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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhancement of the field emission from the TiO2 nanotube arrays by reducing in a NaBH4 solution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A mass of oxygen vacancies are successfully introduced into TiO2 nanotube arrays using low-cost NaBH4 as a reductant in a liquid-phase environment. By controlling and adjusting the reduction time over the range of 0-24 h, the doping concentration of the oxygen vacancy realizes controllable and eventually reaches saturation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of oxygen vacancies is also investigated, indicating that part of oxygen vacancies remain stable up to 250 °C. In addition, this liquid-phase reduction strategy significantly lowers the requirements of instruments and cost. More interesting, reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays show drastically enhanced field emission performances including substantially decreased turn-on field from 25.01 to 2.65 V/?m, a high current density of 3.5 mA/cm2 at 7.2 V/?m and an excellent field emission stability and repeatability. These results are attributed to the oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing in NaBH4 solution, resulting in a reduced effective work function and an increased conductivity.
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[Increased expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 in lungs of preterm rats after hyperoxic lung injury.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To study the expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) in lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of preterm rats exposed to 60% O2 and to elucidate the relationship between the changes of FABP4 expression and the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).
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Initial experience of thoracoscopic lobectomy with partial removal of the superior vena cava for lung cancers.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The objectives of this study were to report the surgical techniques and clinical outcome of thoracoscopic lobectomy with partial removal of the superior vena cava for lung carcinomas.
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NanoFlares for the detection, isolation, and culture of live tumor cells from human blood.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Metastasis portends a poor prognosis for cancer patients. Primary tumor cells disseminate through the bloodstream before the appearance of detectable metastatic lesions. The analysis of cancer cells in blood-so-called circulating tumor cells (CTCs)-may provide unprecedented opportunities for metastatic risk assessment and investigation. NanoFlares are nanoconstructs that enable live-cell detection of intracellular mRNA. NanoFlares, when coupled with flow cytometry, can be used to fluorescently detect genetic markers of CTCs in the context of whole blood. They allow one to detect as few as 100 live cancer cells per mL of blood and subsequently culture those cells. This technique can also be used to detect CTCs in a murine model of metastatic breast cancer. As such, NanoFlares provide, to our knowledge, the first genetic-based approach for detecting, isolating, and characterizing live cancer cells from blood and may provide new opportunities for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized therapy.
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Ultra-thin circular polarization analyzer based on the metal rectangular split-ring resonators.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose an ultra-thin metasurface of the metal rectangular split-ring resonators (MRSRR) array which can modulate and analyze the wavefront of circularly polarized light efficiently. An incident circularly polarized light could be converted into the corresponding cross-polarized light which would be bent to±23°at a wavelength of 808nm for the normal incidence. And a linearly polarized light would be decomposed into two lights of left and right-handed circular polarizations in the directions of?23°respectively. These phenomena have also been observed at 1200nm with different geometric parameters. And these results depend on controlling the optical-axis profile of the resonators in a subwavelength scale by precisely modulating two degrees of freedom in our nanostructures.
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Transmissive resonator optic gyro based on silica waveguide ring resonator.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A transmissive resonator optic gyro (TROG) based on silica waveguide ring resonator with improved long-term bias stability is reported in this paper. The modeling of a transmissive resonator used in optic gyro is carried out. The polarization dependence of resonator and the influences of phase modulator's residual intensity modulation on the gyro output are analyzed. The resonator is simulated, designed, fabricated, tested and used to build up a TROG prototype. A bias stability of 0.22°/s over one hour test with an integration time of 10s is successfully demonstrated. No obvious drift has been found from the Allan variance analysis result of a 10000s test data, which means that the TROG prototype has an improved long-term drift characteristic.
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Decision-aided sampling frequency offset compensation for reduced-guard-interval coherent optical OFDM systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We propose a decision-aided algorithm to compensate the sampling frequency offset (SFO) between the transmitter and receiver for reduced-guard-interval (RGI) coherent optical (CO) OFDM systems. In this paper, we first derive the cyclic prefix (CP) requirement for preventing OFDM symbols from SFO induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). Then we propose a new decision-aided SFO compensation (DA-SFOC) algorithm, which shows a high SFO tolerance and reduces the CP requirement. The performance of DA-SFOC is numerically investigated for various situations. Finally, the proposed algorithm is verified in a single channel 28 Gbaud polarization division multiplexing (PDM) RGI CO-OFDM experiment with QPSK, 8 QAM and 16 QAM modulation formats, respectively. Both numerical and experimental results show that the proposed DA-SFOC method is highly robust against the standard SFO in optical fiber transmission.
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"Omics" of Maize Stress Response for Sustainable Food Production: Opportunities and Challenges.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Abstract Maize originated in the highlands of Mexico approximately 8700 years ago and is one of the most commonly grown cereal crops worldwide, followed by wheat and rice. Abiotic stresses (primarily drought, salinity, and high and low temperatures), together with biotic stresses (primarily fungi, viruses, and pests), negatively affect maize growth, development, and eventually production. To understand the response of maize to abiotic and biotic stresses and its mechanism of stress tolerance, high-throughput omics approaches have been used in maize stress studies. Integrated omics approaches are crucial for dissecting the temporal and spatial system-level changes that occur in maize under various stresses. In this comprehensive analysis, we review the primary types of stresses that threaten sustainable maize production; underscore the recent advances in maize stress omics, especially proteomics; and discuss the opportunities, challenges, and future directions of maize stress omics, with a view to sustainable food production. The knowledge gained from studying maize stress omics is instrumental for improving maize to cope with various stresses and to meet the food demands of the exponentially growing global population. Omics systems science offers actionable potential solutions for sustainable food production, and we present maize as a notable case study.
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Comparative assessment of orthogonal polynomials for wavefront reconstruction over the square aperture.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Four orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront over a square aperture based on the modal method are currently available, namely, the 2D Chebyshev polynomials, 2D Legendre polynomials, Zernike square polynomials and Numerical polynomials. They are all orthogonal over the full unit square domain. 2D Chebyshev polynomials are defined by the product of Chebyshev polynomials in x and y variables, as are 2D Legendre polynomials. Zernike square polynomials are derived by the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process, where the integration region across the full unit square is circumscribed outside the unit circle. Numerical polynomials are obtained by numerical calculation. The presented study is to compare these four orthogonal polynomials by theoretical analysis and numerical experiments from the aspects of reconstruction accuracy, remaining errors, and robustness. Results show that the Numerical orthogonal polynomial is superior to the other three polynomials because of its high accuracy and robustness even in the case of a wavefront with incomplete data.
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Experimental study of spatial coherence diffraction based on full-field coherence visualization.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A novel optical geometry for direct visualization of the optical coherence function is proposed. The diffractions of partially coherent light by apertures with various forms are experimentally investigated, and the full-field spatial coherence functions have been observed by using the proposed interferometric system. Similar to the well-known Airy disk stemming from optical diffraction, we studied the spatial coherence function near the coherence focal plane on the analogy of the Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction integrals. Following the conventional definitions for the optical resolutions in the optical imaging system, the lateral and longitudinal resolutions for spatial coherence imaging have been proposed.
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Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Breast Cancer Patients After Mastectomy: A Meta-Analysis.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating breast cancer patients after mastectomy. We searched EMBASE, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and PubMed to collect randomized controlled trials of TCM in treatment of breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Quality of the methodology was assessment in accordance with Cochrane 4.2.2 Handbook. All patients were divided into two groups: TCM group (TCM only or TCM plus conventional treatment) and control group (conventional treatment only). Effects of TCM on short-term clinical outcome, long-term survival rate, and incidence of adverse reaction were compared between the two groups. Twenty-nine studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving a total of 3142 breast cancer patients. Meta-analyses showed that TCM could improve short-term treatment efficacy (Z = 7.67, RR = 1.59, 95 % cl [1.41-1.80], P < 0.00001), extend 3-year (Z = 5.47, RR = 1.26, 95 % cl [1.16-1.37], P < 0.00001) and 5-year (Z = 5.53, RR = 1.17, 95 % cl [1.11-1.24], P < 0.00001) survival, reduce the incidence of adverse reactions in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. TCM provides beneficial and complementary effects in the treatment of breast cancer patients after mastectomy.
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Increased serum levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-3? and cystatin a predict a poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the roles of serum macrophage inflammatory protein-3? (MIP-3?) and cystatin A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) prognosis.The serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A in 140 primary NPC patients without distant metastasis were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. The results were compared with those in 100 healthy controls. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves of the 2 groups. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors used Cox proportional hazards regression model.Serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A in pretreatment patients with NPC were higher than those in healthy controls. Concentrations of these 2 factors in the majority of patients after the therapy decreased to control level. Patients with high serum level of MIP-3? and cystatin A before treatment had poorer overall survival (OS), local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival than the ones with low level. In addition, serum pretreatment MIP-3? and cystatin A levels were independent prognostic factors for OS and distant metastasis-free survival of NPC patients; serum posttreatment MIP-3? and cystatin A levels were independent prognostic factors of local recurrence-free survival.Our results revealed that serum MIP-3? and cystatin A may be promising candidate prognostic factors for NPC, and higher serum levels of MIP-3? and cystatin A correlate with shorter probability of OS, local recurrence, and distant metastasis.
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Sensitivity analyses for parametric causal mediation effect estimation.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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Causal mediation analysis uses a potential outcomes framework to estimate the direct effect of an exposure on an outcome and its indirect effect through an intermediate variable (or mediator). Causal interpretations of these effects typically rely on sequential ignorability. Because this assumption is not empirically testable, it is important to conduct sensitivity analyses. Sensitivity analyses so far offered for this situation have either focused on the case where the outcome follows a linear model or involve nonparametric or semiparametric models. We propose alternative approaches that are suitable for responses following generalized linear models. The first approach uses a Gaussian copula model involving latent versions of the mediator and the final outcome. The second approach uses a so-called hybrid causal-observational model that extends the association model for the final outcome, providing a novel sensitivity parameter. These models, while still assuming a randomized exposure, allow for unobserved (as well as observed) mediator-outcome confounders that are not affected by exposure. The methods are applied to data from a study of the effect of mother education on dental caries in adolescence.
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The Role of Chemotherapy for Metastatic, Relapsed and Refractory Osteosarcoma.
Paediatr Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Despite a large number of publications on outcomes of second-line chemotherapy for osteosarcoma, there is little consensus on efficacy of the therapy.
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11ß-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 shRNA Ameliorates Glucocorticoid -Induced Insulin Resistance and Lipolysis in Mouse Abdominal Adipose Tissue.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Pre-receptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) are important mediators of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11?-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11?-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of pThr(172)AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with reduction in pThr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11?-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11?-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and pThr(172)AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11ß-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired pThr(308)Akt/PKB leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11ß-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172)AMPK accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11?-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis.
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Association between interferon gamma receptor 1-56C/T gene polymorphism and tuberculosis susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Genetic variations in the interferon-gamma (IFN-?) receptor 1 gene (IFNGR1) may contribute to tuberculosis (TB) risk in different populations. Many studies have investigated the relationship between IFNGR1 56C/T polymorphism and the susceptibility to TB, but have yielded conflicting results. A comprehensive meta-analysis is needed to provide a more accurate estimation of the relationship between them.
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Effects of Supplemental Boron on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in African Ostrich Chicks.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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To investigate the effects of boron on growth performance and meat quality, 10-day-old Africa ostrich chicks were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates in each group. For 80 days, birds in the treatments were fed the same basal diet but given different concentrations of boron-supplemented water. The highest final BW (33.4 ± 0.30 kg), ADFI (376 ± 1.83 g), and ADG (224 ± 1.01 g) appeared in the group receiving 160 mg/L boron (group 4). 160 mg/L boron also decreased drip loss (2.20 ± 0.59), cooking loss (35.3 ± 1.14), and elevated pH value (6.13 ± 0.28) of meat (P < 0.05). Ostrich chicks in the 640 mg/L treatment group (group 6) had the lowest final BW (30.8 ± 1.05 kg) and ADG (208 ± 0.74 g) (P < 0.05). The highest ash (1.35 ± 0.01%) and pH (6.18 ± 0.03) and the lowest protein (20.4 ± 1.74%), drip loss (2.10 ± 0.76%), cooking loss (35.0 ± 0.41%), C18:1 (28.2 ± 0.65%), and C18:3?3 (2.60 ± 0.51%) appeared in group 6 (P < 0.05) as well. Overall, the optimum concentration of 160 mg/L supplemental boron improved ostrich growth performance and meat quality; however, high concentrations of boron decreased both performance and meat quality.
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Arabinoxylan in Wheat is More Responsible Than Cellulose for Promoting the Intestinal Barrier Function in Weaned Male Piglets.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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The effect of dietary fiber on intestinal function primarily has been ascribed to its interaction with intestinal bacteria in the hindgut, whereas changes in intestinal bacteria in the host have been considered to depend on fiber composition.
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FRET detection of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 conformational extension.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, ?L?2-integrin) and its ligands are essential for adhesion between T cells and antigen presenting cells, formation of the immunological synapse, and other immune cell interactions. LFA-1 function is regulated through conformational changes that include the modulation of ligand binding affinity and molecular extension. However, the relationship between molecular conformation and function is unclear. Here, fluorescence resonance energy transfer with new LFA-1-specific fluorescent probes showed that triggering of the pathway used for T-cell activation induced rapid unquenching of the FRET signal consistent with extension of the molecule. Analysis of the FRET quenching at rest revealed an unexpected result that can be interpreted as a previously unknown LFA-1 conformation.
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A flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the CH4, CO2 and H2O fluxes at a lake-air interface.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Inland lakes play important roles in water and greenhouse gas cycling in the environment. This study aims to test the performance of a flux-gradient system for simultaneous measurement of the fluxes of water vapor, CO2 and CH4 at a lake-air interface. The concentration gradients over the water surface were measured with an analyzer based on the wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy technology and the eddy diffusivity was measured with a sonic anemometer. Results of a zero-gradient test indicate a flux measurement precision of 4.8 W m(-2) for water vapor, 0.010 mg m(-2) s(-1) for CO2 and 0.029 ?g m(-2) s(-1) for CH4. During the 620 d measurement period, 97%, 69% and 67% of H2O, CO2 and CH4 hourly fluxes were higher in magnitude than the measurement precision, confirming that the flux-gradient system had adequate precision for the measurement of the lake-air exchanges. This study illustrates four strengths of the flux-gradient method: (1) ability to simultaneously measure the flux of H2O, CO2 and CH4; (2) negligibly small density corrections; (3) the ability to resolve small CH4 gradient and flux; and (4) continuous and noninvasive operation. The annual mean CH4 flux (1.8 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)) at this hyper-eutrophic lake was close to the median value for inland lakes in the world (1.6 g CH4 m(-2) year(-1)). The system has adequate precision for CH4 flux for broad applications but requires further improvement to resolve small CO2 flux in many lakes.
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[The prevalence of risk factors and status of clinical practice patterns among hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To analyze the distribution of multiple risk factors for hospitalized patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and explore the status and determinants of drug usage recommended by the guideline.
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Note: A charge sensitive spectroscopy amplifier for position sensitive micro-channel plate detectors.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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A compact and low noise charge sensitive spectroscopy amplifier which can be integrated into position sensitive micro-channel plate (MCP) detectors has been constructed. The amplifier was optimized by using a wave form generator and tested by a chevron shape MCP detector. The output noise of 4 mVrms was achieved while the gain is 10(12) V/C and the shaping time is 700 ns.
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Initial Experience in Total Laparoscopic Central Pancreatectomy with Pancreatogastrostomy.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Central pancreatectomy is an ideal treatment option to preserve pancreatic parenchyma and function for the benign and low-grade malignant tumors limited to the pancreatic neck or proximal body of the pancreas. This study presents our initial experience in total laparoscopic central pancreatectomy with pancreatogastrostomy. In 2013, two consecutive patients underwent total laparoscopic central pancreatectomy at our hospital. Data on surgical procedure, post-operative course, and follow-up were evaluated. Both the patients successfully underwent total laparoscopic central pancreatectomy with pancreatogastrostomy. The operating times were 250 and 300 min with blood loss of 100 and 200 ml and post-operative hospital stay of 9 and 10 days, respectively. The first patient did not suffer any post-operative complications. The second patient developed intra-abdominal fluid collection due to pancreatic fistula which was managed by percutaneous drainage. These two patients had no post-operative diabetes mellitus or exocrine insufficiency within the follow-up periods of 14 and 10 months, respectively. Thus, laparoscopic CP is a safe and feasible technique for treating benign and low-grade malignant tumors in the neck or proximal body of the pancreas when performed by highly skilled pancreatic and laparoscopic surgeons.
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A novel, smart microsphere with k(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties based on a responsive host-guest system.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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A novel type of smart microspheres with K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties is designed and developed on the basis of a K(+)-recognition host-guest system. The microspheres are composed of cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acryloylamidobenzo-15-crown-5) (P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5)) networks. Due to the formation of stable 2:1 "sandwich-type" host-guest complexes between 15-crown-5 units and K(+) ions, the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres significantly exhibit isothermally and synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties at a low K(+) concentration, while other cations (e.g., Na(+), H(+), NH4(+), Mg(2+), or Ca(2+)) cannot trigger such response behaviors. Effects of chemical compositions of microspheres on the K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating behaviors are investigated systematically. The K(+)-induced aggregating sensitivity of the P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres can be enhanced by increasing the content of crown ether units in the polymeric networks; however, it is nearly not influenced by varying the monomer and cross-linker concentrations in the microsphere preparation. State diagrams of the dispersed-to-aggregated transformation of P(NIPAM-co-AAB15C5) microspheres in aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and K(+) concentration are constructed, which provide valuable information for tuning the dispersed/aggregated states of microspheres by varying environmental K(+) concentration and temperature. The microspheres with synchronously K(+)-induced shrinking and aggregating properties proposed in this study provide a brand-new model for designing novel targeted drug delivery systems.
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Surface glycosylation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) membrane for selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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A novel method of constructing a glycosylated surface on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] membrane surface for the selective adsorption of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was developed, which involved the photoinduced graft polymerization of acrylic acid followed by the chemical binding of carboxyl groups with glucosamine in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy-succinimide. The chemical structures of the fabricated membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Zeta potential and water contact angle measurements were performed to investigate the surface charge and wettability of the membranes, respectively. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the LDL adsorption on the plain and modified membrane surfaces. It was found that the surface glycosylation of P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane greatly enhanced the affinity interactions with LDL and the absorbed LDL could be easily desorbed with eluents, indicating a specific and reversible binding of LDL to the surface. Furthermore, the hemocompatibility of glycosylated membrane was improved as examined by platelet adhesion. The results suggest that the glycosylated P(3HB-co-4HB) membrane is promising for application in LDL apheresis therapy.
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[Epidemiological analysis of malaria prevalence in Jiangsu Province in 2012].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To understand the malaria epidemic situation and characteristics in Jiangsu Province in 2012, so as to provide the evidence for formulating and adjusting effective malaria elimination strategies and measures.
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[Effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and watermelon yield in dryland].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To explore the effects of straw mulching on soil moisture and yield of watermelon, corn straw was used as mulching materials, and three straw mulch treatments were performed, i. e., whole mulch (WM), rows mulch (SM) and root domain mulch (RM), and non-mulching as control. The results indicated that WM and RM treatments increased significantly soil water storage in 0-120 cm of soil layer under root domain and rows compared with the control during watermelon growth period, and soil water storage of RM was higher than that of SM after growing tendril. Effects of all straw mulch treatments on soil moisture were most obvious from watermelon post-growing tendril to pre-swelling and maturity. With the growth and development of watermelon, the three straw mulch treatments improved soil moisture around root domain, resulting in increased watermelon yields. Compared with the CK, the WM, SM and RM treatments significantly improved the yield and the water use efficiency of watermelon by 24.8%, 11.5% and 15.1%, and 42.7%, 24.3% and 29.4%. The WM with 13500 kg x hm(-2) straw was recommended for watermelon production in arid areas due to its favorable effect on soil storage moisture, yield and water use efficiency.
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[Inhibitory Effect of Endostar on Lymphangiogenesis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Effect on Circulating Tumor Cells].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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It is unclear how could endostatin effect tumor lymphangiogenesis? The aim of this study is to explore inhibitory effect of recombinant human endostatin injection (endostar) on lymphangiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue and its effect on circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood.
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Relationship between fine particulate air pollution and ischaemic heart disease morbidity and mortality.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To assess the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) morbidity and mortality.
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Three-Port Laparoscopic Exploration is not Sufficient for Patients with T4 Gastric Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Gastric cancer continues to be a leading cause of cancer death. The majority of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma in China present with advanced disease. Ruling out unresectable cancers from an unnecessary ''open'' exploration is very important. The aim of this study was to assess the value of five-port anatomical laparoscopic exploration in T4 gastric cancer in comparison with three-port laparoscopic exploration and laparotomy exploration. We conducted a retrospective study on 126 patients with T4 stage scheduled for D2 curative gastrectomy based on computed tomography (CT) staging at Department of Gastric Cancer and Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, from Apr. 2011 to Apr. 2013. Laparotomy exploration (Group I), three-port laparoscopic exploration (Group II) or five-port anatomical laparoscopic exploration (Group III) were performed prior to radical gastrectomy. Accuracy rate for feasibility of D2 curative gastrectomy in laparotomy exploration and five-port anatomical laparoscopic exploration groups was higher than that in the three-port laparoscopic exploration group. Five-port anatomical laparoscopic exploration group had the highest accuracy resection rate (Group I vs Group II vs Group III,92.6% vs78.6% vs 97.7%; p<0.05) and shorter length of hospitalization (Group I vs Group II vs Group III, 9.58±4.17 vs 6.13±2.85 vs 5.00±1.81; p<0.001). Three-port laparoscopic exploration has low accuracy rate for assessing feasibility of D2 curative gastrectomy and five-port anatomical laparoscopic exploration should be performed on patients with T4 gastric cancer.
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[Contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production in different restoration phases of the Yellow River estuary, China].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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By using the method of time-space mutual substitution, the contribution of different processes in wetland soil N2O production was studied in the un-restoration wetland (R0), restoration wetland since 2007 (R2007) and restoration wetland since 2002 (R2002) of the Yellow River estuary to evaluate the effectiveness of the restoration projects. Results showed wetland soil total N2O production had a significant difference in different restoration phases, but the N2O release was the main source. The N2O production in restoration wetland was higher than that in un-restoration wetland. The N2O production wss mainly due to the nitrification and nitrifier denitrification processes, while the denitrification process had great weakening effects on N2O production, which was closely related to the physical and chemical properties of wetland soils in different restoration phases. The non-biological processes made greater contributions to N2O production and these were mainly due to that iron was reductive, while the Yellow River estuary was an area of highly active iron. Although N2O production in wetland soils was the results of biological processes combined with non-biological processes in different restoration phases, non-biological processes had larger influences and should be paid a special attention. There were different influences on wetland soil processes generating N2O between temperature and water content, indicating responses of soil microbial activities to temperature and water content were different. In addition, the N2O production contents ranged from 0.37 +/- 0.08 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) to 9.75 +/- 7.64 nmol x (kg x h) (-1) in marshes of the Yellow River estuary, which was slightly higher than those in the S. alterniflora wetland soils of the Min River estuary, but significantly lower than those in the C. malaccensis wetland soils of the Min River estuary, the grassland soils and the aerobic forest soils. We found that the long-term implements of ecological restoration project in the Yellow River estuary obviously promoted N2O production, so we should consider two factors of landscape restoration and weakening greenhouse gases in the next wetland restoration project.
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[Volume fraction of gas vesicle and floating characteristics of cyanobacteria in Taihu Lake under different pressures].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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In order to ascertain the volumetric change of gas vesicles in cyanobacteria and the floating characteristics, capillary pressure method and image analysis method were used to study burst situation and remanent volume fraction of gas vesicles in cyanobacteria under different pressures. The reform situation after pressuring was also analyzed in this research. The results showed that the volume fraction of gas vesicles in Taihu Lake were 29.52%, 5.73%, 4.43%, 2.71%, 2.46%, 2.19% under 0 MPa, 0.3 MPa, 0.4 MPa, 0.5 MPa, 0.6 MPa, 0.7 MPa determined by the image analysis, and were 10.93%, 1.14%, 0.90%, 0.27%, 0.14%, 0.04% determined by the capillary pressure method; cyanobacteria sank due to the gas vesicles' bursting when the pressure was greater than 0.4 MPa. Gas vesicles and structure after pressure were reformed with the lapse of time, under 1 000 lx, 25 degrees C, after 8 h, 24 h, 48 h, the reformed gas vesicles accounted for 31.02%, 45.68%, 81.05% of total gas vesicles before pressuring. Image analysis method is more accurate in the determination for cyanobacteria gas vesicles' volume, while the volume is smaller measured by traditional capillary pressure method.
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Differentiation into neurons of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.
Eur. Cytokine Netw.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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It has been reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into neurons as an effect of adding extraneous factors, such as ?-mercaptoethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and butylated hydroxyanisole. However, many of these compounds could harm MSCs and the human body, which restricts their application. We examined whether MSCs could differentiate into neuron-like cells under the influence of natural growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3).
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[Prevention and treatment of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss by shugan jiangu recipe in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: a clinical study].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To study the effect of Shugan Jiangu Recipe (SJR) on bone mineral density (BMD) and serum bone metabolic biochemical markers in postmenopausal breast cancer patients with osteopenia.
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Increasing the response rate of text messaging data collection: a delayed randomized controlled trial.
J Am Med Inform Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To test the effectiveness of multiple interventions on increasing the response rate of text messaging for longitudinal data collection.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of white-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix jacchus (Primates: Callitrichinae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Abstract The white-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World primate that inhabits the coastal rainforests of eastern Brazil. In the present work, we report the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of white-tufted-ear marmoset for the first time. The total length of this mitogenome is 16,499?bp long, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The gene organization and arrangement is identical to typical vertebrates. The overall base composition is 32.75% of A, 26.95% of T, 26.91% C, and 13.39% G, with a slight A?+?T bias of 59.7%. All the genes are encoded on H-strand, except for the ND6 subunit gene and 8 tRNA genes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.
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Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H2S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H2S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L?1 on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H2S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit.
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Ultrastable core-shell structured nanoparticles directly made from zwitterionic polymers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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A novel strategy was achieved to make ultra-stable core-shell nanoparticles directly from nonfouling zwitterionic polymers through a one-step microwave method. The resulting nanoparticles showed superior colloid stability in bio-relevant media and even under freeze-drying conditions.
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New screw lactam and two new carbohydrate derivatives from the methanol extract of rice bran.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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A new screw lactam and two new carbohydrate derivatives, oryzalactam (1), oryzasaccharide A (2), and oryzasaccharide B (3), have been isolated from the methanol extract of rice bran together with four other known compounds, including momilactone A (4), butyl ?-d-xylopyranose (5), ethyl ?-d-xylopyranose (6), and methyl ?-d-xylopyranose (7). The structures of these compounds were determined using a combination of spectroscopic methods and chemical analysis. This work represents the first recorded example of the isolation of compounds 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 from rice bran. The antioxidant experiments revealed that compound 1 possessed strong ABTS(+) (ABTS = 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH (DPPH = diphenyl(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium) radical scavenging with IC50 values of 33.38 ± 1.58 and 40.20 ± 1.34 ?M, respectively. Antimicrobial assays revealed that compound 4 showed high levels of selectivity toward Escherichia coli with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 5 ?M.
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piPipes: a set of pipelines for piRNA and transposon analysis via small RNA-seq, RNA-seq, degradome- and CAGE-seq, ChIP-seq and genomic DNA sequencing.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), 23-36 nt small silencing RNAs, repress transposon expression in the metazoan germ line, thereby protecting the genome. Although high-throughput sequencing has made it possible to examine the genome and transcriptome at unprecedented resolution, extracting useful information from gigabytes of sequencing data still requires substantial computational skills. Additionally, researchers may analyze and interpret the same data differently, generating results that are difficult to reconcile. To address these issues, we developed a coordinated set of pipelines, 'piPipes', to analyze piRNA and transposon-derived RNAs from a variety of high-throughput sequencing libraries, including small RNA, RNA, degradome or 7-methyl guanosine cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and genomic DNA-seq. piPipes can also produce figures and tables suitable for publication. By facilitating data analysis, piPipes provides an opportunity to standardize computational methods in the piRNA field.
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Levetiracetam Effect on Adult-Onset Temporal Lobe Epilepsy With Positive Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody.
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Temporal lobe epilepsy is considered to be the most frequent of all epileptic syndromes. Recently, several retrospective studies suggest that limbic encephalitis (LE) may be a cause for adult onset unexplained seizure disorders in patients. This report describes two cases of adult onset epilepsy with voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies (VGKC-abs)-associated LE that responded well to levetiracetam (LEV). As demonstrated by these two cases and reviewing previous reports, we propose that the therapeutic regimen for VGKC-abs associated seizures still needs to be determined and LEV may be effective in treating this kind of disorders.
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Bio-Inspired Vapor-Responsive Colloidal Photonic Crystal Patterns by Inkjet Printing.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Facile, fast, and cost-effective technology for patterning of responsive colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) is of great importance for their practical applications. In this report, we develop a kind of responsive CPC patterns with multicolor shifting properties by inkjet printing mesoporous colloidal nanoparticle ink on both rigid and soft substrates. By adjusting the size and mesopores' proportion of nanoparticles, we can precisely control the original color and vapor-responsive color shift extent of mesoporous CPC. As a consequence, multicolor mesoporous CPCs patterns with complex vapor responsive color shifts or vapor-revealed implicit images are subsequently achieved. The complicated and reversible multicolor shifts of mesoporous CPC patterns are favorable for immediate recognition by naked eyes but hard to copy. This approach is favorable for integration of responsive CPCs with controllable responsive optical properties. Therefore, it is of great promise for developing advanced responsive CPC devices such as anticounterfeiting devices, multifunctional microchips, sensor arrays, or dynamic displays.
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Tumor-released Galectin-3, a soluble inhibitory ligand of human NKp30, plays an important role in tumor escaping from NK cell attack.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Human Galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding protein expressed by tumor cells, was reported to act as an immune regulator in anti-tumor T cells; however, its effect on NK cells is elusive. Using a recombinant human NK cell activating receptor NKp30 fusion protein (NKp30-Fc), we found that soluble NKp30-Fc could immunoprecipitate Galectin-3. The direct interaction between NKp30 and Galectin-3 was further confirmed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. Because Galectin-3 was mainly released from tumor cells in a soluble form in our study, the binding assay was performed to show that soluble Galectin-3 specifically bound to NK cells and NKp30 on the surface of the NK cells. Functionally, when soluble Galectin-3 was added to the NK-tumor cell co-culture system, the NKp30-mediated, but not NKG2D-mediated, cytolysis and CD107a expression in the NK cells were inhibited, and these phenotypes could be restored by pre-incubation of soluble Galectin-3 with NKp30-Fc fusion protein or the addition of anti-Gal-3 antibody alone. Moreover, genetic downregulation of Galectin-3 (shGal-3) resulted in tumor cells being more sensitive to NK cell lysis, and reversely, Galectin-3-overexpressing HeLa cells (exGal-3) became less sensitive to NK cell killing. The results of these in vitro experiments were supported by studies in shGal-3-HeLa or exGal-3-HeLa xenograft NOD-SCID mice after NK cell adoptive immunotherapy, indicating that Galectin-3 strongly antagonizes human NK cell attack against tumors in vivo. These findings indicate that Galectin-3 may function as an immune regulator to inhibit NK cell function against tumors, thus providing a new therapeutic target for tumor treatment.
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[Risk factors for chronic allograft failure in renal transplant recipients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To identify the potential risk factors for the development of chronic renal allograft failure in renal transplant recipients.
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Efficient organic solar cells with helical perylene diimide electron acceptors.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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We report an efficiency of 6.1% for a solution-processed non-fullerene solar cell using a helical perylene diimide (PDI) dimer as the electron acceptor. Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealed both electron and hole transfer processes at the donor-acceptor interfaces, indicating that charge carriers are created from photogenerated excitons in both the electron donor and acceptor phases. Light-intensity-dependent current-voltage measurements suggested different recombination rates under short-circuit and open-circuit conditions.
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Evaluation of two implementation strategies in 51 child county public service systems in two states: results of a cluster randomized head-to-head implementation trial.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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BackgroundMuch is to be learned about what implementation strategies are the most beneficial to communities attempting to adopt evidence-based practices. This paper presents outcomes from a randomized implementation trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) in child public service systems in California and Ohio, including child welfare, juvenile justice, and mental health.MethodsFifty-one counties were assigned randomly to one of two different implementation strategies (Community Development Teams (CDT) or independent county implementation strategy (IND)) across four cohorts after being matched on county characteristics. We compared these two strategies on implementation process, quality, and milestone achievements using the Stages of Implementation Completion (SIC) (Implement Sci 6(1):1¿8, 2011).ResultsA composite score for each county, combining the final implementation stage attained, the number of families served, and quality of implementation, was used as the primary outcome. No significant difference between CDT and IND was found for the composite measure. Additional analyses showed that there was no evidence that CDT increased the proportion of counties that started-up programs (i.e., placed at least one family in MTFC). For counties that did implement MTFC, those in the CDT condition served over twice as many youth during the study period as did IND. Of the counties that successfully achieved program start-up, those in the CDT condition completed the implementation process more thoroughly, as measured by the SIC. We found no significant differences by implementation condition on the time it took for first placement, achieving competency, or number of stages completed.ConclusionsThis trial did not lead to higher rates of implementation or faster implementation but did provide evidence for more robust implementation in the CDT condition compared to IND implementation once the first family received MTFC services. This trial was successful from a design perspective in that no counties dropped out, even though this study took place during an economic recession. We believe that this methodologic approach of measurement utilizing the SIC, which is comprised of the three dimensions of quality, quantity, and timing, is appropriate for a wide range of implementation and translational studies.Trial registrationTrial ID: NCT00880126 (ClinicalTrials.gov).
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Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: current developments in mechanism and prevention.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a subtle disorder of thought processes, which may influence isolated domains of cognition and has a significant impact on patient health. The reported incidence of POCD varies enormously due to lack of formal criteria for the assessment and diagnosis of POCD. The significant risk factors of developing POCD mainly include larger and more invasive operations, duration of anesthesia, advanced age, history of alcohol abuse, use of anticholinergic medications, and other factors. The release of cytokines due to the systemic stress response caused by anesthesia and surgical procedures might induce the changes of brain function and be involved in the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The strategies for management of POCD should be a multimodal approach involving close cooperation between the anesthesiologist, surgeon, geriatricians, and family members to promote early rehabilitation and avoid loss of independence in these patients.
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Lattice water molecules tuned spin-crossover for an iron(ii) complex with thermal hysteresis.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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A new iron(ii) complex based on the 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine ligand [Fe(4,4'-dmbpy)3(ClO4)(SCN)·3H2O (·3H2O)] has been prepared and characterized. Structural studies and Hirshfeld surface analysis for complex ·3H2O at three different temperatures (300, 240 and 130 K) are described. The UV-vis absorption spectrum of a water-free sample () in methanol solution and magnetic susceptibility measurements for solid-state samples ·3H2O and revealed that the removal of lattice water molecules from complex ·3H2O changed the magnetic properties from the low-spin state (·3H2O) to the complete spin-crossover () between 350-220 K with a thermal hysteresis of 7 K, and was accompanied by a colour change from brown to red.
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Spotlite: Web Application and Augmented Algorithms for Predicting Co-Complexed Proteins from Affinity Purification - Mass Spectrometry Data.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Protein-protein interactions defined by affinity purification and mass spectrometry (APMS) suffer from high false discovery rates. Consequently, lists of potential interactions must be pruned of contaminants before network construction and interpretation, historically an expensive, time-intensive, and error-prone task. In recent years, numerous computational methods were developed to identify genuine interactions from the hundreds of candidates. Here, comparative analysis of three popular algorithms, HGSCore, CompPASS, and SAINT, revealed complementarity in their classification accuracies, which is supported by their divergent scoring strategies. We improved each algorithm by an average area under a receiver operating characteristics curve increase of 16% by integrating a variety of indirect data known to correlate with established protein-protein interactions, including mRNA coexpression, gene ontologies, domain-domain binding affinities, and homologous protein interactions. Each APMS scoring approach was incorporated into a separate logistic regression model along with the indirect features; the resulting three classifiers demonstrate improved performance on five diverse APMS data sets. To facilitate APMS data scoring within the scientific community, we created Spotlite, a user-friendly and fast web application. Within Spotlite, data can be scored with the augmented classifiers, annotated, and visualized ( http://cancer.unc.edu/majorlab/software.php ). The utility of the Spotlite platform to reveal physical, functional, and disease-relevant characteristics within APMS data is established through a focused analysis of the KEAP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.
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Airborne virus sampling: Efficiencies of samplers and their detection limits for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV).
Ann Agric Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Introduction. The airborne transmission of infectious diseases in livestock production is increasingly receiving research attention. Reliable techniques of air sampling are crucial to underpin the findings of such studies. This study evaluated the physical and biological efficiencies and detection limits of four samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all-glass impinger "AGI-30", OMNI-3000 and MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting aerosols of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Materials and Method. IBDV aerosols mixed with a physical tracer (uranine) were generated in an isolator, and then collected by the bioaerosol samplers. Samplers' physical and biological efficiencies were derived based on the tracer concentration and the virus/tracer ratio, respectively. Detection limits for the samplers were estimated with the obtained efficiency data. Results. Physical efficiencies of the AGI-30 (96%) and the MD8 (100%) were significantly higher than that of the OMNI-3000 (60%). Biological efficiency of the OMNI-3000 (23%) was significantly lower than 100% (P < 0.01), indicating inactivation of airborne virus during sampling. The AGI-30, the Andersen impactor and the MD8 did not significantly inactivate virus during sampling. The 2-min detection limits of the samplers on airborne IBDV were 4.1 log10 50% egg infective dose (EID50) m (-3) for the Andersen impactor, 3.3 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the AGI-30, 2.5 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the OMNI-3000, and 2.9 log10 EID50 m (-3) for the MD8. The mean half-life of IBDV aerosolized at 20 °C and 70% was 11.9 min. Conclusion. Efficiencies of different samplers vary. Despite its relatively low sampling efficiency, the OMNI-3000 is suitable for use in environments with low viral concentrations because its high flow rate gives a low detection limit. With the 4 samplers investigated, negative air samples cannot guarantee virus-free aerial environments, which means that transmission of infectious agents between farms may still occur even when no virus has been detected.
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Abnormal methylation of the sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17) promoter predicts poor prognosis in myelodysplastic syndrome.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17) is a member of the high mobility group (HMG) transcription factor family, which plays critical roles in the regulation of development and stem/precursor cell function. Recent evidence demonstrated that SOX17 acts as a tumor-suppressor gene, at least partly though repression of Wnt pathway activity.
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Efficacy of Anti-RON Antibody Zt/g4-Drug Maytansinoid Conjugation (Anti-RON ADC) as a Novel Therapeutics for Targeted Colorectal Cancer Therapy.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The receptor tyrosine kinase RON is critical in epithelial tumorigenesis and a drug target for cancer therapy. Here, we report the development and therapeutic efficacy of a novel anti-RON antibody Zt/g4-maytansinoid (DM1) conjugates for targeted colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy.
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[Pharmacokinetic comparison of baicalin absorption medicine Qinbai Qingfei concentrated pellets drug compatibility].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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The Qinbai Qingfei concentrated pellets by traditional Chinese medicine theoryand party and group, the rats were given the drugs group, comparison of pharmacokinetics parameters changes of baicalin , discusses the rationality of Qinbai prescription. The rats were gavaged monarch drug group (Huang Qincu extract, mainly forbaicalin), and official medicine group, adjuvant group, medicine group and Qinbai group (Quan Fangzu) the content of baicalin equal as the monarch drug group, in the 28 h collection in rat plasma at different time point, application of HPLC determination of baicalin glycosides in rat plasmaconcentration time curve, with 3P97 practical pharmacokinetics program to process the data Based on the data analysis, baicalin in rat plasma of Qinbai group Cmax is 4 times as big as monarch druggroup, AUC is 6 times as big as monarch drug group; the content of baicalin in plasma of rats the highest is Qinbai group, the minister drug group, adjuvant group, medicine group of baicalin in rat plasma content of less than the Qinbai group, but was significantly higher than that of monarch drug group; the medicine group is slightly higher than that adjuvant the content of baicalin in plasma of rats. The pharmacokinetic results show that the measured plasma concentration in rats that Qinbai can significantly increase Cmax and AUC of baicalin, other components of qinbai can promoted the baicalin absorption in vivo. It showed that the reasonable of Qinbai compound compatibility. The minister drug can promote the absorption of baicalin in vivo.
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Epidemic spreading on complex networks with general degree and weight distributions.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The spread of disease on complex networks has attracted wide attention in the physics community. Recent works have demonstrated that heterogeneous degree and weight distributions have a significant influence on the epidemic dynamics. In this study, a novel edge-weight-based compartmental approach is developed to estimate the epidemic threshold and epidemic size (final infected density) on networks with general degree and weight distributions, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained. Even in complex networks with the strong heterogeneous degree and weight distributions, this approach is used. We then propose an edge-weight-based removal strategy with different biases and find that such a strategy can effectively control the spread of epidemic when the highly weighted edges are preferentially removed, especially when the weight distribution of a network is extremely heterogenous. The theoretical results from the suggested method can accurately predict the above removal effectiveness.
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Comparative study of radial head resection and prosthetic replacement in surgical release of stiff elbows.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Elbow trauma can compromise the arc of elbow flexion and forearm rotation. This study aimed at comparing the outcomes of radial head resection and prosthetic replacement in the surgical release of post traumatic elbow stiffness and associated restriction in forearm rotation.
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High expression of ROR2 in cancer cell correlates with unfavorable prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) is a transmembrane protein that belongs to a conserved family of tyrosine kinase receptors involved in several functional processes. ROR2 is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors; however, the expression of ROR2, as well as its functional and prognostic significance has yet to be evaluated in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis using tissue microarrays were used to evaluate ROR2 expression in CRC and to investigate the association between ROR2 expression and patient prognosis. We observed that the expression of ROR2 mRNA and protein was significantly higher in CRC specimens compared with normal, tumor-adjacent tissues (both p<0.05). Cytoplasmic ROR2 expression was related to TNM stage (p=0.041) and lymph node metastasis (N) (p=0.015). Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses suggested that high cytoplasmic ROR2 expression (p=0.001), poor tumor differentiation (p=0.001), and advanced TNM stage (p=0.001) and high preoperative CEA level (p<0.001) were significantly associated with unfavorable survival of CRC patients. These results suggest that ROR2 expression is correlated with malignant attributes of CRC and may serve as an indicator for poor prognosis in patients with CRC.
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Prognostic value of LAMP3 and TP53 overexpression in benign and malignant gastrointestinal tissues.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Lysosomal associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a newly identified tumor-specific protein. It is a downstream target gene of tumor suppressor TP53 and its expression has been associated with hypoxia-induced metastasis and poor overall survival in cervical and breast cancers. However, little is known of LAMP3 protein expression in gastrointestinal cancer and its prognostic value. We determined protein expression of LAMP3 and TP53 in both gastric (n=750) and colorectal (n=479) tissues by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray (TMA), their expression was correlated with patients' clinical parameters. LAMP3 and TP53 protein expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared to normal and benign tissues. In both gastric and colorectal cancers, high LAMP3 protein expression (LAMP3+) was significantly associated with tumor stage (P=0.014 and P<0.001). No correlation between LAMP3 and TP53 expression was observed. Patients with high LAMP3 expression but not high TP53 expression had a poor overall survival (for gastric cancer P<0.001, CI: 1.762-4.567; for colorectal cancer P=0.036, CI: 1.062-5.980). Our data suggest that epithelial LAMP3 expression is an independent prognostic marker for gastrointestinal cancer.
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Hemorrhagic Transformation after Tissue Plasminogen Activator Reperfusion Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: Mechanisms, Models, and Biomarkers.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is well recognized as a common cause of hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke. HT after acute ischemic stroke contributes to early mortality and adversely affects functional recovery. The risk of HT is especially high when patients receive thrombolytic reperfusion therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only available treatment for ischemic stroke. Although many important publications address preclinical models of ischemic stroke, there are no current recommendations regarding the conduct of research aimed at understanding the mechanisms and prediction of HT. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms for HT after ischemic stroke, provide an overview of the models commonly used for the study of HT, and discuss biomarkers that might be used for the early detection of this challenging clinical problem.
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Negative feedback of miR-29 family TET1 involves in hepatocellular cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of liver cancer and is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Tumor suppressor gene silencing through DNA methylation contributes to cancer formation. The ten-eleven translocations (TET) family of ?-ketogluta-rate-dependent dioxygenases catalyzes the sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine, 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, leading to eventual DNA demethylation. MicroRNAs are an abundant class of 17-25 nucleotides small noncoding RNAs, identified as important regulators of many diverse biological processes. In this study, we showed that TET1 expression was obviously reduced in the majority of examined HCC tissues. And we further investigated the expression and functional involvement of TET1 in proliferation, migration and invasion, and determined that TET1 may function as a tumor suppressor. MiR-29b was proved to inhibit metastasis through the targeting of TET1, indicating that downregulation of miR-29 may involve in HCC carcinogenesis and progression through potentiation of TET1 expression. Thus, we elucidated the roles of feedback of miR-29-TET1 downregulation in HCC development and suggested a potential target in identification of the prognosis and application of cancer therapy for HCC patients.
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In vitro selection of a peptide aptamer that changes fluorescence in response to verotoxin.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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A peptide aptamer that changes fluorescence upon binding to verotoxin was selected in vitro using ribosome display with a tRNA carrying an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe. The aptamer specifically bound to verotoxin with a dissociation constant (K d) of 3.94 ± 1.6 µM, and the fluorescence decreased by 78 % as the verotoxin concentration was increased. The selected peptide can be used for detection of verotoxin.
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TEMPO-Based Catholyte for High-Energy Density Nonaqueous Redox Flow Batteries.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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A TEMPO-based nonaqueous electrolyte with the TEMPO concentration as high as 2.0 M is demonstrated as a high-energy-density catholyte for redox flow battery applications. With a hybrid anode, Li|TEMPO flow cells using this electrolyte deliver an energy efficiency of ?70% and an impressively high energy density of 126 Wh L(-1) .
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RYBP expression is associated with better survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and responsiveness to chemotherapy of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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RYBP is a member of the polycomb group (PcG) proteins that typically act as transcriptional repressors via epigenetic modification of chromatin. The present study was designed to investigate the role of RYBP in HCC progression, chemosensitivity, and patient survival, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism(s). In this study we investigated the expression of RYBP in 400 pairs of human HCC tissues and matched noncancerous samples. The effects of RYBP on HCC tumor growth and metastasis and chemosensitivity were determined both in vitro and in vivo. We herein demonstrate that the RYBP expression in HCC tissue samples was significantly lower than that in matched noncancerous liver tissues. Clinically, the low expression of RYBP was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in patients with HCC. In in vitro HCC models, enforced RYBP expression inhibited cell growth and invasion, induced apoptosis, and increased the chemosensitivity of the cells, while RYBP knockdown led to the opposite effects. Furthermore, RYBP expression was induced by cisplatin, and adenovirus-mediated RYBP expression inhibited HCC tumor growth and sensitized HCC to conventional chemotherapy in vivo. Our results demonstrate that reactivating RYBP in cancer cells may provide an effective and safe therapeutic approach to HCC therapy.
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A SNP in OsMCA1 responding for a plant architecture defect by deactivation of bioactive GA in rice.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Plant architecture directly affects biomass in higher plants, especially grain yields in agricultural crops. In this study, we characterized a recessive mutant, plant architecture determinant (pad), derived from the Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivar MH86. The mutant exhibited severe dwarf phenotypes, including shorter and stunted leaves, fewer secondary branches during both the vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Cytological studies revealed that pad mutant growth defects are primarily due to the inhibition of cell expansion. The PAD gene was isolated using a map-based cloning strategy. It encodes a plasma membrane protein OsMCA1 and a SNP responsible for a single amino acid change was found in the mutant. PAD was universally expressed in rice tissues from the vegetative to reproductive growth stages, especially in seedlings, nodes and rachillae. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the most of the genes responding to gibberellin (GA) metabolism were up-regulated in pad mutant internodes. The endogenous GA content measurement revealed that the levels of GA1 were significantly decreased in the third internode of pad mutants. Moreover, a GA response assay suggested that OsMCA1/PAD might be involved in the regulation of GA metabolism and signal transduction. Our results revealed the pad is a loss-of-function mutant of the OsMCA1/PAD, leading to upregulation of genes related to GA deactivation, which decreased bioactive GA levels.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Revealing Origin of Decrease in Potency of Darunavir and Amprenavir against HIV-2 relative to HIV-1 Protease by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Clinical inhibitors Darunavir (DRV) and Amprenavir (APV) are less effective on HIV-2 protease (PR2) than on HIV-1 protease (PR1). To identify molecular basis associated with the lower inhibition, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the PR1 inhibitors DRV and APV against PR1/PR2. The rank of predicted binding free energies agrees with the experimental determined one. Moreover, our results show that two inhibitors bind less strongly to PR2 than to PR1, again in agreement with the experimental findings. The decrease in binding free energies for PR2 relative to PR1 is found to arise from the reduction of the van der Waals interactions induced by the structural adjustment of the triple mutant V32I, I47V and V82I. This result is further supported by the difference between the van der Waals interactions of inhibitors with each residue in PR2 and in PR1. The results from the principle component analysis suggest that inhibitor binding tends to make the flaps of PR2 close and the one of PR1 open. We expect that this study can theoretically provide significant guidance and dynamics information for the design of potent dual inhibitors targeting PR1/PR2.
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The alpha-lipoic acid decreases urinary podocalyxin excretion in type 2 diabetics by inhibiting oxidative stress in vivo.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To observe the effects of Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on oxidative stress (OS) in vivo and urinary podocalyxin (PCX, the glomerular podocyte marker protein) excretion in type 2 diabetics and explore its possible protective mechanisms on glomerular podocytes.
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Inhibition of aldose reductase ameliorates diet?induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice via modulating the phosphorylation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Aldose reductase (AR) is involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which AR affects the development of murine diet?induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of a methionine?choline?deficient (MCD) diet, a commonly used nutrition?induced model of steatohepatitis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for histological analyses. Western blot analyses were used to determine protein expression levels and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze mRNA expression levels. The results showed that the AR protein expression level was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice fed the MCD diet than in mice fed the control diet. Diet?induced hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation were attenuated in the MCD diet?fed mice treated with the AR inhibitor, zopolrestat. The ameliorating effect of AR inhibition on steatohepatitis was associated with decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipoperoxides, reduced expression of phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor (PPAR)? and increased mRNA expression of acyl coenzyme A oxidase. These data indicated that induction of hepatic AR expression in mice with steatohepatitis resulted in the phosphorylation of PPAR? and suppression of PPAR? activity. Inhibition of AR decreased lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, at least in part through the modulation of PPAR? phosphorylation and PPAR? transcriptional activity.
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HOMO Stabilisation in ?-Extended Dibenzotetrathiafulvalene Derivatives for Their Application in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Three new organic semiconductors, in which either two methoxy units are directly linked to a dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DB-TTF) central core and a 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole is fused on the one side, or four methoxy groups are linked to the DB-TTF, have been synthesised as active materials for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Their electrochemical behaviour, electronic absorption and fluorescence emission as well as photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer were studied. The electron-withdrawing 2,1,3-chalcogendiazole unit significantly affects the electronic properties of these semiconductors, lowering both the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and hence increasing the stability of the semiconducting material. The solution-processed single-crystal transistors exhibit high performance with a hole mobility up to 0.04?cm(2) ?V(-1) ?s(-1) as well as good ambient stability.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates influenza H7N9 virus-induced acute lung injury.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Since March 2013, the emergence of an avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus has raised concern in China. Although most infections resulted in respiratory illness, some severe cases resulted in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a severe form of acute lung injury (ALI) that further contributes to morbidity. To date, no effective drugs that improve the clinical outcome of influenza A (H7N9) virus-infected patients have been identified. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are involved in several pathologies such as cardiovascular functions, renal disease, and acute lung injury. In the current study, we report that ACE2 could mediate the severe acute lung injury induced by influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in an experimental mouse model. Moreover, ACE2 deficiency worsened the disease pathogenesis markedly, mainly by targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1). The current findings demonstrate that ACE2 plays a critical role in influenza A (H7N9) virus-induced acute lung injury, and suggest that might be a useful potential therapeutic target for future influenza A (H7N9) outbreaks.
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