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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Examining the Risks of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Mortality among New-Generation Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor: A Nationwide Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?Previous studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality related to azithromycin and levofloxacin. Risks associated with alternative drugs in the same class, including clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, were unknown. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to perform a nationwide, population-based study that compares the risks of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiovascular death among these antibiotics.
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Antiviral medication use in a cohort of pregnant women during the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic.
J Obstet Gynaecol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Preventing influenza-like illness (ILI) during pregnancy with antiviral medication use (AVMU) can mitigate serious health risks to mother and foetus. We report on AVMU in pregnant women in Ontario, Canada, and describe characteristics of AVMU during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. Rates and risk estimates of AVMU were compared across multiple categories and stratified across ILI infection status. Increased AVMU was observed in women with influenza infections, active smokers, those vaccinated against influenza, and those with pre-existing co-morbidities. Decreased AVMU was observed in women with multiple gestations, and those in neighbourhoods of high immigrant concentrations. Our stratified analysis indicated that the observed patterns differed by ILI infection status. We demonstrated that once infected, women across multiple groups were equally likely to use antiviral medications. In this report we also propose possible clinical explanations for the observed differences in AVMU, which will be useful in planning prevention initiatives for future pandemics.
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New Risk Factors for Adult Onset Incident Asthma: A Nested Case Control Study of Host Antioxidant Defense.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Rationale: Host antioxidant defense, consisting of enzymatic antioxidant activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant micronutrients, is implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Studies of antioxidant defense and adult incident asthma have either used measures of antioxidants estimated from questionnaires or not considered enzymatic aspects of host defense. Objective: We conducted the first study designed and powered to investigate the association of antioxidant defenses on adult incident asthma. Methods: In a nested case-control study, we followed Shanghai women (ages 40-70) without prevalent asthma at baseline, over eight years. Incident asthmatics were ascertained prospectively by gold standard testing of symptomatic women and matched to two asymptomatic controls. Measurements: Baseline urinary F2-isoprostanes, plasma concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients (tocopherols, xanthins, carotenes, and lycopene) and antioxidant enzyme activity (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase [PAF-AH] and superoxide dismutase) were measured from samples collected prior to disease onset. Main Results: Among 65,372 women, 150 (0.24%) developed asthma. F2-isoprostane levels prior to asthma onset were not different between cases and controls. Doubling of ?-tocopherol concentrations and PAF-AH activity was associated with 50% and 37% decreased risk of incident asthma (adjusted OR; 95% confidence interval [OR; 95%CI], ?-tocopherol OR= 0.52; 95%CI: 0.32-0.84; PAF-AH OR=0.63; 95%CI:0.42-0.93). Conclusions: In this prospective study ?-tocopherol, within normal reference ranges, and PAF-AH enzymatic activity, were associated with decreased asthma development. These modifiable risk factors may be an effective strategy to test for primary asthma prevention.
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Molecular insight into nanoscale water films dewetting on modified silica surfaces.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are adopted to investigate the microscopic dewetting mechanism of nanoscale water films on methylated silica surfaces. The simulation results show that the dewetting process is divided into two stages: the appearance of dry patches and the quick contraction of the water film. First, the appearance of dry patches is due to the fluctuation in the film thickness originating from capillary wave instability. Second, for the fast contraction of water film, the unsaturated electrostatic and hydrogen bond interactions among water molecules are the driving forces, which induce the quick contraction of the water film. Finally, the effect of film thickness on water films dewetting is studied. Research results suggest that upon increasing the water film thickness from 6 to 8 Å, the final dewetting patterns experience separate droplets and striation-shaped structures, respectively. But upon further increasing the water film thickness, the water film is stable and there are no dry patches. The microscopic dewetting behaviors of water films on methylated silica surfaces discussed here are helpful in understanding many phenomena in scientific and industrial processes better.
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E-spun composite fibers of collagen and dragline silk protein ---- fiber mechanics, biocompatibility and application in stem cell differentiation.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Biocomposite matrices with high mechanical strength, high stability and the ability to direct matrix-specific stem cell differentiation are essential for the reconstruction of lesioned tissues in tissue engineering and cell therapeutics. Toward this end, we used the electrospinning technique to fabricate well-aligned composite fibers from collagen and spider dragline silk protein, obtained from the milk of transgenic goats, mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) on a similar scale. Collagen and the dragline silk proteins were found to mix homogeneously at all ratios in the electrospun (E-spun) fibers. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength and elasticity of the fibers increased monotonically with silk percentage, whereas the stretchability was slightly reduced. Strikingly, we found that the incorporation of silk proteins to collagen dramatically increased the matrix stability against excessive fiber swelling and shape deformation in a cell culture medium. When human decidua parietalis placental stem cells (hdpPSCs) were seeded on the collagen-silk matrices, the matrices were found to support cell proliferation at a similar rate as the pure collagen matrix but to provide cell adhesion with reduced strengths and induce cell polarization at varied levels. Matrices containing 15 w% and 30 w% silk in collagen (CS15, CS30) were found to induce a level of neural differentiation comparable to that of pure collagen. In particular, CS15 matrix induced the highest extent of cell polarization and promoted the development of extended 1D neural filaments strictly in-line with the aligned fibers. Taking the increased mechanical strength and fiber stability into consideration, CS15 and CS30 E-spun fibers offer better alternatives to pure collagen fibers as scaffolds that can be potentially utilized in neural tissue repair and the development of future nano-bio-devices.
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[Effects of high resting heart rate on the stability of carotid artery plaque in a middle and advanced aged population].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To explore the effect of high resting heart rate (RHR) on the stability of carotid artery plaque in a middle and advanced aged population.
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Genomic Instability in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Chronic airway inflammatory diseases are life-threatening conditions, including bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and so on. However, as the disease etiology remains largely unclear, current treatments that target chronic airway inflammatory diseases are still not satisfactory. DNA damage response (DDR), regarded as one of the many causes of apoptosis and cell senescence, as well as a factor involved in carcinogenesis, has recently begun to attract attention as a source of chronic inflammation. Considering that COPD and allergic asthma inflammation enhance DNA damage, measures related with DNA repair should be taken so as to reduce the injuries caused by these airway diseases. Small molecule inhibitors specifically against various DNA repair proteins have been developed over the last decade to fight against chronic diseases. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, for example, has already shown its potential in asthma animal models to block airway inflammation. In this review, we highlight the roles of DDR in chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and try to have a better understanding of these diseases. We also discuss the possibilities of targeting DDR signaling to develop potential novel treatments against these conditions.
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[Chemical constituents from Laggera pterodonta].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To study the chemical constituents from Laggera pterodonta.
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Comparison in efficacy between pure NOTES peritoneoscopy with small or large endoscope and laparoscopy.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and systematic impact of different sized endoscopes for pure transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) peritoneoscopy relative to laparoscopy.
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[Primary exploration of the product quality supervision on medical devices in use].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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This paper focuses on issues needed to be clear towards the product quality supervision of medical devices in use. The life circle of medical devices, the supervision regarding its boundary, target, emphasis, basis and standards have been analyzed in turn. A clear and creative idea is also provided for theoretical exploration of the supervision on medical devices in use.
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A Nanoparticle-Encapsulated non-Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor with Enhanced Anti-HIV-1 Activity and Prolonged Circulation Time in Plasma.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), major components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), are effective in suppressing viral replication and preventing the progress of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. However, rapid blood clearance in vivo could significantly impair the efficiency of the anti-HIV-1 activity and result in multiple daily doses which might lead to poor patient compliance. Here we attempted to employ biodegradable organic nanoparticles (NPs) to encapsulate DAAN15h, a derivative of 4-substituted 1,5-diarylaniline with potent anti-HIV activities. Nanoparticles encapsulating DAAN15h (NP-DAAN15h) displayed a spherical shape with a size of 97.01 ± 3.64 nm and zeta potential of -19.1 ± 3.78 mV, and they exhibited a sustained controlled release behavior in vitro. The cellular uptake of NPs on TZM-b1 cells, MT-2 cells and M7 cells, possibly through lipid raft-mediated and energy-dependent active transport processes, was significantly enhanced. NP-DAAN15h, which possessed no significant in vitro cytotoxicity, showed improved antiviral activity against laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 isolates with different subtypes and tropisms, including RT-resistant variants. NP-DAAN15h exhibited a significantly prolonged blood circulation time, decreased plasma elimination rate, and enhanced AUC(0-t). NP-DAAN15h, a nanoparticle-encapsulated NNRTI, exhibits enhanced cellular uptake, improved anti-HIV-1 efficacy and prolonged in vivo circulation time, suggesting good potential for further development as a new NNRTI formulation for clinical use.
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Bio-inspired enol-degradation for multipurpose oxygen sensing.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Inspired by the enol-degradation of luciferin, a new oxygen sensor with oppositely changed color and fluorescence has been designed. This new reaction-based dual mode sensor can not only be used as a highly selective instant "fluorescence on" oxygen probe, but also as a freshness indicator of food or food materials by using its property of time-adjustable color fading.
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[Laryngeal function preservated surgery for piriform sinus carcinoma with paraglottic space involvement].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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To investigate the feasibility and results of laryngeal functional preservation surgery for piriform sinus carcinoma with paraglottic space involvement.
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TNF-?-308G/A polymorphism contributes to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome risk: evidence based on 10 case-control studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The aim of our study was to investigate the association between the TNF-?-308G/A polymorphism and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).
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Calcium channel blockers and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 17 observational studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Studies on the association between the use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and breast cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We quantitatively assessed this association by conducting a meta-analysis based on the evidence from observational studies.
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Exogenous Interleukin-17A Inhibits Eosinophil Differentiation and Alleviates Allergic Airway Inflammation.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Interleukin-17A (IL-17) is known to play important roles in immune and inflammatory disease such as in asthma, but its functions in allergic airway inflammation are still controversial, and the molecular mechanisms mediating these functions remain unclear. Increased production of eosinophils in bone marrow and their emergence in the airway have been linked to the onset and progression of allergic asthma. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-17 on allergic airway inflammation, and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms through eosinophil generation. Exogenous IL-17 significantly attenuated the features of allergic inflammation induced by ovalbumin in mice. It inhibited eosinophil differentiation both in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by down-regulated expression of CC chemokine receptor 3(Ccr3), Gata-1, and Gata-2, as well as reduced formation of common myeloid progenitors and eosinophil progenitors, but without influencing eosinophil apoptosis. IL-17 also significantly decreased the number of eosinophils in IL-5 transgenic mice, although it notably increased the levels of IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF. In addition, IL-17 had little effect on secretion of the inflammatory cytokines by eosinophils. Neutralization of endogenous IL-17 significantly augmented eosinophil recruitment in the airways. Together, these findings suggest that exogenous IL-17 protects against allergic airway inflammation most likely through inhibition of the eosinophil differentiation in bone marrow.
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Association of a miR-502-binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of SET8 and the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism with cervical cancer in the Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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This study was conducted to identify whether polymorphic variants of set domain-containing protein 8 (SET8) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) codon 72, either independently or jointly, might be associated with increased risk for cervical cancer.
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Genetic variation in iron metabolism is associated with neuropathic pain and pain severity in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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HIV sensory neuropathy and distal neuropathic pain (DNP) are common, disabling complications associated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We previously associated iron-regulatory genetic polymorphisms with a reduced risk of HIV sensory neuropathy during more neurotoxic types of cART. We here evaluated the impact of polymorphisms in 19 iron-regulatory genes on DNP in 560 HIV-infected subjects from a prospective, observational study, who underwent neurological examinations to ascertain peripheral neuropathy and structured interviews to ascertain DNP. Genotype-DNP associations were explored by logistic regression and permutation-based analytical methods. Among 559 evaluable subjects, 331 (59%) developed HIV-SN, and 168 (30%) reported DNP. Fifteen polymorphisms in 8 genes (p<0.05) and 5 variants in 4 genes (p<0.01) were nominally associated with DNP: polymorphisms in TF, TFRC, BMP6, ACO1, SLC11A2, and FXN conferred reduced risk (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] ranging from 0.2 to 0.7, all p<0.05); other variants in TF, CP, ACO1, BMP6, and B2M conferred increased risk (ORs ranging from 1.3 to 3.1, all p<0.05). Risks associated with some variants were statistically significant either in black or white subgroups but were consistent in direction. ACO1 rs2026739 remained significantly associated with DNP in whites (permutation p<0.0001) after correction for multiple tests. Several of the same iron-regulatory-gene polymorphisms, including ACO1 rs2026739, were also associated with severity of DNP (all p<0.05). Common polymorphisms in iron-management genes are associated with DNP and with DNP severity in HIV-infected persons receiving cART. Consistent risk estimates across population subgroups and persistence of the ACO1 rs2026739 association after adjustment for multiple testing suggest that genetic variation in iron-regulation and transport modulates susceptibility to DNP.
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Association of Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number with Colorectal Cancer Risk: Results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Mitochondria play an important role in cellular energy metabolism, free radical production, and apoptosis, and thus may be involved in cancer development.
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Combined effects of leukocyte telomere length, p53 polymorphism and human papillomavirus infection on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Han Chinese population.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Telomere shortening has been suggested to be a genetic predictor for various cancers. However, evidences about this point with respect to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Han Chinese populations remain limited. Our previous study demonstrated that p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism was associated with the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related ESCC. Telomeres and p53 play important roles in maintaining genomic stability and regulating the cell cycle. HPV impacts both telomere length stabilization and p53 degradation. Given the roles of the three factors, we evaluated leukocyte telomere length, p53 variants and HPV-16 serology to examine the potential associations between them and ESCC risk in a case-control study with 308 patients and 309 cancer-free controls matched by age and sex. Compared with long telomere length, short telomere length was significantly associated with an increased risk of ESCC (adjusted OR 2.01; 95% CI 1.41-2.80). Moreover, this association was enhanced when combined with HPV-16 seropositivity and p53 Arg/Arg or Arg/Pro genotypes. Notably, individuals with short telomere length, Arg/Pro or Arg/Arg genotypes and HPV-16 seropositivity had a 12.08-fold (95% CI 5.49-26.56) increased risk of ESCC compared to those with none of the three investigated risk factors. Taken together, these results indicate that short telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is a biomarker for ESCC risk, and has statistically additive effects with p53 variants and HPV seropositivity with regard to the risk of ESCC in a Han Chinese population.
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What is the meaning of a nonresolved viral nucleic acid test-reactive minipool?
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This study aimed at analyzing the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA among hepatitis?B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative donations by cobas TaqScreen MPX test (Roche Molecular Systems) and discussing the meaning of a reactive minipool (MP) that does not resolve to an individual donation (ID)-reactive result.
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Molecular regulation of ovarian cancer cell invasion.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The molecular mechanism underlying ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastasis remains unclear. Since significant downregulation in microRNA 200 (miRNA200) family (miR200a, miR200b, and miR200c) has been reported in the invasive ovarian cancer cells, here, we used two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR3 and SKOV3, to study the molecular basis of miR200, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) activation, and cancer invasiveness. We found that overexpression of either miR200 family member in OVCAR3 or SKOV3 cells significantly inhibited production and secretion of MMP3 and cancer invasiveness. Moreover, forced MMP3 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cell invasiveness via downregulating MMP3. Furthermore, ZEB1, a major target of miR200, was inhibited by miR200 overexpression. Forced ZEB1 expression abolished miR200-induced inhibition of ovarian cancer cell invasiveness, suggesting that ZEB1 is a direct target of miR200 for inhibiting ovarian cell invasiveness. Finally, phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3), a major partner of ZEB1, was efficiently inhibited by miR200, which could be restored by forced expression of ZEB1, but not by forced expression of MMP3, suggesting that ZEB1/pSMAD3 is signaling cascade upstream of MMP3 in this model. Taken together, our data suggest that miR200 family inhibited ovarian cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis by downregulating MMP3, possibly through ZEB1/pSMAD3.
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Exposure to bisphenol A at physiological concentrations observed in Chinese children promotes primordial follicle growth through the PI3K/Akt pathway in an ovarian culture system.
Toxicol In Vitro
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The worldwide increase in the use of bisphenol A (BPA) has resulted in increased human exposure, which could affect human reproductive function. Few studies have investigated the effect of BPA exposure on the primordial follicle pool. In this study, we employed a neonatal ovarian culture system comprising organ obtained from female C57BL/6 pups on postnatal day 4 to assess the effect of BPA on the primordial follicle pool. Ovaries were cultured with BPA (0.1 ?M, physiological concentration found in children's blood, and 1 ?M, 10 ?M) or vehicle for 10 days. Our study revealed that the primary follicle number increased during the early time points (?5 days), and we observed a reduction in the primordial follicle pool at a later time point (day 10). This reduction at day 10 was due to increased follicle activation and reduced follicle atresia, as determined by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 and active caspase-3. Then we examined the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, which is known to be important for early follicle growth. BPA exposure induced the upregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, which was reversed by concomitant treatment with PI3K inhibitor. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for BPA-induced primordial follicle activation that involves the PI3K/Akt pathway.
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FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177 330 individuals.
Qibin Qi, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Mary K Downer, Toshiko Tanaka, Caren E Smith, Ivonne Sluijs, Emily Sonestedt, Audrey Y Chu, Frida Renstrom, Xiaochen Lin, Lars H Angquist, Jinyan Huang, Zhonghua Liu, Yanping Li, Muhammad Asif Ali, Min Xu, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Jolanda M A Boer, Peng Chen, Makoto Daimon, Johan Eriksson, Markus Perola, Yechiel Friedlander, Yu-Tang Gao, Denise H M Heppe, John W Holloway, Denise K Houston, Stavroula Kanoni, Yu-Mi Kim, Maarit A Laaksonen, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Nanette R Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Wei Lu, Robert N Luben, Ani Manichaikul, Satu Mannisto, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Keri L Monda, Julius S Ngwa, Louis Pérusse, Frank J A van Rooij, Yong-Bing Xiang, Wanqing Wen, Mary K Wojczynski, Jingwen Zhu, Ingrid B Borecki, Claude Bouchard, Qiuyin Cai, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Luigi Ferrucci, Nita G Forouhi, Torben Hansen, Lene Christiansen, Albert Hofman, Ingegerd Johansson, Torben Jørgensen, Shigeru Karasawa, Kay-Tee Khaw, Mi-Kyung Kim, Kati Kristiansson, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin, Yongmei Liu, Kurt K Lohman, Jirong Long, Vera Mikkilä, Dariush Mozaffarian, Kari North, Oluf Pedersen, Olli Raitakari, Harri Rissanen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yvonne T van der Schouw, André G Uitterlinden, M Carola Zillikens, Oscar H Franco, E Shyong Tai, Xiao Ou Shu, David S Siscovick, Ulla Toft, W M Monique Verschuren, Peter Vollenweider, Nicholas J Wareham, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Wei Zheng, Paul M Ridker, Jae H Kang, Liming Liang, Majken K Jensen, Gary C Curhan, Louis R Pasquale, David J Hunter, Karen L Mohlke, Matti Uusitupa, L Adrienne Cupples, Tuomo Rankinen, Marju Orho-Melander, Tao Wang, Daniel I Chasman, Paul W Franks, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Frank B Hu, Ruth J F Loos, Jennifer A Nettleton, Lu Qi.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177 330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity.
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Overexpression of GOLPH3 is associated with poor prognosis and clinical progression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) has been identified as an oncoprotein in various human cancers; however, its role in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unknown. We examined GOLPH3 expression levels and relationship with survival in patients with PDAC to establish the significance of GOLPH3 in the development and progression of PDAC.
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A cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) gene encoding a NAC transcription factor is involved in negative regulation of plant xylem development.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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NAC proteins that compose of one large family of plant specific transcription factors (TF) play the important roles in many biological processes (such as morphogenesis, development, senescence and stress signal transduction). In this study, a gene (designated as GhXND1) encoding a NAC transcription factor was identified in cotton. Sequence analysis indicated that GhXND1 gene contains two introns inserted in its open reading frame (ORF). GhXND1 protein is localized in the cell nucleus, and displays the transactivation activity. GhXND1 transcripts were mainly detected in cotyledons, petals, roots, hypocotyls and stems, but little or no signals of GhXND1 expression were found in the other tissues. Ectopic expression of GhXND1 in Arabidopsis resulted in a reduction in number of xylem vessel cells and cell wall thickness of interfascicular fibers in the transgenic plants, compared with those of wild type. And expression of some cell wall biosynthesis-related genes was down-regulated in the GhXND1 transgenic plants. Collectively, the data presented in this study suggested that GhXND1 may be involved in regulation of plant xylem development.
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Field-dependent magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy applied to the magnetic component diagnosis of a rubrene/Ni system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) spectroscopy in the energy range from 1.75 eV to 5 eV at different magnetic field strength was applied to study Ni nanostructures formed on rubrene nanoislands. The magnetic hysteresis curves measured by MOKE change the shape depending on the photon energy and therefore deviate from those measured by superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry. Similar optical effects were previously observed in inorganic heterostructures. Our observations show that it correlates to the change in lineshape of the MOKE rotation and ellipticity spectra as a function of magnetic field strength. We show that this spectral dependence on magnetic field can be exploited to separate the contributions of two magnetic components to the magneto-optical spectra and hysteresis. The proposed model does not require the a priori knowledge of the (magneto-)optical constants of the heterostructure and its components.
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Effects of food and gender on the pharmacokinetics of ginkgolides A, B, C and bilobalide in rats after oral dosing with ginkgo terpene lactones extract.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The ginkgo terpene lactones (GTL), mainly including bilobalide (BB), ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB) and ginkgolide C (GC) possess different biological activities such as peripheral vasoregulation, platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonism, neuroprotective properties and prevention of membrane damage caused by free radicals. To investigate the effects of food and gender on the bioavailability of BB, GA, GB and GC after oral administration of GTL extract, a rapid UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated. A reversed phase C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, i.d., 1.7?m) and a mobile phase consisted of methanol and 1mM ammonium acetate (70/30, v/v) were employed. Compared with the fasted group, the t1/2 values for BB, GA, GB and GC in fed were all increased (p<0.05), AUC0-t and AUC0-? values of BB, GA, GB and GC were all significantly increased (p<0.05), but the Cmax values of BB, GA, GB and GC were significantly decreased (p<0.05). In comparison with the male group, all of the t1/2 values and AUC0-t values for BB, GA, GB and GC in female were higher (p<0.05), but no statistical difference in Tmax values for BB, GA, GB and GC between these two groups. Food and gender factor showed significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of BB, GA, GB, and GC. The results suggested that oral doses of GTL should be lowered for fasted and female subjects, compared with the fed and male subjects, respectively.
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Early pressure dressing for the prevention of subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This study was performed to investigate the effect of early pressure dressing on the prevention of postoperative subdural effusion secondary to decompressive craniectomy (DC) in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (STBI). Patients with STBI who had undergone DC for refractory increased intracranial pressure between January 2008 and December 2011 (n = 169) were randomly divided into early pressure dressing (n = 82) and control (n = 87) groups. Early pressure dressing with an elastic bandage or general wrapping (control treatment) was applied 7 to 10 days after DC. Patients' age, sex, preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score, incidence rate of subdural effusion, hospitalization time, and postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score were compared between groups. Intracranial pressure was measured immediately before and on the day after pressure dressing. No significant difference in age, sex, preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score, or postoperative Glasgow Outcome Scale score was observed between groups (P > 0.05). Subdural effusion incidence rates were significantly lower in the early pressure dressing group than those in the control group (?² = 5.449, P = 0.021), and a larger proportion of patients in the early pressure dressing group was hospitalized for 30 days or less (?² = 5.245, P = 0.027). Early pressure dressing 7 to 10 days after DC, which is a noninvasive, simple procedure, reduced the incidence rate of subdural effusion and shortened hospitalization time after DC for STBI.
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Optimal design of superhydrophobic surfaces using a paraboloid microtexture.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Due to the crucial role of surface roughness, it has been recently proposed to design optimal and extract geometrical microstructures for practical fabrications of superhydrophobic surfaces. In this work, a paraboloid microtexture is employed as a typical example to theoretically establish a relationship between surface geometry and superhydrophobic behavior for a final optimal design. In particular, based on a thermodynamic approach, the effects of all the geometrical parameters for such a paraboloid microtexture on free energy (FE) and free energy barrier (FEB) as well as equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of a superhydrophobic surface have been systematically investigated in detail. It is interestingly noted that the droplet position for metastable state is closely related to the intrinsic CA of the surface. Furthermore, the paraboloid base steepness plays a significant important role in ECA and CAH, and a critical steepness is necessary for the transition from noncomposite to composite states, which can be judged using a proposed criterion. Moreover, the superhydrophobicity depends strongly the surface geometrical dimension for noncomposite state, while it is not sensitive for composite state. Additionally, both vibrational energy and geometrical dimension affect the transition from noncomposite to composite wetting states, and a comprehensive criterion for such transition can be obtained. Finally, using such criterion, it is revealed that the paraboloidal protrusion is the most optimal geometry among the three typical microtextures for ideal superhydrophobicity.
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Combined effects methylation of FHIT, RASSF1A and RAR? genes on non-small cell lung cancer in the Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Epigenetic modifications of tumour suppressor genes are involved in all kinds of human cancer. Aberrant promoter methylation is also considered to play an essential role in development of lung cancer, but the pathogenesis remains unclear.We collected the data of 112 subjects, including 56 diagnosed patients with lung cancer and 56 controls without cancer. Methylation of the FHIT, RASSF1A and RAR-? genes in DNA from all samples and the corresponding gene methylation status were assessed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR, MSP). The results showed that the total frequency of separate gene methylation was significantly higher in lung cancer compared with controls (33.9-85.7 vs 0 %) (p<0.01).Similar outcomes were obtained from the aberrant methylation of combinations of any two or three genes (p<0.01). There was a tendency that the frequency of combinations of any two or three genes was higher in stage I+II than that in stage III+IV with lung cancer. However, no significant difference was found across various clinical stages and clinic pathological gradings of lung cancer (p>0.05).These observations suggest that there is a significant association of promoter methylation of individual genes with lung cancer risk, and that aberrant methylation of combination of any two or three genes may be associated with clinical stage in lung cancer patients and involved in the initiation of lung cancer tumorigenesis. Methylation of FHIT, RASSF1A and RAR? genes may be related to progression of lung oncogenesis.
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Dendronized supramolecular polymers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Supramolecular polymers formed from topological building blocks pave a new avenue for creating novel supramolecular structures and functional materials. Dendronized supramolecular polymers (DSPs) combine the topological characteristics of dendronized polymers and a dynamic nature from supramolecular chemistry, and are promising for the formation of supramolecular structures and functional assemblies. These topological supramolecular polymers have a characteristic cylindrical shape, high rigidity, multivalency, as well as inherent thickness. These structural characteristics make them ideal candidates for supramolecular assembly. DSPs can be formed through non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, ?-? stacking, and metal coordination, and classified into main-chain, side-chain and block types. This feature article will summarize methodologies for the preparation of homo- and block DSPs with a focus on their supramolecular structure formation. Particular attention is put on the structural effects of DSPs on their supramolecular assembly.
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Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) suppressed cyclin D1 expression and hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory and immunoregulatory chemokine, plays important roles in cancer-related biological processes. However, few studies have focused on the clinical relevance of MIF and cyclin D1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCCs). In this study, MIF and cyclin D1 expression levels in HCC tissues and cell lines were significantly upregulated compared with adjacent normal tissues or a normal liver cell line. In HCC specimens, MIF expression positively correlated with cyclin D1 expression. Additionally, MIF and cyclin D1 expression positively correlated with tumor size. MIF knockdown inhibited the proliferation of PLC and HepG2 cells and promoted apoptosis. However, small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MIF did not influence the cell cycle in these cells. In an in vivo xenograft model, MIF knockdown reduced the tumor growth rate. The expression levels of Bcl-2, p-caspase-3, BIM and Bax were upregulated, while the expression levels of cyclin D1, p-Akt and p-ERK were downregulated in MIF-knockdown cells. These findings indicate that MIF siRNA reduces proliferation and increases apoptosis in HCC cells. MIF knockdown inhibits the expression of growth-related proteins and induces the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, supporting a role for MIF as a novel therapeutic target for HCC.
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HPV seropositivity joints with susceptibility loci identified in GWASs at apoptosis associated genes to increase the risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC).
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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We previously showed that human papillomavirus (HPV) serostatus was not an independent risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC) in nonsmokers and nondrinkers; however, HPV increased the risk in smokers.
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Genome-wide association analysis in East Asians identifies breast cancer susceptibility loci at 1q32.1, 5q14.3 and 15q26.1.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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In a three-stage genome-wide association study among East Asian women including 22,780 cases and 24,181 controls, we identified 3 genetic loci newly associated with breast cancer risk, including rs4951011 at 1q32.1 (in intron 2 of the ZC3H11A gene; P=8.82×10(-9)), rs10474352 at 5q14.3 (near the ARRDC3 gene; P=1.67×10(-9)) and rs2290203 at 15q26.1 (in intron 14 of the PRC1 gene; P=4.25×10(-8)). We replicated these associations in 16,003 cases and 41,335 controls of European ancestry (P=0.030, 0.004 and 0.010, respectively). Data from the ENCODE Project suggest that variants rs4951011 and rs10474352 might be located in an enhancer region and transcription factor binding sites, respectively. This study provides additional insights into the genetics and biology of breast cancer.
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Residential preferences for river network improvement: an exploration of choice experiments in Zhujiajiao, Shanghai, China.
Environ Manage
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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River networks have both ecological and social benefits for urban development. However, river networks have suffered extensive destruction as a result of urbanization and industrialization, especially in China. River restoration is a growth business but suffers poor efficiency due to a lack of social understanding. Assessing the benefits of river system restoration and recognizing public preferences are critical for effective river ecosystem restoration and sustainable river management. This study used a choice experiment with a multinomial logit model and a random parameter logit model to assess respondents' cognitive preferences regarding attributes of river networks, and their possible sources of heterogeneity. Results showed that riverfront condition was the attribute most preferred by respondents, while stream morphology was the least preferred. Results also illustrated that the current status of each of three river network attributes was not desirable, and respondents would prefer a river network with a "branch pattern," that is "limpid with no odor," and "accessible with vegetation." Estimated willingness to pay was mainly affected by household monthly income, residential location, and whether respondents had household members engaged in a water protection career. The assessment results can provide guidance and a reference for managers, sponsors, and researchers.
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Two-way regulation between cells and aligned collagen fibrils: local 3D matrix formation and accelerated neural differentiation of human decidua parietalis placental stem cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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It has been well established that an aligned matrix provides structural and signaling cues to guide cell polarization and cell fate decision. However, the modulation role of cells in matrix remodeling and the feedforward effect on stem cell differentiation have not been studied extensively. In this study, we report on the concerted changes of human decidua parietalis placental stem cells (hdpPSCs) and the highly ordered collagen fibril matrix in response to cell-matrix interaction. With high-resolution imaging, we found the hdpPSCs interacted with the matrix by deforming the cell shape, harvesting the nearby collagen fibrils, and reorganizing the fibrils around the cell body to transform a 2D matrix to a localized 3D matrix. Such a unique 3D matrix prompted high expression of ?-1 integrin around the cell body that mediates and facilitates the stem cell differentiation toward neural cells. The study offers insights into the coordinated, dynamic changes at the cell-matrix interface and elucidates cell modulation of its matrix to establish structural and biochemical cues for effective cell growth and differentiation.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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Rapid multislice T1 mapping of mouse myocardium: Application to quantification of manganese uptake in ?-Dystrobrevin knockout mice.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, multislice cardiac T1 mapping method in mice and to apply the method to quantify manganese (Mn(2+) ) uptake in a mouse model with altered Ca(2+) channel activity.
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MCP-1 stimulates MMP-9 expression via ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways in human aortic smooth muscle cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the formation and development of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).
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Direct evidence of Parkinson pathology spread from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain in rats.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The cellular hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the formation of ?-synuclein-enriched Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the remaining neurons. Based on the topographic distribution of Lewy bodies established after autopsy of brains from PD patients, Braak and coworkers hypothesized that Lewy pathology primes in the enteric nervous system and spreads to the brain, suggesting an active retrograde transport of ?-synuclein (the key protein component in Lewy bodies), via the vagal nerve. This hypothesis, however, has not been tested experimentally thus far. Here, we use a human PD brain lysate containing different forms of ?-synuclein (monomeric, oligomeric and fibrillar), and recombinant ?-synuclein in an in vivo animal model to test this hypothesis. We demonstrate that ?-synuclein present in the human PD brain lysate and distinct recombinant ?-synuclein forms are transported via the vagal nerve and reach the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in the brainstem in a time-dependent manner after injection into the intestinal wall. Using live cell imaging in a differentiated neuroblastoma cell line, we determine that both slow and fast components of axonal transport are involved in the transport of aggregated ?-synuclein. In conclusion, we here provide the first experimental evidence that different ?-synuclein forms can propagate from the gut to the brain, and that microtubule-associated transport is involved in the translocation of aggregated ?-synuclein in neurons.
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Large-scale genetic study in East Asians identifies six new loci associated with colorectal cancer risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study of CRC in East Asians with 14,963 cases and 31,945 controls and identified 6 new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 × 10(-8) to 9.22 × 10(-21)) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and 19q13.2. Two of these loci map to genes (TCF7L2 and TGFB1) with established roles in colorectal tumorigenesis. Four other loci are located in or near genes involved in transcriptional regulation (ZMIZ1), genome maintenance (FEN1), fatty acid metabolism (FADS1 and FADS2), cancer cell motility and metastasis (CD9), and cell growth and differentiation (NXN). We also found suggestive evidence for three additional loci associated with CRC risk near genome-wide significance at 8q24.11, 10q21.1 and 10q24.2. Furthermore, we replicated 22 previously reported CRC-associated loci. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CRC and suggests the involvement of new biological pathways.
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Nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 Nrf2 ameliorates cigarette smoking-induced mucus overproduction in airway epithelium and mouse lungs.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is known to play important roles in airway disorders, whereas little has been investigated about its direct role in airway mucus hypersecretion. The aim of this study is to determine whether this factor could protect pulmonary epithelium and mouse airway from cigarette-induced mucus overproduction.
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Beta-blockers increase the risk of being born small for gestational age or of being institutionalised during infancy.
BJOG
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To compare infant outcomes between mothers with hypertension treated by beta-blockers alone and by methyldopa alone during pregnancy.
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Oncofetal long noncoding RNA PVT1 promotes proliferation and stem cell-like property of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by stabilizing NOP2.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Many protein-coding oncofetal genes are highly expressed in murine and human fetal liver and silenced in adult liver. The protein products of these hepatic oncofetal genes have been used as clinical markers for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and as therapeutic targets for HCC. Herein we examined the expression profiles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) found in fetal and adult liver in mice. Many fetal hepatic lncRNAs were identified; one of these, lncRNA-mPvt1, is an oncofetal RNA that was found to promote cell proliferation, cell cycling, and the expression of stem cell-like properties of murine cells. Interestingly, we found that human lncRNA-hPVT1 was up-regulated in HCC tissues and that patients with higher lncRNA-hPVT1 expression had a poor clinical prognosis. The protumorigenic effects of lncRNA-hPVT1 on cell proliferation, cell cycling, and stem cell-like properties of HCC cells were confirmed both in vitro and in vivo by gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments. Moreover, mRNA expression profile data showed that lncRNA-hPVT1 up-regulated a series of cell cycle genes in SMMC-7721 cells. By RNA pulldown and mass spectrum experiments, we identified NOP2 as an RNA-binding protein that binds to lncRNA-hPVT1. We confirmed that lncRNA-hPVT1 up-regulated NOP2 by enhancing the stability of NOP2 proteins and that lncRNA-hPVT1 function depends on the presence of NOP2.
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Effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The aim of this research was to study effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii, a common commercial edible fungus. In order to maximally maintain the taste of P. eryngii, several different drying methods, including hot air, vacuum, microwave, freeze drying and naturally air-drying, were compared. Results showed that freeze drying and hot air were capable of the conservation of the taste compounds maximally in P. eryngii, followed by natural air drying and vacuum, while microwave drying was not suitable for P. eryngii due to the loss of taste compounds. Moreover, concentrations of free amino acids in freeze drying were significantly reduced, so as to 5'-nucleotides in hot air drying. In addition, the umami concentration of the sample using hot air dry was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that using microwave.
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Genome-wide association study identifies a new SMAD7 risk variant associated with colorectal cancer risk in East Asians.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been conducted primarily in European descendants. In a GWAS conducted in East Asians, we first analyzed approximately 1.7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four studies with 1,773 CRC cases and 2,642 controls. We then selected 66 promising SNPs for replication and genotyped them in three independent studies with 3,612 cases and 3,523 controls. Five SNPs were further evaluated using data from four additional studies including up to 3,290 cases and 4,339 controls. SNP rs7229639 in the SMAD7 gene was found to be associated with CRC risk with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) associated with the minor allele (A) of 1.22 (1.15-1.29) in the combined analysis of all 11 studies (p = 2.93 × 10(-11) ). SNP rs7229639 is 2,487 bp upstream from rs4939827, a risk variant identified previously in a European-ancestry GWAS in relation to CRC risk. However, these two SNPs are not correlated in East Asians (r(2) ?= 0.008) nor in Europeans (r(2) ?= 0.146). The CRC association with rs7229639 remained statistically significant after adjusting for rs4939827 as well as three additional CRC risk variants (rs58920878, rs12953717 and rs4464148) reported previously in this region. SNPs rs7229639 and rs4939827 explained approximately 1% of the familial relative risk of CRC in East Asians. This study identifies a new CRC risk variant in the SMAD7 gene, further highlighting the significant role of this gene in the etiology of CRC.
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Evaluating 17 breast cancer susceptibility loci in the Nashville breast health study.
Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Genome-wide association studies have discovered multiple genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Investigating these loci would be helpful to evaluate previous findings and identify causal variants for breast cancer. We evaluated index SNPs in 17 of these loci in a study of 1,511 cases and 1,454 controls of European descent.
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Mitochondrial alterations during Al-induced PCD in peanut root tips.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Previous study found there was a negative relationship between Al-induced PCD and Al-resistance in peanut. The present research was undertaken to verify whether mitochondria play a significant role in PCD induced by Al in peanut. The roots of Al-tolerant plants were found to exhibit more intensive root growth, while accumulating less Al³? than Al-sensitive plants under Al treatment. The different enhancement of ROS production was observed in the mitochondria isolated from two peanut cultivars. The concentration of mitochondrial MDA in root tips increased after Al treatment, which was higher in Zhonghua 2 than in 99-1507. With the increase of Al concentration, mitochondrial Ca²? concentration decreased, and Ca²? concentration of Zhonghua 2 decreased faster than that of 99-1507. The opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore was more extensively in mitochondria isolated from Zhonghua 2 than from 99-1507. The collapse of inner mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) was also observed with a release of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) from mitochondria, it was more obvious in Zhonghua 2 than in 99-1507 with Al concentration increasing. The results showed that mitochondrial membrane structure and function were damaged seriously in Al-induced PCD, the increase of mitochondrial antioxidant system activity decreased cellular damages under Al stress. To sum up, compared with Al-sensitive peanut cultivar, Al-tolerant peanut cultivar has less Al³? absorption, mitochondrial ROS and membrane lipid peroxidation level, higher control of MPT opening, ??m maintaining, Cty c release from mitochondria and mitochondrial respiratory functions so that it is not easy to produce PCD under Al stress.
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Is thrombophilia associated with placenta-mediated pregnancy complications? A prospective cohort study.
J. Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Case control studies suggest that genetic thrombophilias increase the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (pregnancy loss, small for gestational age (SGA), preeclampsia and/or placental abruption). Cohort studies have not supported this association but were underpowered to detect small effects.
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Symmetrical acrokeratoderma: A peculiar entity in China? Clinicopathologic and immunopathologic study of 34 new cases.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Symmetrical acrokeratoderma seems to be a new disorder in China, and 138 cases have been reported in the Chinese literature.
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Ursolic Acid Increases Glucose Uptake through the PI3K Signaling Pathway in Adipocytes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ursolic acid (UA), a triterpenoid compound, is reported to have a glucose-lowering effect. However, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is one of peripheral tissues that collectively control the circulating glucose levels.
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Long noncoding RNA-EBIC promotes tumor cell invasion by binding to EZH2 and repressing E-cadherin in cervical cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In recent years, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in tumorgenesis. However, the contributions of lncRNAs to cervical cancer (CC) remain largely unknown. In this study, differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs in cervical cancer and paired peritumoral tissues were detected by transcriptome microarray analysis. We found 708 probe sets of lncRNAs increased and 836 probe sets decreased in CC tissues, while 1288 mRNA differential probe sets increased and 901 mRNA probe sets decreased. The results were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Then, we found a specific differentially expressed lncRNA can physically bind to enhancer of zeste homolog2 (EZH2) by using RNA immunoprecipitation. We termed it as EZH2-binding lncRNA in cervical cancer [lncRNA-EBIC]. Wound healing assays and Matrigel invasion assays were used to determine the function of this lncRNA by silencing it. We observed that the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells in vitro were inhibited upon suppression of lncRNA-EBIC by siRNA. We also found that the association between lncRNA-EBIC and EZH2 was required for the repression of E-cadherin, which was a key molecular in the metastasis of cervical cancer. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that lncRNA-EBIC was an oncogenic lncRNA, which could promote tumor cell invasion in CC by binding to EZH2 and inhibiting E-cadherin expression.
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Systematic fine-mapping of association with BMI and type 2 diabetes at the FTO locus by integrating results from multiple ethnic groups.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The 16q12.2 locus in the first intron of FTO has been robustly associated with body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To improve the resolution of fine-scale mapping at FTO, we performed a systematic approach consisting of two parts.
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Daily dose monitoring with atlas-based auto-segmentation on diagnostic quality CT for prostate cancer.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of daily dose monitoring using a patient specific atlas-based autosegmentation method on diagnostic quality verification images.Methods: Seven patients, who were treated for prostate cancer with intensity modulated radiotherapy under daily imaging guidance of a CT-on-rails system, were selected for this study. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on the first six and last seven sets of daily verification images. For each patient, three patient specific atlases were constructed using manual contours from planning CT alone (1-image atlas), planning CT plus first three verification CTs (4-image atlas), and planning CT plus first six verification CTs (7-image atlas). These atlases were subsequently applied to the last seven verification image sets of the same patient to generate the auto-contours. Daily dose was calculated by applying the original treatment plans to the daily beam isocenters. The autocontours and manual contours were compared geometrically using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and dosimetrically using the dose to 99% of the prostate CTV (D99) and the D5 of rectum and bladder.Results: The DSC of the autocontours obtained with the 4-image atlases were 87.0% ± 3.3%, 84.7% ± 8.6%, and 93.6% ± 4.3% for the prostate, rectum, and bladder, respectively. These indices were higher than those from the 1-image atlases (p < 0.01) and comparable to those from the 7-image atlases (p > 0.05). Daily prostate D99 of the autocontours was comparable to those of the manual contours (p = 0.55). For the bladder and rectum, the daily D5 were 95.5% ± 5.9% and 99.1% ± 2.6% of the planned D5 for the autocontours compared to 95.3% ± 6.7% (p = 0.58) and 99.8% ± 2.3% (p < 0.01) for the manual contours.Conclusions: With patient specific 4-image atlases, atlas-based autosegmentation can adequately facilitate daily dose monitoring for prostate cancer.
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Significance of the vascular endothelial growth factor and the macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in HCC progression and their correlation with clinicopathological factors as well as the relationship between their expression levels. The expression of serum VEGF and MIF was evaluated in 150 patients with HCC and in 30 normal volunteers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). VEGF and MIF expression levels were evaluated by immunohisto-chemistry on tissue microarrays containing 150 HCCs with paired adjacent non-cancer liver tissues. VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were determined by quantitative PCR in another 48 HCCs. The correlation of VEGF and MIF with clinicopathological factors was analyzed in HCC. Serum VEGF and MIF concentrations were higher in HCC patients than the levels in the controls. The expression levels of VEGF and MIF in the HCC tissues were both higher than those in the adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. Overexpression of VEGF and MIF was significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.027 and 0.022, respectively), intrahepatic metastasis (P=0.032 and 0.027, respectively), vascular invasion (P=0.044 and 0.039, respectively) and TNM stage (P=0.028 and 0.013, respectively). Furthermore, VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were higher in HCC compared to levels in the paired non-cancer liver tissues. VEGF and MIF mRNA levels were correlated with tumor stage and metastasis. The expression of VEGF was positively related with MIF expression in HCC. The expression of MIF and VEGF in HCC was markedly positively correlated, which suggests that MIF and VEGF play an important role in the progression of HCC. Both factors may concomitantly accelerate the progression of HCC.
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Five natural carbohydrates from the leaves of Sauropus rostratus.
Carbohydr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Three new hexose derivatives (1-3), together with two known ones (4,5), were isolated from the leaves of Sauropus rostratus. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of the spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC and NOESY) and HR-MS analyses. The absolute configurations of three new compounds were established by the modified Moshers method.
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Aberrant DNA methylation in human cancers.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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DNA methylation, one of the best-characterized epigenetic modifications, plays essential roles in diseases, including human cancers. In recent years, our understanding on DNA methylation with human cancers has made significant progress, which was facilitated by stunning development in the analysis of the human methylome of multiple cancer types. In this review, recent developments in the characterization of aberrant DNA methylation involved in human cancers development were discussed with special emphasis on the mechanisms of aberrant DNA methylation in human cancers. We also summarize the recent treatment strategy for human cancers with de-methylation drugs.
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Cloning and analysis of bile salt hydrolase genes from Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC No. 8198.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Genes coding for bile salt hydrolase of Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 8198, a novel probiotic strain isolated from silage, were identified, analyzed and cloned. L. plantarum strongly resisted the inhibitory effects of bile salts and also decreased serum cholesterol levels by 20 % in mice with hypercholesterolemia. Using RT-PCR analysis, bsh2, bsh3 and bsh4 were upregulated by bile salts in a dose-dependent manner. All three bsh genes had high similarity with those of other Lactobacillus strains. All three recombinant BSHs had high activities for the hydrolysis of glycodeoxycholic acids and taurodeoxycholic acids.
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Treatment outcomes of injection laryngoplasty using cross-linked porcine collagen and hyaluronic Acid.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Objective To investigate the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of injection laryngoplasty (IL) using cross-linked porcine collagen (PC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting A tertiary teaching hospital. Subjects and Methods This study reviewed 60 consecutive patients with UVFP who underwent IL with PC (n = 33) or HA (n = 27). Objective evaluations included maximal phonation time (MPT) and 10-item voice handicap index (VHI-10). Kaplan-Meier method was applied to evaluate the subjective treatment outcomes according to the patients self-assessment of symptom recurrence via chart review for the follow-up period of 15 months. Log-rank tests were applied to evaluate the association between clinical factors and subjective treatment outcomes. Results Objective outcome measurements revealed significantly improved MPT and VHI-10 at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment, with nonsignificant differences between the PC and HA groups. Subjective treatment outcomes also revealed a nonsignificant difference between the 2 groups. The median symptom-free durations were 10.9 and 14.4 months for the PC and HA groups, respectively. Subsequent analyses failed to identify prognostic significance of sex, time to treatment, etiology, side, injection approaches, and the presence of aspiration. No significant adverse effects occurred during the follow-up period. Conclusion This study demonstrated comparable subjective and objective improvements following IL using PC or HA in patients with UVFP. No significant prognostic factor of IL was discovered in the present research. Porcine collagen and HA as medium duration materials might play a role in the future of IL.
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A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for adiponectin levels in East Asians identifies a novel locus near WDR11-FGFR2.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Blood levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein correlated with metabolic and cardiovascular risks, are highly heritable. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies for adiponectin levels have identified 14 loci harboring variants associated with blood levels of adiponectin. To identify novel adiponectin-associated loci, particularly those of importance in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of GWA studies for adiponectin in 7827 individuals, followed by two stages of replications in 4298 and 5954 additional individuals. We identified a novel adiponectin-associated locus on chromosome 10 near WDR11-FGFR2 (P = 3.0 × 10(-14)) and provided suggestive evidence for a locus on chromosome 12 near OR8S1-LALBA (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)). Of the adiponectin-associated loci previously described, we confirmed the association at CDH13 (P = 6.8 × 10(-165)), ADIPOQ (P = 1.8 × 10(-22)), PEPD (P = 3.6 × 10(-12)), CMIP (P = 2.1 × 10(-10)), ZNF664 (P = 2.3 × 10(-7)) and GPR109A (P = 7.4 × 10(-6)). Conditional analysis at ADIPOQ revealed a second signal with suggestive evidence of association only after conditioning on the lead SNP (Pinitial = 0.020; Pconditional = 7.0 × 10(-7)). We further confirmed the independence of two pairs of closely located loci (<2 Mb) on chromosome 16 at CMIP and CDH13, and on chromosome 12 at GPR109A and ZNF664. In addition, the newly identified signal near WDR11-FGFR2 exhibited evidence of association with triglycerides (P = 3.3 × 10(-4)), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, P = 4.9 × 10(-4)) and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip ratio (P = 9.8 × 10(-3)). These findings improve our knowledge of the genetic basis of adiponectin variation, demonstrate the shared allelic architecture for adiponectin with lipids and central obesity and motivate further studies of underlying mechanisms.
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Risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients receiving levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or moxifloxacin in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational studies and fatal case reports raise concern about the safety of severe dysglycemia associated with fluoroquinolone use. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients who received different fluoroquinolones.
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Hybrid BiOBr-TiO2 nanocomposites with high visible light photocatalytic activity for water treatment.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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Novel highly active visible light photocatalysts BiOBr-TiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a facile one-pot solvothermal approach. Series of characterizations verified that the BiOBr nanoscale crystals are highly dispersed in amorphous TiO2 to form the hybrid mesoporous structure. The material shows excellent photocatalytic performance towards photodegradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The content ratio between TiO2 and BiOBr plays a key role in the microstructure of the nanocomposites, so as to result in distinguished photocatalytic activity. The sample with a molar ratio of 10 between TiO2 and BiOBr shows the optimum performance. The high photocatalytic activity of BiOBr-TiO2 nanocomposites under visible light could be ascribed to the large surface area, opened mesoporous structure, appropriate band-gap, as well as synergistic effect between TiO2 and BiOBr. Besides, the BiOBr-TiO2 composites render a facile separation due to the three-dimensional superstructure. The BiOBr-TiO2 photocatalyst is very promising for water purification as well as other environmental applications.
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Identification of three new Alu Yb subfamilies by source tracking of recently integrated Alu Yb elements.
Mob DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements in the human genome, with over 1 million copies and constituting more than 10% of the genome. The majority of these Alu elements were inserted into the primate genome 35 to 60 million years ago, but certain subfamilies of Alu elements are relatively very new and suspected to be still evolving. We attempted to trace the source/master copies of all human-specific members of the Alu Yb lineage using a computational approach by clustering similar Yb elements and constructing an evolutionary relation among the members of a cluster.
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Embelin Suppresses Dendritic Cell Functions and Limits Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through the TGF-?/?-catenin and STAT3 Signaling Pathways.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Embelin (2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-benzoquinone, EB) has been shown to inhibit the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and various inflammatory pathways. Although different molecular mechanisms have been described for the potent antitumor activities of EB, its potential effect on inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that EB suppressed human CD14(+) monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) differentiation, maturation, and endocytosis and further inhibited the stimulatory function of mature DCs on allogeneic T cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, EB blocked the DC-derived expression of the Th1 cell-polarizing cytokines interferon-? and interleukin (IL)-12 and the Th17 cell-polarizing cytokines IL-6 and IL-23. In vivo administration of EB led to a reduction in the EAE clinical score, in central nervous system inflammation, and in demyelination. Furthermore, EB also suppressed inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells in EAE, at least partially, through the promotion of transforming growth factor-beta and ?-catenin expression and inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathways in DCs. These data suggest that EB has potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and is a potential therapeutic drug for MS and other autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
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Applying chemical bile duct embolization to achieve chemical hepatectomy in hepatolithiasis: a further experimental study.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Hepatolithiasis is the presence of calculi within the bile ducts of the liver. It represents a significant problem for hepatobiliary surgery because of its high recurrence rate and the associated risk for partial hepatectomy. This study was designed to explore the long-term efficacy of chemical biliary duct embolization (CBDE) to treat recurrent hepatolithiasis.
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No association between genetic variants in angiogenesis and inflammation pathway genes and breast cancer survival among Chinese women.
Cancer Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Angiogenesis and inflammation are implicated in breast cancer prognosis; however, the role of individual germline variation in related genes is unknown.
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Prevention of allergic airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling in mice by Astragaliradix Antiasthmatic decoction.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Astragali radix Antiasthmatic Decoction (AAD), a traditional Chinese medication, is found effective in treating allergic diseases and chronic cough. The purpose of this study is to determine whether this medication could suppress allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and remodeling in mice, and its possible mechanisms.
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Evaluation and development of a real-time predictive model for ultrasound investigation of malignant thyroid nodules.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Ultrasound investigations and correct identification of malignant thyroid nodules depend on the experience and qualifications of the investigators; thus, a model that provides better evaluation before needle aspiration is desired. Data from 687 patients with 726 thyroid nodules comprising 65 malignant nodules (61 papillary and 4 follicular carcinoma) and 661 benign nodules were used to construct a predictive model. Presence of micro-calcification, taller-than-wide shape, predominant solid echostructure, and irregular margins were shown to be good independent predictive parameters. A thyroid nodule was predicted as malignant with a score ?3.3. Internal validation of this predictive tool by the bootstrapping method showed excellent overall model performance.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.