In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive analytical method for the determination of rhodamine B in chili-containing foodstuffs is described. The dye is extracted from samples with methanol and analysed without further cleanup procedure by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to fluorescence detection (FLD). The influence of matrix fluorescent compounds (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) on the analysis was overcome by the optimisation of mobile-phase composition. The limit of determination (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and 10 ?g/kg, respectively. Validation data show a good repeatability and within-lab reproducibility with relative standard deviations <10%. The overall recoveries are in the range of 98-103% in chili powder and in the range of 87-100% in chili oil depending on the concentration of rhodamine B in foodstuffs. This method is suitable for the routine analysis of rhodamine B due to its sensitivity, simplicity, reasonable time and cost.
MicroRNA (miRNAs) is demonstrated to be present in the blood of humans and has been increasingly suggested as a novel biomarker for various pathological processes in the heart, including myocardial infarction, myocardial remodeling and progression to heart failure. In this study, we aim to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-328 and miR-134 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Circulating levels of miR-328 and miR-134 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR in plasma samples from 359 AMI patients and 30 healthy volunteers. Concentrations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were measured using electrochemiluminescence-based methods. MiRNAs were assessed for discrimination of a clinical diagnosis of AMI and for association with primary clinical endpoint defined as a composite of cardiogenic death and development of heart failure within 6 months after infarction. Results showed that levels of plasma miR-328 and miR-134 were significantly higher in AMI patients than in healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed significant diagnostic value of miR-328 and miR-134 for AMI. However, neither of them was superior to hs-cTnT for the diagnosis. Additionally, increased miRNA levels were strongly associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure within 6 months for miR-328 (OR 7.35, 95 % confidence interval 1.07-17.83, P < 0.001) and miR-134 (OR 2.28, 95 % confidence interval 1.03-11.32 P < 0.001). In conclusion, circulating miR-328 and miR-134 could be potential indicators for AMI, and the miRNA levels are associated with increased risk of mortality or development of heart failure.
Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with adverse prognosis. It is becoming increasingly clear that circulating miRNAs could be promising biomarkers for various pathological processes in the heart, including myocardial infarction, myocardial remodeling and progression to heart failure. In the present study, a total of 359 consecutive patients were recruited. Plasma samples were collected on admission. Echocardiographic studies were performed during the admission and at six months follow-up after AMI. Remodeling was defined as an at least 10% increase from baseline in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Plasma miRNA levels were assessed for association with six months mortality or development of heart failure. Results showed that levels of plasma miR-208b and miR-34a were significantly higher in patients with remodeling than those without. Increased miRNA levels were strongly associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure within six months for miR-208b (OR 17.91, 95% confidence interval=2.07-98.81, p=0.003), miR-34a (OR 4.18, 95% confidence interval=1.36-12.83, p=0.012) and combination of the two miRNAs (OR 18.73, 95% confidence interval=1.96-101.23, p=0.000). The two miRNA panels reclassified a significant proportion of patients with a net reclassification improvement of 11.7% (p=0.025) and an integrated discrimination improvement of 7.7% (p=0.002). These results demonstrated that circulating miR-208b and miR-34a could be useful biomarkers for predicting left ventricular remodeling after AMI, and the miRNA levels are associated with increased risk of mortality or heart failure.
The aim of this study was to develop a derivative of chitosan as pharmaceutical excipient used in sustained-release matrix tablets of poorly soluble drugs. A water-soluble quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan was synthesized by a two-step reaction with carboxymethylchitosan (CMCTS), decylalkyl dimethyl ammonium and epichlorohydrin. The elemental analysis showed that the target product with 10.27% of the maximum grafting degree was obtained. To assess the preliminary safety of this biopolymer, cell toxicity assay was employed. In order to further investigate quaternary ammonium carboxymethylchitosan application as pharmaceutical excipient, aspirin was chosen as model drug. The effect of quaternary ammonium CMCTS on aspirin release rate from sustained-release matrix tablets was examined by in-vitro dissolution experiments. The results showed that this biopolymer had a great potential in increasing the dissolution of poorly soluble drug. With the addition of CMCTS-CEDA, the final cumulative release rate of drug rose up to 90%. After 12 h, at the grade of 10, 20 and 50 cps, the drug release rate increased from 58.1 to 90.7%, from 64.1 to 93.9%, from 69.3 to 96.1%, respectively. At the same time, aspirin release rate from sustainedrelease model was found to be related to the amount of quaternary ammonium CMCTS employed. With the increase of CMCTS-CEDA content, the accumulated release rate increased from 69.1% to 86.7%. The mechanism of aspirin release from sustained-release matrix tablets was also preliminary studied to be Fick diffusion. These data demonstrated that the chitosan derivative has positive effect on drug release from sustained-release matrix tablets.
Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) strains, 79121M18 and YL04057, isolated in Xinjiang, China. Sequence analysis showed that they represent a genotype of CCHFV that has not been reported before.
This paper presents a study on orientation domains in the vacancy-ordered titanium monoxide TiOx. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the co-existence of 12 possible TiOx monoclinic domain variants, which are induced by the cubic-to-monoclinic phase transition attributed to the Ti and O vacancy ordering. These 12 monoclinic domain variants which are predicted by group theory might be randomly arranged. Furthermore, several hours of electron beam irradiation can lead to the vacancy ordering-disordering transition (i.e. monoclinic-to-cubic phase transformation) in TiOx. Our results shed light on the structural characteristics in TiOx nanostructures and thus contribute to the fabrication and design of the related nanostructures.
This short communication describes the interaction between toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, its specific ligand) using analytical methods. Their interaction has been evidenced in many reports. Nevertheless, there are few reports focused on their binding constant. In this research, the interaction between TLR4 and LPS is investigated using mobility shift method by CZE. To optimize the electrophoresis conditions, the effecting factors, running buffer, sample concentration, injection duration, and operation voltage of electrophoretic on the mobility shift are studied in detail. Electrophoresis conditions were described as follows: borate buffer (pH 7.4, 20 mM), 5 s for 50 mbar pressure injection duration, and 13 kV of separation voltage in 41.5 cm fused silica capillary with 75 ?m id and 375??m od. The combination constant of TLR4 and LPS is calculated using Scatchard methods. The Scatchard liner correlation is y=-0.0165x+0.1456, binding constant is K=1.65 x 10? ?(g/mL)?¹.
Belamcanda chinensis (Iridaceae) belongs to the family of iridaceae and its rhizoma has been widely used for the treatment of throat ailment. Here we report a new pharmacological activity of B. chinensis leaf extract (BCL), that is, the hypoglycemic effect in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Animals either healthy or STZ-induced diabetic show significantly lowered fasting blood glucose levels after treatment with BCL. The serum insulin concentration in normal rats is also enhanced. Additionally, the increase in blood glucose levels after administration of various carbohydrates in normal rats is significantly decreased and the oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) of STZ-induced diabetic rats is largely improved by BCL treatment. However, co-administration of BCL with Nifedipine, a Ca(2+) ion channel blocker, or Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive K(+) ion channel opener thoroughly abolishes the hypoglycemic effect of BCL. HPLC analysis and compound identification showed that several isoflavone glycosides with antidiabetic activities were contained in BCL while pharmacological experiment showed that the polysaccharide fraction of BCL had no significant hypoglycemic effect on normal rats. Therefore, the isoflavone glycosides but not polysaccharides might be the active fraction of BCL in diabetes treatment.
In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East.
Rhombomys opimus (great gerbil) is a reservoir of Yersinia pestis in the natural plague foci of Central Asia. Great gerbils are highly resistant to Y. pestis infection. The coevolution of great gerbils and Y. pestis is believed to play an important role in the plague epidemics in Central Asia plague foci. However, the dynamics of Y. pestis infection and the corresponding antibody response in great gerbils have not been evaluated. In this report, animal experiments were employed to investigate the bacterial load in both the liver and spleen of infected great gerbils. The dynamics of the antibody response to the F1 capsule antigen of Y. pestis was also determined.
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