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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gold nanoparticles functionalized with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid for targeted cell imaging and phototherapy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Gold nanoparticles are functionalized as a nanoprobe with cresyl violet and porphyrin via hyaluronic acid. The nanoprobe becomes highly fluorescent in the presence of hyaluronidase or under ultraviolet irradiation, and can be used to target cancer cells via the overexpressed CD44 receptor for fluorescence imaging and phototherapy.
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Higher serum carotenoid concentrations associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The association between serum carotenoids and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains uncertain, and little is known about this relationship in the Chinese population. The present study examined the association between serum carotenoid concentrations and the MetS in Chinese adults. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study in which 2148 subjects (1547 women and 601 men) aged 50-75 years were recruited in urban Guangzhou, China. Dietary data and other covariates were collected during face-to-face interviews. Blood pressure, waist circumference, blood lipids, glucose and serum carotenoids (?-, ?-carotene, ?-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and lutein/zeaxanthin) were examined. We found dose-response inverse relationships between individual serum carotenoid concentrations and total carotenoids and the prevalence of the MetS after adjusting for potential confounders (P for trend < 0·001). The OR of the MetS for the highest (v. lowest) quartile were 0·31 (95 % CI 0·20, 0·47) for ?-carotene, 0·23 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·36) for ?-carotene, 0·44 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·67) for ?-cryptoxanthin, 0·39 (95 % CI 0·26, 0·58) for lycopene, 0·28 (95 % CI 0·18, 0·44) for lutein+zeaxanthin and 0·19 (95 % CI 0·12, 0·30) for total carotenoids. Higher concentrations of each individual carotenoid and total carotenoids were significantly associated with a decrease in the number of abnormal MetS components (P for trend < 0·001-0·023). Higher serum carotenoid levels were associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS and fewer abnormal MetS components in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.
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Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.
Electromagn Biol Med
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Abstract Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50?Hz 1.8?mT SEMFs 1.5?h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8?mT SEMFs at 1.5?h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.
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Slaying the Trojan horse: Natural killer cells exhibit robust anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent activation and cytolysis against allogeneic T-cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Many attempts to design prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines have focused on the induction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) that block infection by free virions. Despite the focus on viral particles, virus-infected cells, which can be found within mucosal secretions, are more infectious than free virus both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, assessment of human transmission couples suggests infected seminal lymphocytes might be responsible for a proportion of HIV-1 transmissions. Although vaccines that induce neutralizing Abs are sought, only some broadly neutralizing Abs efficiently block cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. As HIV-1 vaccines need to elicit immune responses capable of controlling both free and cell-associated virus, we evaluated the potential of NK cells to respond in an Ab-dependent manner to allogeneic T-cells bearing HIV-1 antigens. This manuscript presents data measuring Ab-dependent anti-HIV-1 NK cell responses to primary and transformed allogeneic T-cell targets. We found that NK cells are robustly activated in an anti-HIV-1 Ab-dependent manner against allogeneic targets, and that tested target cells are subject to Ab-dependent cytolysis. Furthermore, the educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cell subset from HLA-Bw4(+) individuals exhibits an activation advantage over the KIR3DL1(-) subset that contains both NK cells educated through other receptor/ligand combinations and uneducated NK cells. These results are intriguing and important for understanding the regulation of Ab-dependent NK cell responses, and are potentially valuable for designing Ab-dependent therapies and/or vaccines.
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Inverse associations of outdoor activity and vitamin D intake with the risk of Parkinson's disease.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Early studies had suggested that vitamin D intake was inversely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. However, the associations of vitamin D intake and outdoor activities with Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear, so this study is to evaluate these relationships from a case-control study in elderly Chinese. The study population involved 209 cases with new onsets of PD and 210 controls without neurodegenerative diseases. The data on dietary vitamin D and outdoor activities were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary outdoor activities, vitamin D intake and PD. Adjustment was made for sex, age, smoking, alcohol use, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for PD in quartiles for outdoor physical activity were 1 (reference), 0.739 (0.413, 1.321), 0.501 (0.282, 0.891), and 0.437 (0.241, 0.795), respectively (P=0.002 for trend). Adjusted ORs for PD in quartiles for total vitamin D intake were 1 (reference), 0.647 (0.357, 1.170), 0.571 (0.318, 1.022), and 0.538 (0.301, 0.960), respectively (P=0.011 for trend). Our study suggested that outdoor activity and total vitamin D intake were inversely associated with PD, and outdoor activity seems to be more significantly associated with decreased risk for PD.
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[Icariin promote maturation of osteoblasts in vitro by an estrogen-independent mechanism].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To investigate the estrogenic activity of icariin and genistein with estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.
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Stratification analysis and case-control study of relationships between interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a central proinflammatory cytokine, maintains immune homeostasis and also plays important roles in cervical cancer. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate any associations of IL-6 gene polymorphisms at positions -174 and -572 with predisposition to cervical cancer in a Chinese population. The present hospital- based case-control study comprised 518 patients with cervical cancer and 518 healthy controls. Polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Patients with cervical cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the IL-6 -174 CC genotype [odds ratio (OR) =1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-2.19; p=0.02], IL-6 -572 CC genotype (OR =1.91, 95% CI = 1.16-3.13; p=0.01) and IL-6 -174 C allele (OR =1.21, 95% CI = 1.02-1.44; p=0.03) compared to healthy controls. When stratifying by the FIGO stage, patients with III-IV cervical cancer had a significantly higher frequency of IL-6 -174 CC genotype (OR =1.64, 95% CI =1.04-2.61; p=0.04). The CC genotypes of the IL-6 gene polymorphisms at positions -174 and -572 may confer a high risk of cervical cancer. Additional studies with detailed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection data are warranted to validate our findings.
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[Identification of three common sandfies in southern Xinjiang with multiplex PCR].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Based on the variable part of mtDNA CO I gene sequence, a multiplex PCR method was developed for the identification of the three common sandflies (Phlebotomus longiductus, Ph. wui, and Ph. alexandri) in southern Xinjiang. The results demonstrated that this multiplex PCR method was reliable, and could be used to identify the three Phlebotomus species. The PCR product of CO I gene from Ph. longiductus, Ph. wui and Ph. alexandri was 248, 632, and 395 bp, respectively.
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Intrapartum interventions for singleton pregnancies arising from assisted reproductive technologies.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To assess whether singleton pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) are associated with an increased use of intrapartum interventions when compared with spontaneous singleton pregnancies.
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The combined effect of maternal obesity and fetal macrosomia on pregnancy outcomes.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To examine the combined effect of macrosomia and maternal obesity on adverse pregnancy outcomes using a retrospective cohort.
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A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
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XRCC4 plays a crucial role in the non-homologous end joining pathway that maintains genome stability. In this two-stage case-control study with 1,764 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients and 1,623 cancer-free controls, we investigated the contribution of genetic variants of XRCC4 to breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. We identified a recessive missense variant, rs3734091 (c.739G>T, p.Ala247Ser), of XRCC4 that was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, P = 0.007), particularly with the risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 18.65, P < 0.0001). This p.Ala247Ser variant disturbed the nuclear localization of XRCC4 in cells homozygous for the rs3734091-T allele but not in heterozygous cells at both the cellular and tissue levels. In heterozygous cells, wild-type XRCC4 facilitated the nuclear localization of the XRCC4A247S mutant, thus compensating for the impaired localization of XRCC4A247S. This provided a biological mechanism by which rs3734091 conferred an increased susceptibility to non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer exclusively under a recessive model. Further functional analyses revealed that p.Ala247Ser impaired the DNA damage repair capacity and ultimately perturbed genomic stability. Taken together, our findings document the role of XRCC4 in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposition and reveal its underlying biological mechanism of action.
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The role of selenoprotein W in inflammatory injury in chicken immune tissues and cultured splenic lymphocyte.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Selenoprotein W (SelW) is mainly understood in terms of its antioxidant effects in the cellular defense system. Inflammation is an important indicator of animal tissue injury, and the inflammatory cells may trigger a sophisticated and well-orchestrated inflammatory cascade, resulting in exaggerated oxidative stress. To investigate the role of SelW in inflammatory injury in chicken immune tissues and cultured splenic lymphocyte, in this report, the effects of selenium (Se) on mRNA expressions of SelW and inflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in the chicken immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) and cultured splenic lymphocyte treated with sodium selenite and H2O2, or knocked down SelW with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) were examined. The results showed that Se-deficient diets effectively decreased the mRNA expression of SelW (P < 0.05), and induced a significantly up-regulation of COX-2, iNOS, NF-?B, PTGEs and TNF-? mRNA levels (P < 0.05). The histopathological analysis showed that immune tissues were obviously injured in the low-Se groups. In vitro, H2O2 induced a significantly up-regulation of the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in cultured splenic lymphocyte (P < 0.05). When lymphocytes were pretreated with Se before treated with H2O2, the inflammation-related genes were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Silencing of SelW significantly up-regulated the inflammation-related genes (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) in cultured splenic lymphocyte (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the expression levels of inflammatory factors (iNOS, COX-2, NF-?B, PTGEs, and TNF-?) and SelW can be influenced by Se in birds. SelW commonly played an important role in the protection of immune organs of birds from inflammatory injury by the regulations of inflammation-related genes.
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Effects of avermectin on microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes in the liver and kidneys of pigeons.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Residues of avermectin (AVM) drugs have toxic effects on non-target organisms. Analyses of cytochrome P450 enzymes are among the most frequently employed indicators in pharmacology and toxicology studies. In this study, the responses of cytochrome P450 enzymes and pathological changes in the liver and kidney tissues of King pigeons (Columba livia) following subchronic exposure to avermectin for 30, 60 and 90d were investigated. Dose- and time-dependent decreases in the activities of P450 enzymes (i.e., aminopyrine-N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase and NADPH-cytochrome C reductase) and down-regulation of the P450 and b5 contents were observed. The microscopic structures were clearly altered, the severity of these alterations increased with the concentration of AVM and the exposure time. These results imply that AVM can inhibit the P450 enzyme systems in the liver and kidney tissues of pigeons. This research provides insight into the safe use of AVM and a comprehensive evaluation of the toxicological effects of AVM in birds.
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Lysosomal pH rise during heat shock monitored by a lysosome-targeting near-infrared ratiometric fluorescent probe.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition, featuring a high body temperature and malfunction of many organ systems. The relationship between heat shock and lysosomes is poorly understood, mainly because of the lack of a suitable research approach. Herein, by incorporating morpholine into a stable hemicyanine skeleton, we develop a new lysosome-targeting near-infrared ratiometric pH?probe. In combination with fluorescence imaging, we show for the first time that the lysosomal pH?value increases but never decreases during heat shock, which might result from lysosomal membrane permeabilization. We also demonstrate that this lysosomal pH?rise is irreversible in living cells. Moreover, the probe is easy to synthesize, and shows superior overall analytical performance as compared to the existing commercial ones. This enhanced performance may enable it to be widely used in more lysosomal models of living cells and in further revealing the mechanisms underlying heat-related pathology.
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Selenium deficiency inhibits the conversion of thyroidal thyroxine (t4) to triiodothyronine (T 3) in chicken thyroids.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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Selenium (Se) influences the metabolism of thyroid hormones in mammals. However, the role of Se deficiency in the regulation of thyroid hormones in chickens is not well known. In the present study, we examined the levels of thyroidal triiodothyronine (T3), thyroidal thyroxine (T4), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone in the serum and the mRNA expression levels of 25 selenoproteins in chicken thyroids. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to analyze the relationships between the selenoproteins. The results indicated that Se deficiency influenced the conversion of T4 to T3 and induced the accumulation of T4 and FT4. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of the selenoproteins were generally decreased by Se deficiency. The PCA showed that eight selenoproteins (deiodinase 1 (Dio1), Dio2, Dio3, thioredoxin reductase 2 (Txnrd2), selenoprotein i (Seli), selenoprotein u (Selu), glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1), and Gpx2) have similar trends, which indicated that they may play similar roles in the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The results showed that Se deficiency inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3 and decreased the levels of the crucial metabolic enzymes of the thyroid hormones, Dio1, Dio2, and Dio3, in chickens. In addition, the decreased selenoproteins (Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, Txnrd2, Seli, Selu, Gpx1, and Gpx2) induced by Se deficiency may indirectly limit the conversion of T4 to T3 in chicken thyroids. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the role of Se in the thyroid function of chickens.
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The role of interleukin-28b gene polymorphisms in chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Interleukin-28B (IL28B) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs8099917 has been described to be associated with response to treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C from the North America, Europe, Asia countries like Japan and Taiwan. Whether this holds true for Chinese patients remains unknown.
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Maternal exposure to the production of fireworks and reduced rate of new onset hypertension in pregnancy.
Hypertens Pregnancy
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the main substances contained in fireworks. Previous studies suggested that CO may have protective effect on the development of hypertension of pregnancy.
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Poly(m-phenylenediamine)-based fluorescent nanoprobe for ultrasensitive detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A novel fluorescence nanoprobe for the detection of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) has been developed by engineering the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peptide onto the surface of poly(m-phenylenediamine) (PMPD) nanoparticles through covalent linkage. The nanoprobe itself displays a low background signal due to the effective fluorescence quenching by electron-rich PMPD, but its reaction with MMP2 causes 11-fold fluorescence enhancement. Compared with similar fluorescence nanosystems for MMP2 assembled through physical adsorption, the as-prepared nanoprobe is significantly more stable and displays a strikingly higher signal-to-background ratio, which leads to a high sensitivity for MMP2 assay, with a detection limit of 32 pM. Most notably, the nanoprobe has been successfully applied to determine MMP2 in human serum samples, demonstrating that the MMP2 level in serum from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is 2 times higher than that from healthy people. Moreover, the nanoprobe has also been used to monitor MMP2 secreted by CRC cells that were grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, respectively, and the results show that the cells under hypoxic conditions produce higher level of MMP2 than those under normoxic conditions. Our method is simple and can offer a highly sensitive detection of MMP2 in relevant clinical samples.
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The Role of Nitric Oxide and Oxidative Stress in Intestinal Damage Induced by Selenium Deficiency in Chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential messenger molecule and is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Although NO has important biological functions in mammals, its role in the mechanism that occurs after intestinal injuries in chickens remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the real role of NO and oxidative stress in the intestinal injuries of chickens induced by selenium (Se) deficiency. A total 150 chickens were randomly divided into the following two groups: a low-Se group (L group, fed a Se-deficient diet containing 0.020 mg/kg Se) and a control group (C group, fed a commercial diet containing 0.2 mg/kg Se). The activities and mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), the production of glutathione (GSH) and NO, and the protein and mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were examined in the intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and rectum) at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days. Methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) levels were also detected by assay kits. Then, the morphologies of the tissues were observed under the microscope after hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E staining). The results showed that Se deficiency induced higher inflammatory damage and MDA levels (P?
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Knockdown of STIM1 Improves Neuronal Survival After Traumatic Neuronal Injury Through Regulating mGluR1-Dependent Ca(2+) Signaling in Mouse Cortical Neurons.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Activation of glutamate receptors and followed increase of intracellular calcium concentration is a key pathological mechanism involved in secondary neuronal injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins are considered to be important players in regulating neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis under normal aging and pathological conditions. Here, we investigated the role of STIM1 in regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1)-related Ca(2+) signaling and neuronal survival by using an in vitro traumatic neuronal injury (TNI) model. The expression of STIM1 was significantly increased at both mRNA and protein levels after TNI. Down-regulation of STIM1 by specific small interfere RNA significantly preserved neuronal viability, decreased lactate dehydrogenase release, and inhibited apoptotic cell death after traumatic injury. Moreover, knockdown of STIM1 significantly alleviated the mGluR1-related increase of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels after TNI. By analyzing Ca(2+) imaging in Ca(2+)-free conditions, we demonstrated that the mGluR1-dependent inositol trisphosphate receptor and/or ryanodine receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum after TNI is strongly attenuated in the absence of STIM1. Together, our results demonstrate that in the mammalian nervous system, STIM1 is a key regulator of mGluR1-dependent Ca(2+) signaling and knockdown of STIM1 might be an effective intervention target in TBI.
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LC-MS/MS Determination and Pharmacokinetic Study of Dehydrocorydaline in Rat Plasma after Oral Administration of Dehydrocorydaline and Corydalis yanhusuo Extract.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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A rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for determination of dehydrocorydaline (DHC) in rat plasma using nitidine chloride as an internal standard. The analytes were solid-phase extracted and eluted on a C18 chromatography column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.8% formic acid and 10 mM ammonium acetate) (28:72, v/v). Detection was performed using positive ion electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring modes. The assay was linear over the concentration range 0.625-250 ng/mL with a quantification limit of 0.625 ng/mL. The precision was <13.7%, the accuracy >93.1%, and extraction recovery ranged from 92.1% to 107%. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and excretion study of DHC in rat plasma after oral administration of pure DHC and an effective fraction of Corydalis yanhusuo (EFY). The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that DHC from EFY was absorbed more rapidly and eliminated more slowly than pure DHC. The result suggests that the differences might be due to the presence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors and that other alkaloids co-existing in the EFY may compete with DHC for transportation by P-gp, metabolization by P450, and binding to plasma proteins.
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[The role of primary cilium in signal transduction and its mechanism].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The primary cilium is a solitary and special organelle that emanates from the cell surface of most mammalian cells, which is anchored to the cell by mother centriole during the interphase and G0 of cell cycle. Recent studies have revealed that the primary cilium is a sensory organelle to receive extracellular signals and plays a key role in the signal transduction and pathogenesis of diseases. This review presents the structure and the forming process of the primary cilium during cell cycle. The signal transductions associated with primary cilium, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor ??, hedgehog, Wnt are discussed and the relevant researches in the future are proposed.
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[Preliminary study of the inhibitory effect and mechanism of B16F10-ESAT-6-gpi/IL-21 vaccine on the pulmonary metastasis in mouse models of melanoma].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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To investigate the effect and mechanism of B16F10-ESAT-6-gpi/IL-21 tumor cell vaccine on pulmonary metastasis in mouse model of melanoma.
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The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15?gL(-1) and 20?gL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent.
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Association between Ras association domain family 1A promoter methylation and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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RASSF1A has been reported to be a candidate tumor suppressor in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and ESCC remains unclear. Eligible studies were identified through searching PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and the China National Knowledge Infrastucture database. Studies were pooled and odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Funnel plots were also performed to evaluate publication bias. Twelve studies involving 859 cases and 675 controls were included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was observed between RASSF1A methylation and ESCC overall (OR = 11.7, 95% CI: 6.59-20.9, z=8.36, P<0.00001). Subgroup analysis showed that the OR for heterogeneous tissues was 5.35 (95% CI = 2.95-9.71) while for autologous tissues it was 16.0 (8.31-30.96). For patient sample size, the OR for the <50 subgroup was 9.92 (95% CI = 2.88-34.2) and for the 50 case group was 13.1 (95% CI = 6.59-25.91). The OR for a relationship between RASSF1A methylation and TNM stages was 0.27 (95% CI=0.10-0.77), whereas there were no significant differences in RASSF1A methylation in relation to gender and differentiation among ESCC cases. This meta-analysis suggests a significant association between RASSF1A methylation and ESCC.
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In vivo imaging and detection of nitroreductase in zebrafish by a new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A new near-infrared fluorescence off-on probe is developed and applied to fluorescence imaging of nitroreductase in zebrafish in vivo. The probe is readily prepared by connecting 4-nitrobenzene as a quenching and recognizing moiety to a stable hemicyanine skeleton that can be formed via the decomposition of IR 780. The fluorescence off-on response of the probe to nitroreductase is based on the enzyme-catalyzed reduction of the 4-nitrobenzene moiety, followed by the 1,6-rearrangement-elimination and the fluorophore release. Compared with the existing nitroreductase probes, the proposed probe exhibits superior analytical performance such as near-infrared fluorescence emission over 700 nm as well as high selectivity and sensitivity, with a detection limit of 14 ng/mL. More importantly, the probe has been successfully applied to visualize the distribution of nitroreductase in living zebrafish in vivo, revealing that nitroreductase might mainly exist in zebrafish yolk sac. The superior properties of the probe make it of great potential use in other biosystems and in vivo studies.
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Sensitive and selective near-infrared fluorescent off-on probe and its application to imaging different levels of ?-lactamase in Staphylococcus aureus.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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A highly sensitive and selective near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe, (E)-2-(2-(6-((2-carboxy-8-oxo-7-(2-phenylacetamido)-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl)methoxy)-2,3-dihydro-1H-xanthen-4-yl)vinyl)-3,3-dimethyl-1-propyl-3H-indol-1-ium (1), is developed for the determination of ?-lactamase. The probe is designed and synthesized by incorporating the specific substrate (cephalosporin) of ?-lactamase into a stable hemicyanine skeleton. The fluorescence of 1 itself is very weak due to the alkylation of the hydroxyl group of the hemicyanine fluorophore; however, ?-lactamase can selectively react with its substrate (?-lactam ring) in the probe, thereby causing a spontaneous fragmentation. This action leads to the release of the fluorophore and a large fluorescence enhancement at 707 nm (?ex = 680 nm). Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence response of probe 1 is directly proportional to the concentration of ?-lactamase in the range of 0.05-2 nM, with a detection limit of 0.02 nM. The validity of the probe has been confirmed by determining ?-lactamase in human urine samples in comparison with that determined by iodimetry. Moreover, by taking advantage of its high sensitivity and NIR emission feature, the probe has also been utilized to image ?-lactamase in three types of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC BAA44, penicillin-resistant strain ATCC 11632, and penicillin-susceptible strain ATCC 29213, which clearly reveals the significantly different expression levels of ?-lactamase in these S. aureus.
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Rational design and bioimaging applications of highly selective fluorescence probes for hydrogen polysulfides.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Reactive sulfur species have received considerable attention due to their various biological functions. Among these molecules, hydrogen polysulfides (H2S(n), n > 1) are recently suggested to be the actual signaling molecules derived from hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Hydrogen polysulfides may also have their own biosynthetic pathways. The research on H2S(n) is rapidly growing. However, the detection of H2S(n) is still challenging. In this work we report a H2S(n)-mediated benzodithiolone formation under mild conditions. Based on this reaction, specific fluorescent probes for H2S(n) are prepared and evaluated. The probe DSP-3 shows good selectivity and sensitivity for H2S(n).
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Protective roles of selenium on nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of immune organs induced by cadmium in chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Little is known about the influence of subchronic cadmium exposure on apoptosis in the immune organs of birds and the protective effects on apoptosis by selenium against cadmium. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic cadmium exposure on nitric oxide and apoptosis in the immune organs of chicken and the protective roles of selenium against cadmium-induced apoptosis. Two hundred ten 30-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to three groups and were fed a basal diet, cadmium+selenium (as 150 mg of CdCl2 per kg of diet+10 mg of Na2SeO3 per kg of diet ) or cadmium (as 150 mg of CdCl2 per kg of diet) in basic diets for 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. Then, the production of nitric oxide, messenger RNA (mRNA level), and the activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ultrastructural changes, TUNEL assay, and flow cytometric analysis of apoptosis and Bcl-2 and p53 mRNA levels in the immune organs were examined. The results showed that cadmium exposure caused ultrastructural damage and increased production of nitric oxide, mRNA level, and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase, the degree, and the number of apoptotic cells in a time-dependent manner. Cadmium exposure decreased Bcl-2 mRNA level and increased p53 mRNA level in a time-dependent manner. Selenium supplementation during dietary cadmium reduced the production of nitric oxide, the mRNA level, and activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase, ultrastructural damage, and apoptosis in the immune organs of chicken. It indicated that cadmium induced nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis of immune organs, and selenium played protective effects against cadmium-induced apoptosis in the immune organs of chickens.
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Gender and regional disparities of tuberculosis in Hunan, China.
Int J Equity Health
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Major efforts have been made to improve the health care system in Hunan province, China. The aims of this study were to assess whether and to what extent these efforts have impacted on gender and regional disparities of Tuberculosis (TB) incidence in recent years, especially for less developed areas.
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Effect of selenium on selenoprotein expression in the adipose tissue of chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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This study describes the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of 25 selenoproteins (Sels) (including glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx4), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, Sepn1, SelO, Sepx, Selpb, SelS, SelT, SelW, Sepp1, and SelU in the adipose tissues (subcutaneous adipose, visceral adipose, and articular adipose) of chickens. One hundred and fifty 1-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to two groups of 75 each and were fed a low-Se diet (0.032 mg/kg Se) or a control diet (0.282 mg/kg Se). The expression levels of 25 Sel mRNAs were determined on days 35, 45, and 55 from three parts (subcutaneous adipose, visceral adipose, and articular adipose) of the chicken adipose tissues. The results showed that the expression levels of the 25 Sel mRNAs were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the low-selenium group than in the control group. In addition, the Sel mRNA expression levels in the three adipose tissues were observed to decrease in a time-dependent manner with increasing feeding time.
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Cadmium supplement triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress response and cytotoxicity in primary chicken hepatocytes.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Cadmium (Cd), a potent hepatotoxin, has been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types. However, whether such effect exists in bird is still unclear. To delineate the effects of Cd exposure on ER stress response, we examined the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and alteration in calcium homeostasis in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with 2-22 µM Cd for 24 h. A significant decrease of cell viability was observed in chicken hepatocytes following Cd administration. In cells treated with Cd, GRP78 protein levels increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GRP78 and GRP94mRNA levels were elevated in response to Cd exposure. The increase of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in chicken hepatocytes was found during Cd exposure. Cd significantly decreased the CaM mRNA levels in hepatocytes. These results show that Cd regulates the expression of GRP78 and calcium homeostasis in chicken hepatocytes, suggesting that ER stress induced by Cd plays an important role in the mechanisms of Cd cytotoxicity to the bird hepatocytes.
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A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in Lentinula edodes.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Lentinula edodes, one of the most cultivated edible fungi in the world, are usually neglected for mycotoxins contamination due to the initial thinking of its resistance to mycotoxingenic molds. In the present study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 33 mycotoxins in L. edodes. Targeted mycotoxins were extracted using a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure without any further clean-up step, and analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (100 × 3 mm, 2.7 ?m) with a linear gradient elution program using water containing 5 mM ammonium acetate and methanol as the mobile phase. After validation by determining linearity (R(2) > 0.99), sensitivity (LOQ ? 20 ng/kg), recovery (73.6-117.9%), and precision (0.8-19.5%), the established method has been successfully applied to reveal the contamination states of various mycotoxins in L. edodes. Among the 30 tested samples, 22 were contaminated by various mycotoxins with the concentration levels ranging from 3.3-28,850.7 ?g/kg, predicting that the edible fungus could be infected by the mycotoxins-producing fungi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about real mycotoxins contamination in L. edodes.
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A B3LYP and MP2(full) theoretical investigation into cooperativity effects, aromaticity and thermodynamic properties in the Na(+)?benzonitrile?H2O ternary complex.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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The cooperativity effects between H-bonding and Na(+)?? or Na(+)?? interactions in Na(+)?benzonitrile?H2O complexes were investigated using the B3LYP and MP2(full) methods with 6-311++G(2d,p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. The thermodynamic cooperativity and the influence of this cooperativity on aromaticity was evaluated by nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS). The results showed that the influence of the Na(+)?? or Na(+)?? interaction on the hydrogen bond is more pronounced than that of the latter on the former. The cooperativity effect appeared in the Na(+)?? interaction complex while the anti-cooperativity effect tended to be in the Na(+)?? system. The change in enthalpy is the major factor driving cooperativity. Thermodynamic cooperativity is not in accordance with the cooperativity effect evaluated by the change of interaction energy. The ring aromaticity of is weakened while the bond dissociation energy (BDE) of the C-CN bond increases upon ternary complex formation. The cooperativity effect (E coop) correlates with R c (NICS(1)ternary/NICS(1)binary) and ??? (?? ternary - ?? binary) involving the ring and C???N bond, as well as R BDE(C-CN) [BDE(C-CN)ternary/BDE(C-CN)binary], respectively. AIM (atoms in molecules) analysis confirms the existence of cooperativity.
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Effects on liver hydrogen peroxide metabolism induced by dietary selenium deficiency or excess in chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To determine the relationship between dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or excess and liver hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism in chickens, 1-day-old chickens received insufficient Se (0.028 mg Se per kg of diet) or excess Se (3.0 or 5.0 mg Se per kg of diet) in their diets for 8 weeks. Body and liver weight changes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, H2O2 content, and activities and mRNA levels of enzymes associated with H2O2 metabolism (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1-3) were determined in the liver. This study showed that Se deficiency or excess Se intake elicited relative severe changes. Se deficiency decreased growth, while Se excess promoted growth in chickens. Both diets vastly altered the liver function, but no obvious histopathological changes were observed in the liver. Se deficiency significantly lowered SOD and CAT activities, and the H2O2 content in the liver and serum increased. Se excess (3.0 mg/kg) decreased SOD and CAT activities with changes in their mRNA levels, and the H2O2 content increased. The larger Se excess (5.0 mg/kg) showed more serious effects but was not fatal. These results indicated that the H2O2 metabolism played a destructive role in the changes in bird liver function induced by Se deficiency or excess.
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Ex vivo converted double negative T cells suppress activated B cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Although the ability of endogenous CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) T cells to suppress B cells has been documented, the extent to which ex vivo converted DN T cells suppress B cells activity is still being explored. The aim of this study was to determine whether and what extent ex vivo converted CD4(-)CD8(-) DN T cells suppress B cell activation and antibody production. We found that ex vivo converted DN T cells suppressed proliferation of activated B cells in a perforin and cell-cell contact dependent manner. In addition, ex vivo converted DN T cells significantly inhibited the production of IgG by stimulated B cells. This study provides evidence that ex vivo converted CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative T cells can down-regulate immune responses by suppressing B cell proliferation and IgG production, and supports efforts to develop ex vivo DN T cell therapies.
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Association between change of health care providers and pregnancy exposure to FDA category C, D and X drugs.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Changing health care providers frequently breaks the continuity of care, which is associated with many health care problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between a change of health care providers and pregnancy exposure to FDA category C, D and X drugs.
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Expanding upon the 'extreme male brain' theory of autism as a common link between other major risk factors: a hypothesis.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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On average, males have a stronger preference for physical systems and machines over interpersonal interactions; they have lower average levels of cognitive empathy or social cognition than females; and they have higher rates of 'extreme' intelligence when it comes to abstract concepts such as those found in mathematics and sciences. All three traits are also commonly associated with individuals with an autism spectrum disorder or ASD; clearly, it is not coincidental that incidence rates of autism are reportedly four times higher in males than in females. The common link between the majority of risk factors assessed in this review (including technological advancements, advanced parental age, socioeconomic status, and genetic predispositions towards ASDs in families of scientists and engineers) can be traced to a specific hormone, testosterone. It was established that traits which are typically associated with males are also typically associated with ASDs as well as individuals with antisocial personality disorder, or APD. The key distinction between individuals who are considered to be 'autistic' as opposed to those who are considered 'sociopathic' lies in the difference between their empathy deficits: whereas those who are 'autistic' are said to lack cognitive empathy (the ability to identify and understand the thoughts and feelings of others and to respond to these with appropriate emotions), those who are 'sociopathic' are said to lack emotional empathy (which is responsible for inhibiting acts of physical aggression or violence). This would explain why autistic individuals can have elevated testosterone levels without becoming physically aggressive.
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Global DNA hypomethylation: A potential mechanism in King pigeon nerve tissue damage induced by avermectin.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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As an effective insecticidal and nematicidal agent, avermectin (AVM) has been widely used in agricultural production and stock farming areas. Subsequently, the residues of AVM or its active metabolites in animal manure pose a toxic threat to non-target organisms in the environment. As the most characteristic epigenetic phenomena, DNA methylation status is a useful biological signal for the toxicity assessment of environmental chemical toxicants. In this study, analyses of the overall level of genomic DNA methylation were performed, and the expression levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), as well as demethylase methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), in pigeon brain tissues after subchronic exposure (with a AVM concentration of 20mg/kg, 40mg/kg and 60mg/kg, respectively) to AVM for 30, 60 and 90days were investigated. Global DNA hypomethylation and down-regulation of DNMT mRNA expression occurred in a dose-time-dependent manner in pigeon brains. The expression level of MBD2, which functions as a demethylase, was significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent but not time-dependent manner. In addition, the elevated expression level of MBD2 had a more robust effect on genomic DNA hypomethylation compared to changes in DNMT expression. Taken together, these results suggested that subchronic dose exposures of AVM could affect the global DNA methylation status, and this mechanism is closely related to changes in the expression levels of DNMTs and MBD2.
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The influence of linker length on the properties of cathepsin S cleavable (177)Lu-labeled HPMA copolymers for pancreatic cancer imaging.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers have shown promise for application in the detection and staging of cancer. However, non-target accumulation, particularly in the liver and spleen, hinders the detection of resident or nearby metastatic lesions thereby decreasing diagnostic effectiveness. Our laboratory has pursued the development of cathepsin S susceptible linkers (CSLs) to reduce the non-target accumulation of diagnostic/radiotherapeutic HPMA copolymers. In this study, we ascertain if the length of the linking group impacts the cleavage and clearance kinetics, relative to each other and a non-cleavable control, due to a reduction in steric inhibition. Three different CSLs with linking groups of various lengths (0, 6 and 13 atoms) were conjugated to HPMA copolymers. In vitro cleavage studies revealed that the longest linking group (13 atoms) led to more rapid cleavage when challenged with cathepsin S. The CSL incorporated HPMA copolymers demonstrated significantly higher levels of excretion and a significant decrease in long-term hepatic and splenic retention relative to the non-cleavable control. Contrary to in vitro observations, the length of the linking group did not substantially impact the non-target in vivo clearance. In the case of HPAC tumor retention, the CSL with the null (0 atom) linker demonstrated significantly higher levels of retention relative to the other CSLs. Given these results, we find that the length of the linking group of the CSLs did not substantially impact non-target clearance, but did influence tumor retention. Overall, these results demonstrate that the CSLs can substantially improve the non-target clearance of HPMA copolymers thereby enhancing clinical potential.
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Glypican-3 binds to Frizzled and plays a direct role in the stimulation of canonical Wnt signaling.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a proteoglycan that is bound to the cell surface. It is expressed by most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not by normal hepatocytes. GPC3 stimulates HCC growth by promoting canonical Wnt signaling. Because glypicans interact with Wnts, it has been proposed that these proteoglycans stimulate signaling by increasing the amount of Wnt at the cell membrane, thus facilitating the interaction of this growth factor with its signaling receptor, Frizzled. However, in this study, we demonstrate that GPC3 plays a more direct role in the stimulation of Wnt signaling. Specifically, we show that, in addition to interacting with Wnt, GPC3 and Frizzled interact directly through the glycosaminoglycan chains of GPC3, indicating that this glypican stimulates the formation of signaling complexes between Wnt and Frizzled. Consistent with this, we show that the binding of Wnt at the cell membrane triggers the endocytosis of a complex that includes Wnt, Frizzled and GPC3. Additional support for our model is provided by the finding that glypican-6 (GPC6) inhibits canonical Wnt signaling, despite the fact that it binds to Wnt at the cell membrane.
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A B3LYP and MP2(full) theoretical investigation on the cooperativity effect between hydrogen-bonding and cation-molecule interactions and thermodynamic property in the 1: 2 (Na?: N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide) ternary complex.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The cooperativity effects between the O/N-H???O hydrogen-bonding and Na????O cation-molecule interactions in the 1: 2 (Na?: N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide) systems were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G**, MP2(full)/6-311++G** and MP2(full)/aug-cc-pvtz levels. The thermodynamic cooperativity calculations were also carried out for two pathways of the ternary-complex formation. The result shows that, in most ternary complexes, the O/N-H???O and Na????O interactions are weakened in comparison with those in binary systems, leading to the anti-cooperativity effects, in particular in the complexes in which only the Na????O interactions exist. Shifts of electron density confirm the existence of anti-cooperativity. The increase of favorable enthalpic contribution leads to the positive cooperativity effect with negative ?G(coop.) on forming the ternary complex by initial N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide dimer followed by addition of Na?. In forming the ternary complex by Na????N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide with the second N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide unit, the large unfavorable entropy change leads to the negative cooperativity effect with positive ?G(coop.). The ternary complex is more easily formed by the pathway in which Na? binds to N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide dimer.
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Impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel exposure, and MBL/MASP-2 gene polymorphism upon susceptibility to tuberculosis.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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To explore the impact of passive smoking, cooking with solid fuel, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene, MBL-associated serine proteases 2 (MASP-2) gene, and gene-environment interactions on the susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) in non-smokers.
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The effects of avermectin on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The objective of this study was to examine the effects of avermectin (AVM) on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors in the pigeon brain. Four groups two-month-old American king pigeons (n=20/group) were fed either a commercial diet or an AVM-supplemented diet (20mg/kg·diet, 40 mg/kg·diet, or 60 mg/kg·diet) for 30, 60, or 90 days. The contents of aspartic acid (ASP), glutamate (GLU), glycine (GLY), and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues were determined using ultraviolet high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression levels of the GLU and GABA receptor genes were analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicate that AVM exposure significantly enhances the contents of GABA, GLY, GLU, and ASP in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and optic lobe. In addition, AVM exposure increases the mRNA expression levels of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR), ?-aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABABR), N-methyl-d-aspartate 1 receptor (NR1), N-methyl-d-aspartate 2A receptor (NR2A), and N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (NR2B) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that the most damaged organ was the cerebrum, followed by the cerebellum, and then the optic lobe. These results show that the AVM-induced neurotoxicity may be associated with its effects on amino acid neurotransmitters and their receptors. The information presented in this study will help supplement the available data for future AVM toxicity studies.
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Effects of dietary selenium deficiency or excess on gene expression of selenoprotein N in chicken muscle tissues.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Previous studies have determined the effects of dietary selenium (Se) supplementation on selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1), selenophosphate synthetase-1 (SPS1), and selenocysteine-synthase (SecS) mRNA abundance in chicken skeletal and cardiac muscles. To investigate collective responses of these genes to dietary Se concentrations ranging from deficiency to moderately high level in muscle tissues of chicken, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to a diet of deficient Se and supplemented with Se (0.15 mg Se/kg and 1.50 mg Se/kg) as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. Muscle tissues (flight, breast, leg, and cardiac muscles) were collected and examined for Se content and mRNA levels of SelN on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 days, respectively. Moreover, SPS1 and SecS mRNA levels were analyzed. The results showed that the expression of SelN gene in cardiac muscle responded to dietary Se concentrations. SelN gene was downregulated in the Se deficiency group (L group), and upregulated in the Se excess group (H group) compared with the moderate Se group (M group) (P < 0.05) in cardiac muscle. Se deficiency mainly unregulated SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with M group. Excess dietary Se mainly resulted in the upregulation of SelN mRNA level in skeletal muscles compared with the M group. SecS mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a similar change compared with SelN in cardiac muscle. SPS1 mRNA levels responded to dietary Se concentrations showed a downregulation in L group and upregulation in H group. However, SelN mRNA levels displayed a different expression pattern in different skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, Se also regulated the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNAs. In summary, Se regulated the expression of SelN gene and affected the mRNA levels of SecS and SPS1. The level of Se in the feed may regulate SelN biosynthesis by affecting the levels of SPS1 and SecS mRNA.
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Effects of avermectin on immune function and oxidative stress in the pigeon spleen.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Avermectin (AVM) is a pesticide that can accumulate in the environment through spray-drift, runoff or field drainage. Residues of AVM or its metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, changes in oxidative stress and immunity in pigeon spleen tissues were detected after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60, and 90 days. In pigeon spleen, the activities of total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) decreased significantly, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO), and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficients increased. Additionally, obvious ultrastructure alterations were observed. These results indicated that AVM induced oxidative stress and damaged the normal structure of spleen cells. The exposure to AVM could lead to increases in the mRNA levels of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-4 (IL-4), as well as a decrease in the mRNA level of interferon-? (IFN-?), in a dose-time-dependent manner in pigeon spleen. The results imply that AVM induces immunosuppression in the spleen tissue of pigeons. The information presented in this study may be helpful for understanding the mechanism of AVM-induced immunotoxicity in birds.
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Antioxidative role of selenoprotein W in oxidant-induced chicken splenic lymphocyte death.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To verify the antioxidative role of SelW in oxidant-induced chicken splenic lymphocyte, in this report, the influence of selenite supplementation and SelW gene silence on H2O2-mediated cell viability and cell apoptosis in cultured splenic lymphocyte derived from spleen of chicken were examined. The cultured cells were treated with sodium selenite and H2O2, or knocked down SelW with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The lymphocytes were examined for cell viability, cell apoptosis and mRNA expression levels of SelW and apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, Bak-1, caspase-3 and p53). The results show that the mRNA expression of SelW were effectively increased after treatment with sodium selenite, and H2O2-induced cell apoptosis was significantly decreased and cell viability was significantly increased. 20 ?M H2O2 was found to induce cell apoptosis and decrease cell viability, which was alleviated obviously when cells were pretreated with sodium selenite before exposure to 20 ?M H2O2. Meanwhile, H2O2 induced a significantly up-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Bax, Bak-1, caspase-3 and p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2 (P < 0.05). When lymphocytes were pretreated with Se before treated with H2O2, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and mRNA expression of those genes were significantly decreased, and Bcl-2 was increased (P < 0.05). SelW siRNA-transfected cells were more sensitive to the oxidative stress induced by treatment of H2O2 than control cells. Silencing of the lymphocyte SelW gene decreased their cell viability, and increased their apoptosis rate and susceptibility to H2O2. Silencing of SelW significantly up-regulated the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Bax, Bak-1, caspase-3 and p53 and down-regulated Bcl-2 (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that SelW plays an important role in protection of splenic lymphocyte of birds from oxidative stress.
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Association between labetalol use for hypertension in pregnancy and adverse infant outcomes.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Labetalol and methyldopa are the two antihypertensive drugs most frequently used to control blood pressure for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to assess if labetalol is associated with poor infant outcomes.
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Protective effects of selenium on cadmium-induced brain damage in chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Selenium (Se) is an important dietary micronutrient with antioxidative roles. Cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, is known to cause brain lesion in rats and humans. However, little is reported about the deleterious effects of subchronic Cd exposure on the brain of poultry and the protective roles on the brain by Se against Cd. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of Se on Cd-induced brain damage in chickens. One hundred twenty 100-day-old chickens were randomly assigned to four groups and were fed a basal diet, or Se (as 10 mg Na2SeO3/kg dry weight of feed), Cd (as 150 mg CdCl2/kg dry weight of feed), or Cd?+?Se in their basic diets for 60 days. Then, concentrations of Cd and Se, production of nitric oxide (NO), messenger RNA (mRNA) level and activity of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), level of oxidative stress, and histological and ultrastructural changes of the cerebrum and cerebellum were examined. The results showed that Cd exposure significantly increased Cd accumulation, NO production, iNOS activities, iNOS mRNA level, and MDA content in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Cd treatment obviously decreased Se content and antioxidase activities and caused histopathological changes in the cerebrum and cerebellum. Se supplementation during dietary Cd obviously reduced Cd accumulation, NO production, mRNA level and activity of iNOS, oxidative stress, and histopathological damage in the cerebrum and cerebellum of chickens. It indicated that Se ameliorates Cd-induced brain damage in chickens by regulating iNOS-NO system changes, and oxidative stress induced by Cd and Se can serve as a potential therapeutic for Cd-induced brain lesion of chickens.
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Reloading functionally ameliorates disuse-induced muscle atrophy by reversing mitochondrial dysfunction, and similar benefits are gained by administering a combination of mitochondrial nutrients.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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We previously found that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in disuse-induced muscle atrophy. However, the mitochondrial remodeling that occurs during reloading, an effective approach for rescuing unloading-induced atrophy, remains to be investigated. In this study, using a rat model of 3-week hindlimb unloading plus 7-day reloading, we found that reloading protected mitochondria against dysfunction, including mitochondrial loss, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, inhibited biogenesis, and activation of mitochondria-associated apoptotic signaling. Interestingly, a combination of nutrients, including ?-lipoic acid, acetyl-L-carnitine, hydroxytyrosol, and CoQ10, which we designed to target mitochondria, was able to efficiently rescue muscle atrophy via a reloading-like action. It is suggested that reloading ameliorates skeletal muscle atrophy through the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and the amelioration of oxidative stress. Nutrient administration acted similarly in unloaded rats. Here, the study of mitochondrial remodeling in rats during unloading and reloading provides a more detailed picture of the pathology of muscle atrophy.
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Clinico-pathological features and prognosis of invasive micropapillary carcinoma compared to invasive ductal carcinoma: a population-based study from China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a rare subtype of breast cancer that is associated with a high incidence of regional lymph node metastases and a poor clinical outcome. However, the clinico-pathological features and prognostic factors of IMPC are not well understood.
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[Effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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To investigate the effect of osthole on bone metabolism in rat femoral tissues in vitro.
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Icariin induces osteoblast differentiation and mineralization without dexamethasone in vitro.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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An effective method for preventing bone loss is by promoting osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. While dexamethasone has been routinely used as a classical inducer for osteoblast differentiation, limitations have been observed with its usage, including its varied effects on expression of osteoblast genes in different species and its potentials in suppressing osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization. In this study, we assessed the ability of flavonoid icariin in enhancing differentiation and mineralization of cultured rat primary osteoblasts in the absence of dexamethasone. It was found that, compared to the non-stimulated control, icariin at 10(-5)?M produced a higher alkaline phosphatase activity, more and larger areas of alkaline phosphatase-positive colonies (CFU-FALP) and mineralized nodules, more osteocalcin secretion and calcium deposition, higher levels of mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteoblastic transcription factors osterix and runt-related transcription factor 2, and collagen 1?, higher levels of protein expression of collagen 1?, alkaline phosphatese, osterix, and runt-related transcription factor 2. In addition, icariin at 10(-5)?M was always more potent than dexamethasone at its optimal concentration of 10(-8)?M on the above osteoblast differentiation and mineralization markers. Taken together, our studies demonstrated that icariin has a pronounced ability in promoting osteoblast differentiation in vitro in the absence of dexamethasone.
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[Comparison between icariin and genistein in osteogenic activity of marrow stromal cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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To compare the effect of icariin and genistein in the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSC).
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[Mechanisms of icariin in regulating bone formation of osteoblasts and bone resorption of osteoclasts].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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To investigate the molecular mechanisms of icariin(ICA)in regulating the bone formation of osteoblasts and the bone resorption of osteoclasts.
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Antioxidant response and histopathological changes in brain tissue of pigeon exposed to avermectin.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Avermectins (AVMs) are the active components of some insecticidal and nematicidal products used in agriculture and veterinary medicine for the prevention of parasitic diseases. Residues of AVM drugs or their metabolites in livestock feces have toxic effects on non-target aquatic and terrestrial organisms. In this study, oxidative stress responses and pathological changes on pigeon brain tissues and serum after subchronic exposure to AVM for 30, 60 and 90 days were investigated. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px) activities and increase in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde content in a dose-time-dependent manner in the brain and serum of pigeon were observed. The protein carbonyl content, an indicator of protein oxidation, and DNA-protein crosslink coefficient were significantly augmented with dose-time-dependent properties. The microscopic structures of the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe altered obviously, the severity of which increased with the concentration of AVM and exposure time. The results imply that AVM could induce oxidative damage to the brain tissue and serum of pigeon. The information presented in this study is helpful to understand the mechanism of AVM-induced oxidative stress in birds.
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Synthesis and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of hypoxia-enhanced 111In-bombesin conjugates for prostate cancer imaging.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Receptor-targeted agents, such as gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (BB2r)-targeted peptides, have been investigated extensively in preclinical and clinical studies. In an attempt to increase the effectiveness of diagnostic or radiotherapeutic agents, we have begun to explore the incorporation of the hypoxia-selective prodrug 2-nitroimidazole into receptor-targeted peptides. Hypoxia is a well-known characteristic of many solid tumors, including breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancers. The aim of this approach is to use the hypoxia-trapping capability of 2-nitroimidazoles to increase the retention of the agent in hypoxic, BB2r-positive tumors. We have demonstrated that incorporation of one or more 2-nitroimidazoles into the BB2r-targeted peptide significantly increases the in vitro retention of the agent in hypoxic prostate cancer cells. The study described herein represents our first investigation of the in vivo properties of these hypoxia-enhanced BB2r-targeted agents in a PC-3 xenograft mouse model.
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Conversion of cornstalk to bio-oil in hot-compressed water: effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on the yield and chemical composition of bio-oil, carbon balance, and energy recovery.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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An ultrasonic pretreatment method was developed to enhance the yield of bio-oil obtained from the liquefaction of cornstalks in hot-compressed water at different reaction temperatures (260-340 °C) and residence times (0-40 min). Influences of ultrasonic pretreatment on the physicochemical properties of cornstalks and bio-oil yields were investigated. The results show that ultrasonic pretreatment obviously increases surface areas of cornstalks, decreases crystallinities, and erodes the structures of lignin, leading to more exposure of cellulose and hemicellulose. The yield of bio-oil was increased remarkably by 10.1% for 40 min sonicated cornstalks under the optimum liquefied conditions (300 °C for 0 min of residence time). Carbon balance indicates that ultrasonic pretreatment increases the carbon conversion of cornstalks to heavy oil and water-soluble oil. Energy balance indicates that the sonicated cornstalks have positive energy efficiencies. GC-MS analyses demonstrate ultrasonic pretreatment increases the contents of the phenols in heavy oil and water-soluble oil.
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Sensitive detection of ozone by a practical resorufin-based spectroscopic probe with extremely low background signal.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Ozone (O3) has attracted much attention because of its key role in human health and disease, and its detection is of great importance for various biochemical studies as well as environmental evaluation. Here we develop a simple and practical spectroscopic off-on O3 probe based on resorufin and the specific reaction of but-3-enyl with O3. The probe shows an extremely low background spectroscopic signal, but reacts with O3 producing a distinct color and fluorescence change. The detection limit of the probe for O3 is 5.9?nM, which corresponds to an ozone concentration of 0.056?mg m(-3) in air in this study and is lower than the international ambient air quality standard of 0.1?mg m(-3). More importantly, the proposed probe is worth popularizing, and its applicability has been successfully demonstrated on both the determination of O3 in real ambient air samples and the imaging of O3 in biological cells.
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[UPLC/Q-TOF-MS(E) based analysis of chemical composition of banxia xiexin decoction].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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In order to clarify the chemical composition and source of Banxia Xiexin decoction quickly and comprehensively, whole and individual herbs of Banxia Xiexin decoction were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS(E)). Under identical experiment conditions, chromatography results were compared between experiment groups. Based on the Q-TOF-MS(E) analysis, 74 peaks were identified on line. The herbal sources of these peaks were assigned. The results implied that flavonoids, triterpenoid saponins, alkaloids and glycosides were the main components in effective part of Banxia Xiexin decoction. The method established is simple and rapid for elucidation the constituents of Banxia Xiexin decoction and the results could be used for the quality control of Banxia Xiexin decoction.
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Cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in chickens (Gallus domesticus) and ameliorative effect by selenium.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic metal compounds released into the environment. It was well known that Cd induced hepatotoxicity in animal models. However, little is known about the negative effects of Cd toxicity in the liver of birds. To investigate the Cd hepatotoxicity in birds and the protective effects of selenium (Se) against subchronic exposure to dietary Cd, 100-day-old cocks received either Se (as 10mg Na2SeO3 per kg of diet), Cd (as 150mg CdCl2 per kg of diet) or Cd+Se in their diets for 60 days. Histological and ultrastructural changes in the liver, the concentrations of Cd and Se, the lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) production, the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and apoptosis were determined. Exposure to Cd significantly reduced SOD and GPx activity, Se content in the liver tissue. It increased the LPO and NO production, the numbers of apoptotic cells and Cd concentration and caused obvious histopathological changes in the liver. Concurrent treatment with Se reduced the Cd-induced liver histopathological changes, oxidative stress, overexpression of NO and apoptosis, suggesting that the toxic effects of Cd on the liver is partly ameliorated by inorganic Se. Se supplementation also modified the distribution of Cd in the liver.
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A theoretical investigation into the cooperativity effect between the H???O and H???F(-) interactions and electrostatic potential upon 1:2 (F (-):N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide) ternary-system formation.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The cooperativity effects between the O/N-H???F(-) anionic hydrogen-bonding and O/N-H???O hydrogen-bonding interactions and electrostatic potentials in the 1:2 (F(-):N-(Hydroxymethyl)acetamide (signed as "ha")) ternary systems are investigated at the B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels. A comparison of the cooperativity effect in the "F(-)???ha???ha" and "FH???ha(-)???ha" systems is also carried out. The result shows that the increase of the H???O interaction energy in the O-H???O-H, N-H???O-H or N-H???O?=?C link is more notable than that in the O-H???O?=?C contact upon ternary-system formation. The cooperativity effect is found in the complex formed by the O/N-H???F(-) and O/N-H???O interactions, while the anti-cooperativity effect is present in the system with only the O/N-H???F(-) H-bond or the "FH???ha(-)???ha" complex by the N(-)???H-F contact. Atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis and shift of electron density confirm the existence of cooperativity. The most negative surface electrostatic potential (V S,min ) correlates well with the interaction energy E int.(ha???F-) and synergetic energy E syn., respectively. The relationship between the change of V S,min (i.e., ?V S,min ) and E syn. is also found.
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Distinguishing folate-receptor-positive cells from folate-receptor-negative cells using a fluorescence off-on nanoprobe.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Based on the high affinity of folic acid (FA) for folate receptor (FR) that is overexpressed on the surface of many human cancer cells, we have developed a simple fluorescence nanoprobe (1) with multiple capability (fluorescence off-on response and cell-targeting ability) for imaging of FR-positive cells by covalently linking both FA and Rhodamine B (RB) to graphene oxide (GO) through disulfide bonds. The nanoprobe shows a weak fluorescence due to the electron transfer from GO to RB. However, the specific binding of FA to FR-positive cells leads to the internalization of the nanoprobe into the cells. As a result, the disulfide bonds of 1 are cleaved by intracellular glutathione, causing the release of the RB moiety from GO and thereby the generation of fluorescence. Compared to most of the reported fluorescence always-on nanoprobes for imaging FR-positive cells, the present fluorescence off-on nanoprobe can not only produce a high signal/background ratio but also avoid the false positive results often caused by nonspecific adsorption of the always-on nanoprobes on the surface of nontarget cells. Notably, the proposed off-on nanoprobe has been demonstrated to distinguish the cells with different expression levels of FR by culturing and analyzing different cell mixtures (Hela/NIH-3T3 and Hela/MCF-7 cells). Moreover, the nanoprobe is capable of discriminating FR-positive from FR-negative cells even with similar morphology. This method is simple and selective for fluorescence imaging of FR-positive cells.
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Trends in using beta-blockers and methyldopa for hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in a Canadian population.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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To describe trends in and patterns of antihypertensive drug use in a general obstetric population.
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The effect of Se-deficient diet on gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in chicken brain.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Selenium (Se) plays an important role in the brain development, function, and degeneration, nutritional encephalomalacia is closely related with dietary Se in avian. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between inflammation and encephalomalacia in avian and the mechanism which Se regulates the inflammatory response in brain tissues remains to be unclear. The present paper describes the effects of Se-deficient granulated diet on one transcription factor-nuclear factor kappaB and four pro-inflammatory cytokines-tumor necrosis factor, cyclooxygenase2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and Prostaglandin E synthase mRNA expression in the chicken brain tissues associated encephalomalacia. One hundred male chickens (1 day old; Weiwei Co. Ltd., Harbin, China) were divided into two groups (50 chickens per group). The expression levels in the brain tissues (cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, marrowbrain, cerebellum, thalamus and brain stem) were determined by real-time PCR on days 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55, respectively. The results showed the productions of pro-inflammatory mediators were increased following Se-deficiency. These data indicate the correlations between nutritional encephalomalacia and inflammatory response and the activity of inflammatory response in chicken brain may be induced by Se-deficiency.
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Influence of ultrasonic pretreatment on the yield of bio-oil prepared by thermo-chemical conversion of rice husk in hot-compressed water.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The aim of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of thermo-chemical conversion of rice husk in hot-compressed water via ultrasonic pretreatment to increase the bio-oil yield. The results show that ultrasonic pretreatment remarkably changes the structures of the rice husk, such as enhancing swelling and surface area, eroding lignin structure, and resulting in more exposure of the cellulose and hemicellulose. The highest bio-oil yield of 42.8% was obtained from the thermo-chemical conversion at 300 °C and 0 min of the residence time for the 1 h pretreated rice husk. GC-MS analysis indicates that the relative contents of phenols, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, and lactic acid are higher in bio-oils obtained from the pretreated rice husks than that from the raw rice husk.
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7-((5-Nitrothiophen-2-yl)methoxy)-3H-phenoxazin-3-one as a spectroscopic off-on probe for highly sensitive and selective detection of nitroreductase.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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A new spectroscopic off-on probe, 7-((5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)methoxy)-3H-phenoxazin-3-one, is developed and applied to real-time detection of nitroreductase produced by Escherichia coli.
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Avermectin induced liver injury in pigeon: mechanisms of apoptosis and oxidative stress.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Extensive use of avermectin (AVM) can result in environment pollution, and it is important to evaluate the potential impact this antibiotic has on ecological systems. Few published literatures have discussed the liver injury mechanisms induced by AVM on birds. In this study, pigeons were exposed to feed containing AVM (0, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg diet) for 30, 60, 90 days respectively. The results showed that AVM increased the number of apoptosis and the expression level of caspase-3, 8, fas mRNA in the liver of pigeons. Ultrastructural alterations, including mitochondrial damage and chromatin aggregation, become severe with increase exposure dose. Exposure to AVM induced significant changes in antioxidant enzyme {superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)} activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, augmented protein carbonyl (PCO) content and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficient, in a concentration-dependent manner in the liver of pigeons. Our results show that AVM has toxic effect in pigeon liver, and the mechanism of injury caused by AVM is closely related to apoptosis and oxidative stress.
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Formation and photoinduced processes of the host-guest complexes of a ?-cyclodextrin-conjugated aza-BODIPY and tetrasulfonated porphyrins.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A bis(permethylated ?-cyclodextrin)-substituted aza-BODIPY has been prepared, which forms stable 1 : 1 host-guest complexes with metal-free and zinc(II) tetrasulfonated porphyrins in water. The resulting complexes exhibit predominantly a photoinduced energy or electron transfer process depending on the porphyrin-based guest.
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