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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
HIV virological failure and drug resistance among injecting drug users receiving first-line ART in China.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To explore HIV virological failure and drug resistance among injecting drug users (IDUs) receiving first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in China.
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Consumption of vegetables may reduce the risk of liver cancer: Results from a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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We conducted a meta-analysis of all published case-control and cohort studies to evaluate the relationship between vegetables intake and liver cancer risk.
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Differential anti-diabetic effects and mechanism of action of charantin-rich extract of Taiwanese Momordica charantia between type 1 and type 2 diabetic mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), also called bitter melon, has traditionally been used as a natural anti-diabetic agent for anti-hyperglycemic activity in several animal models and clinical trials. We investigated the differences in the anti-diabetic properties and mechanism of action of Taiwanese M. charantia (MC) between type 1 diabetic (T1D) and type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. To clarify the beneficial effects of MC, we measured non-fasting glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and plasma insulin levels in KK/HIJ mice with high-fat diet-induced diabetes (200 mg/kg/day of charantin-rich extract of MC [CEMC]) and in ICR mice with STZ-induced diabetes. After 8 weeks, all the mice were exsanguinated, and the expression of the insulin-signaling-associated proteins in their tissue was evaluated, in coordination with the protective effects of CEMC against pancreatic ?-cell toxicity (in vitro). Eight weeks of data indicated that CEMC caused a significant decline in non-fasting blood glucose, plasma glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in the KK/HIJ mice, but not in the ICR mice. Furthermore, CEMC decreased plasma insulin and promoted the sensitivity of insulin by increasing the expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and of IRS-1 in the liver of KK/HIJ mice; however, CEMC extract had no effect on the insulin sensitivity of ICR mice. In vitro study showed that CEMC prevented pancreatic ? cells from high-glucose-induced cytotoxicity after 24 h of incubation, but the protective effect was not detectable after 72 h. Collectively, the hypoglycemic effects of CEMC suggest that it has potential for increasing insulin sensitivity in patients with T2D rather than for protecting patients with T1D against ?-cell dysfunction.
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M3 muscarinic receptor interaction with phospholipase C ?3 determines its signaling efficiency.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Phospholipase C? (PLC?) enzymes are activated by G protein-coupled receptors through receptor-catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on G??? heterotrimers containing Gq family G proteins. Here we report evidence for a direct interaction between M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) and PLC?3. Both expressed and endogenous M3R interacted with PLC? in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Stimulation of M3R with carbachol significantly increased this association. Expression of M3R in CHO cells promoted plasma membrane localization of YFP-PLC?3. Deletion of the PLC?3 C terminus or deletion of the PLC?3 PDZ ligand inhibited coimmunoprecipitation with M3R and M3R-dependent PLC?3 plasma membrane localization. Purified PLC?3 bound directly to glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fused M3R intracellular loops 2 and 3 (M3Ri2 and M3Ri3) as well as M3R C terminus (M3R/H8-CT). PLC?3 binding to M3Ri3 was inhibited when the PDZ ligand was removed. In assays using reconstituted purified components in vitro, M3Ri2, M3Ri3, and M3R/H8-CT potentiated G?q-dependent but not G??-dependent PLC?3 activation. Disruption of key residues in M3Ri3N and of the PDZ ligand in PLC?3 inhibited M3Ri3-mediated potentiation. We propose that the M3 muscarinic receptor maximizes the efficiency of PLC?3 signaling beyond its canonical role as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for G?.
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Study of the association between ITPKC genetic polymorphisms and calcium nephrolithiasis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease caused by environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors. Genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1, which codes for the main subunit of the store-operated calcium (SOC) channel, were reported to be associated with the risk and recurrence of calcium nephrolithiasis. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) 3-kinase C (ITPKC) is a negative regulator of the SOC channel-mediated signaling pathway. We investigated the association between calcium containing nephrolithiasis and genetic variants of ITPKC gene in Taiwanese patients. 365 patients were recruited in this study. Eight tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms of ITPKC were selected for genotyping. ITPKC genotypes were determined by TaqMan assay. ITPKC plasmids were transfected into cells to evaluate the intracellular calcium mobilization. Our results indicated that rs2607420 CC genotype in the intron region of the ITPKC gene is associated with a lower eGFR by both Modification of Diet in Renal Diseases (P = 0.0405) and Cockcroft-Gault (P = 0.0215) equations in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Our results identify a novel polymorphism for renal function and highlight the importance of ITPKC as a key molecule to regulate calcium signaling.
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Rapid identification of bacteria and Candida pathogens in peritoneal dialysis effluent from patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis by use of multilocus PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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PCR coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) was compared with culture for pathogen detection in peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. Of 21 samples of PD effluent, PCR/ESI-MS identified microorganisms in 18 (86%) samples, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1 culture-negative sample. Of 15 double-positive samples, PCR/ESI-MS and culture reached levels of agreement of 100% (15/15) and 87.5% (7/8) at the genus and species levels, respectively. PCR/ESI-MS can be used for rapid pathogen detection in PD-related peritonitis.
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Disulfide-rich macrocyclic peptides as templates in drug design.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Recently disulfide-rich head-to-tail cyclic peptides have attracted the interest of medicinal chemists owing to their exceptional thermal, chemical and enzymatic stability brought about by their constrained structures. Here we review current trends in the field of peptide-based pharmaceuticals and describe naturally occurring cyclic disulfide-rich peptide scaffolds, discussing their pharmaceutically attractive properties and benefits. We describe how we can utilise these stable frameworks to graft and/or engineer pharmaceutically interesting epitopes to increase their selectivity and bioactivity, opening up new possibilities for addressing 'difficult' pharmaceutical targets.
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Dynamics of carbon-hydrogen and carbon-methyl exchanges in the collision of 3P atomic carbon with propene.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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We investigated the dynamics of the reaction of (3)P atomic carbon with propene (C3H6) at reactant collision energy 3.8 kcal mol(-1) in a crossed molecular-beam apparatus using synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. Products C4H5, C4H4, C3H3, and CH3 were observed and attributed to exit channels C4H5 + H, C4H4 + 2H, and C3H3 + CH3; their translational-energy distributions and angular distributions were derived from the measurements of product time-of-flight spectra. Following the addition of a (3)P carbon atom to the C=C bond of propene, cyclic complex c-H2C(C)CHCH3 undergoes two separate stereoisomerization mechanisms to form intermediates E- and Z-H2CCCHCH3. Both the isomers of H2CCCHCH3 in turns decompose to C4H5 + H and C3H3 + CH3. A portion of C4H5 that has enough internal energy further decomposes to C4H4 + H. The three exit channels C4H5 + H, C4H4 + 2H, and C3H3 + CH3 have average translational energy releases 13.5, 3.2, and 15.2 kcal mol(-1), respectively, corresponding to fractions 0.26, 0.41, and 0.26 of available energy deposited to the translational degrees of freedom. The H-loss and 2H-loss channels have nearly isotropic angular distributions with a slight preference at the forward direction particularly for the 2H-loss channel. In contrast, the CH3-loss channel has a forward and backward peaked angular distribution with an enhancement at the forward direction. Comparisons with reactions of (3)P carbon atoms with ethene, vinyl fluoride, and vinyl chloride are stated.
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Exploring the dynamics of C/H and C/Cl exchanges in the C(3P) + C2H3Cl reaction.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The dynamics of the C((3)P) + C2H3Cl reaction at collision energy 3.8 kcal mol(-1) was investigated in a crossed molecular-beam apparatus using synchrotron vacuum-ultraviolet ionization. Time-of-flight spectra of products C3H2Cl, C3H3, and Cl were recorded at various laboratory scattering angles, from which translational-energy distributions and angular distributions of product channels C3H2Cl + H and C3H3 + Cl were derived. Cl correlates satisfactorily with C3H3 in linear momentum and angular distributions, which confirms the production of C3H3 + Cl. The H-loss (Cl-loss) channel has average translational-energy release 14.3 (8.8) kcal mol(-1) corresponding to a fraction 0.30 (0.14) of available energy into the translational degrees of freedom of product HCCCHCl + H (H2CCCH + Cl). The branching ratio of channel H to channel Cl was determined approximately as 12:88. The measurements of translational-energy releases and photoionization thresholds cannot distinguish HCCCHCl from H2CCCCl because both isomers have similar enthalpy of formation and ionization energy; nevertheless, the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus calculation prefers HCCCHCl. The measurement of photoionization spectra identifies product C3H3 as H2CCCH (propargyl). Both products C3H2Cl + H and C3H3 + Cl might correlate to the same triplet intermediate H2CCCHCl but have distinct angular distributions; the former is nearly isotropic whereas the latter is forward biased. A comparison with the C((3)P) + C2H3F reaction is stated.
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Increased risk of mortality among haemodialysis patients with or without prior stroke: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
Indian J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Patients with prior stroke (PS) undergoing chronic dialysis are at a high risk of mortality. However, little is known about the cumulative risk and survival rate of dialysis patients with long-term follow up. The aim of this study was to assess risks for mortality between patients with and without PS undergoing chronic haemodialysis (HD).
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Dynamics of the C/H and C/F exchanges in the reaction of 3P carbon atoms with vinyl fluoride.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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Two product channels C3H2F + H and C3H3 + F were identified in the reaction of C((3)P) atoms with vinyl fluoride (C2H3F) at collision energy 3.7 kcal mol(-1) in a crossed molecular-beam apparatus using selective photoionization. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of products C3H2F and C3H3 were measured at 12-16 laboratory angles as well as a TOF spectrum of atomic F, a counter part of C3H3, was recorded at single laboratory angle. From the best simulation of product TOF spectra, translational-energy distributions at seven scattering angles and a nearly isotropic (forward and backward peaked) angular distribution were derivable for exit channel C3H2F + H (C3H3 + F) that has average kinetic-energy release of 14.5 (4.9) kcal mol(-1). Products C3H2F + H and C3H3 + F were estimated to have a branching ratio of ~53:47. Furthermore, TOF spectra and photoionization spectra of products C3H2F and C3H3 were measured at laboratory angle 62° with photoionization energy ranging from 7 eV to 11.6 eV. The appearance of TOF spectra is insensitive to photon energy, implying that only single species overwhelmingly contributes to products C3H2F and C3H3. HCCCHF (H2CCCH) was identified as the dominant species based on the measured ionization threshold of 8.3 ± 0.2 (8.6 ± 0.2) eV and the maximal translational-energy release. The C/H and C/F exchange mechanisms are stated.
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Epidemiology and mortality of new-onset diabetes after dialysis: Taiwan national cohort study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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We examined the predictors and risks associated with pre-existing versus new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) after initiation of chronic dialysis therapy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
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[Observation on the long-term efficacy of knee osteoarthritis treated with warm needling and rehabilitation training].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To observe the long-term efficacy and safety of warm needling therapy combined with rehabilitation training in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) for the patients living in simple room after earthquake.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of peritoneal dialysate from chronic glomerulonephritis patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) frequently contributes to peritoneal damage which cannot be easily identified without invasive techniques, implying the urgent need for biomarkers and revealing mechanisms. Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is one of the leading causes of receiving dialysis treatment. Here, we attempted to analyze the peritoneal dialysate collected from CGN patients when they receive continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment for the first time and after a year to reveal the protein changes that resulted from PD. Proteins were displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Altered gel spots were digested followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis for protein identification. Eight proteins were found to have differential expression levels between two groups. Their differential expressions were validated by Western blots in other sets of peritoneal dialysates. Proteins identified with higher levels in the first-time dialysate suggested their dominant appearance in CGN patients, while those that showed higher levels in peritoneal dialysate collected after one year may result from initial peritoneal inflammation or changes in the permeability of the peritoneum to middle-sized proteins. All the identified proteins may provide a perceptiveness of peritoneal changes caused by PD and may function as potential biomarkers or drug targets.
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The new comorbidity index for predicting survival in elderly dialysis patients: a long-term population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The worldwide elderly (? 65 years old) dialysis population has grown significantly. This population is expected to have more comorbid conditions and shorter life expectancies than the general elderly population. Predicting outcomes for this population is important for decision-making. Recently, a new comorbidity index (nCI) with good predictive value for patient outcomes was developed and validated in chronic dialysis patients regardless of age. Our study examined the nCI outcome predictability in elderly dialysis patients.
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Time-resolved structural dynamics of thin metal films heated with femtosecond optical pulses.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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We utilize 100 fs optical pulses to induce ultrafast disorder of 35- to 150-nm thick single Au(111) crystals and observe the subsequent structural evolution using 0.6-ps, 8.04-keV X-ray pulses. Monitoring the picosecond time-dependent modulation of the X-ray diffraction intensity, width, and shift, we have measured directly electron/phonon coupling, phonon/lattice interaction, and a histogram of the lattice disorder evolution, such as lattice breath due to a pressure wave propagating at sonic velocity, lattice melting, and recrystallization, including mosaic formation. Results of theoretical simulations agree and support the experimental data of the lattice/liquid phase transition process. These time-resolved X-ray diffraction data provide a detailed description of all the significant processes induced by ultrafast laser pulses impinging on thin metallic single crystals.
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Quantitation of sudomotor innervation in skin biopsies of patients with diabetic neuropathy.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Previous assessments of the sudomotor system have depended on functional tests, and only a few studies document the pathologic findings of postganglionic nerve degeneration quantitatively and at the ultrastructural level. We developed a quantitative system of sudomotor innervation in skin biopsies of the distal leg by immunostaining of nerve fibers with anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) and by counterstaining with Congo red. A computerized area-based morphometric analysis was used to quantify the sweat gland innervation index (SGII), defined as the area of nerve fibers normalized to the area of sweat glands. This approach reduced the variations in measurements of sweat gland areas compared to the commonly used method by ?5.6-fold (2.47% ± 2.54% vs 13.97% ± 14.24%, p < 0.001); hence, variations in SGII were also reduced. We examined 35 Type 2 diabetic patients (24 men and 11 women; mean age, 56.5 ± 12.8 years), with symmetrical length-dependent neuropathy and reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density (0.76 ± 0.95 fibers/mm). By light and electron microscopy, PGP9.5-positive nerve terminals surrounded Congo red-positive sweat gland secretory coils in controls; these periglandular nerve terminals were either absent or markedly reduced in diabetic patients. Diabetic patients had lower SGII values than age- and sex-matched controls (2.60% ± 1.96% vs 4.84% ± 1.51%, p < 0.0001). The SGII values were lower in patients with anhidrosis of the feet versus those with normal sweating of the feet (0.89% ± 0.71% vs 3.10% ± 1.94%, p < 0.01). Thus, skin biopsy offers combined assessment of sudomotor innervation.
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Dexamethasone and A???-?? accelerate learning and memory impairments due to elevate amyloid precursor protein expression and neuronal apoptosis in 12-month male rats.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder of the elderly characterized by learning and memory impairment. Stress level glucocorticoids (GCs) and ?-amyloid (A?) peptides deposition are found to be correlated with dementia progression in patients with AD. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of glucocorticoids and A? on learning and memory impairment and its mechanism. In this study, 12-month-old male rats were chronically treated with A?(25-35) (10 ?g/rat, hippocampal CA1 injection) and dexamethasone (DEX, 1.5mg/kg) for 14 days to investigate the effects of DEX and A?(25-35) treatment on learning and memory impairments, pathological changes, neuronal ultrastructure, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and neuronal cell apoptosis. Our results showed that DEX or A?(25-35) treatment alone for 14 days had caused slight damage on learning and memory impairments and hippocampal neurons, but damages were significantly increased with DEX+A?(25-35) treatment. And the mRNA levels of the APP, ?-secretase and caspase 3 were significantly increased after DEX+A?(25-35) treatment. The immunohistochemistry demonstrated that APP, A?(1-40), caspase 3 and cytochrome c in hippocampus CA1 were significantly increased. Furthermore, Hoechst 33258 staining and A?(1-40) ELISA results showed that DEX+A?(25-35) treatment induced hippocampus CA1 neuron apoptosis and increased the level of A?(1-40). The results suggest that the simultaneous effects of GCs and A? may have important roles in the etiopathogenesis of AD, and demonstrate that stressful life events and GC therapy may increase the toxicity of A? and have cumulative impacts on the course of AD development and progression.
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Risk of acute kidney injury after exposure to gadolinium-based contrast in patients with renal impairment.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Gadolinium-based contrast media (Gd-CM) are reported to induce acute kidney injury (AKI) in a high-risk population group at the usual dose for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) examinations. We assessed gadolinium-induced nephropathy in patients with renal impairment who underwent MRI or MRA examinations, and evaluated the risk factors.
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Characterization of ADAM28 as a biomarker of bladder transitional cell carcinomas by urinary proteome analysis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Human urine contains a large number of proteins and peptides (the urinary proteome). Global analysis of the human urinary proteome is important for understanding urinary tract diseases. Bladder cancer is the most common urological cancer with higher incidence rates in endemic areas of Blackfoot disease (BFD) in southern Taiwan. The aim of this study was to use the proteomic approach to establish urinary protein biomarkers of bladder cancer. ADAM28, identified by proteomic approaches and confirmed by Western blotting, showed significant differences compared with normal individuals, so it may be a biomarker of bladder cancer.
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Intermediate bioelectrolyte changes after phospho-soda or polyethylene glycol precolonoscopic laxatives in a population undergoing health examinations.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Colonoscopy is a common procedure for diagnosing and screening colon cancer and other bowel-related diseases. Many studies have pointed out that using phospho-soda as a bowel preparation can cause obvious electrolyte abnormalities or acute kidney injury. Nonetheless, there are few studies related to its prevalence and risk factors in the population undergoing health examinations. Our aim was to compare the biochemical and electrolyte changes after using two commonly used bowel preparation regimens in this population.
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Macrophage mediated anti-proliferation effects of Anthodia camphorata non-polysaccharide based extracts on human hepatoma cells.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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It has been reported that medicinal mushrooms might induce different types of immune responses. Anthodia camphorata (A. camphorata) has attracted much attention for its therapeutic effects in treating hepatoma. We tested this anti-tumor effects using immunomodulation of macrophages and extracts of A. camphorata. We evaluated the anti-proliferation effects of various extracts of A. camphorata from fruiting bodies (AC-FB), mycelium of solid-state cultures (AC-SS), liquid-state cultures (AC-LS) and polyaccharide extracts from liquid-state cultures (AC-PS), and extracts of A. camphorata stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell-conditioned mediums (MC-CMs). We measured cell proliferation and, did migration assays by cell cycle analysis and by observing apoptosis-related proteins (AKT, PARP-1, and NF-?B) and the mRNA expression of cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) of macrophages in human hepatoma cell lines. Our results revealed that two of the extracts (AC-FB and AC-SS) had better anti-proliferation effects, implying an immunomodulatory role the macrophages might play. This outcome is consistent with findings that AC-FB and AC-SS increase mRNA expression of TNF-? and the corresponding expression of apoptosis-related proteins on activation of MC-CMs, while A. camphorata polysaccharides induce macrophage-derived anti-tumor activities in human hepatoma cells via IL-1? and Akt activation. These results indicate that anti-tumor effects exerted by modulation of macrophage activation of A. camphorate may be influenced by the other constituents which (contained little or no polysaccharide) of A. camphorata.
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Exploring the dynamics of reaction N((2)D)+C2H4 with crossed molecular-beam experiments and quantum-chemical calculations.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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We conducted the title reaction using a crossed molecular-beam apparatus, quantum-chemical calculations, and RRKM calculations. Synchrotron radiation from an undulator served to ionize selectively reaction products by advantage of negligibly small dissociative ionization. We observed two products with gross formula C(2)H(3)N and C(2)H(2)N associated with loss of one and two hydrogen atoms, respectively. Measurements of kinetic-energy distributions, angular distributions, low-resolution photoionization spectra, and branching ratios of the two products were carried out. Furthermore, we evaluated total branching ratios of various exit channels using RRKM calculations based on the potential-energy surface of reaction N((2)D)+C(2)H(4) established with the method CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)+ZPE[B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)]. The combination of experimental and computational results allows us to reveal the reaction dynamics. The N((2)D) atom adds to the C=C ?-bond of ethene (C(2)H(4)) to form a cyclic complex c-CH(2)(N)CH(2) that directly ejects a hydrogen atom or rearranges to other intermediates followed by elimination of a hydrogen atom to produce C(2)H(3)N; c-CH(2)(N)CH+H is the dominant product channel. Subsequently, most C(2)H(3)N radicals, notably c-CH(2)(N)CH, further decompose to CH(2)CN+H. This work provides results and explanations different from the previous work of Balucani et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A, 2000, 104, 5655], indicating that selective photoionization with synchrotron radiation as an ionization source is a good choice in chemical dynamics research.
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Pleiotropic effects of sevelamer beyond phosphate binding in end-stage renal disease patients: a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study.
Clin Drug Investig
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Hyperphosphataemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that the phosphate binder sevelamer has pleiotropic properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sevelamer compared with calcium acetate on serum lipid profiles, uric acid and reactive oxygen species in haemodialysis patients with hyperphosphataemia.
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Purification of heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits by GST-Ric-8 association: primary characterization of purified G alpha(olf).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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Ric-8A and Ric-8B are nonreceptor G protein guanine nucleotide exchange factors that collectively bind the four subfamilies of G protein ? subunits. Co-expression of G? subunits with Ric-8A or Ric-8B in HEK293 cells or insect cells greatly promoted G? protein expression. We exploited these characteristics of Ric-8 proteins to develop a simplified method for recombinant G protein ? subunit purification that was applicable to all G? subunit classes. The method allowed production of the olfactory adenylyl cyclase stimulatory protein G?(olf) for the first time and unprecedented yield of G?(q) and G?(13). G? subunits were co-expressed with GST-tagged Ric-8A or Ric-8B in insect cells. GST-Ric-8·G? complexes were isolated from whole cell detergent lysates with glutathione-Sepharose. G? subunits were dissociated from GST-Ric-8 with GDP-AlF(4)(-) (GTP mimicry) and found to be >80% pure, bind guanosine 5-[?-thio]triphosphate (GTP?S), and stimulate appropriate G protein effector enzymes. A primary characterization of G?(olf) showed that it binds GTP?S at a rate marginally slower than G?(s short) and directly activates adenylyl cyclase isoforms 3, 5, and 6 with less efficacy than G?(s short).
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Recurrent sebaceous gland carcinoma of eyelid previously diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma: case report.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) of the eyelid is a highly malignant neoplasm that arises from the meibomian glands, glands of Zeis, and sebaceous glands of the skin. The characteristics of this disease are high recurrence rate, significant metastatic potential, and notable mortality rate, which are quite different from basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with the history of left lower eyelid BCC (diagnosed 9 years ago), who had left parotid lymph nodes metastases and local recurrence twice. The chief complaint during visit was a left upper eyelid swelling mass noted for 3 months. She received salvage ablation surgery later. The final pathologic report is SGC. The diagnosis corresponds to the clinical presentation of this patient at last. The delay between initial examination and final diagnosis in this patient is about 9 years, but operation and concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed after left parotid lymph nodes metastasis was noted. Although there was still local recurrence after concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient is still alive without distant metastasis. In this article, we would discuss the differences of the pathologic characters, treatment, and prognosis between SGC and BCC.
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High water evaporation rate is associated with low blood pressure in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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The relationship between water evaporation rate (WER) and blood pressure (BP) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients has not been addressed before. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of WER on the BP and body weight (BW) of end-stage renal disease patients treated with CAPD.
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FBI-1 functions as a novel AR co-repressor in prostate cancer cells.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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The pro-oncogene FBI-1, encoded by Zbtb7a, is a transcriptional repressor that belongs to the POK (POZ/BTB and Krüppel) protein family. In this study, we investigated a potential interaction between androgen receptor (AR) signaling and FBI-1 and demonstrated that overexpression of FBI-1 inhibited ligand-dependent AR activation. A protein-protein interaction was identified between FBI-1 and AR in a ligand-dependent manner. Furthermore, FBI-1, AR and SMRT formed a ternary complex and FBI-1 enhanced the recruitment of NCoR and SMRT to endogenous PSA upstream sequences. Our data also indicated that the FBI-1-mediated inhibition of AR transcriptional activity is partially dependent on HDAC. Interestingly, FBI-1 plays distinct roles in regulating LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and PC-3 cell (androgen-independent) proliferation.
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A reference equation for objectively adjusting dwell volume to obtain more ultrafiltration in daily practice of peritoneal dialysis.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Few studies mention how to objectively adjust peritoneal dialysis (PD) dwell volume for adult continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We proposed a reference equation composed of parameters from the peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) for adjusting daily dialysate dwell volume to obtain more ultrafiltration volume. Better fluid control could reduce more fluid overload-related complications.
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Decrease in seroprevalence of hepatitis A after the implementation of nationwide disposable tableware use in Taiwan.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Taiwan is an endemic area of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, which is transmitted mainly from the fecal-oral route. In order to reduce the transmission through food intake, the government implemented a policy of nationwide disposal tableware use in public eating places in 1982. We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in a group of workers in Taiwan in 2005, determine the risk factors, and compare seroprevalence to published estimates in Taiwan to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence after the implementation of the nationwide disposal tableware use.
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Benefits of sevelamer on markers of bone turnover in Taiwanese hemodialysis patients.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Sevelamer hydrochloride is a recently developed phosphate binder, which is a quaternary amine anion exchanger without calcium or aluminum. Sevelamer is effective in controlling hyperphosphatemia without increasing the calcium load in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. We investigated whether sevelamer restored bone metabolism in chronic HD patients.
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Differential proteomic characterization between normal peritoneal fluid and diabetic peritoneal dialysate.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Since the mechanism of comorbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis is unclear, a comparison of peritoneal dialysate and normal peritoneal fluid may provide clues to the biological and pathological processes involved in peritoneal damage.
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Comparison of low-dose deferoxamine versus standard-dose deferoxamine for treatment of aluminium overload among haemodialysis patients.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Patients on maintenance haemodialysis are at high risk of aluminium overload. While deferoxamine (DFO) has potential adverse effects, lower DFO dosages may afford good efficacy with fewer side effects. We evaluated the therapeutic response of low-dose (2.5 mg/kg/week) DFO among haemodialysis patients with aluminium overload.
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Femtosecond pump-probe photoionization-photofragmentation spectroscopy: photoionization-induced twisting and coherent vibrational motion of azobenzene cation.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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We report studies of ultrafast dynamics of azobenzene cation using femtosecond photoionization-photofragmentation spectroscopy. In our experiments, a femtosecond pump pulse first produces an ensemble of azobenzene cations via photoionization of the neutrals. A delayed probe pulse then brings the evolving ionic system to excited states that ultimately undergo ion fragmentation. The dynamics is followed by monitoring either the parent-ion depletion or fragment-ion formation as a function of the pump-probe delay time. The observed transients for azobenzene cation are characterized by a constant ion depletion modulated by a rapidly damped oscillatory signal with a period of about 1 ps. Theoretical calculations suggest that the oscillation arises from a vibration motion along the twisting inversion coordinate involving displacements in CNNC and phenyl-ring torsions. The oscillation is damped rapidly with a time constant of about 1.2 ps, suggesting that energy dissipation from the active mode to bath modes takes place in this time scale.
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Theoretical prediction regarding structural and thermodynamical characteristics of stable CH3PO2 isomers and unimolecular decomposition mechanisms of species CH3P(=O)2, CH3O-P=O, and CH2=P(=O)OH.
J Comput Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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The detailed isomerization and dissociation reaction potential energy profile of the CH(3)PO(2) system was established at the UCCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)//UB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Seventy minimum isomers were located and connected by 93 optimized interconversion transition states. Furthermore, 32 isomers with high kinetic stability were predicted to be possible candidates for further experimental detection. The bonding nature of the suggested stable isomers was analyzed while their molecular properties including heats of formation, adiabatic ionization potentials, and adiabatic electronic affinities were calculated at the G2, G2(MP2), G3, and CBS-Q levels. Based on the isomerization and dissociation potential energy surface, possible unimolecular decomposition mechanisms and pathways of the low-lying molecules CH(3)P(=O)(2), CH(3)O-P=O, and CH(2)=P(=O)OH were discussed. Furthermore, the transition state theory rate constants of the primary unimolecular dissociation channels were also calculated.
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Nak regulates Dlg basal localization in Drosophila salivary gland cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Protein trafficking is highly regulated in polarized cells. During development, how the trafficking of cell junctional proteins is regulated for cell specialization is largely unknown. In the maturation of Drosophila larval salivary glands (SGs), the Dlg protein is essential for septate junction formation. We show that Dlg was enriched in the apical membrane domain of proximal cells and localized basolaterally in distal mature cells. The transition of Dlg distribution was disrupted in nak mutants. Nak associated with the AP-2 subunit alpha-Ada and the AP-1 subunit AP-1gamma. In SG cells disrupting AP-1 and AP-2 activities, Dlg was enriched in the apical membrane. Therefore, Nak regulates the transition of Dlg distribution likely through endocytosis of Dlg from the apical membrane domain and transcytosis of Dlg to the basolateral membrane domain during the maturation of SGs development.
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Exploring the dynamics of reactions of oxygen atoms in states 3P and 1D with ethene at collision energy 3 kcal mol(-1).
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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In a crossed molecular-beam apparatus, we reacted atomic O in states (3)P and (1)D with ethene (C(2)H(4)) at collision energy 3 kcal mol(-1). Employing two mixtures, 20% O(2) + 80% He and 3% O(2) + 12.5% Ar + 84.5% He, as discharge media allowed us to generate two sources of oxygen atoms that have the same mean velocity but different ratios of (1)D/(3)P populations, 0.0017 and 0.035. We identified six reactions and recorded time-of-flight spectra of products CH(2)CHO, CH(2)CO, and CH(3) as a function of laboratory angle. Reaction O((3)P) + C(2)H(4) --> CH(2)CHO + H has a fraction f(t) = 0.43 of energy release in translation, and product CH(2)CHO has a maximal probability at scattering angle of 140 degrees. For reaction O((1)D) + C(2)H(4) --> CH(2)CO + 2H, f(t) = 0.26, and the angular distribution of product CH(2)CO shows a backward preference. For reaction O((3)P) + C(2)H(4) --> CH(2)CO + H(2), f(t) = 0.35, and the angular distribution of product CH(2)CO has a slight preference for a sideways direction. In contrast, reaction O((1)D) + C(2)H(4) --> CH(2)CO + H(2) has f(t) = 0.26 and an angular distribution with forward and backward peaking and symmetry. Reactions O((3)P and (1)D) + C(2)H(4) --> CH(3) + HCO have f(t) = 0.09 and 0.08, respectively, and angular distributions with forward and backward peaking and nearly symmetric. The reactivity of O (1)D with ethene is ca. 38 and 90 times that of O (3)P for channels to eliminate H(2) and CH(3), respectively. For reactions of O (1)D, the branching ratio for elimination of 2H is ca. 3.3 times that for elimination of H(2).
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[Influence of Bushen Huoxue decoction on beta-catenin, MMP-7 of synoviocytes in rats with knee osteoarthritis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
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To observe beta-catenin expression of Wnt signaling pathway in rats with knee osteoarthritis, and influence of Bushen Huoxue decoction on beta-catenin and MMP-7 expression of synoviocytes in rats with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
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[Anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
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To study and compare the anti-inflammatory effect and molecular mechanism of artemisinin and dihydroartemisinin.
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Electron transfer mechanism in organometallic molecules studied by subpicosecond extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem B
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The mechanism responsible for the redox reaction of [Co(III)(en)3]Ac3 to Co(II) complex has been determined to be intramolecular electron transfer. It was measured in real time by means of subpicosecond extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra, EXAFS, and optical experiments and supported by density functional theory calculations. The proposed mechanism is based on histograms of bond length changes of the transient structures measured as a function of time, with subpicosecond time and sub-Angstrom resolution and femtosecond transient spectra and kinetics after excitation with a 267 nm femtosecond pulse. Even though four Fe and Co complexes were excited in the charge transfer band and the photoinduced redox reaction proceeds with similar high redox quantum yield, the dominant electron operating mechanism differs: intramolecular for amine metal complexes and intermolecular for oxalate metal complexes. The ligand orientation degree of freedom and counterion effect are proposed to provide tentative explanation for the electron transfer mechanism.
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Series of inorganic-organic hybrid materials constructed from octamolybdates and metal-organic frameworks: syntheses, structures, and physical properties.
Inorg Chem
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Series of inorganic-organic hybrid materials based on octamolybdates, silver ions, and multidentate N-donor ligands, namely, [Ag(2)(2,3-tmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)] (1), [Ag(2)(2,4-tmbpt)(2)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)(H(2)O)(0.5)]·2H(2)O (2), [Ag(3)(3,3-tmbpt)(2)(?-H(2)Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)]·3.5H(2)O (3), [Ag(2)(3,3-tmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)]·1.75H(2)O (4), [Ag(2)(3,4-tmbpt)(2)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)]·0.5H(2)O (5), and [Ag(3,4-Htmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)] (6), where 2,3-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(3-pyridyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole), 2,4-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole), 3,3-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3,5-bis(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole, and 3,4-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(4-pyridyl)-5-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 displays a rare 3D (3,4,8)-connected net with (4·8(2))(4(2)·8(4))(4(3)·8(20)·10(5)) topology. Compound 2 shows a rare 3D (4,6)-connected self-catenated framework with (6(4)·8(2))(4(2)·6(3)·8(2))(4(2)·6(8)·8(4)·10) topology. Compound 3 is a scarce 3D framework based on two different kinds of [Mo(8)O(26)](4-) isomers. Compound 4 exhibits a 3D framework constructed by silver-organic sheets and the rare [?-Mo(8)O(26)](4-) anions. Compound 5 shows an interesting 1D ? 2D polythreaded structure. Compound 6 displays a 2D layer structure, which is further linked by the N-H···O hydrogen bonds to form a 3D supramolecular architecture. Their structures have been further characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), electrochemistry and photoluminesce. Moreover, the photocatalytic activities for degradation of organic pollutant have been investigated for compounds 3-6.
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Identification of purple acid phosphatase inhibitors by fragment-based screening: promising new leads for osteoporosis therapeutics.
Chem Biol Drug Des
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Purple acid phosphatases are metalloenzymes found in animals, plants and fungi. They possess a binuclear metal centre to catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphate esters and anhydrides under acidic conditions. In humans, elevated purple acid phosphatases levels in sera are correlated with the progression of osteoporosis and metabolic bone malignancies, making this enzyme a target for the development of new chemotherapeutics to treat bone-related illnesses. To date, little progress has been achieved towards the design of specific and potent inhibitors of this enzyme that have drug-like properties. Here, we have undertaken a fragment-based screening approach using a 500-compound library identifying three inhibitors of purple acid phosphatases with K(i) values in the 30-60 ?m range. Ligand efficiency values are 0.39-0.44 kcal/mol per heavy atom. X-ray crystal structures of these compounds in complex with a plant purple acid phosphatases (2.3-2.7 Å resolution) have been determined and show that all bind in the active site within contact of the binuclear centre. For one of these compounds, the phenyl ring is positioned within 3.5 Å of the binuclear centre. Docking simulations indicate that the three compounds fit into the active site of human purple acid phosphatases. These studies open the way to the design of more potent and selective inhibitors of purple acid phosphatases that can be tested as anti-osteoporotic drug leads.
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[Manifestation of synovial lesions in osteoarthritis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
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Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease,with the characters of degradation of articular cartilage, the formation of the joint marginal osteophyte and synovium lesions. Previous studies have focused on the treatment of articular cartilage lesions. In recent years, new research in shows synovial inflammation plays an important role in OA. Synovium lesions and synovial inflammation-related factors induced the degradation and destruction of articular cartilage, and promoted the development of osteoarthritis. The role of synovial lesions in osteoarthritis is increasingly prominent, and the treatment for synovial lesions will become a new target. So this paper reviews the various manifestations of synovial in osteoarthritis.
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Inorganic-organic hybrid compounds based on octamolybdates and multidentate N-donor ligand: syntheses, structures, photoluminescence and photocatalysis.
Dalton Trans
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Six inorganic-organic hybrid compounds, namely, [Cu(2)(2,4-tmbpt)(2)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(H(2)O)(2)]·7H(2)O (1), [Cu(2,4-tmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)(H(2)O)]·H(2)O (2), [Co(2,4-Htmbpt)(2)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(H(2)O)(2)] (3), [Zn(2,4-Htmbpt)(2)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(H(2)O)(2)] (4), [Ni(2,4-tmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)(H(2)O)]·2.5H(2)O (5) and [Ag(2,4-Htmbpt)(?-Mo(8)O(26))(0.5)] (6), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions (2,4-tmbpt = 1-((1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole). The structures of compounds 1-6 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analyses, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analyses and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Compound 1 shows a 3D (3,4)-connected framework constructed by the 2D Cu(II)-organic fragments and [?-Mo(8)O(26)](4-) anions. Compound 2 exhibits a 2D layer structure based on Cu(II)-organic chains and [?-Mo(8)O(26)] chains. The layers are extended into a 3D supramolecular framework by hydrogen-bonding interactions. Compounds 3 and 4 are isostructural, and display 1D chain structures. The chains are further interlinked by hydrogen-bonding interactions to form 3D supramolecular architectures. Compound 5 shows a 3D framework based on the 2D Ni(II)-organic fragments and [?-Mo(8)O(26)](4-) anions. In compound 6, the 1D chains constructed by the Ag(I) ions, 2,4-Htmbpt ligands and [?-Mo(8)O(26)](4-) anions are extended by hydrogen-bonding interactions into a 2D supramolecular layer. Each layer threads into the adjacent layers, yielding a 2D ? 3D interdigitated structure. Moreover, the photoluminescent properties of 4 and 6, the optical band gaps of 1-6, and the photocatalytic properties of 1-6 have also been investigated.
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Epidemiology and mortality among dialysis patients with acute coronary syndrome: Taiwan National Cohort Study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
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Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on dialysis have poor outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Epidemiological data for Asian patients are scarce.
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Solid-state single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation from a 2D layer to a 3D framework mediated by lattice iodine release.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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We describe an exceedingly rare example of solid-state single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation from a 2D layer to a known 3D framework via lattice iodine release, which involves the formation of a new Cu-O ligand bond and a change in the metal coordination geometry.
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Exploring the dynamics of reaction C(3P) + C2H4 with crossed beam/photoionization experiments and quantum chemical calculations.
J Phys Chem A
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We investigated the title reaction at collision energy 3.5 kcal mol(-1) in a crossed molecular beam apparatus using undulator radiation as an ionization source. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of product C(3)H(3) were measured in laboratory angles from 20° to 100° using two photoionization energies 9.5 and 11.6 eV. These two sets of experimental data exhibit almost the same TOF distributions and laboratory angular distributions. From the best simulation, seven angle-specific kinetic-energy distributions and a nearly isotropic angular distribution are derived for product channel C(3)H(3) + H that has an average kinetic-energy release of 15.5 kcal mol(-1), corresponding to an average internal energy of 33.3 kcal mol(-1) in C(3)H(3). Furthermore, TOF spectra of product C(3)H(3) were measured at laboratory angle 52° with ionizing photon energies from 7 to 12 eV. The appearance of TOF spectra remains almost the same, indicating that a species exclusively contributes to product C(3)H(3); the species is identified as H(2)CCCH (propargyl) based on the ionization energy of 8.6 ± 0.2 eV and the maximal kinetic-energy release of 49 kcal mol(-1). Theoretical calculations indicate that the rapid inversion mechanism and rotation in intermediate H(2)CCCH(2) can result in a forward-backward symmetric angular distribution for product C(3)H(3) + H. The present work avoids the interference of reactions of C((1)D) and C(2) radicals with C(2)H(4) and rules out the probability of production of other isomers like c-C(3)H(3) and H(3)CCC proposed in the previous work at least at the investigated collision energy.
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Long-term survival and predictors for mortality among dialysis patients in an endemic area for chronic liver disease: a national cohort study in Taiwan.
BMC Nephrol
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Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at a higher risk for chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis (LC) and mortality than the general population. Optimal modalities of renal replacement therapy for ESRD patients with concomitant end-stage liver disease remain controversial. We investigated the long-term outcome for chronic liver disease among dialysis patients in an endemic area.
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Reverse epidemiology of hypertension-mortality associations in hemodialysis patients: a long-term population-based study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
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Although hypertension (HTN) is a predictor of mortality, recent data have questioned the link between baseline HTN and mortality in incident hemodialysis (HD) patients. We used Taiwans National Health Insurance claim data (NHRI-NHIRD-99182) to investigate the association.
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Protective effects of astragalosides on dexamethasone and A?25-35 induced learning and memory impairments due to decrease amyloid precursor protein expression in 12-month male rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
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Alzheimers disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly characterized by learning and memory impairment. Stress level glucocorticoids (GCs) and ?-amyloid (A?) peptide deposition are found to be correlated with dementia progression in patients with AD. The astragalosides (AST) was extracted from traditional Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceous. In this study, 12 months male rats were treated with A?(25-35) (10 ?g/rat, hippocampal CA1 injection) and dexamethasone (DEX, 1.5mg/kg, ig) and AST (8, 16 and 32 mg/kg, ig) or ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1, 5 mg/kg, ig) for 14 days. We investigated the protective effect of AST against DEX+A?(25-35) injury in rats and its mechanisms of action. Our results indicate that DEX+A?(25-35) can induce learning and memory impairments and increase APP and A?(1-40) expression. AST (16, 32 mg/kg) or Rg1 (5mg/kg) treatment significantly improve learning and memory, down-regulate the mRNA levels of APP and ?-secretase, decrease expression of APP and A?(1-40) in hippocampus. The results indicated that DEX might increase hippocampal vulnerability to A?(25-35) and highlight the potential neuronal protection of AST.
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Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
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Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS). We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed by the administration of CS or rosiglitazone for 4 consecutive weeks. Several parameters were evaluated, including changes in body weight, plasma lipid profiles, oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that the CS extract significantly elevated HDL/LDL ratios at 4 weeks and decreased body weight gain at 8 weeks. Interestingly, CS treatment did not lead to obvious improvements in hyperglycemia or resistance to insulin, while in vitro MTT assays indicated that CS protects pancreatic beta cells against the toxic effects of STZ. CS also enhanced renal NKA activity and reduced the accumulation of mesangial matrix and collagen deposition. In conclusion, CS extract can potentially preserve ?-cell function and offer renoprotection, which may afford a promising therapy for DM.
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Impact of uremic environment on peritoneum: a proteomic view.
J Proteomics
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Peritoneal morphology and function are abnormal in uremia patients, but the contributing mechanisms are unclear. Here we attempted to characterize the protein targets that may be related to peritoneal change in patients with uremia and have not exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluid. Protein profiles of peritoneal fluids collected from patients with uremia and patients with normal renal function receiving laparoscopic cholecystectomy were displayed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Altered protein spots were excised and subjected to tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sixteen 2-DE protein spots were altered between two groups. Western blots confirmed that kininogen-1, apoptosis inhibitor 2, cat eye syndrome critical region protein 1, and apolipoprotein A-I had higher expression levels in the uremia samples. In contrast, synaptic vesicle 2-related protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and envelope glycoprotein (C2-V5 region) showed lower levels. The increased expression may result from a change in the permeability of the peritoneal membrane to middle-sized proteins or peritoneal inflammation with proteins sloughing off. All the identified proteins may provide a novel understanding of peritoneal changes caused by uremic toxins and may function as biomarkers or drug targets.
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