Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; WHO grade IV) is one of the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system. This disease remains one of the incurable human malignancies because the molecular mechanism driving the GBM development and recurrence is still largely unknown. Here, we show that knockdown of lymphocyte enhancer factor-1 (LEF1), a major transcription factor of Wnt pathway, inhibits U251 cell migration, invasion, and proliferation. Furthermore, downregulation of LEF1 expression inhibits the self-renewal capacity of U251 GBM stem-like cells and decreases the expression level of the GBM stem-like cell (GSC) markers such as CD133 and nestin. Our findings reveal that LEF1 maintains the GBM cell proliferation, migration, and GBM stem-like cell self-renewal. Taken together, these results suggest that LEF1 may be a novel therapeutic target for GBM suppression.
Oligodendrocyte-derived neurite-outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-A and its restriction mechanism are well-known. Recently, Nogo-A is reported to be abundantly expressed in neurons, however, the concrete link between neuronal Nogo-A and neuronal development is poorly understood. In the present study, we used Neuro2A and COS7 cell lines to clarify that Nogo-A largely distributed in the centrosome and microtubules-rich regions. When endogenous Nogo-A was down-regulated with RNA interference, the percentage of cell differentiation and the total neurite length of Neuro2A exposed to valproic acid (VPA) were decreased sharply. Furthermore, in primary neurons, acetylated ?-tubulin decreased at the tips of neurites where endogenous Nogo-A was still highly expressed. In HEK293FT cell lines, Nogo-A overexpression could redistribute acetylated ?-tubulin but not change the level of ?-tubulin. Together, our data discovered that centrosome- and microtubules-localized Nogo-A positively regulates neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of Neuro2A cell lines, implicating the essential roles of subcellular Nogo-A in neuronal development.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is by far the most common and most aggressive malignant primary tumor in humans and has poor outcomes despite many advances in treatment using combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Recent studies demonstrate that GBM contains a subpopulation of cancer cells with stem cell characteristics, including self-renewal and multipotentiality, and that these cancer stem cells contribute to disease progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including stem cell maintenance. An accumulating body of evidence shows that miR-218 may act as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting glioblastoma invasion, migration, proliferation and stemness through its different targets, indicating the great potential and relevance of miR-218 as a novel class of therapeutic target in glioblastoma.
The ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of methylcytosine dioxygenases catalyze oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and promote DNA demethylation. Despite the abundance of 5hmC and TET proteins in the brain, little is known about their role in oligodendrocytes (OLs). Here, we analyzed TET expression during OL development in vivo and in vitro, and found that three TET family members possess unique subcellular and temporal expression patterns. Furthermore, the level of 5hmC exhibits dynamic changes during OL maturation, which implies that 5hmC modification may play a role in the expression of critical genes necessary for OL maturation. siRNA-mediated silencing of the TET family proteins in OLs demonstrated that each of the TET proteins is required for OL differentiation. However, based on their unique domain structures, we speculate that the three TET members may function by different mechanisms. In summary, we have established the temporal expression of TET proteins and the dynamic level of 5hmC during OL development and demonstrate that all three TET members are necessary for OL differentiation.
DNA methylation at the 5 position of cytosine (5-mC) is a key epigenetic mark that is involved in various biological and pathological processes. 5-mC can be converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of DNA hydroxylases. Increasing evidence suggests that large-scale loss of 5-hmC is an epigenetic hallmark of several human cancers. However, the value of 5-hmC in diagnosis and prognosis of human cancers, including gastric cancer (GC), remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to determine 5-hmC levels in GCs and explore its association with clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome of GC patients. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and dot-blot assays, we demonstrated that 5-hmC was dramatically decreased in GCs compared with matched normal tissues. We also found a strong link between decreased 5-hmC and the reduction of TET1 gene expression, but not TET2 or 3, suggesting that decreased TET1 expression might be one of the mechanisms underlying 5-hmC loss in GCs. Wilcoxon tests showed that 5-hmC content was significantly associated with most of clinicopathological characteristics, such as tumor size (P = 0.016), Bormman type (P < 0.0001), tumor invasion (P = 0.001), TNM stage (P < 0.0001), the number of lymph nodes metastasis (P = 0.002), and survival status (P < 0.0001). It is noteworthy that decreased 5-hmC was significantly associated with poor survival of GC patients. Collectively, our findings indicate that decreased 5-hmC may be crucial to the clinical pathology of GC and is a strong and independent poor prognostic factor in GCs.
Malignant gliomas are the most common central nervous system tumors and the molecular mechanism driving their development and recurrence is still largely unknown, limiting the treatment of this disease. Here, we show that restoring the expression of miR-218, a microRNA commonly downregulated in glioma, dramatically reduces the migration, invasion, and proliferation of glioma cells. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting analysis revealed that expression of the stem cell-promoting oncogene Bmi1 was decreased after overexpression of miR-218 in glioma cells. Mechanistic investigations defined Bmi1 as a functional downstream target of miR-218 through which miR-218 ablated cell migration and proliferation. We documented that miR-218 also blocked the self-renewal of glioma stem-like cells, consistent with the suggested role of Bmi1 in stem cell growth. Finally, we showed that miR-218 regulated a broad range of genes involved in glioma cell development, including Wnt pathways that suppress glioma cell stem-like qualities. Taken together, our findings reveal miR-218 as a tumor suppressor that prevents migration, invasion, proliferation, and stem-like qualities in glioma cells.
The mental retardation-associated protein, srGAP3 is highly expressed in neurogenic sites. It is thought to regulate the key aspects of neuronal development and functions. Little is known about the interaction between srGAP3 and immature neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). In the current study, the expression of srGAP3 in NSCs/NPCs was detected. Then, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphological alteration of NSCs/NPCs were assessed after a lentivirus-mediated knockdown of srGAP3. The results showed that srGAP3 is highly expressed in NSCs/NPCs both in vitro and in vivo. After knockdown of srGAP3 (LV3-srGAP3 infection), viability and proliferation of NSCs/NPCs dramatically decreased, approximately 85% displayed a similar morphology with type I cells that have no or only few indistinguishable processes. After 7 days culture in a differentiation medium, 62.5%±8.3% of cells in the srGAP3 knockdown group were nestin-positive and 24.8%±5.8% of them were ?-tubulin III-positive, which are significantly higher (30.2%±9.9% and 14.6%±2.7%) than in the control group (LV3-NC infection). In addition, cells in the knockdown group had significantly fewer, but longer processes. Our results demonstrate that srGAP3 knockdown negatively regulates NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphological alteration, particularly, process formation. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that srGAP3 is involved in the regulation of biological behavior and the morphological features in rat NSCs/NPCs in vitro.
Programmed cell death is essential for the development of multicellular organisms, yet pathways of plant programmed cell death and its regulation remain elusive. Here we report that ETERNAL TAPETUM 1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor conserved in land plants, positively regulates programmed cell death in tapetal cells in rice anthers. eat1 exhibits delayed tapetal cell death and aborted pollen formation. ETERNAL TAPETUM 1 directly regulates the expression of OsAP25 and OsAP37, which encode aspartic proteases that induce programmed cell death in both yeast and plants. Expression and genetic analyses revealed that ETERNAL TAPETUM 1 acts downstream of TAPETUM DEGENERATION RETARDATION, another positive regulator of tapetal programmed cell death, and that ETERNAL TAPETUM 1 can also interact with the TAPETUM DEGENERATION RETARDATION protein. This study demonstrates that ETERNAL TAPETUM 1 promotes aspartic proteases triggering plant programmed cell death, and reveals a dynamic regulatory cascade in male reproductive development in rice.
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of the M9 region (residues 290-562) of amino-Nogo-A fused to the human immunodeficiency virus trans-activator TAT in an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in HT22 hippocampal neurons, and to investigate the role of NADPH oxidase in this protection. Transduction of TAT-M9 was analyzed by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. The biologic activity of TAT-M9 was assessed by its effects against OGD-induced HT22 cell damage, compared with a mutant M9 fusion protein or vehicle. Cellular viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed. Neuronal apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was determined by western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activity were also measured in the presence or absence of an inhibitor or activator of NADPH oxidase. Our results confirmed the delivery of the protein into HT22 cells by immunofluorescence and western blot. Addition of 0.4 ?mol/L TAT-M9 to the culture medium effectively improved neuronal cell viability and reduced LDH release induced by OGD. The fusion protein also protected HT22 cells from apoptosis, suppressed overexpression of Bax, and inhibited the reduction in Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, TAT-M9, as well as apocynin, decreased NADPH oxidase activity and ROS content. The protective effects of the TAT-M9 were reversed by TBCA, an agonist of NADPH oxidase. In conclusion, TAT-M9 could be successfully transduced into HT22 cells, and protected HT22 cells against OGD damage by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress. These findings suggest that the TAT-M9 protein may be an efficient therapeutic agent for neuroprotection.
Nogo extracellular peptide 1-40 (NEP1-40), a Nogo-66 antagonistic peptide, is one of the potential candidates for therapeutic intervention after central nervous system injury. This study is focused on the generation of TAT-NEP1-40 fusion protein and its transducible effects and biological activity.
Multi-functional rare-earth Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) (Ln = Er, Tm and Ho) ions doped one-dimensional (1-D) upconversion submicrocrystals (NaYF(4) and NaGdF(4)) possessing upconversion luminescence, biocompatibility and magnetic properties have been synthesized by a one-pot hydrothermal method. Rare-earth Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped NaYF(4) microrods (~1 ?m in diameter, 3-5 ?m in length) exhibit porous properties, and the average pore sizes are ~28.2 nm. They show paramagnetism in the magnetic range of -60 to -2 kOe and 2 to 60 kOe at 300 K, and exhibit near superparamagnetic behaviour at the magnetic range of -2 to 2 kOe. Saturation magnetization was ~12.1 emu g(-1) at 2 K. The Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped NaGdF(4) submicrocrystals (~100 nm in diameter, 200-300 nm in length) show paramagnetism at 300 K, and exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour with a saturation magnetization of 129.2 emu g(-1) at 2 K. The magnetic properties of Yb(3+) and Ln(3+) ions doped 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals indicate they can be used for drug targeting under a magnetic field. Their unique upconversion emission (green for Yb(3+)/Er(3+) and blue for Yb(3+)/Tm(3+)) under 980 nm laser excitation indicate that they could be used for specific luminescent immunolabeling and imaging. MTT assays reveal that 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals have satisfactory bio-affinity, where the viability keeps in good state even at a concentration of 500 ?g mL(-1), which is much higher than the concentration usually used in cell labelling. Luminescent microscopy images show that the morphologies of the cytoskeleton and cell nucleus are well maintained after incubating different concentrations of 1-D upconversion submicrocrystals. After injecting upconversion submicrocrystals into the mice (tumor sites or back normal tissue), a clearly distinguished CT signal was observed, indicating the synthesized 1-D submicrocrystals are effective for CT imaging in vivo.
Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLC?1) is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLC?1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer.
Hypoglycemia can cause rapid and severe brain damage. We studied the impact of hypoglycemic brain damage in the insulin-induced hypoglycemic rats. Thirty male rats were divided into normal blood sugar control group (group A), the blank group (group B), and the experimental group which was further divided into four groups according to the level of blood glucose reperfusion i.e., blood glucose ?3 mmol/L (Group C), ?6 mmol/L (Group D), ?9 mmol/L (Group E), and >9 mmol/L (Group F). Each groups had five rats. TUNEL and FJB staining were used to observe the apoptosis and necrosis in the rat hippocampus CA1 and DG regions and transmission electron microscopy for ultra-structures. We observed that neuronal apoptosis and necrosis of group A and B were not obvious. The apoptotic and necrotic neuron cell densities in the hippocampus CA1 and DG regions were moderately detected in group C, D, and E, while we found it maximum in group F. No significant difference was found in apoptotic and necrotic neuron cell density in the hippocampus CA1 and DG regions in group A and B. Apoptotic and necrotic cell density was significantly increased in all experimental groups as compared to the control group. Moreover, the apoptotic and necrotic cell density was significantly higher in group F than other experimental groups (group C, D, and E). However, apoptosis and necrosis in hippocampus CA1 and DG regions was not differed significantly among groups C, D, and E. All results were well supported by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, under the condition of the same blood glucose level, the degree of brain damage related to the blood glucose level with hypoglycemia and rapid blood glucose increased after hypoglycemia could cause more significant brain damage.
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