To describe the epidemiological characteristics on the supplement of folic acid in progestation and early pregnancy, and to probe the protective effects of supplement of folic acid in early pregnancy against pregnant depression, in Ma'anshan city, Anhui province.
Neutrophil degranulation plays an important role in acute innate immune responses and is tightly regulated because the granule contents can cause tissue damage. However, this regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify the complex of STK24 and CCM3 as being an important regulator of neutrophil degranulation. Lack of either STK24 or CCM3 increases the release of a specific granule pool without affecting other neutrophil functions. STK24 appears to suppress exocytosis by interacting and competing with UNC13D C2B domain for lipid binding, whereas CCM3 has dual roles in exocytosis regulation. Although CCM3 stabilizes STK24, it counteracts STK24-mediated inhibition of exocytosis by recruiting STK24 away from the C2B domain through its Ca(2+)-sensitive interaction with UNC13D C2A domain. This STK24/CCM3-regulated exocytosis plays an important role in the protection of kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Together, these findings reveal a function of the STK24 and CCM3 complex in the regulation of ligand-stimulated exocytosis.
F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBW7), the substrate-binding subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(FBW7) (a complex of SKP1, cullin-1 and FBW7), plays important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Although FBW7 is required for vascular development, its function in the endothelium remains to be investigated. In this study, we show that FBW7 is an important regulator of endothelial functions, including angiogenesis, leukocyte adhesion and the endothelial barrier integrity. Using RNA interference, we found that the depletion of FBW7 markedly impairs angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We identified the zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) as a physiological target of FBW7 in endothelial cells. Knockdown of FBW7 expression resulted in the accumulation of endogenous KLF2 protein in endothelial cells. FBW7-mediated KLF2 destruction was shown to depend on the phosphorylation of KLF2 via glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) at two conserved phosphodegrons. Mutating these phosphodegron motifs abolished the FBW7-mediated degradation and ubiquitination of KLF2. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of FBW7 showed that KLF2 is an essential target of FBW7 in the regulation of endothelial functions. Moreover, FBW7-mediated KLF2 degradation was shown to be critical for angiogenesis in teratomas and in zebrafish development. Taken together, our study suggests a role for FBW7 in the processes of endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis, inflammation and barrier integrity, and provides novel insights into the regulation of KLF2 stability in vivo.
The Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway has a crucial role in embryonic development, stem cell maintenance and human disease. By screening a synthetic chemical library of lycorine derivatives, we identified 4-ethyl-5-methyl-5,6-dihydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-j]phenanthridine (HLY78) as an activator of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, which acts in a Wnt ligand-dependent manner. HLY78 targets the DIX domain of Axin and potentiates the Axin-LRP6 association, thus promoting LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt signaling transduction. Moreover, we identified the critical residues on Axin for HLY78 binding and showed that HLY78 may weaken the autoinhibition of Axin. In addition, HLY78 acts synergistically with Wnt in the embryonic development of zebrafish and increases the expression of the conserved hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) markers, runx1 and cmyb, in zebrafish embryos. Collectively, our study not only provides new insights into the regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway by a Wnt-specific small molecule but also will facilitate therapeutic applications, such as HSC expansion.
Canonical Wnt signaling is initiated by the binding of Wnt proteins to their receptors, low-density lipoprotein-related protein 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) and frizzled proteins, leading to phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) production, signalosome formation, and LRP phosphorylation. However, the mechanism by which PtdIns(4,5)P(2) regulates the signalosome formation remains unclear. Here we show that clathrin and adaptor protein 2 (AP2) were part of the LRP6 signalosomes. The presence of clathrin and AP2 in the LRP6 signalosomes depended on PtdIns(4,5)P(2), and both clathrin and AP2 were required for the formation of LRP6 signalosomes. In addition, WNT3A-induced LRP6 signalosomes were primarily localized at cell surfaces, and WNT3A did not induce marked LRP6 internalization. However, rapid PtdIns(4,5)P(2) hydrolysis induced artificially after WNT3A stimulation could lead to marked LRP6 internalization. Moreover, we observed WNT3A-induced LRP6 and clathrin clustering at cell surfaces using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. Therefore, we conclude that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) promotes the assembly of LRP6 signalosomes via the recruitment of AP2 and clathrin and that LRP6 internalization may not be a prerequisite for Wnt signaling to ?-catenin stabilization.
Understanding on the mechanisms of vascular branching morphogenesis has become a subject of enormous scientific and clinical interest. Zebrafish, which have small, accessible, transparent embryos and larvae, provides a unique living animal model to facilitating high-resolution imaging on ubiquitous and deep localization of vessels within embryo development and also in adult tissues. In this chapter, we have summarized various methods for vessel imaging in zebrafish, including in situ hybridization for vascular-specific genes, resin injection- or dye injection-based vessel visualization, and alkaline phosphatase staining. We also described detail protocols for live imaging of vessels by microangiography or using various transgenic zebrafish lines.
GSK3 is one of the few signaling mediators that play central roles in a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnts, hedgehog, growth factors, cytokines, and G protein-coupled ligands. Although the inhibition of GSK3-mediated beta-catenin phosphorylation is known to be the key event in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling, the mechanisms that underlie this event remain incompletely understood. The recent demonstration of GSK3 involvement in Wnt receptor phosphorylation illustrates the multifaceted roles that GSK3 plays in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. In this review, we will summarize these recent results and offer explanations, hypotheses, and models to reconcile some of these observations.
Wnt signaling plays important roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. The pathway that leads to beta-catenin stabilization is initiated by Wnt binding to its cell surface receptors, which induces the formation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2)) via activation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) type I. Here, we show that Wnt also stimulated the production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns(4)P), which depended on Frizzled (Fz), Dishevelled (Dvl), and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI4K) type II alpha in HEK293T cells. Dvl directly interacted with and activated PI4KII alpha by increasing its V(max) for ATP and PtdIns. In addition, Dvl regulated PI4KII alpha and PIP5KI via different domains. Moreover, Dvl, PI4KII alpha, and PIP5KI appeared to form a ternary complex upon Wnt3a stimulation. This complex may allow efficient production of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) from PtdIns, which is far more abundant than PtdIns(4)P in cells. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the mechanism by which Wnt3a regulates the production of PtdIns(4,5)P(2).
Modulation of intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) plays a fundamental role in cell volume regulation and neuronal response to GABA. Cl(-) exit via K-Cl cotransporters (KCCs) is a major determinant of [Cl(-)](I); however, mechanisms governing KCC activities are poorly understood. We identified two sites in KCC3 that are rapidly dephosphorylated in hypotonic conditions in cultured cells and human red blood cells in parallel with increased transport activity. Alanine substitutions at these sites result in constitutively active cotransport. These sites are highly phosphorylated in plasma membrane KCC3 in isotonic conditions, suggesting that dephosphorylation increases KCC3s intrinsic transport activity. Reduction of WNK1 expression via RNA interference reduces phosphorylation at these sites. Homologous sites are phosphorylated in all human KCCs. KCC2 is partially phosphorylated in neonatal mouse brain and dephosphorylated in parallel with KCC2 activation. These findings provide insight into regulation of [Cl(-)](i) and have implications for control of cell volume and neuronal function.
Effects of probiotics on the prevention of atopic diseases have been proposed recently. Although we have already reported the suppressive effects of the probiotic, ImmuBalance™, on a mouse model for peanuts allergy, its influence on atopic diseases remains unclear.
Understanding the mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis and translating these into effective therapies are of enormous scientific and clinical interests. In this report, we demonstrate the central role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS) in the regulation of VEGFA signaling and angiogenesis. CDS activity maintains phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) availability through resynthesis of phosphoinositides, whereas VEGFA, mainly through phospholipase C?1, consumes PIP2 for signal transduction. Loss of CDS2, 1 of 2 vertebrate CDS enzymes, results in vascular-specific defects in zebrafish in vivo and failure of VEGFA-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells in vitro. Absence of CDS2 also results in reduced arterial differentiation and reduced angiogenic signaling. CDS2 deficit-caused phenotypes can be successfully rescued by artificial elevation of PIP2 levels, and excess PIP2 or increased CDS2 activity can promote excess angiogenesis. These results suggest that availability of CDS-controlled resynthesis of phosphoinositides is essential for angiogenesis.
The zebrafish has emerged as an excellent vertebrate model system for studying blood and lymphatic vascular development. The small size, external and rapid development, and optical transparency of zebrafish embryos are some of the advantages the zebrafish model system offers. Multiple well-established techniques have been developed for imaging and functionally manipulating vascular tissues in zebrafish embryos, expanding on and amplifying these basic advantages and accelerating use of this model system for studying vascular development. In the past decade, studies performed using zebrafish as a model system have provided many novel insights into vascular development. In this article we discuss the amenability of this model system for studying blood vessel development and review contributions made by this system to our understanding of vascular development.
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