A denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organism (DPAO) was isolated and identified, and the denitrifying functional genes were investigated. The strain ZQN2 was isolated using denitrifying medium. It was distinguished as DPAO by tests of aerobic phosphorus uptake, nitrate reduction, metachromatic granules and PHB (poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate) granules dyeing. Test of anaerobic phosphorus release/anoxic phosphorus uptake showed that strain ZQN2 released phosphorus and synthesized PHB at the anaerobic phase and used NO3- as acceptor to oxidize PHB during the anoxic phase with luxury phosphorus uptake, performing the function of simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus removal. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain ZQN2 was used for homology analysis and construction of phylogenetic trees. The results suggested that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of ZQN2 had up to 99% homology with those of many strains of Bacillus cereus strains in GenBank database. With physiological and biochemical reactions, the strain ZQN2 was identified as Bacillus cereus. The result of denitrifying functional gene study suggested that strain ZQN2 was the type of nirS+ and nirK-, which confirmed its denitrifying function from molecular biology point of view. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis of nirS gene of ZQN2 showed that it was closely related to many strains of Pseadomonas aeruginosa, which was different from the analysis results of the 16S rRNA.
To investigate the changes of serum levels of chitinase-3-like-1 protein (YKL-40) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), to explore its correlation with its severity, and to observe the effects of Guizhi Fuling Decoction (GFD) on levels of blood lipids, YKL-40, and hs-CRP.
Seedlings of Citrus sinensis were fertilized with boron (B)-deficient (0?M H3BO3) or -sufficient (10?M H3BO3) nutrient solution for 15weeks. Thereafter, iTRAQ analysis was employed to compare the abundances of proteins from B-deficient and -sufficient roots. In B-deficient roots, 164 up-regulated and 225 down-regulated proteins were identified. These proteins were grouped into the following functional categories: protein metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, cell transport, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, biological regulation and signal transduction, and lipid metabolism. The adaptive responses of roots to B-deficiency might include following several aspects: (a) decreasing root respiration; (b) improving the total ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (c) enhancing cell transport. The differentially expressed proteins identified by iTRAQ are much larger than those detected using 2D gel electrophoresis, and many novel B-deficiency-responsive proteins involved in cell transport, biological regulation and signal transduction, stress responses and other metabolic processes were identified in this work. Our results indicate remarkable metabolic flexibility of citrus roots, which may contribute to the survival of B-deficient plants. This represents the most comprehensive analysis of protein profiles in response to B-deficiency.
Sunlight is an important environmental factor that affects all living organisms on Earth. Ultraviolet A (UV-A) is one of the many frequency bands found in sunlight. Many animals use UV-A to attain visual cues, for example, in foraging and mate selection. However, UV-A can also induce damage, such as oxidative stress, DNA lesions and apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of UV-A on the survival, fecundity and expression profiles of several stress-responsive genes belonging to the heat shock protein (Hsp) and the cytochrome CYP6BQ families from the adult red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). The results showed that short-term UV-A exposure (365 nm, <4h) did not influence the survival or fecundity of the beetles; however, Hsp27, Hsp68, Hsp83, CYP6BQ4 and CYP6BQ8 mRNA levels significantly increased during the first 2h of UV-A exposure. Among them, Hsp68 was the most highly up-regulated, increasing by 8.9-fold. These results indicate that these genes may participate in the defense against harmful UV-A radiation. In addition, we investigated the potential transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) in the promoter sequences of genes induced in similar pattern from the Hsp and P450 gene families; the results indicated that, these motifs are highly homologous to environmental stress transcription factor binding sites in mammals. Our experiments revealed that UV-A irradiation could influence the expression profile of stress-responsive genes, such as Hsps and P450s, which have universal TFBMs, and that these genes may be involved in reducing the ecological challenges posed by irradiation.
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