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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
dbSNO 2.0: a resource for exploring structural environment, functional and disease association and regulatory network of protein S-nitrosylation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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Given the increasing number of proteins reported to be regulated by S-nitrosylation (SNO), it is considered to act, in a manner analogous to phosphorylation, as a pleiotropic regulator that elicits dual effects to regulate diverse pathophysiological processes by altering protein function, stability, and conformation change in various cancers and human disorders. Due to its importance in regulating protein functions and cell signaling, dbSNO (http://dbSNO.mbc.nctu.edu.tw) is extended as a resource for exploring structural environment of SNO substrate sites and regulatory networks of S-nitrosylated proteins. An increasing interest in the structural environment of PTM substrate sites motivated us to map all manually curated SNO peptides (4165 SNO sites within 2277 proteins) to PDB protein entries by sequence identity, which provides the information of spatial amino acid composition, solvent-accessible surface area, spatially neighboring amino acids, and side chain orientation for 298 substrate cysteine residues. Additionally, the annotations of protein molecular functions, biological processes, functional domains and human diseases are integrated to explore the functional and disease associations for S-nitrosoproteome. In this update, users are allowed to search a group of interested proteins/genes and the system reconstructs the SNO regulatory network based on the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. Most importantly, an endogenous yet pathophysiological S-nitrosoproteomic dataset from colorectal cancer patients was adopted to demonstrate that dbSNO could discover potential SNO proteins involving in the regulation of NO signaling for cancer pathways.
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Increased risk of tuberculosis in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: results from a population-based cohort study in taiwan.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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The studies on the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) alone are limited. We examined this relationship using a population-based retrospective cohort study. From claims data of the National Health Insurance system of Taiwan, we identified 5195 patients with T1DM newly diagnosed from 2002 to 2011 and 20,780 randomly selected controls without T1DM, frequency matched by age, sex, and year of diagnosis. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2011 to evaluate the risk of TB. The overall incidence of TB was 4.07-fold higher in the T1DM cohort than in the control cohort (1.18 vs 0.29 per 1000 person-years, P?
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Predictors of Prostate-Specific Antigen Biochemical Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Primary Whole-Gland Prostate Cryoablation.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Cryoablation has been proven as a less invasive, safe, and effective treatment for localized prostate cancer. We attempted to identify the predictors of biochemical recurrence after prostate cryoablation for localized prostate cancer in this study.
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An efficient and accurate approach for fabricating dental implant surgical guides.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The aim of this research was to develop an efficient and accurate method to fabricate a dental implant surgical guide. The surgical guide is adapted from the patient's vacuum-formed clear template with the use of a plate with three ceramic balls, a six-axis drilling machine and its fixture. The plate, with the ceramic balls used as radiographic markers, is glued to the template, and the patient bites this template during a CT scan. Then, the surgeon can plan the locations and orientations of the implants on the CT-based model in the dental planning software. The drilling information is exported directly to the computer-controlled drilling machine for subsequent drilling on the template to complete the surgical guide. This method allows the surgical guide to be made without any measurements, which reduces the fabrication time, but increases the drilling accuracy. The preliminary results show that the average location error was 0.31 ± 0.17 mm and the average orientation error was 0.53 ± 0.24°, which can be considered accurate in comparison with the results reported in the literature.
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A naturally occurring Lgr4 splice variant encodes a soluble antagonist useful for demonstrating the gonadal roles of Lgr4 in mammals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) promotes the Wnt signaling through interaction with R-spondins or norrin. Using PCR amplification from rat ovarian cDNAs, we identified a naturally occurring Lgr4 splice variant encoding only the ectodomain of Lgr4, which was named Lgr4-ED. Lgr4-ED can be detected as a secreted protein in the extracts from rodent and bovine postnatal gonads, suggesting conservation of Lgr4-ED in mammals. Recombinant Lgr4-ED purified from the conditioned media of transfected 293T cells was found to dose-dependently inhibit the LGR4-mediated Wnt signaling induced by RSPO2 or norrin, suggesting that it is capable of ligand absorption and could have a potential role as an antagonist. Intraperitoneal injection of purified recombinant Lgr4-ED into newborn mice was found to significantly decrease the testicular expression of estrogen receptor alpha and aquaporin 1, which is similar to the phenotype found in Lgr4-null mice. Administration of recombinant Lgr4-ED to superovulated female rats can also decrease the expression of estrogen receptor alpha, aquaporin 1, LH receptor and other key steroidogenic genes as well as bring about the suppression of progesterone production. Thus, these findings suggest that endogenously expressed Lgr4-ED may act as an antagonist molecule and help to fine-tune the R-spondin/norrin-mediated Lgr4-Wnt signaling during gonadal development.
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High body mass index reduces glomerular filtration rate decline in type II diabetes mellitus patients with stage 3 or 4 chronic kidney disease.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Whether high body mass index (BMI) has an effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetes mellitus (DM) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or 4 remains unclear. This prospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between BMI and progression of renal function deterioration in type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4.A total of 105 type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 participated in this 24-month prospective observational study. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to BMI as follows: normal group, BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m; overweight group, BMI of 23-24.9 kg/m; and obese group, BMI of ?25 kg/m. The primary end point was a 2-fold elevation in serum creatinine levels (measured twice with a 1-month interval) from baseline values, need for long-term dialysis, or death during the 24-month observation period.In the linear regression analysis with the stepwise method, each 1 kg/m increase in BMI led to an increase of 0.32 mL min × 1.73 m in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.01-0.62; P = 0.04) during the 24-month study period. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that compared with the obese group, the normal BMI group (hazard ratio = 2.76, 95% CI : 1.27-6; P = 0.01) achieved the primary outcome after adjusting for other factors.In this 24-month prospective observational study, we showed that BMI of ?25 kg/m was a protective factor for renal function deterioration in type II DM patients with CKD stage 3 or 4.
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Decoding the s-nitrosoproteomic atlas in individualized human colorectal cancer tissues using a label-free quantitation strategy.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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The abnormal S-nitrosylation induced by the overexpression and activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) modulates many human diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. To delineate the pathophysiological S-nitrosoproteome in cancer patients, we report an individualized S-nitrosoproteomic strategy with a label-free method for the site-specific quantification of S-nitrosylation in paired tumor and adjacent normal tissues from 11 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). This study provides not only the first endogenous human S-nitrosoproteomic atlas but also the first individualized human tissue analysis, identifying 174 S-nitrosylation sites in 94 proteins. Fourteen novel S-nitrosylation sites with a high frequency of elevated levels in 11 individual patients were identified. An individualized S-nitrosylation quantitation analysis revealed that the detected changes in S-nitrosylation were regulated by both the expression level and the more dramatic post-translational S-nitrosylation of the targeted proteins, such as thioredoxin, annexin A4, and peroxiredoxin-4. These endogenous S-nitrosylated proteins illustrate the network of inflammation/cancer-related and redox reactions mediated by various S-nitrosylation sources, including iNOS, transnitrosylase, or iron-sulfur centers. Given the demonstrated sensitivity of individualized tissue analysis, this label-free approach may facilitate the study of the vastly under-represented S-nitrosoproteome and enable a better understanding of the effect of endogenous S-nitrosylation in cancer.
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The Arabidopsis malectin-like leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase IOS1 associates with the pattern recognition receptors FLS2 and EFR and is critical for priming of pattern-triggered immunity.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Plasma membrane-localized pattern recognition receptors such as FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR) recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to activate the first layer of plant immunity termed pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). A reverse genetics approach with genes responsive to the priming agent ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) revealed IMPAIRED OOMYCETE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (IOS1) as a critical PTI player. Arabidopsis thaliana ios1 mutants were hypersusceptible to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria. Accordingly, ios1 mutants demonstrated defective PTI responses, notably delayed upregulation of PTI marker genes, lower callose deposition, and mitogen-activated protein kinase activities upon bacterial infection or MAMP treatment. Moreover, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing IOS1 were more resistant to P. syringae and demonstrated a primed PTI response. In vitro pull-down, bimolecular fluorescence complementation, coimmunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analyses supported the existence of complexes between the membrane-localized IOS1 and FLS2 and EFR. IOS1 also associated with BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) in a ligand-independent manner and positively regulated FLS2/BAK1 complex formation upon MAMP treatment. Finally, ios1 mutants were defective in BABA-induced resistance and priming. This work reveals IOS1 as a regulatory protein of FLS2- and EFR-mediated signaling that primes PTI activation upon bacterial elicitation.
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Increased subsequent risk of myasthenia gravis in children with allergic diseases.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction. The initiating factors of MG remain unclear. However, allergy has been regarded as a potential risk factor. We included 410 children with MG diagnosed between 2000 and 2008, as well as 1640 randomly selected controls. The odds ratios of MG were calculated to determine the association between MG and preexisting allergic diseases. The children with allergic diseases were at increased subsequent risk of MG, which was associated with the cumulative effect of the concurrent allergic diseases and the frequency of seeking medical care.
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Isolation of a Bacteriophage and Its Depolymerase Specific for K1 Capsule of Klebsiella pneumoniae: Implication in Typing and Treatment.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess complicated with metastatic meningitis and endophthalmitis has emerged recently, most frequently associated with the K1 capsular type.
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Role of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate in CD40 signaling and IgE class switching.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family member CD40 plays an essential role in the activation of antigen-presenting cells, B cell maturation, and immunoglobulin (Ig) class switching critical for adaptive immunity. Although the bioactive sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and the kinase that produces it, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), have long been implicated in the actions of TNF mediated by engagement of TNFR1, nothing is yet known of their role in CD40-mediated events. We have now found that ligation of CD40 activates and translocates SphK1 to the plasma membrane, leading to generation of S1P. SphK1 inhibition in human tonsil B cells, as well as inhibition or deletion of SphK1 in mouse splenic B cells, significantly reduced CD40-mediated Ig class switching and plasma cell differentiation ex vivo. Optimal activation of downstream CD40 signaling pathways, including NF-?B, p38, and JNK, also required SphK1. In mice treated with a SphK1 inhibitor or in SphK1(-/-) mice, isotype switching to antigen-specific IgE was decreased in vivo by 70 and 55%, respectively. Our results indicate that SphK1 is important for CD40-mediated B cell activation and regulation of humoral responses and suggest that targeting SphK1 might be a useful therapeutic approach to control antigen-specific IgE production.
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Neonatal jaundice and increased risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a population-based cohort study.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Previous studies have posited conflicting results regarding the relationship between neonatal jaundice and the subsequent risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We therefore performed a large population study with a defined neonatal jaundice cohort to investigate the incidence and risk of physician-diagnosed ADHD in Taiwan.
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Increased risk of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children with atopic dermatitis.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Clinical and immunological studies have consistently shown a relationship between atopic diathesis and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). However, no large population cohort study has yet to demonstrate the nature of the relationship between these disorders.
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MAVTgsa: an R package for gene set (enrichment) analysis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Gene set analysis methods aim to determine whether an a priori defined set of genes shows statistically significant difference in expression on either categorical or continuous outcomes. Although many methods for gene set analysis have been proposed, a systematic analysis tool for identification of different types of gene set significance modules has not been developed previously. This work presents an R package, called MAVTgsa, which includes three different methods for integrated gene set enrichment analysis. (1) The one-sided OLS (ordinary least squares) test detects coordinated changes of genes in gene set in one direction, either up- or downregulation. (2) The two-sided MANOVA (multivariate analysis variance) detects changes both up- and downregulation for studying two or more experimental conditions. (3) A random forests-based procedure is to identify gene sets that can accurately predict samples from different experimental conditions or are associated with the continuous phenotypes. MAVTgsa computes the P values and FDR (false discovery rate) q-value for all gene sets in the study. Furthermore, MAVTgsa provides several visualization outputs to support and interpret the enrichment results. This package is available online.
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Morphology, molecular stacking, dynamics and device performance correlations of vacuum-deposited small-molecule organic solar cells.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The "all carbon" organic solar cells (OSCs) based on the homocyclic molecule tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene (DBP) as a donor and C60 as an acceptor were comprehensively characterized. The optimized planar-mixed heterojunction device with a DBP:C60 mixture ratio of DBP?:?C60 (1?:?2) exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 4.47%. To understand why DBP possesses such advantageous characteristics, the correlations of the morphology, molecular stacking, carrier dynamics and performance of DBP:fullerene-based devices have been systematically studied. First, the face-on stacked DBP molecules could enhance both the absorption of light and the charge carrier mobility. Second, DBP?:?C60 (1?:?2) thin films with optimized domain sizes and partially interconnected acceptor grains led to the most balanced carrier mobility and the lowest bimolecular recombination in devices. Finally, the DBP molecules were found to stack closely using grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements, with a ?-? stacking spacing of 4.58 Å, indicating an effective molecular orbital overlap in DBP. The study not only reveals the promising characteristics of DBP as a donor in OSCs but the clear correlations of the thin-film nano-morphology, molecular stacking, carrier mobility and charge recombination found here could also provide insights into the characterization methodology and optimization of the small molecule OSCs.
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DAFS: a data-adaptive flag method for RNA-sequencing data to differentiate genes with low and high expression.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has advanced the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies in genetic and genomic variation analysis. Due to the large dynamic range of expression levels, RNA-seq is more prone to detect transcripts with low expression. It is clear that genes with no mapped reads are not expressed; however, there is ongoing debate about the level of abundance that constitutes biologically meaningful expression. To date, there is no consensus on the definition of low expression. Since random variation is high in regions with low expression and distributions of transcript expression are affected by numerous experimental factors, methods to differentiate low and high expressed data in a sample are critical to interpreting classes of abundance levels in RNA-seq data.
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Increased incidence of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus among children with asthma.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an especially aggressive disease course and poor outcomes. Previous studies demonstrated a possible association between SLE and allergies, but the relationship between these disorders remains unclear. This population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk of juvenile-onset SLE (JSLE) among children with asthma.
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Advances in the management of peritoneal mesothelioma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (PM) is an infrequent disease which has historically been associated with a poor prognosis. Given its long latency period and non-specific symptomatology, a diagnosis of PM can be suggested by occupational exposure history, but ultimately relies heavily on imaging and diagnostic biopsy. Early treatment options including palliative operative debulking, intraperitoneal chemotherapy, and systemic chemotherapy have marginally improved the natural course of the disease with median survival being approximately one year. The advent of cytoreduction (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has dramatically improved survival outcomes with wide median survival estimates between 2.5 to 9 years; these studies however remain largely heterogeneous, with differing study populations, tumor biology, and specific treatment regimens. More recent investigations have explored extent of cytoreduction, repeated operative intervention, and choice of chemotherapy but have been unable to offer definitive conclusions. CRS and HIPEC remain morbid procedures with complication rates ranging between 30% to 46% in larger series. Accordingly, an increasing interest in identifying molecular targets and developing targeted therapies is emerging. Among such novel targets is sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) which regulates the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a biologically active lipid implicated in various cancers including malignant mesothelioma. The known action of specific SphK inhibitors may warrant further exploration in peritoneal disease.
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Association between the growth rate of renal cysts/angiomyolipomas and age in the patients with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Renal manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) occur with a high frequency and a wide range of severity. The onset and complications of each affected organ depend on the age. This study aimed to investigate the associations between comorbidities, frequency, and size of cysts/angiomyolipomas of TSC and the patients in the different ages.
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Comparison of 4% and 6% topical cocaine solutions for reduction of epistaxis induced by nasotracheal intubation.
Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) provides a good field for surgeons in patients undergoing oromaxillofacial surgery; however, NTI is often complicated by epistaxis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 4% and 6% topical cocaine solutions in reducing epistaxis during NTI.
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Acute large-dose exposure to organophosphates in patients with and without diabetes mellitus: analysis of mortality rate and new-onset diabetes mellitus.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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We investigated the mortality rates of patients with and without diabetes mellitus after acute large-dose exposure to organophosphate insecticides. All patients without diabetes mellitus were traced to examine the long-term risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus. Previous reports indicated that organophosphate exposure might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus.
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Increased risk of Kawasaki disease in children with common allergic diseases.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Growing evidence reveals a link between Kawasaki disease (KD) and allergic diseases. This population-based case-control study is to investigate the onset of allergic diseases in children and the associated risks of KD.
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K63-linked polyubiquitination of transcription factor IRF1 is essential for IL-1-induced production of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5.
Nat. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Although interleukin 1 (IL-1) induces expression of the transcription factor IRF1 (interferon-regulatory factor 1), the roles of IRF1 in immune and inflammatory responses and mechanisms of its activation remain elusive. Here we found that IRF1 was essential for IL-1-induced expression of the chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5, which recruit mononuclear cells into sites of sterile inflammation. Newly synthesized IRF1 acquired Lys63 (K63)-linked polyubiquitination mediated by the apoptosis inhibitor cIAP2 that was enhanced by the bioactive lipid S1P. In response to IL-1, cIAP2 and the sphingosine kinase SphK1 (the enzyme that generates S1P) formed a complex with IRF1, which led to its activation. Thus, IL-1 triggered a hitherto unknown signaling cascade that controlled the induction of IRF1-dependent genes that encode molecules important for sterile inflammation.
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Association between blood cadmium levels and malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Malnutrition is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death and may cause protein-energy wasting in individuals with chronic kidney disease. A previous study demonstrated that blood cadmium levels (BCLs) were associated with malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the correlation between cadmium exposure and malnutrition remains unclear in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. This study examined the possible adverse effects of environmental cadmium exposure in CPD patients.
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Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis reveals recurrent genomic alterations associated with histopathologic features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies indicate that genomic alterations (GAs) are associated with many human malignancies. Genome-wide analysis of GAs involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and association with histopathologic features are limited. To help characterize this relatively rare neoplasm, we collected 32 frozen tissue samples of ICC to study GAs and molecular karyotypes by using single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Recurrent GAs occurring in at least 40% of the patients were further correlated with histopathologic features. Gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p13 were significantly associated with larger tumor size more than 5 cm in diameter; and loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 with tumor multiplicity. Moreover, losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 3p26.3-p22.2, 4q13.1-q21.23, 4q31.3-q34.3 and 4q34.3-35.2 were inclined to be associated with high histological grade. As to tumor vascular invasion, gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 3p22.1-p12.3 and 4q13.2-q35.2 were significantly associated with tumor vascular invasion. Some regions were concurrently associated with multiple histopathologic characteristics, including loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 associated with larger tumor size, high histological grade and vascular invasion; losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p22.2 with larger tumor size and high histological grade; and gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 with larger tumor size and vascular invasion. Our study indicates that complex chromosomal instability is characteristic of ICC. Detecting crucial GAs will enable risk stratification and development of personalized therapies.
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Genetic diversity and evolution of satellite RNAs associated with the bamboo mosaic virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are subviral agents that depend on cognate helper viruses for genome replication and encapsidation. Their negative impacts on helper viruses have been exploited to control plant viral diseases. SatBaMV is a commonly found satRNA associated with Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) that infects diverse bamboo species in the field. To investigate the genetic diversity and evolution of satRNAs, we examined seven satBaMV populations derived from five bamboo species and cultivars from Taiwan, China, and India and one from the greenhouse. We found 3 distinct clades among the seven populations. Clade I is consisted of all satBaMV isolates, except for those from Dendrocalamus latiflorus in Taiwan and Bambusa vulgaris in India, which belong to Clades II and III, respectively. Interestingly, nucleotide diversity was lower for Clade I than II and III. However, the nucleotide diversity did not seem to depend on bamboo species or geographic location. Our population genetic analyses revealed the presence of excessive low-frequency polymorphic sites, which suggests that the satBaMV population was under purifying selection and/or population expansion. Further analysis of P20, the only satBaMV gene that encodes a non-structural protein involved in the long-distance movement of satBaMV, showed evidence of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that purifying selection against defective P20 protein is responsible at least in part for the evolution of the satBaMV genome.
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Does chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus influence the risk of lung cancer? Result from a population-based cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Previous studies have suggested that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. There are some evidence that people with diabetes are at a risk of developing many forms of cancer, but inconclusive with regard to lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether COPD with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) influences the risk of developing lung cancer.
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Emerging Role of Sphingosine-1-phosphate in Inflammation, Cancer, and Lymphangiogenesis.
Biomolecules
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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The main function of the lymphatic system is to control and maintain fluid homeostasis, lipid transport, and immune cell trafficking. In recent years, the pathological roles of lymphangiogenesis, the generation of new lymphatic vessels from preexisting ones, in inflammatory diseases and cancer progression are beginning to be elucidated. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, mediates multiple cellular events, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and trafficking, and is now known as an important mediator of inflammation and cancer. In this review, we will discuss recent findings showing the emerging role of S1P in lymphangiogenesis, in inflammation, and in cancer.
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Subsequent cancer risk of children receiving post voiding cystourethrography: A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To estimate the subsequent cancer risk of children receiving post voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study with the data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were used for the analysis.
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Toll-like receptor 9 SNPs are susceptible to the development and progression of membranous glomerulonephritis: 27 years follow-up in Taiwan.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether toll-like receptors 9 (TLR9) gene polymorphisms (rs352139 and rs352140) were markers of susceptibility to the development and progression of membranous nephropathy (MGN) in Taiwanese patients. The polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 397 Taiwanese individuals (134 MGN patients and 263 controls). Patients with malignancy, chronic infectious diseases, lupus nephritis, or drug-induced secondary MGN were excluded from the study. Data showed AA genotype at rs352139 SNP or GG genotype at rs352140 SNP may indicate higher risk for MGN (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.02-2.35, at rs352139 SNP; OR?=?1.57; 95% CI?=?1.03-2.39, at rs352140 SNP). However, MGN patients with A-G haplotype were susceptible for decreased creatinine clearance rate and for seriously tubule-interstitial fibrosis. The result suggests for the first time that TLR9 (rs352139 and rs352140) polymorphisms may contribute to the development and progression of MGN.
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Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy for quantitative biological imaging.
Methods Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a method for measuring fluorophore lifetimes with microscopic spatial resolution, providing a useful tool for cell biologists to detect, visualize, and investigate structure and function of biological systems. In this chapter, we begin by introducing the basic theory of fluorescence lifetime, including the characteristics of fluorophore decay, followed by a discussion of factors affecting fluorescence lifetimes and the potential advantages of fluorescence lifetime as a source of image contrast. Experimental methods for creating lifetime maps, including both time- and frequency-domain experimental approaches, are then introduced. Then, FLIM data analysis methods are discussed, including rapid lifetime determination, multiexponential fitting, Laguerre polynomial fitting, and phasor plot analysis. After, data analysis methods are introduced that improve lifetime precision of FLIM maps based upon optimal virtual gating and total variation denoising. The chapter concludes by highlighting several recent FLIM applications for quantitative biological imaging, including Förster resonance energy transfer-FLIM, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy-FLIM, multispectral-FLIM, and multiphoton-FLIM.
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Improved activity of immobilized antibody by paratope orientation controller: Probing paratope orientation by electrochemical strategy and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Electrochemical method and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopic analysis are utilized herein to investigate antibody immobilization without and with orientation control for site-positioning paratopes (antigen binding site) of the antibody molecules. Biotin and its antibody were selected in current study as model. Such an approach employed thiophene-3-boronic acid (T3BA) as paratope orientation controller, (i) enabled site orientation of the antibody molecules reducing the hiding of paratopes, and (ii) maintained the activity of the captured antibodies, as confirmed by electrochemical and SPR anlysis. Anti-biotin antibody (a glycoprotein) was covalently bound to a self-assembled monolayer of T3BA modified on a nanogold-electrodeposited screen-printed electrode through boronic acid-saccharide interactions, with the boronic acid units specifically binding to the glycosylation sites of the antibody molecules. The immunosensor functioned based on competition between the analyte biotin and biotin-tagged, potassium hexacyanoferrate(II)-encapsulated liposomes. The current signal produced by the released liposomal Fe(CN)6(4-), measured using square wave voltammetry, yielded a sigmoidally shaped dose-response curve that was linear over eight orders of magnitude (from 10(-11) to 10(-3)M). Furthermore this biosensing system fabricated based on T3BA approach was found to possess significantly improved sensitivity, and the limit of detection toward biotin was calculated as 0.102ngmL(-1) (equivalent to 6?L of 4.19×10(-10)M biotin).
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Preoperative long course chemoirradiation in a developing country for rectal carcinoma: Kuala Lumpur hospital experience.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The use of preoperative chemoirradiation is the commonest treatment strategy employed in Malaysia for locally advanced rectal cancer. We need to determine the local control and survival rates for comparison with established rates in the literature.
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Differential gene expression in human hepatocyte cell lines exposed to the antiretroviral agent zidovudine.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Zidovudine (3-azido-3-deoxythymidine; AZT) is the most widely used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the treatment of AIDS patients and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Previously, we demonstrated that AZT had significantly greater growth inhibitory effects upon the human liver carcinoma cell line HepG2 as compared to the immortalized human liver cell line THLE2. We have now used gene expression profiling to determine the molecular pathways associated with toxicity in both cell lines. HepG2 cells were incubated with 0, 2, 20, or 100 ?M AZT for 2 weeks; THLE2 cells were treated with 0, 50, 500, or 2,500 ?M AZT, concentrations that were equi-toxic to those used in the HepG2 cells. After the treatment, total RNA was isolated and subjected to microarray analysis. Global analysis of gene expression, with a false discovery rate ?0.01 and a fold change ?1.5, indicated that 6- to 70-fold more genes were differentially expressed in a significant concentration-dependent manner in HepG2 cells when compared to THLE2 cells. Comparative analysis indicated that 7 % of these genes were common to both cell lines. Among the common differentially expressed genes, 70 % changed in the same direction, most of which were associated with cell death and survival, cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation, and DNA replication, recombination, and repair. As determined by the uptake of [methyl-(3)H]AZT, the intracellular levels of total AZT were approximately twofold higher in THLE2 cells than in HepG2 cells. The expression of thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) genes that regulate the metabolic activation and deactivation of AZT, respectively, was increased in HepG2 cells but decreased in THLE2 cells after treatment with AZT. This differential response in AZT metabolism was confirmed by real-time PCR, western blotting, and/or enzymatic assays. These data indicate that molecular pathways involved with cell death and survival, cell cycle, cell growth and proliferation, and DNA replication, recombination, and repair are involved in the toxicities associated with AZT in both human cell lines, and that the difference in expression of TK1 and UGT2B7 in response to AZT treatment in HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells might explain why HepG2 cells are more sensitive than THLE2 cells to the toxicity of AZT.
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Information extraction for tracking liver cancer patients statuses: from mixture of clinical narrative report types.
Telemed J E Health
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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To provide an efficient way for tracking patients condition over long periods of time and to facilitate the collection of clinical data from different types of narrative reports, it is critical to develop an efficient method for smoothly analyzing the clinical data accumulated in narrative reports.
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Severity of hydronephrosis correlates with tumour invasiveness and urinary bladder recurrence of ureteric cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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To explore the prognostic role of hydronephrosis grade in patients with pure ureteric cancer.
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Re-appraising the role of sonography in pediatric acute abdominal pain.
Iran J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Most pediatric emergency department (ED) visits are due to acute abdominal pain. Sonography is a reliable technique for differential diagnosis. The objective of this study was to re-appraise the role of sonography in evaluating acute abdominal pain in children.
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Vinculin tension distributions of individual stress fibers within cell-matrix adhesions.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Actomyosin stress fibers (SFs) enable cells to exert traction on planar extracellular matrices (ECMs) by tensing focal adhesions (FAs) at the cell-ECM interface. Although it is widely appreciated that the spatial and temporal distribution of these tensile forces play key roles in polarity, motility, fate choice, and other defining cell behaviors, virtually nothing is known about how an individual SF quantitatively contributes to tensile loads borne by specific molecules within associated FAs. We address this key open question by using femtosecond laser ablation to sever single SFs in cells while tracking tension across vinculin using a molecular optical sensor. We show that disruption of a single SF reduces tension across vinculin in FAs located throughout the cell, with enriched vinculin tension reduction in FAs oriented parallel to the targeted SF. Remarkably, however, some subpopulations of FAs exhibit enhanced vinculin tension upon SF irradiation and undergo dramatic, unexpected transitions between tension-enhanced and tension-reduced states. These changes depend strongly on the location of the severed SF, consistent with our earlier finding that different SF pools are regulated by distinct myosin activators. We critically discuss the extent to which these measurements can be interpreted in terms of whole-FA tension and traction and propose a model that relates SF tension to adhesive loads and cell shape stability. These studies represent the most direct and high-resolution intracellular measurements of SF contributions to tension on specific FA proteins to date and offer a new paradigm for investigating regulation of adhesive complexes by cytoskeletal force.
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Diagnostic ureteroscopy independently correlates with intravesical recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Little is known about the effects of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence after nephroureterectomy.
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Double coronary artery thrombosis presenting as acute extensive anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Simultaneous thrombosis of more than one coronary artery is an uncommon angiographic finding in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and usually leads to cardiogenic shock or even sudden cardiac death. We reported a 56-year-old man presenting with persistent chest tightness and ST-segment elevation over precordial leads in electrocardiography (ECG). Emergent coronary angiogram showed total occlusion of both the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). We performed thrombus aspiration and stenting over the LAD with thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) III flow to the distal LAD. However, diminishing collateral flow to the distal RCA complicated with complete atrioventricular block (CAVB) and cardiogenic shock developed thereafter. Because distal embolization of the collateral circulation from the LAD to the distal RCA was suspected, thrombus aspiration and stenting over the proximal RCA were performed. After reperfusion of the RCA, the patients hemodynamic status stabilized and he recovered uneventfully.
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Facial Palsy Complicated by Masked Otomastoiditis in A 3-Month-Old Infant.
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The most common cause of facial palsy is idiopathic or Bells palsy. Although uncommon in the postantibiotic era, otomastoiditis should receive more attention as a cause of facial palsy, especially in young children. Delay of identification and treatment may result in permanent neurological sequelae.
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Electrochemical sensor for multiplex screening of genetically modified DNA: identification of biotech crops by logic-based biomolecular analysis.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Genetically modified (GM) technique, one of the modern biomolecular engineering technologies, has been deemed as profitable strategy to fight against global starvation. Yet rapid and reliable analytical method is deficient to evaluate the quality and potential risk of such resulting GM products. We herein present a biomolecular analytical system constructed with distinct biochemical activities to expedite the computational detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The computational mechanism provides an alternative to the complex procedures commonly involved in the screening of GMOs. Given that the bioanalytical system is capable of processing promoter, coding and species genes, affirmative interpretations succeed to identify specified GM event in terms of both electrochemical and optical fashions. The biomolecular computational assay exhibits detection capability of genetically modified DNA below sub-nanomolar level and is found interference-free by abundant coexistence of non-GM DNA. This bioanalytical system, furthermore, sophisticates in array fashion operating multiplex screening against variable GM events. Such a biomolecular computational assay and biosensor holds great promise for rapid, cost-effective, and high-fidelity screening of GMO.
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Education level is associated with mortality in male patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Studies of the correlation between education levels and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients are rare. The aim of this multi-center study was to investigate the relationship between education levels and 3-year mortality rates in HD patients.
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Increasing frequency of acute kidney injury amongst children hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is among the most common kidney diseases seen in children. The major complications of NS include infection, acute kidney injury (AKI), and thromboembolism (TE). The objective of this study was to analyze long-term trends in the epidemiology of major complications of pediatric NS.
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Methods for detection and characterization of protein S-nitrosylation.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Reversible protein S-nitrosylation, defined as the covalent addition of a nitroso moiety to the reactive thiol group on a cysteine residue, has received increasing recognition as a critical post-translational modification that exerts ubiquitous influence in a wide range of cellular pathways and physiological processes. Due to the lability of the S-NO bond, which is a dynamic modification, and the low abundance of endogenously S-nitrosylated proteins in vivo, unambiguous identification of S-nitrosylated proteins and S-nitrosylation sites remains methodologically challenging. In this review, we summarize recent advancements and the use of state-of-art approaches for the enrichment, systematic identification and quantitation of S-nitrosylation protein targets and their modification sites at the S-nitrosoproteome scale. These advancements have facilitated the global identification of >3000 S-nitrosylated proteins that are associated with wide range of human diseases. These strategies hold promise to site-specifically unravel potential molecular targets and to change S-nitrosylation-based pathophysiology, which may further the understanding of the potential role of S-nitrosylation in diseases.
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Oncological impact of endoscopic bladder cuff management during nephroureterectomy varies according to upper urinary tract tumor location.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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To compare the oncological outcome between extravesical excision and transurethral excision for bladder cuff management in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.
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Clinical Characteristics of Endogenous Cushings Syndrome at a Medical Center in Southern Taiwan.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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From January 1987 to December 2011, over a total of 25 years, 84 patients with Cushings syndrome (CS) were identified at a medical center in southern Taiwan. We observed a higher incidence of ACTH-independent CS (75%) than ACTH-dependent CS (25%). A higher incidence of adrenocortical adenoma (58.3%) than Cushings disease (CD, 21.4%) was also found. The sensitivity of the definitive diagnostic tests for CS, including loss of plasma cortisol circadian rhythm, a baseline 24?h urinary free cortisol (UFC) value >80? ? g, and overnight and 2-day low-dose dexamethasone suppression test, was between 94.4% and 100%. For the 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test for the differential diagnosis of CD, the sensitivity of 0800?h plasma cortisol and 24?h UFC was 44.4% and 85.7%, respectively. For the differential diagnosis of adrenal CS, the sensitivities of the 0800?h plasma cortisol and 24?h UFC were 95.5% and 88.9%, respectively. In patients with ACTH-independent CS and ACTH-dependent CS, the baseline plasma ACTH levels were all below 29?pg/mL and above 37?pg/mL, respectively. The postsurgical hospitalization stay following retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy was shorter than that observed for transabdominal adrenalectomy (4.3?±?1.6 versus 8.8?±?3.7 days, P < 0.001). It was easy to develop retroperitoneal and peritoneal seeding of adrenocortical carcinoma via laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
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Computed tomographic imaging in determining the need of embolization for high-grade blunt renal injury.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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It is well documented that transarterial embolization (TAE) can successfully stop bleeding in renal trauma patients and reduce the failure rate of conservation treatment. However, there is no consensus on the indications for TAE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the criteria for computed tomography (CT) to predict the need for TAE for patients with high-grade blunt renal trauma.
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HuR cytoplasmic expression is associated with increased cyclin A expression and inferior disease-free survival in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs).
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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HuR is an RNA-binding protein that post-transcriptionally modulates the expression of various target genes involved in carcinogenesis, such as CCNA2, which encodes cyclin A. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of HuR expression and subcellular localization in a large cohort of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs).
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Multi-functional norrin is a ligand for the LGR4 receptor.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mammalian LGR4, 5 and 6 are seven-transmembrane receptors that are important for diverse physiological processes. These receptors are orthologous to DLGR2, a Drosophila receptor activated by the burs/pburs heterodimer important for morphogenesis. Although recent studies indicated that four R-spondin proteins are cognate ligands for LGR4, 5 and 6 receptors, several BMP antagonists in vertebrates have been postulated to be orthologous to burs and pburs. Using newly available genome sequences, we showed that norrin is a vertebrate ortholog for insect burs and pburs and stimulates Wnt signaling mediated by LGR4, but not by LGR5 and 6, in mammalian cells. Although norrin could only activate LGR4, binding studies suggested interactions between norrin and LGR4, 5 and 6. Norrin, the Norrie disease gene product, is also capable of activating Wnt signaling mediated by the Frizzled4 receptor and serves as a BMP antagonist. Mutagenesis studies indicated that different norrin mutations found in patients with Norrie disease can be categorized into subgroups according to defects for signaling through the three distinct binding proteins. Thus, norrin is a rare ligand capable of binding three receptors/binding proteins that are important for BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.
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Role of DNA Repair Pathways in Response to Zidovudine-induced DNA Damage in Immortalized Human Liver THLE2 Cells.
Int J Biomed Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (3-azido-3-dexoythymidine, AZT) can be incorporated into DNA and cause DNA damage. Previously, we determined that the human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells are more susceptible to AZT-induced toxicities than the immortalized normal human liver THLE2 cells and the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway plays an essential role in the response to AZT-induced DNA damage. We have now investigated if the effects of AZT treatment on the expression levels of genes related to DNA damage and repair pathways contribute to the differences in sensitivity to AZT treatment between HepG2 cells and THLE2 cells. Of total 84 genes related to DNA damage and repair, two, five, and six genes were up-regulated more than 1.5-fold at 50, 500, and 2,500 µM AZT groups compared with that of control THLE2 cells. Seven genes showed a decreased expression of more than 1.5-fold following the 2,500 µM AZT treatment. Two-sided multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the change in expression of genes involved in apoptosis, cell cycle, and DNA repair pathways was significant only at 2,500 µM AZT. Statistically significant dose-related increases were identified in XPC gene expression and GTF2H1 protein level after the AZT treatments, which implicated the NER pathway in response to the DNA damage induced by AZT. In contrast, AZT treatment did not alter significantly the expression of the APE1 gene or the levels of APE1 protein. These results indicate that the NER repair pathway is involved in AZT-induced DNA damage response in immortalized human hepatic THLE2 cells.
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Ovarian regulation of neuromedin U and its local actions in the ovary, mediated through neuromedin U receptor 2.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Neuromedin U (NMU) was originally identified as an anorexigenic peptide that modulates appetite as well as energy homeostasis through the brain-gut axis. Although growing evidence has linked NMU activity with the development of female reproductive organs, no direct expression of and function for NMU in these organs has been pinpointed. Using a superovulated rat model, we found that NMU is directly expressed in the ovary, where its transcript level is tightly regulated by gonadotropins. Ovarian microdissection and immunohistochemical staining showed clearly that NMU is expressed mainly in theca/interstitial cells and to a moderate extent in granulosa cells. Primary cell studies together with reporter assays indicated the Nmu mRNA level in these cells is strongly induced via cAMP signaling, whereas this increase in expression can be reversed by the degradation message residing within its 3-untranslated region, which recruits cis-acting mRNA degradation mechanisms, such as the gonadotropin-induced zinc finger RNA-binding protein Zfp36l1. This study also demonstrated that NMUR2, but not NMUR1, is the dominant NMU receptor in the ovary, where its expression is restricted to theca/interstitial cells. Treatment with NMU led to induction of the early response c-Fos gene, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and promotion of progesterone production in both developing and mature theca/interstitial cells. Taken as a whole, this study demonstrates that NMU and NMU receptor 2 compose a novel autocrine system in theca/interstitial cells in which the intensity of signaling is tightly controlled by gonadotropins.
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Environmental lead exposure accelerates progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Whether environmental lead exposure has a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients remains unclear. A total of 107 type II diabetic patients with stage 3 diabetic nephropathy (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) range, 30-60?mL/min/1.73?m(2)) with normal body lead burden (BLB) (<600? ? g/72?hr in EDTA mobilization tests) and no history of exposure to lead were prospectively followed for 2 years. Patients were divided into high-normal BLB (>80? ? g) and low-normal BLB (<80? ? g) groups. The primary outcome was a 2-fold increase in the initial creatinine levels, long-term dialysis, or death. The secondary outcome was a change in eGFR over time. Forty-five patients reached the primary outcome within 2 years. Although there were no differences in baseline data and renal function, progressive nephropathy was slower in the low-normal BLB group than that in the high-normal BLB group. During the study period, we demonstrated that each 100? ? g increment in BLB and each 10? ? g increment in blood lead levels could decrease GFR by 2.2?mL/min/1.72?m(2) and 3.0?mL/min/1.72?m(2) (P = 0.005), respectively, as estimated by generalized equations. Moreover, BLB was associated with increased risk of achieving primary outcome. Environmental exposure to lead may have a long-term effect on progressive diabetic nephropathy in type II diabetic patients.
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Coordinated regulation of synthesis and stability of RNA during the acute TNF-induced proinflammatory response.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Steady-state gene expression is a coordination of synthesis and decay of RNA through epigenetic regulation, transcription factors, micro RNAs (miRNAs), and RNA-binding proteins. Here, we present bromouride labeling and sequencing (Bru-Seq) and bromouridine pulse-chase and sequencing (BruChase-Seq) to assess genome-wide changes to RNA synthesis and stability in human fibroblasts at homeostasis and after exposure to the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The inflammatory response in human cells involves rapid and dramatic changes in gene expression, and the Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq techniques revealed a coordinated and complex regulation of gene expression both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The combinatory analysis of both RNA synthesis and stability using Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq allows for a much deeper understanding of mechanisms of gene regulation than afforded by the analysis of steady-state total RNA and should be useful in many biological settings.
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Gender-specific association of the interleukin 18 gene with symptomatic gallstone disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Symptomatic gallstone disease (SGSD) induced several inflammatory responses and affected extrahepatic bile ducts. Although the pathology and environmental risk factors of gallstone disease are well documented, immune or inflammatory responses in SGSD development are still inconclusive. Interleukin 18 (IL18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in immune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases because of the induction of interferon-?. In this study, we investigated whether polymorphisms of the IL18 gene were associated with SGSD susceptibility.
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Outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis at a far east poison center.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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There is an overall paucity of data regarding the outcomes of patients with acetaminophen-associated toxic hepatitis in Taiwan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recruit a larger number of patients and to examine the clinical features, the degrees of toxic hepatitis, the physiological markers, and the clinical outcomes after intentional acetaminophen poisoning, and to determine what association, if any, might exist between these findings.
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Predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with paraquat intoxication.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Paraquat poisoning is characterized by acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure, and multi-organ failure, resulting in a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cases of paraquat poisoning and determine the association between these parameters.
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Outcomes of patients with rodenticide poisoning at a far east poison center.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Rodenticide poisoning remains a major public health problem in Asian countries. Nevertheless, very few data are available in world literature regarding the outcomes of these patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of rodenticide poisonings in our hospital and to compare these data with published reports from other international poison centers.
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Plasma haptoglobin concentrations are elevated in patients with coronary artery disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Inflammation underlies the development and progression of coronary artery plaques. Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase protein, the synthesis of which is increased during inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma Hp concentrations and phenotype in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We recruited 359 patients with fixed luminal stenosis ?50% in at least one coronary artery (CAD group) and 83 patients with luminal stenosis ?40%, normal ejection fraction, and normal regional wall motion (control group). Plasma Hp concentrations were measured using a phenotype-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hp phenotype was determined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured. Plasma Hp concentrations were significantly higher in the CAD compared with the control group (262.4±144.2 vs 176.0±86.7 ng/mL, P<0.001); however, there was no between group difference in the distribution of Hp phenotype (1-1 = 7.5% vs 7.2%; 2-1 = 40.4% vs 42.2%; 2-2 = 52.1% vs 50.6%). Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed that high Hp concentrations (odds ratio [OR] = 5.865), male sex (OR = 3.689), hypertension (OR = 2.632), diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.300), and low-density lipoprotein concentrations (OR = 1.480) were independently associated with CAD (all P<0.05). Hp phenotype was not associated with CAD. Plasma Hp concentrations were significantly correlated with the severity of luminal stenosis (r = 0.236, P<0.001). Our findings suggest that plasma Hp concentrations may be elevated in patients with CAD. There does not appear to be any relationship between Hp phenotype and CAD.
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Impact of living environment on 2-year mortality in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies on risk factors of mortality in elderly patients with hemodialysis usually focus on comorbidities, nutrition, and inflammation. Discussion on the correlation between living environment and mortality of these patients is limited.
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Spectrum of corrosive esophageal injury after intentional paraquat or glyphosate-surfactant herbicide ingestion.
Int J Gen Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Data on the spectrum of corrosive injury to the esophagus after paraquat or glyphosate-surfactant ingestion are sparse in the literature and confined to case studies and brief reports. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the clinical features, degrees of esophageal injury, and clinical outcomes after paraquat or glyphosate herbicide ingestion, and sought to determine what association, if any, may exist between these findings.
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Gene expression variability in human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications.
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Simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Thromboembolism presenting with malignancy is common in adults but rare in children. We describe the case of a 17-year-old boy admitted to our hospital with syncope. Computed tomography revealed thromboembolism in both the lungs. Magnetic resonance imaging found thromboembolism in the inferior vena cava and a large heterogeneous mass in the pelvis. Pelvic osteosarcoma was confirmed by computed tomography-guided biopsy. Despite intensive chemotherapy and local radiation, only transient response was noted, the tumor remaining unresectable. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of simultaneous pulmonary and inferior vena cava thromboembolism secondary to pelvic osteosarcoma in children. We also emphasize syncope as a unique feature of pulmonary thromboembolism. Accordingly, thromboembolism should be kept in mind as the first manifestation of occult malignancy, even in children.
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Comparison of pigtail catheter with chest tube for drainage of parapneumonic effusion in children.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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The use of thoracostomy tube for drainage of parapneumonic effusion is an important therapeutic measure. In this study, we compared the effectiveness and complications between chest tube and pigtail catheter thoracostomy for drainage of parapneumonic pleural effusion in children.
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Rsf-1/HBXAP overexpression is associated with disease-specific survival of patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Dysregulated chromatin remodeling often leads to abnormal gene expression or silencing in cells, thereby implicating tumor development and progression. As a subunit of remodeling and spacing factor (RSF) complex, Rsf-1, a novel nuclear protein with histone chaperon function, mediates ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling and confer tumor aggressiveness in common carcinomas. We aimed, for the first time, to evaluate the Rsf-1 expression status and its associations with clinicopathological features and patient survival in a well characterized cohort of gallbladder carcinomas. Using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, we assessed Rsf-1 expression in gallbladder carcinomas, yielding 88 cases undergoing surgical intervention with interpretable results. The Rsf-1 overexpression, present in 61 cases (69.3%), was significantly associated with higher histological grades (p?=?0.002) and vascular invasion (p?=?0.037) and marginally with non-papillary histotypes (p?=?0.058). In univariate log-rank analysis, Rsf-1 overexpression was significantly predictive of disease-specific survival (p?=?0.0015), which remained prognostically independent [p?=?0.0191, risk ratio (RR)?=?2.683], along with American Joint Committee on Cancer stages II-IV (p?=?0.0265, RR?=?2.102). Our findings indicate that Rsf-1 overexpression is common and associated with adverse prognosticators in gallbladder carcinomas. It may confer tumor aggressiveness through chromatin remodeling and represents a potential prognostic biomarker of gallbladder carcinomas.
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Glycogen synthase kinase-3 facilitates con a-induced IFN-?-- mediated immune hepatic injury.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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Immune hepatic injury induced by Con A results primarily from IFN-?-mediated inflammation, followed by hepatic cell death. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3, which acts proapoptotically and is proinflammatory, is also important for facilitating IFN-? signaling. We hypothesized a pathogenic role for GSK-3 in Con A hepatic injury. Con A stimulation caused GSK-3 activation in the livers of C57BL/6 mice. Inhibiting GSK-3 reduced Con A hepatic injury, including hepatic necrosis and apoptosis, inflammation, infiltration of T cells and granulocytes, and deregulated expression of adhesion molecule CD54. Con A induced hepatic injury in an IFN-? receptor 1-dependent manner. Con A/IFN-? induced activation and expression of STAT1 in a GSK-3-dependent manner. GSK-3 facilitated IFN-?-induced inducible NO synthase, but had limited effects on CD95 upregulation and CD95-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis in vitro. Notably, inhibiting GSK-3 decreased Con A-induced IFN-? production in both wild-type and IFN-? receptor 1-deficient C57BL/6 mice. In Con A-activated NKT cells, GSK-3 was also activated and was required for nuclear translocation of T-box transcription factor Tbx21, a transcription factor of IFN-?, but it was not required for CD95 ligand expression or activation-induced cell death. These results demonstrate the dual and indispensable role of GSK-3 in Con A hepatic injury by facilitating IFN-?-induced hepatopathy.
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New A-A-D-A-A-type electron donors for small molecule organic solar cells.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Two A-A-D-A-A-type molecules (BCNDTS and BDCDTS), where two terminal electron-withdrawing cyano or dicyanovinylene moieties are connected to a central dithienosilole core through another electron-accepting 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole block, have been synthesized, characterized, and employed as electron donors for small molecule organic solar cells. Vacuum-deposited bilayer and planar mixed heterojunction devices based on BCNDTS and fullerene acceptors (C(60) or C(70)) exhibited decent power conversion efficiencies of 2.3% and 3.7%, respectively.
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Is hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy better than transurethral bladder cuff incision-assisted nephroureterectomy?
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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To compare the perioperative and oncologic outcome between hand-assisted nephroureterectomy (HARNU) and transurethral bladder cuff incision-assisted nephroureterectomy (TUINU), which manage the bladder cuff with different methods.
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Increased galectin-3 facilitates leukemia cell survival from apoptotic stimuli.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Galectin-3 is regulated for cancer cell survival and apoptosis depending upon the cell type and stimulus. We investigated a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3?/galectin-3-regulated mechanism used by leukemia cells to escape from apoptotic stimuli. Galectin-3 expression was time- and transcription-dependently deregulated in K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells stimulated for apoptosis by cisplatin (a platinum-based chemotherapy drug), sphingolipid ceramide analog C(2)-ceramide, and LY294002 (a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor). Notably, galectin-3 was upregulated in survival cells. Forced galectin-3 expression caused resistance to apoptosis, whereas knockdown galectin-3 expression increased susceptibility to apoptosis. Sub-cellular distribution of inducible galectin-3 was mitochondria-specific. Apoptotic stimuli decreased pro-survival Bcl-2 family protein expression (especially Mcl-1), whereas galectin-3 overexpression reversed but it was enhanced by a galectin-3 expression knockdown. Under apoptotic stimulation, GSK-3? was activated after Akt was inactivated and GSK-3? was inhibited-either pharmacologically or using short hairpin RNA to abolish galectin-3, increase apoptosis, and inhibit colony formation-which suggests a pro-survival role for GSK-3?. We found that GSK-3? upregulated galectin-3 and stabilized anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, which is important for the escape of leukemia cells from apoptotic stimuli.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.