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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Highly Flexible and Lightweight Organic Solar Cells on Biocompatible Silk Fibroin.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Organic electronics have gained widespread interests due to their flexibility lightness and low-cost potential, as well as large-scale roll-to-roll processing. However, organic electronics require additional development before they can be fully integrated into our daily lives. To achieve feasibility for commercial use, these devices must be biocompatible and flexible, while maintaining high performance. In this paper, biocompatible silk fibroin (SF) integrates with a mesh of silver nanowires (AgNWs) to build up flexible organic solar cells with champion power conversion efficiency of up to 7.29%. The SF-AgNWs substrate exhibits a conductivity of ~11.0 ?/sq and transmittance of ~80% in the visible light range. Surprisingly, these substrates retain their conductivity even after being bent and unbent 200 times attributing to its embedded structure and the specific materials, while an indium tin oxide on synthetic plastic substrate lost its conductivity after the same amount of bending. These lightweight organic solar cells pave the way for future biodegradable and wearable electronics.
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[Impact of new regional cooperative rescue model on first medical contact to balloon time and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To evaluate the effect of new regional cooperative rescue model on the first medical contact-to-balloon time and outcome in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
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Global Metabolomic and Isobaric Tagging Capillary Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Approaches for Uncovering Pathway Dysfunction in Diabetic Mouse Aorta.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Despite the prevalence of diabetes and the global health risks it poses, the biochemical pathogenesis of diabetic complications remains poorly understood with few effective therapies. This study employs capillary liquid chromatography (capLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in conjunction with both global metabolomics and isobaric tags specific to amines and carbonyls to probe aortic metabolic content in diabetic mice with hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and stenotic vascular damage. Using these combined techniques, metabolites well-characterized in diabetes as well as novel pathways were investigated. A total of 53?986 features were detected, 719 compounds were identified as having significant fold changes (thresholds ?2 or ?0.5), and 48 metabolic pathways were found to be altered with at least 2 metabolite hits in diabetic samples. Pathways related to carbonyl stress, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism showed the greatest number of metabolite changes. Three novel pathways with previously limited or undescribed roles in diabetic complications-vitamin B6, propanoate, and butanoate metabolism-were also shown to be altered in multiple points along the pathway. These discoveries support the theory that diabetic vascular complications arise from the interplay of a myriad of metabolic pathways in conjunction with oxidative and carbonyl stress, which may provide not only new and much needed biomarkers but also insights into novel therapeutic targets.
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[Recent advances in the study of synaptic endocytosis key protein: Dynamin].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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As the basic physiological function of synapses, vesicle cycling involves in many aspects of process. Among them, vesicle recycling is the basis of synaptic vesicle cycling. Studies show that clathrin mediated endocytosis is a major pathway of vesicle recycling, in which Dynamin plays an important role. Dynamin is a GTPases with molecular weight of 100 kD, which acts as "scissors" in the endocytosis, separating the clathrin coated pits from membrane. It has been found that Dynamin is associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, centronuclear myopathy, and several other neurological diseases. In this paper, we discussed the structure, function and regulation of Dynamin, and reviewed recent advance in the studies on Dynamin related diseases.
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[The impact of cyclophilin A small interfering RNA on the formation of atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of cyclophilin A by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) could inhibit progression of atherosclerotic plaques and increase collagen production.
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[CD147 expression level and rs8259 T/A polymorphism of CD147 in patients with acute coronary syndrome].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To investigate the association between CD147 expression and its untranslated regions 3'UTR rs8259 T/A polymorphism and acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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Reduced tumorigenicity and drug resistance through the downregulation of octamer-binding protein 4 and Nanog transcriptional factor expression in human breast stem cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy among females. Previous studies examining breast cancer tissue have demonstrated the presence of stem cells, and have detected octamer?binding protein 4 (Oct4) and Nanog transcription factor expression. In the present study, breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) were isolated and enriched from MDA?MB?231 breast cancer cell lines, and were defined as MDA?MB?231 stem cells using flow cytometry. The expression of Oct4 and Nanog in breast CSCs were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. RNA interference (RNAi) was used in order to downregulate the expression of Oct4 and Nanog. Drug resistance and tumor?initiating capability following in vivo injection of MDA?MB?231 stem cells trans-duced with negative RNAi, Oct4 RNAi and Nanog RNAi were compared with that of MDA?MB?231 stem cells without siRNA transfection as a control group. In addition the capability of MDA?MB?231 breast cancer cells to initiate tumor formation in mice was compared with that of MDA?MB?231 stem cells. A paclitaxel inhibition test was also conducted in order to detect resistance of MDA?MB?231 breast cancer stem cells to this treatment. The MDA?MB?231 stem cells were revealed to exhibit elevated percentages of the cluster of differentiation (CD)44+CD24?/low subset, high tumorigenicity and resistance to chemotherapy, all of which are characteristic stem cell properties. In addition, the MDA?MB?231 stem cells were more tumorigenic in vivo. Furthermore, the breast CSCs also expressed high levels of the Oct4 and Nanog transcription factors. Therefore, downregulation of Oct4 or Nanog expression may reduce chemotherapeutic drug resistance and tumorigenicity in breast CSCs. In conclusion, Oct4 and Nanog expression may be a key factor in the development of resistance to chemotherapy and tumor growth of breast CSCs. This finding indicates that Oct4 or Nanog?targeted therapy may be a promising means of overcoming resistance to chemotherapy and inhibiting tumor growth in breast cancer treatment.
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Association between bone marrow dosimetric parameters and acute hematologic toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy: comparison of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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We compare different dosimetric parameters in cervical cancer patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and explore the incidence of hematological toxicity (HT) in these patients.
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[Research progress of emodin anti-gallbladder carcinoma].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Emodin is an effective active ingredient extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, which has the function of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and scavenging oxygen free radicals, inhibiting platelet aggregation, improving microcirculation, protecting various organs and tissues as well as a wide range of anti-tumor effect. Primary biliary gallbladder is a common malignant tumor resection rate and lack of effective adjuvant treatment. It has been confirmed that emodin has broad spectrum antitumor effect, whereas, whether it has curative effect in the treatment of gallbladder carcinoma there is no reliable clinical trials confirmed that its resistance to gallbladder carcinoma function needs further experimental research. In this review, we report the research progress of emodin anti-gallbladder carcinoma.
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[Effects of sildenafil citrate on mice hearing].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of the Sildenafil citrate on mice hearing.
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[Analysis of 18 cases which is the nasal sinuses adenoid cystic carcinoma].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To explore the treatment and possible prognostic factor of nasal sinuses adenoid cystic carcinoma.
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[Effect of low dosage of ciplatin on the shape and otoferlin in cochlea inner hair cells].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To establish the stable and efficient hearing damage model by using low dosage of cispla tin, and investigate the mechanism.
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[Effects of acetamidophenol on auditory in mice].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The purpose of this investigation was to observe the effects of the Acetaminophen on auditory in mice.
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The angiopoietin1-Akt pathway regulates barrier function of the cultured spinal cord microvascular endothelial cells through Eps8.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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In mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the integrity of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), formed by tight junctions (TJs) between adjacent microvascular endothelial cells near the basement membrane of capillaries and the accessory structures, is important for relatively independent activities of the cellular constituents inside the spinal cord. The barrier function of the BSCB are tightly regulated and coordinated by a variety of physiological or pathological factors, similar with but not quite the same as its counterpart, the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Herein, angiopoietin 1 (Ang1), an identified ligand of the endothelium-specific tyrosine kinase receptor Tie-2, was verified to regulate barrier functions, including permeability, junction protein interactions and F-actin organization, in cultured spinal cord microvascular endothelial cells (SCMEC) of rat through the activity of Akt. Besides, these roles of Ang1 in the BSCB in vitro were found to be accompanied with an increasing expression of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8), an F-actin bundling protein. Furthermore, the silencing of Eps8 by lentiviral shRNA resulted in an antagonistic effect vs. Ang1 on the endothelial barrier function of SCMEC. In summary, the Ang1-Akt pathway serves as a regulator in the barrier function modulation of SCMEC via the actin-binding protein Eps8.
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Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 is involved in acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes in intervertebral discs.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1) has been shown to be a receptor for protons. We investigated the role of proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors in the apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes induced by extracellular acid. The expression of proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptors was examined in rat lumbar endplate chondrocytes. Knockdown of OGR1 was achieved by transfecting chondrocytes with specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for OGR1. Apoptotic changes were evaluated by DNA fragmentation ELISA, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i) was analyzed with laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mechanism of OGR1 in acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes was also investigated. We found that OGR1 was predominantly expressed in rat endplate chondrocytes, and its expression was highly upregulated in response to acidosis. Knocking down OGR1 with shRNAs effectively attenuated acid-induced apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes and increased [Ca(2+) ]i. Blocking OGR1-mediated [Ca(2+) ]i elevation inhibited acid-induced calcium-sensitive proteases such as calpain and calcineurin, and also inhibited the activation of Bid, Bad, and Caspase 3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). OGR1-mediated [Ca(2+) ]i elevation has a crucial role in apoptosis of endplate chondrocytes by regulating activation of calcium-sensitive proteases and their downstream signaling.
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Effects of OX40-OX40 ligand interaction on the levels of ROS and Cyclophilin A in C57BL/6J mice atherogenesis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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An increasing amount of evidence shows that the OX40-OX40L interaction serves an important function in atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of the OX40 signaling pathway remains unclear. This study investigates the effect of OX40-OX40L interaction on the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the secretion of Cyclophilin A (CyPA) in C57BL/6J mice atherogenesis.
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[Expression and clinical significance of plasma small RNA in patients with pancreatic cancer].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to identify six miRNAs expressed in plasma of patients with pancreatic cancer (PCa) and analyze their value as a diagnostic index of pancreatic cancer.
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Spatiotemporal Expression of Cdx4 in the Developing Anorectum of Rat Embryos with Ethylenethiourea-Induced Anorectal Malformations.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Cdx4 (caudal-type homeobox gene-4) during anorectal development in normal and ethylenethiourea (ETU)-induced anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Cdx4 in ARM pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: ARM was induced by ETU on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos. Cesarean deliveries were then performed to harvest the embryos. Spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n = 354) and ARM embryos (n = 378) from GD13 to GD16. Results: Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence revealed that, in normal embryos, Cdx4 expression was extensively detected on the epithelium of the cloaca on GD13. On GD14, the Cdx4-positive cells were intensively detected on the hindgut. On GD15, the anal membrane was constantly immunoreactive to Cdx4. On GD16, Cdx4-labeled cells were observed on the epithelium of the anus. In the ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, urorectal septum (URS) and anorectum was negative or faint for Cdx4. In the normal embryo group, Cdx4 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut from GD13 to GD16 on Western blot and real-time reverse transcription plus polymerase chain reaction. Once the URS divided the cloaca into the primitive rectum and urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD15, Cdx4 expression began to decrease. In addition, the expression level of Cdx4 in the ARM group from GD13 to GD15 was significantly lower than that in the normal group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In ARM embryos, an imbalance in the spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was noted during anorectal morphogenesis from GD13 to GD16. This suggests that ETU may cause downregulation of Cdx4 expression. Downregulation of Cdx4 at the time of cloacal separation into the primitive rectum and UGS might thus be related to the development of ARM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Novel approach identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with evidence for parent-of-origin effect on body mass index.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ?4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta?=?0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.
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A case of heart failure due to alcoholic cardiomyopathy combined with acute pulmonary embolism.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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It has not been reported that cases of alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) combined with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). We hereby present a case of a 48-year-old male with ACM with significant enlargement of the heart and heart failure is described. Then, the patient was seized with acute PE which was confirmed by specific examination and his symptoms.
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The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Aging Symptoms Among Community-Dwelling Men Aged 40-70 Years in Shanghai, China.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Research on the relationship between physical activity and aging symptoms among men is limited in China.
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Cisapride protects against cardiac hypertrophy via inhibiting the up-regulation of calcineurin and NFATc-3.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Cisapride has been shown to have electrophysiological effects on the heart. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cisapride has effects on cardiac hypertrophy. Rat and cellular models of cardiac hypertrophy were used in this study. Cell surface area (CSA), mRNA and protein expression were used to evaluate cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Cisapride attenuated ISO-induced increase in CSA in a dose-dependent manner in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. A significant anti-hypertrophic effect was achieved by cisapride 0.01?M (P<0.05). Cisapride repressed the increased mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, ?-MHC in ISO-treated cells (P<0.05). However, mallotoxin or GR113808 did not influence anti-hypertrophic effects of cisapride. In addition, cisapride inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) and the upregulation of protein levels of calcineurin and NFATc-3 (P<0.05) as well as prevented the downregulation of p-NFATc-3 (P<0.01) induced by ISO. Consistently, cisapride (0.5mg/kg/day) produced inhibitory effects on cardiac hypertrophy, including the suppression of ANP, BNP, ?-MHC, calcineurin, and NFATc-3; elevation of p-NFATc-3; reduction of cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes in rat heart; and restoration of cardiac dysfunction by improving left ventricular diastolic and systolic performance. Importantly, cisapride 0.5 and 5.0mg/kg/day did not cause prolongation of QT and QTc intervals in rats. In conclusion, cisapride possesses a prominent anti-hypertrophic property which is likely to be conferred by its ability to downregulate Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT and the present data provide new insight into this drug action.
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The association of idiopathic recurrent early pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in folic acid metabolism-related genes.
Genes Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in folic acid metabolism-related genes and idiopathic recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL). A prospective case-control study was performed on a cohort of 82 REPL patients and 166 healthy controls. Genotyping of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C was assessed by applying polymerase chain reaction for amplification followed by DNA sequencing, for methionine synthase reductase A66G, solute carrier family 19, member 1 (SLC19A1) G80A and C696T, and genotyping was done by utilizing the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The results revealed a significant association between MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and idiopathic REPL. Haplotype analysis indicated that the MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298C allele combination was associated with REPL (P < 0.001). The MTHFR 677C-MTHFR 1298A and SLC19A1 80G-SLC19A1 696C allele combinations had lower frequencies in patients with REPL, but with P > 0.05 (P = 0.093 and P = 0.084, respectively).
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Temporal and spatial expression of caudal-type homeobox gene-2 during hindgut development in rat embryos with ethylenethiourea-induced anorectal malformations.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The main aim of this study was to determine Cdx2 expression patterns during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Cdx2 in ARM pathogenesis. ARM was induced with ethylenethiourea on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos, and Cesarean deliveries were performed to harvest the embryos. The temporal and spatial expression of Cdx2 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n?=?303) and ARM embryos (n?=?321) from GD13 to GD16. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that, in normal embryos, Cdx2 was mainly expressed on the epithelium of the urorectal septum (URS) and the hindgut on GD13. On GD14, Cdx2-immunopositive cells were extensively detected on the URS, hindgut, and cloacal membrane. On GD15, increased immunopositive tissue staining on the anal membrane was evident. In ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, URS, and anorectum were negative or faintly immunostaining for Cdx2. Analyses by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction revealed that, in the normal group, Cdx2 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut from GD13 to GD16. Upon the URS division of the cloaca into the primitive rectum and urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD15, Cdx2 expression began to decrease. Moreover, the Cdx2 expression level in the ARM group from GD13 to GD14 was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P?
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Birth weight, gestational age, fetal growth and childhood asthma hospitalization.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Childhood asthma may have a fetal origin through fetal growth and development of the immunocompetence or respiratory organs.
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Genetic association studies of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms in women with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic and meta-analysis.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a multifactorial disorder, both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of RPL. Recently, the association between endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss (URPL) has been reported, and the results were inconsistent. Hence, we performed the meta-analysis to drive a more precise estimation of association between eNOS polymorphisms and URPL. Odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval were calculated under co-dominant (AA vs. BB, TT vs. GG) and additive (A vs. B, T vs. G) genetic models. Studies of eNOS intron 4 VNTR and Glu298Asp were separated by ethnicities. 13 studies included 1,769 URPL cases and 1,376 healthy controls on eNOS intron 4 VNTR polymorphism, and 11 studies were involved in Glu298Asp polymorphism with 1,498 URPL cases and 1,123 healthy controls. The integrated results showed that eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism was associated with URPL [ORs were 1.91 (1.42-2.56), P < 0.001; 1.67 (1.36-2.04), P < 0.001, respectively]. When analyses were separated by ethnic subgroups, the association between eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism and URPL was only observed in East Asians [OR = 1.88 (1.52-2.33), P < 0.001 under additive model], and there was no association between eNOS intron 4 VNTR polymorphism and URPL in Caucasians and East Asians. The results indicated a significant association between eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism and URPL in East Asians. No association was observed between eNOS intron 4 VNTR polymorphism and URPL in Caucasians and East Asians.
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Gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of yne-vinylidenecyclopropanes: a three-carbon synthon for [3+2] cycloadditions.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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A novel type of yne-vinylidenecyclopropanes (VDCPs) has been synthesized and applied in gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions. It was found that these compounds can undergo an intramolecular cycloisomerization and perform as a three-carbon synthon for [3+2] cycloaddition under gold catalysis to give fused [4.3.0] and [5.3.0] bicyclic derivatives and VDCP rearranged products in moderated to good yields under mild conditions. The substrate scope of these novel transformations has been explored and plausible reaction mechanisms have been presented on the basis of deuterium labeling experiments and DFT calculations.
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Expression of lymphatic markers in angiokeratomas.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The term angiokeratoma refers to a group of unrelated diseases with similar histopathologic features. Four clinical variants of angiokeratoma have been described. However, it is not known whether some variants of angiokeratoma are of lymphatic origin, and an immunohistochemical study of lymphatic markers has not been previously performed.
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Increased difference between slow and forced vital capacity is associated with reduced exercise tolerance in COPD patients.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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A higher slow vital capacity (VC) compared with forced vital capacity (FVC) indicates small airway collapse and air trapping. We hypothesized that a larger difference between VC and FVC (VC-FVC) would predict impaired exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Possible loss of the chloroplast genome in the parasitic flowering plant Rafflesia lagascae (Rafflesiaceae).
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Rafflesia is a genus of holoparasitic plants endemic to Southeast Asia that has lost the ability to undertake photosynthesis. With short-read sequencing technology, we assembled a draft sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Rafflesia lagascae Blanco, a species endemic to the Philippine island of Luzon, with ?350× sequencing depth coverage. Using multiple approaches, however, we were only able to identify small fragments of plastid sequences at low coverage depth (<2×) and could not recover any substantial portion of a chloroplast genome. The gene fragments we identified included photosynthesis and energy production genes (atp, ndh, pet, psa, psb, rbcL), ribosomal RNA genes (rrn16, rrn23), ribosomal protein genes (rps7, rps11, rps16), transfer RNA genes, as well as matK, accD, ycf2, and multiple nongenic regions from the inverted repeats. None of the identified plastid gene sequences had intact reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that ?33% of these remnant plastid genes may have been horizontally transferred from the host plant genus Tetrastigma with the rest having ambiguous phylogenetic positions (<50% bootstrap support), except for psaB that was strongly allied with the plastid homolog in Nicotiana. Our inability to identify substantial plastid genome sequences from R. lagascae using multiple approaches--despite success in identifying and developing a draft assembly of the much larger mitochondrial genome--suggests that the parasitic plant genus Rafflesia may be the first plant group for which there is no recognizable plastid genome, or if present is found in cryptic form at very low levels.
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The architecture of parent-of-origin effects in mice.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The number of imprinted genes in the mammalian genome is predicted to be small, yet we show here, in a survey of 97 traits measured in outbred mice, that most phenotypes display parent-of-origin effects that are partially confounded with family structure. To address this contradiction, using reciprocal F1 crosses, we investigated the effects of knocking out two nonimprinted candidate genes, Man1a2 and H2-ab1, that reside at nonimprinted loci but that show parent-of-origin effects. We show that expression of multiple genes becomes dysregulated in a sex-, tissue-, and parent-of-origin-dependent manner. We provide evidence that nonimprinted genes can generate parent-of-origin effects by interaction with imprinted loci and deduce that the importance of the number of imprinted genes is secondary to their interactions. We propose that this gene network effect may account for some of the missing heritability seen when comparing sibling-based to population-based studies of the phenotypic effects of genetic variants.
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Differential Receptive Field Properties of Parvalbumin and Somatostatin Inhibitory Neurons in Mouse Auditory Cortex.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Cortical inhibitory circuits play important roles in shaping sensory processing. In auditory cortex, however, functional properties of genetically identified inhibitory neurons are poorly characterized. By two-photon imaging-guided recordings, we specifically targeted 2 major types of cortical inhibitory neuron, parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expressing neurons, in superficial layers of mouse auditory cortex. We found that PV cells exhibited broader tonal receptive fields with lower intensity thresholds and stronger tone-evoked spike responses compared with SOM neurons. The latter exhibited similar frequency selectivity as excitatory neurons. The broader/weaker frequency tuning of PV neurons was attributed to a broader range of synaptic inputs and stronger subthreshold responses elicited, which resulted in a higher efficiency in the conversion of input to output. In addition, onsets of both the input and spike responses of SOM neurons were significantly delayed compared with PV and excitatory cells. Our results suggest that PV and SOM neurons engage in auditory cortical circuits in different manners: while PV neurons may provide broadly tuned feedforward inhibition for a rapid control of ascending inputs to excitatory neurons, the delayed and more selective inhibition from SOM neurons may provide a specific modulation of feedback inputs on their distal dendrites.
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Design, synthesis, and optoelectronic properties of dendrimeric Pt(II) complexes and their ability to inhibit intermolecular interaction.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Dendrimeric Pt(II) complexes [(C(?)N)Pt(dpm)] and [Pt(C(?)N)2] (Hdpm = dipivaloylmethane, HC(?)N = 1,2-diphenylbenzoimidazole and its derivatives containing the carbazole dendrons) have been synthesized and characterized systematically. All of the complexes display green emission in the range of 495-535 nm that originated from the 360-440 nm absorption bands, which are assigned to d?(Pt)??*(L) metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) mixed with intraligand ?(L)??*(L) transition. Solution photoluminescence quantum yield (?p 0.26-0.31) of the heteroleptic complexes [(C(?)N)Pt(dpm)] obviously increases when compared with that of complex [(C(?)N)Pt(acac)]. Organic light-emitting diode devices based on these Pt(II) complexes with a multilayer configuration were fabricated and gave desirable electroluminescent (EL) performances, such as non- or less red-shifted EL spectra, in comparison with the photoluminescence spectra and slow efficiency roll-off with increasing brightness or current density. Complex [(t-BuCzCzPBI)Pt(dpm)] (where t-BuCzCzPBI = 1-(4-(3,6-di-(3,6-di-t-butyl-carbazol-9-yl))carbazol-9-yl)phenyl-2-phenylbenzoimidazole) showed the best performance, with a maximum current efficiency of 29.31 cd/A and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 9.04% among the fabricated devices. Likewise, for homoleptic [Pt(t-BuCzCzPBI)2] dendrimer, the powder ?p (0.14) and maximum EQE (0.74%) improve by 7 and 7.4 times, respectively, as high as they do for nondendrimeric [Pt(1,2-diphenylbenzoimidazole)2] (0.02, 0.10%), although its efficiency is still lower than that of the heteroleptic counterpart due to the severely distorted square-planar geometry of the emitting core. These results reveal that large steric hindrance from ancillary ligand (dpm) or the homoleptic conformation can effectively inhibit intermolecular interaction for these dendrimeric Pt(II) complexes.
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Up-regulation of microRNA-145 associates with lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Metastasis is the main cause of mortality in patients with solid tumours. Identifying the exact molecules associated with CRC metastasis may be crucial to understand the process, which might also be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. In this study, we investigate the association of microRNA expression patterns with the lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer. Among these candidate miRNAs, the expression of miRNA-145 was significantly related to lymph node metastasis of CRC. Both in vitro and in vivo study demonstrated that up-regulation of miR-145 could improve the ability of migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cell, while no effect on proliferation was observed. The mechanism of this promotion is associated with the stabilization of Hsp-27, a protein which plays an important role in the promotion of metastasis. These results may be crucial to understanding CRC metastasis and may be translated to the diagnosis and treatment of CRC.
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Correlation between exposure to magnetic fields and embryonic development in the first trimester.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the correlation between maternal magnetic field (MF) exposure in daily life and embryonic development.
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CD137-CD137L interaction regulates atherosclerosis via cyclophilin A in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies showed that increased levels of cyclophilin A (CyPA) may be a valuable marker for predicting the severity of acute coronary syndromes and that interruption of CD137-CD137L interactions diminished the formation and progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. Here, we sought to determine whether the proinflammatory factor CyPA is involved in atherosclerosis regulated by CD137-CD137L interactions.
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Altered Inflammatory Response Is Associated With an Impaired Autonomic Input to the Bone Marrow in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Autonomic nervous system dysfunction, exaggerated inflammation, and impaired vascular repair are all hallmarks of hypertension. Considering that bone marrow (BM) is a major source of the inflammatory cells (ICs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), we hypothesized that impaired BM-autonomic nervous system interaction contributes to dysfunctional BM activity in hypertension. In the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we observed a >30% increase in BM and blood ICs (CD4.8(+)) and a >50% decrease in EPCs (CD90(+).CD4.5.8(-)) when compared with the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rat. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase (70%) and norepinephrine (160%) and decreased choline acetyl transferase (30%) and acetylcholine esterase (55%) indicated imbalanced autonomic nervous system in SHR BM. In Wistar-Kyoto rat, night time-associated elevation in sympathetic nerve activity (50%) and BM norepinephrine (41%) was associated with increased ICs (50%) and decreased EPCs (350%) although BM sympathetic denervation decreased ICs (25%) and increased EPCs (40%). In contrast, these effects were blunted in SHR, possibly because of chronic downregulation of BM adrenergic receptor ?2a (by 50%-80%) and ?2 (30%-45%). Application of norepinephrine resulted in increased BM IC activation/release, which was prevented by preadministration of acetylcholine. Electrophysiological recordings of femoral sympathetic nerve activity showed a more robust femoral sympathetic nerve activity in SHR when compared with Wistar-Kyoto rat, peaking earlier in the respiratory cycle, indicative of increased sympathetic tone. Finally, manganese-enhanced MRI demonstrated that presympathetic neuronal activation in SHR was associated with an accelerated retrograde transport of the green fluorescent protein-labeled pseudorabies virus from the BM. These observations demonstrate that a dysfunctional BM autonomic nervous system is associated with imbalanced EPCs and ICs in hypertension.
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[Effect and mechanisms of wenyang yiqi huoxue recipe on the apoptosis of photoreceptor cells in retinal degeneration slow mice].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To observe the effect of Wenyang Yiqi Huoxue Recipe (WYHR) on the apoptosis of photoreceptor cells in retinal degeneration slow (RDS) mice, and to investigate its molecular mechanisms.
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Chemical constituents from the fruit body of Chlorophyllum molybdites.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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A new glycoxyuracil and 15 known compounds were isolated from the fruit body of Chlorophyllum molybdites. The structures were determined from their NMR and MS data and by comparison with literature data. Compounds 2-5, 10-11, 13, and 15-16 were isolated from the genus Chlorophyllum for the first time. Compounds (1-9) did not show cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, A549 and Panc-28 (GI50 > 50 microM).
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[Cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase double suicide gene system driven by carcinoembryonic antigen promoter for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma xenograft in nude mice].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To explore the therapeutic efficacy of double suicide gene system driven by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter (Cp-CDglyTK) on colorectal carcinoma xenograft in nude mice.
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Global profiling of carbonyl metabolites with a photo-cleavable isobaric labeling affinity tag.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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A carbonyl-reactive photo-cleavable isobaric labeling affinity tag can provide a selective, high-throughput, and reproducible approach for the quantitative analysis of aldehyde and ketone metabolites in complex biological samples.
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FeCl3 -Mediated Three-Component Cascade Reaction: An Effective Approach to the Construction of Highly Functionalized Pyrrolo[1,2-c]quinazolinones.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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An unexpected FeCl3 -mediated three-component cascade reaction has been used to construct structurally diverse pyrrolo[1,2-c]quinazolinone derivatives with potential biological activities. This method has advantages of mild conditions, simple work-up, as well as wide substrate scope, which makes it a powerful approach to the synthesis of diverse pyrrolo[1,2-c]quinazolinones. This cascade reaction involves 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between azomethine ylides and allenoates, followed by intramolecular nucleophilic addition in the presence of FeCl3 . The obtained products could be easily transformed into derivatives with the pyrrolo[2,3-c]quinazoline alkaloid skeleton.
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A new method for rating dyspnea during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The Borg scale is most commonly used to measure dyspnea in China. However, many patients that find it is difficult to distinguish the labeled numbers corresponding to different dyspnea scores. We developed a new method to rate dyspnea, which we call the count scale (CS). It includes the count scale number (CSN) and count scale time (CST). The aims of the present study were to determine the reproducibility and sensitivity of the CS during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Cytotoxic compounds from invasive giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) against human tumor cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is one of the most noxious invasive species in the world. Our bioactivity-guided fractionation of ethanol extract of giant salvinia led to the isolation of 50 compounds. Of the six new compounds (1-6), salviniol (1) is a rare abietane diterpene with a new ferruginol-menthol coupled skeleton and both salviniside I (2) and salviniside II (3) are novel benzofuran glucose conjugates with unique 10-membered macrodiolide structures. Sixteen abietane diterpenes (1, 7-17, and 19-22) demonstrated in vitro activities against human tumor cells, and 7 and 8 showed selective cytotoxicity to tumor cells over normal cells.
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An experimental study of preventing and treating acute radioactive enteritis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To test the curative effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat acute radioactive enteritis and thus to provide clinical therapeutic basis for radiation sickness.
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Laminoplasty versus skip laminectomy for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a systematic review.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Laminoplasty and skip laminectomy are two specific posterior surgical approaches for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review comparing the clinical results and complications of laminoplasty and skip laminectomy in the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy.
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Glycan analysis by isobaric aldehyde reactive tags and mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Glycans play significant roles in physiological and pathological processes. Therefore, quantitative analysis of glycans from normal and disease specimens can provide insight into disease onset and progression. Relative glycan quantification usually requires modification of the glycans with either chromogenic or fluorogenic tags for optical measurement or isotopic tags for mass spectrometric analysis. Because of rapid advances in mass spectrometry (MS) instruments in resolution, sensitivity, and speed, MS-based methods have become increasingly popular for glycan analysis in the past decade. However, current isotopic tags for glycan labeling are mostly mass-shift tags generating mass differences in precursor ions for quantification, which can complicate mass spectra. In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of isobaric aldehyde reactive tags (iARTs) for glycan quantification using tandem MS. We applied iARTs to the relative identification and quantification of glycans of gp120, a glycoprotein from human immunodeficiency virus. The results show that iARTs provide strong signals for glycan identification. Although we only show the synthesis and characterization of two iARTs reagents, iARTs can be readily expanded to six-plex tags for quantitative analysis of six samples concurrently.
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The relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and outcome of Chinese acute ischemic stroke patients in different stroke subtypes.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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High-level plasma D-dimer suggests hypercoagulable states. There is a lack of correlation study of plasma D-dimer level and prognosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. The goal of this study is to explore the relationship between the plasma D-dimer level and the outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients among different stroke subtypes. We conducted a study of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Neurology in Second Hospital of Lanzhou University within 7 days of symptom onset. They were divided into different groups based on their subtypes according to TOAST criteria. In all the patients the plasma D-dimer levels were detected within 24 h of admission. Clinical neurological assessments were performed in line with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) once daily on the day of admission and on the 14th day. The outcome was evaluated by neurological improvement rate. Comparisons were made among the different subtypes based on the level of plasma D-dimer and the outcome. A total of 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included, 40 with cardioembolism; 47 with large-artery atherosclerosis; 143 with small-artery occlusion, 5 with other etiology stroke; and 65 with undetermined etiology stroke. The level of plasma D-dimer was negatively related to the outcome (r = -0.41; P = 0.013). Patients with cardioembolism had the highest level of plasma D-dimer and they suffered the most serious neurological deficit and the worst outcome among the five subtypes, the difference was statistically significant (F = 5.34; P = 0.012); while the lacunar stroke patients had the best outcome with the lowest level of D-dimer. High-level plasma D-dimer of acute period strongly indicates an unfavorable clinical outcome.
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[Real-time CT of upper airway in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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To explore the technology and clinical application of real-time CT scan in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome during awake and drug induced sleep state.
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Slit/Robo signaling mediates spatial positioning of spiral ganglion neurons during development of cochlear innervation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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During the development of periphery auditory circuits, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) extend their neurites to innervate cochlear hair cells (HCs) with their soma aggregated into a cluster spatially segregated from the cochlear sensory epithelium. The molecular mechanisms underlying this spatial patterning remain unclear. In this study, in situ hybridization in the mouse cochlea suggests that Slit2 and its receptor, Robo1/2, exhibit apparently complementary expression patterns in the spiral ganglion and its nearby region, the spiral limbus. In Slit2 and Robo1/2 mutants, the spatial restriction of SGNs was disrupted. Mispositioned SGNs were found to scatter in the space between the cochlear epithelium and the main body of spiral ganglion, and the neurites of mispositioned SGNs were misrouted and failed to innervate HCs. Furthermore, in Robo1/2 mutants, SGNs were displaced toward the cochlear epithelium as an entirety. Examination of different embryonic stages in the mutants revealed that the mispositioning of SGNs was due to a progressive displacement to ectopic locations after their initial normal settlement at an earlier stage. Our results suggest that Slit/Robo signaling imposes a restriction force on SGNs to ensure their precise positioning for correct SGN-HC innervations.
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Biomarkers for type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose using a nontargeted metabolomics approach.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Using a nontargeted metabolomics approach of 447 fasting plasma metabolites, we searched for novel molecular markers that arise before and after hyperglycemia in a large population-based cohort of 2,204 females (115 type 2 diabetic [T2D] case subjects, 192 individuals with impaired fasting glucose [IFG], and 1,897 control subjects) from TwinsUK. Forty-two metabolites from three major fuel sources (carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins) were found to significantly correlate with T2D after adjusting for multiple testing; of these, 22 were previously reported as associated with T2D or insulin resistance. Fourteen metabolites were found to be associated with IFG. Among the metabolites identified, the branched-chain keto-acid metabolite 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate was the strongest predictive biomarker for IFG after glucose (odds ratio [OR] 1.65 [95% CI 1.39-1.95], P = 8.46 × 10(-9)) and was moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.20). The association was replicated in an independent population (n = 720, OR 1.68 [ 1.34-2.11], P = 6.52 × 10(-6)) and validated in 189 twins with urine metabolomics taken at the same time as plasma (OR 1.87 [1.27-2.75], P = 1 × 10(-3)). Results confirm an important role for catabolism of branched-chain amino acids in T2D and IFG. In conclusion, this T2D-IFG biomarker study has surveyed the broadest panel of nontargeted metabolites to date, revealing both novel and known associated metabolites and providing potential novel targets for clinical prediction and a deeper understanding of causal mechanisms.
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Combination of plant and insect eggs as food sources facilitates ovarian development in an omnivorous bug Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae).
J. Econ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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Diet nutrient is considered as an important regulatory factor for reproduction of insects. To understand the effect of different food sources on the reproductive physiology of Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), the ovarian development in adult females was investigated when they were fed on green beans (Gb), combination of green beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Helicoverpa armigera eggs (GbHe), or H. armigera eggs (He). A female of A. lucorum has two ovaries, and each ovary contained seven yellowish ovarioles. Females fed on Gb or GbHe had larger ovaries and the ovarioles contained larger numbers of oocytes compared with those fed on He. Females in GeHe treatment has significantly higher number of follicles per ovary throughout the whole adult period compared with those in Gb or He treatment. Furthermore, the length of the best developed ovariole was affected by the diet type. The females fed on GbHe had the most developed ovarioles, with significantly longer ovarioles than those fed on Gb or He. A method was described to quantitatively score the degree of ovarian development in the current study. Similarly, the ovarian development scores were significantly higher for females in GbHe treatment than those in other two diet treatments. The ovarian development significantly delayed for females fed on He. Our results demonstrate that A. lucorum, as an omnivorous insect species, can acquire nutrients from both plant and animal origin food sources, and the combination of plants and animal food sources can significantly facilitate the ovary development of its females.
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[Inhibitory effect of Akt inhibitor deguelin on the growth of PC-3 prostate cancer cells].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To study the inhibitory effect of Akt inhibitor deguelin on PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines and its possible mechanism.
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The effect of CD137-CD137 ligand interaction on phospholipase C signaling pathway in human endothelial cells.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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We previously reported the emerging role of CD137-CD137L interaction in inflammation and atherosclerosis. The mechanism of CD137-CD137L interaction may be related to a variety of signaling pathways. The most important signaling pathway involves the activation of phospholipase C(PLC) which induces the diacylglycerol-protein kinase C(DAG-PKC) and the inositol trisphosphate-intracellular free calcium (IP3-[Ca(2+)]i) pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether CD137-CD137L interaction can stimulate the PLC signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) levels in HUVEC were measured by radioenzymatic assay. The activity of protein kinase (PKC) was detected by its ability to transfer phosphate from [?-(32)P]ATP to lysine-rich histone. The [Ca(2+)]i concentrations were measured by flow cytometric analysis. The DAG level and PKC activity were increased in a concentration-dependent, biphasic manner in HUVEC induced by anti-CD137. PKC activity was mainly in the cytosol at rest, and then translocated to the membrane when stimulated by anti-CD137. Similarly, rapid IP3 formation induced by anti-CD137 coincided with the peak of the DAG level. Moreover, anti-CD137 induced peak [Ca(2+)]i responses including the rapid transient phase and the sustained phase. However, anti-CD137L suppressed the activation of the DAG-PKC and IP3-[Ca(2+)]i signaling pathway, which was stimulated by anti-CD137 in HUVEC. In conclusion, the data suggested that CD137-CD137L interaction induces robust activation of the PLC signaling pathway in HUVEC.
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Effects of chest compressions on cardiorespiratory function in a non-arrested porcine model.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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The effects of chest compressions to hemodynamic and respiratory parameters during hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a non-arrested patient who suddenly collapses are confusing. In this research, we investigated the effects of chest compressions in a non-arrested porcine model.
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[Feasibility of the aging males symptoms scale for the male population of Shanghai].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To assess the reliability and validity of the Aging Males Symptoms (AMS) scale in the male population of Shanghai.
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The association of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a complex, multifactorial condition. Inherited thrombophilia is the leading cause of thromboembolism and is associated with an increased risk of RPL. The aims of the current study were to investigate the effects of polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes antithrombin (SERPINC1), thrombomodulin (THBD), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), factor V, factor II and annexin A5 (ANXA5), involved in reproductive failure in 94 RPL cases with two or more consecutive pregnancy losses prior to 20weeks of pregnancy and 169 healthy controls who had at least one term delivery and no history of pregnancy loss. The genotypes of SERPINC1 G786A, THBD C1418T, TFPI T-33C, factor V G1628A, factor II A19911G and ANXA5 G76A were assayed by the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Genotype and allele frequencies for SERPINC1 (rs2227589), TFPI (rs8176592), factor V (rs6020), factor II (rs3136516) and ANXA5 (rs113588187) in cases and controls were similar. The distribution of THBD C1418T allele showed significant differences between RPL cases and healthy controls (odds ratio (OR): 1.58, 95%, confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.39, P=0.027). In univariate logistic regression analyses, carriers of THBD 1418T allele (CT+TT) had an increased risk of RPL (OR: 1.83, 95%, CI: 1.10-3.06, P=0.020). This indicated that THBD 1418T allele was associated with increasing the risk of RPL.
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Chinese herbal medicine Huangqi type formulations for nephrotic syndrome.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Patients with primary nephrotic syndrome mostly need immunosuppression to achieve remission, but many of them either relapse after immunosuppression therapy or resistant to it. On the other hand, immunosuppression therapy could increase the adverse effect. Huangqi and Huangqi type formulations have been used to treat nephrotic syndrome for years in China, however the effects and safety of these formulations have not been systematically reviewed. This is an update of a review first published in 2008.
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Global analysis of DNA methylation variation in adipose tissue from twins reveals links to disease-associated variants in distal regulatory elements.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation play a key role in gene regulation and disease susceptibility. However, little is known about the genome-wide frequency, localization, and function of methylation variation and how it is regulated by genetic and environmental factors. We utilized the Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource (MuTHER) and generated Illumina 450K adipose methylome data from 648 twins. We found that individual CpGs had low variance and that variability was suppressed in promoters. We noted that DNA methylation variation was highly heritable (h(2)median = 0.34) and that shared environmental effects correlated with metabolic phenotype-associated CpGs. Analysis of methylation quantitative-trait loci (metQTL) revealed that 28% of CpGs were associated with nearby SNPs, and when overlapping them with adipose expression quantitative-trait loci (eQTL) from the same individuals, we found that 6% of the loci played a role in regulating both gene expression and DNA methylation. These associations were bidirectional, but there were pronounced negative associations for promoter CpGs. Integration of metQTL with adipose reference epigenomes and disease associations revealed significant enrichment of metQTL overlapping metabolic-trait or disease loci in enhancers (the strongest effects were for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index [BMI]). We followed up with the BMI SNP rs713586, a cg01884057 metQTL that overlaps an enhancer upstream of ADCY3, and used bisulphite sequencing to refine this region. Our results showed widespread population invariability yet sequence dependence on adipose DNA methylation but that incorporating maps of regulatory elements aid in linking CpG variation to gene regulation and disease risk in a tissue-dependent manner.
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[Effect of ulinastatin on improving inflammatory response and myocardial and lung tissue injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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To evaluate the effects of ulinastatin (UTI) on improving inflammatory response and myocardial and lung tissue injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in porcine model.
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Curcumin-free turmeric exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities: Identification of novel components of turmeric.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Turmeric, a dried powder derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, has been used for centuries in certain parts of the world and has been linked to numerous biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antigrowth, anti-arthritic, anti-atherosclerotic, antidepressant, anti-aging, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, wound healing, and memory-enhancing activities. One component of turmeric is curcumin, which has been extensively studied, as indicated by more than 5600 citations, most of which have appeared within the past decade. Recent research has identified numerous chemical entities from turmeric other than curcumin. It is unclear whether all of the activities ascribed to turmeric are due to curcumin or whether other compounds in turmeric can manifest these activities uniquely, additively, or synergistically with curcumin. However, studies have indicated that turmeric oil, present in turmeric, can enhance the bioavailability of curcumin. Studies over the past decade have indicated that curcumin-free turmeric (CFT) components possess numerous biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities. Elemene derived from turmeric is approved in China for the treatment of cancer. The current review focuses on the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities exhibited by CFT and by some individual components of turmeric, including turmerin, turmerone, elemene, furanodiene, curdione, bisacurone, cyclocurcumin, calebin A, and germacrone.
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Chronic knockdown of the nucleus of the solitary tract AT1 receptors increases blood inflammatory-endothelial progenitor cell ratio and exacerbates hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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AT1 receptor subtype a (AT1Ra) expression is increased in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with Wistar Kyoto controls. However, the chronic role of AT1Ra in the NTS for cardiovascular control is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that the NTS AT1Ra is involved in the neural regulation of the peripheral inflammatory status and linked with hypertension. Transduction of brain neuronal cultures with recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2)-AT1R-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in a 72% decrease in AT1Ra mRNA and attenuated angiotensin II-induced increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation and neuronal firing. Specific NTS microinjection of AAV2-AT1R-shRNA vector in the SHR resulted in a ?30 mm Hg increase in the mean arterial pressure compared with control vector-injected animals (Sc-shRNA: 154±4 mm Hg; AT1R-shRNA: 183±10 mm Hg) and induced a resetting of the baroreflex control of heart rate to higher mean arterial pressure. In addition, AAV2-AT1R-shRNA-treated SHRs exhibited a 74% decrease in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CD90+, CD4- / CD5- / CD8-) and a 300% increase in the circulating inflammatory cells, including CD4+ + CD8+, CD45+ / 3+ T lymphocytes, and macrophages (CD68+). As a result, the endothelial progenitor cell/inflammatory cells ratio was decreased by 8- to 15-fold in the AT1R-shRNA-treated SHR. However, identical injection of AAV2-AT1R-shRNA into the NTS of Wistar Kyoto rats had no effect on mean arterial pressure and inflammatory cells. These observations suggest that increased expression of the AT1Ra in SHR NTS may present a counterhypertensive mechanism involving inflammatory/angiogenic cells.
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NELL-1 based demineralized bone graft promotes rat spine fusion as compared to commercially available BMP-2 product.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Spinal fusion is among the most commonly performed orthopaedic procedures. Unfortunately, current treatments such as autologous bone grafting or recombinant proteins (BMP-2) have numerous clinical shortcomings. Here, we directly compare the efficacy of NELL-1, a novel osteoinductive growth factor, to two currently available treatments, (1) recombinant BMP-2 and (2) iliac crest bone grafting, in a spinal fusion model.
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Spatiotemporal expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 in human hindgut and anorectal development.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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As fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10) gene expression may have a role in anorectal duct formation, this study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal expression pattern of FGF-10 during development of the rectum and hindgut in human embryos. FGF-10 expression was evaluated in human embryos (n = 85) at 3-8 weeks of gestation after immunohistochemical evaluation using antibodies specific for FGF-10. From weeks 4 to 7 of gestation, FGF-10 expression was observed primarily in the apical epithelium of the dorsal urorectal septum, the cloacal membrane (CM) and the hindgut. Following CM rupture (week 7), the epithelium of the anal canal was negative for FGF-10; however, it was present within the urothelium through week 7. FGF-10 expression during the development of the human hindgut and anorectum suggests that it may play a role in hindgut and anorectal morphogenesis.
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Supramolecular pseudo-block gene carriers based on bioreducible star polycations.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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A series of supramolecular pseudo-block polycations (CD-SS-pDM/Ad-pPEGs) were realized by assembling bioreducible ?-cyclodextrin-cored star poly (2-dimethyl amino)ethyl methacrylate with different molecular weight and an adamantine-ended linear poly(poly(ethylene glycol)ethyl ether methacrylate) (pPEGEEMA) via the host-guest interaction. The pseudo-block CD-SS-pDM/Ad-pPEG carriers were investigated in terms of DNA binding capability, cytotoxicity, gene transfection in HepG2 and COS7 cell lines, and in vivo anti-tumor activity. The pseudo-block carriers exhibited undiminished pDNA-condensing abilities compared with the starting star carriers. Meanwhile, the pseudo-block carriers displayed lower cytotoxicity and higher gene transfection efficiencies at various N/P ratios. These results are consistent with the favorable properties of pPEGEEMA as expected. Furthermore, cellular internalization results and in vivo anti-tumor activity analysis demonstrated that assembled pPEGEEMA could enhance the stability of pseudo-block carriers, thus improving their cellular internalization and gene transfection efficiency. The present study demonstrated that supramolecular pseudo-block polycations via the host-guest interaction is an effective means to produce new gene carriers.
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Establishment and evaluation of a swine model of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion-ventricular fibrillation-cardiac arrest using the interventional technique.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Ventricular fibrillation is the main cause of sudden cardiac death among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Substantial benefits could be obtained by both researchers and practitioners if an AMI reperfusion-ventricular fibrillation-cardiac arrest model were established.
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Flavonoids and 3-arylcoumarin from Pterocarpus soyauxii.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Phytochemical study on the constituents of the heartwood of Pterocarpus soyauxii led to the isolation of five new isoflavonoids and one new 3-arylcoumarin, pterosonins A-F (1-6), together with 17 known analogues, among which 8, 9, and 18 were reported as natural products for the first time. Structure elucidation was achieved by way of spectroscopic measurements as well as by comparison with literature data. Only Compound 6 showed potent cytotoxicity against human non-small cell lung cancer (A549), pancreatic cancer (Panc-28), and colon carcinoma (HCT-116) cells with GI50 values at 7.39, 25, and 19.17 µM, respectively; the other isolates showed no cytotoxicity against the above tested cell lines with GI50 values > 50 µM.
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Serum bisphenol-A concentration and sex hormone levels in men.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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To evaluate the association between serum bisphenol-A (BPA) concentration and sex hormone levels in men.
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Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment. Compared with the H2O2 treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties.
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