Radially polarized beams can be focused to a tighter spot in the focal plane with a high numerical-aperture objective when combined with an optimally designed pupil filter. Based on the unique characters, a novel super-resolution radially polarized-light pupil-filtering confocal sensing technology (SRPCST) is proposed, and a sensor based on SRPCST is developed. By using a radially polarized beam and pupil-filtering technology, SRPCST can effectively improve its lateral resolution. In SRPCST a strong longitudinal field component can be generated in the focal plane by focusing a radially polarized light with a high numerical-aperture objective. Pupil-filtering technology will modify the pupil function of the optical system by optimally designing the parameters of pupil filter to higher resolution. Theoretical analyses and packaged SRPCST sensor experiments indicate that the lateral resolution of SRPCST can be improved by 15.23% and 32.12% through super-resolution image restoration compared with confocal microscopy under the same conditions.
A new real-time laser differential confocal microscopy (RLDCM) without sample reflectivity difference effects is proposed for imaging height topography of sample surface, which divides the confocal microscopy imaging light path into two confocal microscopy imaging paths before and after focus with the equal axial detector offset oriented in opposite direction. By dividing the difference of the two signals simultaneously detected from these two confocal imaging paths by the higher signal between these two signals, RLDCM separates the signal that comes from reflectivity heterogeneity from the topographic signal in real time for the first time. RLDCM significantly reduces the height topography imaging time by single-layer scanning for the sample surface with reflectivity heterogeneity, and it achieves high axial resolution and lateral resolution similar to CM by optimizing the axial detector offset. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate that RLDCM realizes the real-time surface imaging for line structures featuring Silicon Dioxide steps on a Silicon base and achieves 2-nm axial depth resolution without reducing lateral resolution.
A confocal pore size measurement based on super-resolution image restoration is proposed to obtain a fast and accurate measurement for submicrometer pore size of nuclear track-etched membranes (NTEMs). This method facilitates the online inspection of the pore size evolution during etching. Combining confocal microscopy with super-resolution image restoration significantly improves the lateral resolution of the NTEM image, yields a reasonable circle edge-setting criterion of 0.2408, and achieves precise pore edge detection. Theoretical analysis shows that the minimum measuring diameter can reach 0.19 ?m, and the root mean square of the residuals is only 1.4 nm. Edge response simulation and experiment reveal that the edge response of the proposed method is better than 80 nm. The NTEM pore size measurement results obtained by the proposed method agree well with that obtained by scanning electron microscopy.
A laser confocal radius measurement (LCRM) method is proposed for high-accuracy measurement of the radius of curvature (ROC). The LCRM uses the peak points of confocal response curves to identify the cat eye and confocal positions precisely. It then accurately measures the distance between these two positions to determine the ROC. The LCRM also uses conic fitting, which significantly enhances measurement accuracy by restraining the influences of environmental disturbance and system noise on the measurement results. The experimental results indicate that LCRM has a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 10 ppm for both convex and concave spheres. Thus, LCRM is a feasible method for ROC measurements with high accuracy and concise structures.
This Letter proposes a laser differential confocal paraboloidal vertex radius measurement (DCPRM) method for the high-accuracy measurement of the paraboloidal vertex radius of curvature. DCPRM constructs an autocollimation vertex radius measurement light path for the paraboloid by placing a reflector in the incidence light path. This technique is based on the principle that a paraboloid can aim a parallel beam at its focus without aberration and uses differential confocal positioning technology to identify the paraboloid focus and vertex accurately. Measurement of the precise distance between these two positions is achieved to determine the paraboloid vertex radius. Preliminary experimental results indicate that DCPRM has a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 0.001%.
To improve the measurement accuracy of the profilometer for large optical surfaces, a new single-step spatial rotation error separation technique (SSEST) is proposed to separate the surface profile error and spindle spatial rotation error, and a novel SSEST-based system for surface profile measurement is developed. In the process of separation, two sets of measured results at the ith measurement circle are obtained before and after the rotation of error separation table, the surface profile error and spatial rotation error of spindle can be determined using discrete Fourier-transform and harmonic analysis. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that SSEST can accurately separate spatial rotation error of spindle from the measured surface profile results within the range of 1-100 upr and improve the accuracy of surface profile measurements.
A laser reflection-confocal focal-length measurement (LRCFM) is proposed for the high-accuracy measurement of lens focal length. LRCFM uses the peak points of confocal response curves to precisely identify the lens focus and vertex of the lens last surface. LRCFM then accurately measures the distance between the two positions to determine the lens focal length. LRCFM uses conic fitting, which significantly enhances measurement accuracy by inhibiting the influence of environmental disturbance and system noise on the measurement results. The experimental results indicate that LRCFM has a relative expanded uncertainty of less than 0.0015%. Compared with existing measurement methods, LRCFM has high accuracy and a concise structure. Thus, LRCFM is a feasible method for high-accuracy focal-length measurements.
A new laser differential confocal lens refractive index measurement is proposed, which uses the absolute zero of the differential confocal axial intensity curve to precisely identify the positions of the objective when the measurement pencil is focused on the vertex of the test lens and the reflector with or without the test lens in the measurement light-path, and then uses aberration compensation and ray tracing facet iterative calculation to obtain the refractive index of the test lens, thereby achieving the high-precision noncontact measurement of lens refractive index. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments indicate that the accuracy of the approach can reach about 2.5×10(-4).
In order to achieve the precise measurement of the lenses axial space, a new lenses axial space ray tracing measurement (ASRTM) is proposed based on the geometrical theory of optical image. For an assembled lenses with the given radius of curvature r(n) and refractive index nn of every lens, ASRTM uses the annular laser differential confocal chromatography focusing technique (ADCFT) to achieve the precise focusing at the vertex position P(n) of its inner-and-outer spherical surface Sn and obtain the coordinate z(n) corresponding to the axial movement position of ASRTM objective, and then, uses the ray tracing facet iterative algorithm to precisely determine the vertex position P(n) of every spherical surface by these coordinates z(n), refractive index n(n) and spherical radius r(n), and thereby obtaining the lenses inner axial space d(n). The preliminary experimental results indicate that ASRTM has a relative measurement error of less than 0.02%.
A new laser differential confocal radius measurement (DCRM) is proposed for high precision measurement of radius. Based on the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal system (DCS), DCRM uses the zero point of the DCS axial intensity curve to precisely identify the cats-eye and confocal positions of the test lens, and measures the accurate distance between the two positions to achieve the high-precision measurement of radius of curvature (ROC). In comparison with the existing measurement methods, DCRM proposed has a high measurement precision, a strong environmental anti-interference capability and a low cost. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that DCRM has a relative measurement error of better than 5 ppm.
A new laser differential confocal focal-length measurement method is proposed for the measurement of an ultra-long focal-length. The approach proposed uses the property of an axial intensity curve that the absolute zero precisely corresponds to the focus of the objective in a differential confocal focusing system (DCFS) to measure the variation in position of DCFS focus with and without a measured ultra-long focal-length lens (UFL), uses the distance between the two focuses to obtain the UFL focal-length, and thereby achieving the precise measurement of ultra-long focal-length. The method has a high focusing precision, a strong anti-interference capability and a short measurement light-path. The theoretical analyses and preliminary experimental results indicate that the relative measurement error is about 0.01% when the method is used for the measurement of back-focus-distance (BFD).
A new laser differential reflection-confocal focal-length measurement (DRCFM) method is proposed for the high-accuracy measurement of the lens focal length. DRCFM uses weak light reflected from the lens last surface to determine the vertex position of this surface. Differential confocal technology is then used to identify precisely the lens focus and vertex of the lens last surface, thereby enabling the precise measurement of the lens focal length. Compared with existing measurement methods, DRCFM has high accuracy and strong anti-interference capability. Theoretical analyses and experimental results indicate that the DRCFM relative measurement error is less than 10 ppm.
In this study, we found that the axial response curve of divided-aperture confocal microscopy has a shift while the point detector has a transverse offset from the optical axis. Based on this, a novel laser divided-aperture differential confocal sensing technology (LDDCST) with absolute zero and high axial resolution, as well as an LDDCST-based sensor, is proposed. LDDCST sets two micro-regions as virtual pinholes that are symmetrical to the optical axis along the x(d) direction on the focal plane of the divided-aperture confocal system to achieve the spot-division detection and to simplify the detection system, uses differential subtraction of two intensity responses simultaneously detected from the two micro-regions to achieve high axial resolution absolute measurement and low noise, and considers both resolution and measurement range by adjusting virtual pinholes in software. Theoretical analyses and packaged LDDCST sensor experiments indicate that LDDCST has high axial resolution as well as strong anti-interference and sectioning detection capability.
A laser differential confocal radius measurement system with high measurement accuracy is developed for optical manufacturing and metrology. The system uses the zero-crossing point of the differential confocal intensity curve to precisely identify the cats-eye and confocal positions and uses an interferometer to measure the distance between these two positions, thereby achieving a high-precision measurement for the radius of curvature. The coaxial measuring optical path reduces the Abbe error, and the air-bearing slider reduces the motion error. The error analysis indicates the theoretical accuracy of the system is up to 2 ppm, and the experiment shows that the system has high focusing sensitivity and is little affected by environmental fluctuations; the measuring repeatability is between 4 and 12 ppm.
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