efficient coding, sensory systems need to adapt to the distribution of signals to which they are exposed. In vision, natural scenes above and below the horizon differ in the distribution of chromatic and achromatic features. Consequently, many species differentially sample light in the sky and on the ground using an asymmetric retinal arrangement of short- (S, "blue") and medium- (M, "green") wavelength-sensitive photoreceptor types. Here, we show that in mice this photoreceptor arrangement provides for near-optimal sampling of natural achromatic contrasts. Two-photon population imaging of light-driven calcium signals in the synaptic terminals of cone-photoreceptors expressing a calcium biosensor revealed that S, but not M cones, preferred dark over bright stimuli, in agreement with the predominance of dark contrasts in the sky but not on the ground. Therefore, the different cone types do not only form the basis of "color vision," but in addition represent distinct (achromatic) contrast-selective channels.
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The first complete mitochondrial genome from Bostrychus genus (Bostrychus sinensis) and partitioned Bayesian analysis of Eleotridae fish phylogeny.
J. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To understand the phylogenetic position of Bostrychus sinensis in Eleotridae and the phylogenetic relationships of the family, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Bostrychus sinensis. It is the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Bostrychus genus. The entire mtDNA sequence was 16508 bp in length with a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a noncoding control region. The mitochondrial genome of B. sinensis had common features with those of other bony fishes with respect to gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures. Phylogenetic hypotheses within Eleotridae fish have been controversial at the genus level. We used the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene sequence to examine phylogenetic relationships of Eleotridae by using partitioned Bayesian method. When the specific models and parameter estimates were presumed for partitioning the total data, the harmonic mean -lnL was improved. The phylogenetic analysis supported the monophyly of Hypseleotris and Gobiomorphs. In addition, the Bostrychus were most closely related to Ophiocara, and the Philypnodon is also the sister to Microphlypnus, based on the current datasets. Further, extensive taxonomic sampling and more molecular information are needed to confirm the phylogenetic relationships in Eleotridae.
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Microwave assisted reconstruction of optical interferograms for distributed fiber optic sensing.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This paper reports a distributed fiber optic sensing technique through microwave assisted separation and reconstruction of optical interferograms in spectrum domain. The approach involves sending a microwave-modulated optical signal through cascaded fiber optic interferometers. The microwave signal was used to resolve the position and reflectivity of each sensor along the optical fiber. By sweeping the optical wavelength and detecting the modulation signal, the optical spectrum of each sensor can be reconstructed. Three cascaded fiber optic extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric sensors were used to prove the concept. Their microwave-reconstructed interferogram matched well with those recorded individually using an optical spectrum analyzer. The application in distributed strain measurement has also been demonstrated.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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