JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical evaluation of tigecycline in the treatment of nosocomial infection in a hospital in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: Clinical information on tigecycline use in serious nosocomial infections is limited, and the efficacy is uncertain. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the utilization pattern and the effectiveness of tigecycline in a tertiary medical center in Taiwan. Methods: A retrospective study of the clinical and microbiological outcome of all patients treated with tigecycline for at least 72 hours over a 2-year period was conducted in a 730-bed teaching hospital. Results: Data from 133 patients with 149 cases of nosocomial infection were analyzed in this assessment. The mean APACHE II score at the initiation of tigecycline therapy was 22.5 ± 8.8, and the mean duration of treatment was 11.4 ± 5.6 days. Pneumonia was the most frequently diagnosed clinical indication for tigecycline use (113 cases, 76%). An overall positive clinical outcome was observed in 75 cases (50%). Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is the most common organism for tigecycline therapy (n = 59), with a positive clinical outcome of 38% in tigecycline monotherapy, 66% in dualtherapy, and 17% in triple-therapy (p = 0.031). The most commonly used combining agents with tigecycline to treat MDRAB infections were intravenous colistin, inhaled colistin, and cepoferazone/sulbactam, with positive clinical outcome rates of 53%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. Admission to intensive care unit was identified as a predictive factor for negative clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our pneumonia-dominated study population demonstrated a lower clinical improvement rate of tigecycline compared to previous published data. Tigecycline monotherapy is not recommended for MDRAB infection, but colistin or cephoperazone/ sulbactam combined with tigecycline seemed to yield a good clinical outcome for MDRAB infection.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative efficacy and safety of various treatment procedures for lower pole renal calculi: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effectiveness of various treatments used for lower pole renal calculi METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Collaboration's Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials as well as ClinicalTrials.gov for reports up to April 1, 2014. Search was supplemented with abstract reports from various urology conferences. All randomised, blinded clinical studies including patients treated for lower pole renal calculi <20mm were included for review. Two authors independently reviewed 5,194 articles identified and selected 13 trials for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to generate comparative statistics while quality was assessed with Jadad composite scale and risk of bias RESULTS: All treatment modalities examined: percutaneous nephrolithtripsy (PNL), ureterenoscopy (URS) and shockwave lithotripsy with adjuvant therapy such as inversion, hydration and forced diuresis (SWL & Adj) were more effective than shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) therapy alone, with risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of being stone free: PNL 2.19 (1.62-2.96); URS 1.23 (1.03-1.48); and SWL & Adj 1.30 (1.03-1.63). However, patients treated with other treatment modalities also have a higher risk of adverse events compared with SWL therapy, but there was no evidence of a convincing difference between the various techniques and adverse events.
Related JoVE Video
Progesterone receptor-NF?B complex formation is required for progesterone-induced NF?-B nuclear translocation and binding onto the p53 promoter.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously demonstrated that progesterone (P4) up-regulates p53 expression in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) through P4 receptor (PR) activation of extra-nuclear signaling pathways. However, the involvement of nuclear PR in P4-increased p53 expression is still unclear. Here, the molecular mechanism underlying PR-regulated p53 expression in HUVEC was investigated. Treatment with P4 increased I?B? phosphorylation and NF?-B nuclear translocation. Interestingly, P4 also increased PR-A, but not PR-B, nuclear translocation in HUVEC. Immunoprecipitation assay illustrated that P4 increased the formation of PR-A-NF?-B complex in both the cytosol and the nucleus of HUVEC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed an interaction between PR and the NF?-B binding mortif on the p53 promoter. Ablation of the NF?-B binding motif in the p53 promoter completely abolished P4-increased the p53 promoter activity. In the absence of P4, overexpression of NF?-B did not increase NF?-B nuclear translocation. In contrast, treatment of NF?-B overexpressing HUVEC with P4 for only 4 h, which is much shorter than the time (21.5 h) required for P4-induced I?B? phosphorylation, increased NF?-B nuclear translocation. Blockade of PR activity abolished this effect. Taken together, these results uncover a novel role of PR for P4-induced NF?-B nuclear translocation and suggest that PR-A-NF?-B complex formation is required for NF?-B nuclear translocation and binding onto the p53 promoter in HUVEC. Our data indicate that both nuclear and extra-nuclear signaling pathways of PR are involved in P4-regulated p53 expression in HUVEC.
Related JoVE Video
Ed focus- F-676-2013 The slowing down of renal deterioration but acceleration of cardiac hypertrophy-is estrogen receptor ? a hero or villain?
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Role of estrogen receptor ? (ER?) in the kidney and heart was still uncertain, although Estrogen-ER action is usually thought to function as reno- and possibly cardio-protection, which includes prevention of glomerulosclerosis and podocyte apoptosis in kidney, and atheroprotection by lowering plague formation and against endothelial dysfunction after injury, ischemia and re-perfusion. The adenine-fed rat model of Diwan showed that an adenine diet significantly decreased ER? expression in male rat kidney, but significantly increased ER? expression in the heart of both genders. Their results regarding renal function showed male adenine-fed rats had significantly more kidney function decline than female adenine-fed rats, suggesting the favorable role of ER? in the kidney. However, the results of an increased expression of ER? in the heart should be read with caution. Since an increased expression of ER? and the subsequently activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway may be attributed partly to cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy, a compensation for the contraction ability of the heart, might transiently maintain the "normal" heart function; therefore, is a hero for the heart. However, cardiac hypertrophy may increase the burden of oxygen consumption and further exacerbate the severity of existence of ischemic heart disease or even worsen the "normal heart". Therefore, the net long-term effect of ER? might not be good for the heart itself.
Related JoVE Video
The novel Aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibitor biseugenol inhibits gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biseugenol (Eug) is known to antiproliferative of cancer cells; however, to date, the antiperitoneal dissemination effects have not been studied in any mouse cancer model. In this study, Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression was associated with lymph node and distant metastasis in patients with gastric cancer and was correlated with clinicolpathological pattern. We evaluated the antiperitoneal dissemination potential of knockdown AhR and Biseugenol in cancer mouse model and assessed mesenchymal characteristics. Our results demonstrate that tumor growth, peritoneal dissemination and peritoneum or organ metastasis implanted MKN45 cells were significantly decreased in shAhR and Biseugenol-treated mice and that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was caused. Biseugenol-exposure tumors showed acquired epithelial features such as phosphorylation of E-cadherin, cytokeratin-18 and loss mesenchymal signature Snail, but not vimentin regulation. Snail expression, through AhR activation, is an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) determinant. Moreover, Biseugenol enhanced Calpain-10 (Calp-10) and AhR interaction results in Snail downregulation. The effect of shCalpain-10 in cancer cells was associated with inactivation of AhR/Snail promoter binding activity. Inhibition of Calpain-10 in gastric cancer cells by short hairpin RNA or pharmacological inhibitor was found to effectively reduced growth ability and vessel density in vivo. Importantly, knockdown of AhR completed abrogated peritoneal dissemination. Herein, Biseugenol targeting ER stress provokes Calpain-10 activity, sequentially induces reversal of EMT and apoptosis via AhR may involve the paralleling processes. Taken together, these data suggest that Calpain-10 activation and AhR inhibition by Biseugenol impedes both gastric tumor growth and peritoneal dissemination by inducing ER stress and inhibiting EMT.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence, clinical characteristics and risk factors for adverse outcome in neonates with late-onset sepsis.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is a common complication in the neonatal intensive care unit. We aimed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics and risk factors for adverse outcome in neonates with LOS.
Related JoVE Video
Comparing HbA1c, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose for screening for abnormal glucose regulation in patients undergoing coronary angiography.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose regulation (AGR, including diabetes and prediabetes) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) by using both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen, and to compare the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), and HbA1c for screening for AGR. Methods: Eligible patients were adults without known diabetes who were admitted for CAG. Patients' glucose regulation status was defined by conducting HbA1c and OGTT 2-4 weeks after hospital discharge. The performance of FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c for detecting AGR was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: A total of 689 subjects were included. According to OGTT, the prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were 19.9% and 41.7%, respectively. The corresponding values were 28.0% and 60.4%, respectively, when HbA1c was adopted as a diagnostic criterion in addition to OGTT. For detecting diabetes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was higher for HbA1c than for FPG (0.87 vs. 0.80, p=0.005), but was not significantly different from that for 2hPG (0.87 vs. 0.88, p=0.58). For detecting AGR, the AUC was higher for HbA1c than for either FPG (0.94 vs. 0.74, p<0.001) or 2hPG (0.94 vs. 0.83, p<0.001). Conclusions: Using HbA1c and OGTT to screen, we reported an extremely high prevalence of previously undiagnosed AGR (28.0% diabetes and 60.4% prediabetes) in patients admitted for CAG. HbA1c may be adopted as an alternative to OGTT for screening for AGR in patients undergoing CAG.
Related JoVE Video
Progesterone Induces RhoA Inactivation in Male Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells Through Up-Regulation of p27(kip1.).
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we showed that progesterone (P4) at physiologic concentrations (5nM-500nM) inhibits proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). The P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMC was resulted from Rat sacroma homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) inactivation induced by activating the cSrc/AKT/ERK 2/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway. We also demonstrated that up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(kip1)) is involved in the P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMC. Because P4 can increase formation of the p27(kip1)-RhoA complex in RASMC, this finding led us to hypothesize that the P4-induced inactivation in RhoA might be caused by up-regulation of p27(kip1). Here, we showed that P4 increased phosphorylation of p27(kip1) at Ser10 in the nucleus, which in turn caused p27(kip1) translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol, subsequently increasing formation of the p27(kip1)-RhoA complex. These effects were blocked by knocking-down kinase-interacting stathmin (KIS) using KIS small interfering RNA. Knock-down of p27(kip1) abolished the P4-induced decreases in the level of RhoA protein in RASMC. However, pretreatment of RASMC with the proteasome inhibitor, N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)leucinylleucinylleucinal (MG132), prevented the P4-induced degradation of p27(kip1) and RhoA. Taken together, our investigation of P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMC showed a sequence of associated intracellular events that included 1) increase in formation of the KIS-p27(kip1) complex in the nucleus; 2) phosphorylated nuclear p27(kip1) at Ser10; 3) increased cytosolic translocation of p27(kip1) and formation of the p27(kip1)-RhoA complex in the cytosol; and 4) degradation of p27(kip1) and RhoA through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These findings highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMC.
Related JoVE Video
Lower serum triglyceride level is a risk factor for in-hospital and late major adverse events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention- a cohort study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether serum triglyceride level correlates with clinical outcomes of patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Improving the work efficiency of healthcare-associated infection surveillance using electronic medical records.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we developed an integrated hospital-associated urinary tract infection (HAUTI) surveillance information system (called iHAUTISIS) based on existing electronic medical records (EMR) systems for improving the work efficiency of infection control professionals (ICPs) in a 730-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Taiwan. The iHAUTISIS can automatically collect data relevant to HAUTI surveillance from the different EMR systems, and provides a visualization dashboard that helps ICPs make better surveillance plans and facilitates their surveillance work. In order to measure the system performance, we also created a generic model for comparing the ICPs' work efficiency when using existing electronic culture-based surveillance information system (eCBSIS) and iHAUTISIS, respectively. This model can demonstrate a patient's state (unsuspected, suspected, and confirmed) and corresponding time spent on surveillance tasks performed by ICPs for the patient in that state. The study results showed that the iHAUTISIS performed better than the eCBSIS in terms of ICPs' time cost. It reduced the time by 73.27 s, when using iHAUTISIS (114.26 s) and eCBSIS (187.53 s), for each patient on average. With increased adoption of EMR systems, the development of the integrated HAI surveillance information systems would be more and more cost-effective. Moreover, the iHAUTISIS adopted web-based technology that enables ICPs to online access patient's surveillance information using laptops or mobile devices. Therefore, our system can further facilitate the HAI surveillance and reduce ICPs' surveillance workloads.
Related JoVE Video
An increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in Taiwanese women with a new surgico-pathological diagnosis of endometriosis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological evidence of relationships between endometriosis and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been obtained mainly from Western countries. Our goal was to determine the risk of EOC due to endometriosis in Taiwanese women.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of pneumonia- and non-pneumonia-related Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia: Impact on empiric therapy and antibiotic resistance.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) bacteremia has increasingly emerged as a nosocomial pathogen in healthcare settings, associated with high patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, risk factors, treatment outcome, and antibiotic resistance in patients with pneumonia- and non-pneumonia-related AB bacteremia.
Related JoVE Video
Calcineurin and CRTC2 mediate FSH and TGF?1 upregulation of Cyp19a1 and Nr5a in ovary granulosa cells.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estrogens are essential for female reproduction and overall well-being, and estrogens in the circulation are largely synthesized in ovarian granulosa cells. Using primary cultures of ovarian granulosa cells from gonadotropin-primed immature rats, we have recently discovered that pituitary FSH and ovarian cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF?1) induce calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation-activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC2) to modulate the expression of Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b leading to increased production of progesterone. This study explored the role of calcineurin and CRTC2 in FSH and TGF?1 regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in granulosa cells. Ovarian granulosa cells treated with FSH displayed increased aromatase protein at 24 ?h post-treatment, which subsided by 48 ?h, while TGF?1 acting through its type 1 receptor augmented the action of FSH with a greater and longer effects. It is known that the ovary-specific Cyp19a1 PII-promoter contains crucial response elements for CREB and nuclear receptor NR5A subfamily liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1/NR5A2) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1/NR5A1), and that the Nr5a2 promoter also has a potential CREB-binding site. Herein, we demonstrate that FSH+TGF?1 increased LRH1 and SF1 protein levels, and their binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter evidenced, determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis. Moreover, pretreatment with calcineurin auto-inhibitory peptide (CNI) abolished the FSH+TGF?1-upregulated but not FSH-upregulated aromatase activity at 48 ?h, and the corresponding mRNA changes in Cyp19a1, and Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 at 24 ?h. In addition, FSH and TGF?1 increased CRTC2 binding to the Cyp19a1 PII-promoter and Nr5a2 promoter at 24? h, with CREB bound constitutively. In summary, the results of this study indicate that calcineurin and CRTC2 have important roles in mediating FSH and TGF?1 collateral upregulation of Cyp19a1 expression together with its transcription regulators Nr5a2 and Nr5a1 in ovarian granulosa cells.
Related JoVE Video
HPLC-fingerprints and antioxidant constituents of Phyla nodiflora.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phyla nodiflora is a creeping perennial herb, widely distributed in the most tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used as a folk medicine, herbal beverage, or folk cosmetic. For these usages, the development of a chemical quality control method of this plant is necessary. In the present study, ten compounds, namely, 3,7,4',5'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone (1), nodifloretin (2), 4'-hydroxywogonin (3), onopordin (4), cirsiliol (5), 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone (6), eupafolin (7), hispidulin (8), larycitrin (9), and ?-sitosterol were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial part of P. nodiflora (PNM) and their structures were identified by 1D-NMR comparing their spectra with the literature. The antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated by free radical scavenging activity and tyrosinase inhibitory effect in cell-free systems. Compounds 4, 5, and 7 showed strong antioxidant activity. To control the quality of P. nodiflora, a simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) was established for both the fingerprint analysis and the quantitative determination of two selected active compounds, onopordin (4) and eupafolin (7). Statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrated that our method achieved the desired linearity, precision, and accuracy. The results indicated that the developed method can be used as a quality evaluation method for PNM.
Related JoVE Video
Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of ischemic stroke in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: a nationwide cohort study.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundIt is known that the risk of stroke in patients with traumatic brain injury might be increased. However, the relationship between mild traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke has never been established. We conducted a study of patients in Taiwan with mild traumatic brain injury to evaluate if they had a higher risk of stroke compared with the general population.MethodsWe utilized a sampled National Health Insurance claims database containing one million beneficiaries. We followed all adult beneficiaries older than 18 years from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 to determine if they were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. We further identified patients with mild traumatic brain injury and compared their risk of ischemic stroke with the general population.ResultsWe identified 24,905 patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 719,811 patients without mild traumatic brain injury. After controlling for age, gender, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, history of alcohol intoxication, malignancies, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, smoking, obesity, epilepsy, peripheral artery disease and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, the adjusted hazard ratio for ischemic stroke was 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.33¿1.62).ConclusionMild traumatic brain injury is an independent significant risk factor for ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Magnolol reduced TNF-?-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in endothelial cells via JNK/p38 and NF-?B signaling pathways.
Am. J. Chin. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Expression of cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium and the attachment of leukocytes to these cells play major roles in inflammation and cardiovascular disorders. Magnolol, a major active component of Magnolia officinalis, has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, the effects of magnolol on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and the related mechanisms were investigated. TNF-? induced VCAM-1 protein expression and mRNA stability were significantly decreased in HAECs pre-treated with magnolol. Magnolol significantly reduced the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in TNF-?-treated HAECs. The decrease in VCAM-1 expression in response to TNF-? treatment was affected by JNK and p38 inhibitors, not by an ERK inhibitor. Magnolol also attenuates NF-?B activation and the translocation of HuR (an RNA binding protein) in TNF-?-stimulated HAECs. The VCAM-1 expression was weaker in the aortas of TNF-?-treated apo-E deficient mice with magnolol treatment. These data demonstrate that magnolol inhibits TNF-?-induced JNK/p38 phosphorylation, HuR translocation, NF-?B activation, and thereby suppresses VCAM-1 expression resulting in reduced leukocyte adhesion. Taken together, these results suggest that magnolol has an anti-inflammatory property and may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and inflammatory responses.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of electromagnetic therapy for urinary incontinence: A systematic review.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review whether patients with urinary incontinence (UI) treated with magnetic stimulation (MS) have a higher continence rate compared to sham.
Related JoVE Video
Weight loss reduces serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentrations in association with improvements in renal injury in obese men with metabolic syndrome.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background: Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is involved in obesity-related renal injury. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of weight loss on changes in MCP-1 and markers of renal injury, specifically serum cystatin C (S-CysC) and urinary N-acetyl glucosaminidase (UNAG), in obese people. Methods: In this prospective study, 40 obese men with metabolic syndrome (MetS) participated in a 3-month dietary and exercise intervention. Twenty-eight subjects completed the study with a ?5% weight loss. Circulating MCP-1, S-CysC and UNAG to creatinine ratio (UNCR) were determined before and after the weight loss program. Results: Obesity-associated components of MetS demonstrated significant improvements after the weight loss program. In addition, at baseline, circulating MCP-1 concentrations were positively correlated with UNCR and S-CysC levels. After weight loss, blood MCP-1 and UNCR levels were significantly decreased, but S-CysC was not affected. Using multiple linear regression analysis, there was a significant relationship between changes in UNCR and MCP-1 after adjusting for other potential confounding factors. Conclusions: Weight loss may improve renal tubular injury by ameliorating obesity-related inflammation in obese men with MetS.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on ES-2 ovarian cancer cells.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor is found in the ovarian tissue, including epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), suggesting that GnRH agonists may have direct action on EOC.
Related JoVE Video
Hormone therapy for patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The "gold standard" treatment for endometrial cancer is completely staged surgery, followed by radiation or chemotherapy, based on the final pathological surgical stage and requirements. In the primary treatment of endometrial cancers, hormones are rarely taken into consideration after primary surgery. Primary treatment with hormones to preserve fertility in younger women with endometrial cancer is an attractive option, and many successful cases have been reported, although the majority of them finally received definite therapy, including total hysterectomy. The role of hormone therapy is often delayed in recurrent disease; response rates to progestins and tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors in advanced/recurrent endometrial cancers are approximately 15-20% and nearly ? 10%, respectively. This review is focused on updated information and recent knowledge on the use of hormones in the management of women with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancers.
Related JoVE Video
The chromosome 9p21 variant not predicting long-term cardiovascular mortality in Chinese with established coronary artery disease: an eleven-year follow-up study.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We examined whether the variant at chromosome 9p21, rs4977574, was associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality in Han Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Related JoVE Video
N?-carboxymethyllysine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes endothelial cell injury through Nox4/MKP-3 interaction.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an important driver of diabetic vascular complications and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, how CML dictates specific cellular responses and the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and ERK phosphorylation remain unclear. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of MAPK phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is critical in regulating ERK inactivation and promoting NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) activation in CML-induced endothelial cell injury. We demonstrated that serum CML levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes patients and diabetic animals. CML induced ER stress and apoptosis, reduced ERK activation, and increased MKP-3 protein activity in HUVECs and SVECs. MKP-3 siRNA transfection, but not that of MKP-1 or MKP-2, abolished the effects of CML on HUVECs. Nox4-mediated activation of MKP-3 regulated the switch to ERK dephosphorylation. CML also increased the integration of MKP-3 with ERK, which was blocked by silencing MKP-3. Exposure of antioxidants abolished CML-increased MKP-3 activity and protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of both MKP-3 and CML was increased, but phospho-ERK staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our results indicate that an MKP-3 pathway might regulate ERK dephosphorylation through Nox4 during CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting the Nox4/MKP-3 interaction or MKP-3 activation may have clinical implications for diabetic vascular complications.
Related JoVE Video
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not body weight, correlated with a reduction in depression scale scores in men with metabolic syndrome: a prospective weight-reduction study.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity, a critical component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is associated with depression. Deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the mechanism of depression. We hypothesized that weight reduction would improve depressive symptoms via increasing BDNF levels in obese men.
Related JoVE Video
Progesterone-induced migration inhibition in male rat aortic smooth muscle cells through the cSrc/AKT/ERK 2/p38 pathway-mediated up-regulation of p27.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we showed that progesterone (P4) inhibits proliferation and migration of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). The P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs resulted from suppression of the Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) activity mediated by cSrc activation. We also observed that P4 increased the formation of p27-RhoA complex in RASMCs. The aim of this study was to further study the involvement of p27 in P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs. Treatment with P4 (50 nM) increased the level of p27 protein in RASMCs. Knockdown of p27 abolished the P4-induced increases of the levels of p27 protein and decreases of cell migration in RASMCs. We conducted Western blot analyses and applied pharmacologic inhibitors to delineate the signaling pathway involved in the P4-induced p27 up-regulation and migration inhibition in RASMCs. Our data suggest that P4 increased the levels of p27 in RASMCs through activating the cSrc/AKT/ERK 2/p38 pathway mediated by nongenomic progesterone receptor. The findings of the present study highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying P4-induced migration inhibition in RASMCs.
Related JoVE Video
Successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction in a 12-year-old boy with fibromuscular dysplasia: a case report.
Cardiol Young
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute myocardial infarction is rarely reported in children. Most of the cases are secondary to congenital anomalies or Kawasaki disease. Coronary artery total occlusion caused by fibromuscular dysplasia has never been reported in young children. Here we report a case of a 12-year-old boy with fibromuscular dysplasia, who underwent successful coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Eupafolin inhibits PGE2 production and COX2 expression in LPS-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts by blocking JNK/AP-1 and Nox2/p47(phox) pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eupafolin, a major active component found in the methanol extracts of Phyla nodiflora, has been used to treat inflammation of skin. We examined its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in LPS-treated human dermal fibroblasts. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly increased prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production associated with increased COX-2 expression in Hs68 cells. This effect was blocked by eupafolin, TLR-4 antibody, antioxidants (APO and NAC), as well as inhibitors, including U0126 (ERK1/2), SB202190 (p38), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and Tanshinone IIA (AP-1). In gene regulation level, qPCR and promoter assays revealed that COX-2 expression was attenuated by eupafolin. In addition, eupafolin also ameliorated LPS-induced p47 phox activation and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity. Moreover, pretreatment with eupafolin and APO led to reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Further, eupafolin attenuated LPS-induced increase in AP-1 transcription factor binding activity as well as the increase in the phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Fos. In vivo studies have shown that in dermal fibroblasts of LPS treated mice, eupafolin exerted anti-inflammation effects by decreasing COX-2 protein levels. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of eupafolin that involved inhibition of LPS-induced ROS generation, suppression of MAPK phosphorylation, diminished DNA binding activity of AP-1 and attenuated COX-2 expression leading to reduced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Our results demonstrate that eupafolin may be used to treat inflammatory responses associated with dermatologic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors and outcomes for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia in the NICU.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the risk factors antibiotic therapy and outcomes of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) bacteremia in NICU patients.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with gender differences in medication adherence: a longitudinal study.
J Adv Nurs
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine gender differences in the medication adherence of patients with hypertension by applying a longitudinal follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1 ? Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides (EORPs), which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL-) 1 ? expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced IL-1 ? expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10? ? g/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1 ? expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF-) ? B p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1 ? expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1 ? expression. The level of IL-1 ? expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.
Related JoVE Video
Protein thermal stability enhancement by designing salt bridges: a combined computational and experimental study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein thermal stability is an important factor considered in medical and industrial applications. Many structural characteristics related to protein thermal stability have been elucidated, and increasing salt bridges is considered as one of the most efficient strategies to increase protein thermal stability. However, the accurate simulation of salt bridges remains difficult. In this study, a novel method for salt-bridge design was proposed based on the statistical analysis of 10,556 surface salt bridges on 6,493 X-ray protein structures. These salt bridges were first categorized based on pairing residues, secondary structure locations, and C?-C? distances. Pairing preferences generalized from statistical analysis were used to construct a salt-bridge pair index and utilized in a weighted electrostatic attraction model to find the effective pairings for designing salt bridges. The model was also coupled with B-factor, weighted contact number, relative solvent accessibility, and conservation prescreening to determine the residues appropriate for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges. According to our method, eight putative salt-bridges were designed on a mesophilic ?-glucosidase and 24 variants were constructed to verify the predictions. Six putative salt-bridges leaded to the increase of the enzyme thermal stability. A significant increase in melting temperature of 8.8, 4.8, 3.7, 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7°C of the putative salt-bridges N437K-D49, E96R-D28, E96K-D28, S440K-E70, T231K-D388, and Q277E-D282 was detected, respectively. Reversing the polarity of T231K-D388 to T231D-D388K resulted in a further increase in melting temperatures by 3.6°C, which may be caused by the transformation of an intra-subunit electrostatic interaction into an inter-subunit one depending on the local environment. The combination of the thermostable variants (N437K, E96R, T231D and D388K) generated a melting temperature increase of 15.7°C. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel method for the thermal adaptive design of salt bridges through inference of suitable positions and substitutions.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Related JoVE Video
Neurological complications after neonatal bacteremia: the clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neonates with bacteremia are at risk of neurologic complications. Relevant information warrants further elucidation.
Related JoVE Video
Post-meal ?-cell function predicts the efficacy of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy after addition of glibenclamide or acarbose.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to explore parameters which will predict good control of HbA1c after adding a second anti-diabetic drug in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled with metformin monotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Extracts of Artocarpus communis decrease ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone-induced melanogenesis through activation of ERK and JNK signaling pathways.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Artocarpus communis is an agricultural plant that is also used in folk medicine to prevent skin diseases, including acne and dermatitis. Extracts of A. communis have been used to effectively inhibit melanogenesis; however, the antimelanogenesis mechanism of these extracts has not yet been investigated. The present study utilized a cell-free tyrosinase assay as well as ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone- (-MSH-) induced tyrosinase assay conducted in B16F10 cells, performed a cytotoxicity assay, and determined cellular melanin content to examine the effects of a methanolic extract of A. communis (ACM) and various organic partition fractions of A. communis on melanogenesis. In addition, we performed western blot analysis to elucidate the mechanism of their antimelanogenesis effect. Our results indicated that, except for the n-hexane extract, ACM and the various partition extracts at noncytotoxic concentrations effectively decreased melanin content and tyrosinase activity by downregulating microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB). Moreover, ACM and the partition fractions activated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to inhibit the synthesis of MITF and finally to decrease melanin production. In conclusion, we suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of ACM and the various partition fractions may be useful as references for developing skin-lighting agents for use in medicines or cosmetics.
Related JoVE Video
Polymicrobial bloodstream infection in neonates: microbiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polymicrobial bloodstream infections (PBSIs) have been associated with complex underlying medical conditions and a high incidence of specific microorganisms in several settings, but the relevant data are scarce in neonates.
Related JoVE Video
True lumen stenting for a spontaneously dissected superior mesenteric artery may compromise major intestinal branches and aggravate bowel ischemia.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optimal endovascular therapy for isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection remains undetermined. Here, we report a 56-year-old male with ischemic bowel syndrome caused by such a serious vascular disease. He was treated with endovascular true lumen stenting yet got aggravated in bowel ischemia from unexpected jail of major intestinal branches perfused by the false lumen, requiring subsequent complex rewiring and dilatation procedures to resolve at the cost of excessive fluoroscopic and contrast medium exposure. Thus, when treating patients with isolated SMA dissection with a functioning false lumen, true lumen stenting may inadvertently compromise crucial intestinal branches and should not be indiscriminately considered as the prime therapeutic option.
Related JoVE Video
Eupafolin, a skin whitening flavonoid isolated from Phyla nodiflora, downregulated melanogenesis: Role of MAPK and Akt pathways.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In hyperpigmentation disorders marked by melanin overproduction in the skin, including melisma and freckles, melanogenesis is caused by tyrosinase overexpression. Natural medicinal resources, like Phyla nodiflora, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been used for a long time to management of dermatological conditions, such as skin inflammation and melanogenesis. Eupafolin, a functional flavonoid isolated from Phyla nodiflora, is an herbal tea constituent and possesses anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, molecular mechanisms of eupafolin-mediated antimelanogenesis remain unknown. We thus focused on its antimelanogenesis effects in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells.
Related JoVE Video
Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by vancomycin-tolerant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: Experience with teicoplanin plus fosfomycin combination therapy.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An 85-year-old female presented with fever and consciousness disturbance for 3 days. The patients blood culture subsequently revealed persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia despite the administration of vancomycin or teicoplanin monotherapy. Gallium inflammation scan and magnetic resonance image of the spine disclosed osteomyelitis and discitis at the level of L4-5. Surgical debridement was not feasible in this debilitated patient. Because of the creeping minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of the causative isolate (1.5 ?g/mL) and clinical failure with glycopeptide monotherapy, we changed the antibiotic therapy to a fosfomycin and teicoplanin combination therapy. The patient showed improved clinical response in terms of her enhanced consciousness as well as subsidence of persisted bacteremia. Despite the potential side effects of fosfomycin (such as diarrhea and hypernatremia), it combined with a glycopeptide may be an alternative therapy for invasive refractory MRSA infections.
Related JoVE Video
Does Simultaneous Inversion During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Improve Stone Clearance: A Long-term, Prospective, Single-blind, Randomized Controlled Study.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the efficacy of a combination of simultaneous shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), hydration with controlled inversion therapy compared with SWL with hydration alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones.
Related JoVE Video
Hybrid surgery for symptomatic chronic total occlusion of carotid artery: a technical note.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although medical treatment has been considered a dogma for chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the carotid artery, use of endovascular recanalization has also been reported. However, there are some difficulties in performing endovascular recanalization. We present the novel technical details and advantages of hybrid surgery for recanalization of symptomatic CTO of the internal carotid artery (ICA).
Related JoVE Video
Leclercia adecarboxylata bacteremia in a patient with long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Leclercia adecarboxylata, a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacillus, is generally viewed as an opportunistic pathogen because it is rarely cultured from clinical samples. Although rare, bacteremia due to L. adecarboxylata tends to occur in immunocompromised hosts and patients with systemic comorbidities. Only one case of bacteremia due to L. adecarboxylata has been reported in a previously healthy patient. We describe a male patient with an active peptic ulcer who developed L. adecarboxylata bacteremia after a long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The abdomen is believed to have been the most probable portal of entry. After appropriate medical management, the patient recovered without sequela.
Related JoVE Video
The benefits of estrogen or selective estrogen receptor modulator on kidney and its related disease-chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder: osteoporosis.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An umbrella concept addressing the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mineral and bone disorders has been developed in recent years. Given the high prevalence of osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women with CKD, especially those undergoing chronic hemodialysis, the strategy used in the prevention and management of CKD and its associated osteoporosis in these postmenopausal women has become a topic of substantial debate. This controversy has ongoing relevance because osteoporosis results in a significant economic burden secondary to increased morbidity and mortality. The perfect goal of treatment and prevention includes both bone protection and renal protection, or at least protection of one disease without compromising the other disease. Both CKD and osteoporosis are frequently observed in the same patients, and often have parallel progression in postmenopausal women. Estrogen, the main female hormone during reproductive age, has been reported to have a protective effect on kidney fibrosis in several animal models, and is also considered one of the most effective drugs in the management of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and prevention of osteoporosis. However, due to the many adverse events associated with the use of estrogen with and without progestin, some of which have contributed to significant morbidity and mortality, drug modification, which has had fewer reported incidences of adverse events without compromising the protective effect on both the kidney and bone, may have an easier road to acceptance. Therapeutic alternatives, such as the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), have shown the benefits of estrogen on bone, serum lipid levels, and renal protection, without any adverse effects on the breast and endometrium. The Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial (MORE) and its extension-Continuing Outcomes Relevant to Evista (CORE), a double-blind, randomized clinical trial encompassing postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, showed promising results in both bone and renal studies. Raloxifene increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine and femoral neck and reduced the risk of vertebral fracture. In addition, raloxifene slowed the increase in the rate of serum creatinine and also significantly slowed the decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate; of most importance, raloxifene use was associated with significantly fewer kidney-related adverse events. Hemodialyzed women on raloxifene treatment demonstrated increased trabecular BMD, a decrease in bone resorption markers, and a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol value. Thus, raloxifene and, most likely, other SERMs could be better in place of estrogen in the management of postmenopausal women with CKD and its associated osteoporosis, although much evidence should be provided in the advanced-stage CKD, especially in the Stage 5 CKD patients on dialysis.
Related JoVE Video
The feasibility, safety, and mid-term outcomes of concomitant percutaneous transluminal renal artery stenting in acute coronary syndrome patients at high clinical risk of renal artery stenosis.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Concomitant renal artery stenosis (RAS) aggravates the presentations and outcomes of coronary artery disease. To date, no reports have been published on the feasibility, safety, and outcomes of concomitant percutaneous renal artery stenting (PTRS) in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) at high clinical risk of RAS.
Related JoVE Video
Shorter GT repeats in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter are associated with a lower severity score in coronary artery disease.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The glutathione thymidine repeats [(GT)n] of the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 gene promoter have been shown to be correlated with the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD), patients with shorter repeats being less likely to have CAD. In this study, we investigated whether (GT)n repeats in the HO-1 promoter were related to a quantitative angiographic severity of CAD.
Related JoVE Video
Hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation for robot-assisted coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Robot-assisted coronary artery bypass grafting requires continuous one-lung ventilation (OLV) to evacuate the thoracic cavity. Whether this ventilatory mode subjects patients to serious hypoxemia remains underinvestigated.
Related JoVE Video
Hyperglycemia accelerates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 degradation via an ERK-dependent pathway in macrophages.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An elevation in blood glucose concentration leads to increased risk of developing diabetes-associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease due to an excessive accumulation of cholesterol in arterial macrophages. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is an atheroprotective protein that mediates the export of cholesterol from macrophages. The present study aims to investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on the regulation of ABCA1 expression and to explore its underlying mechanisms of regulation in macrophages. Our results show that high glucose activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling pathway via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which in turn down-regulates ABCA1 mRNA and protein expression. This down-regulation is mediated by accelerating ABCA1 mRNA and protein degradation in macrophages exposed to high concentrations of glucose. Our results provide evidence for the first time that hyperglycemia inhibits ABCA1 expression by ERK-modulated ABCA1 mRNA and protein stability. Overall, these results provide a mechanism for hyperglycemia-induced reduction in ABCA1 expression, which suggests a promising strategy for the treatment of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population with diabetic retinopathy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of preventable blindness in adults. To identify genetic contributions in DR, we studied 2071 type 2 diabetics. We first conducted a genome-wide association study of 1007 individuals, comparing 570 subjects with ?8 years duration without DR (controls) with 437 PDR (cases) in the Chinese discovery cohort. Cases and controls were similar for HbA1c, diabetes duration and body mass index. Association analysis with imputed data identified three novel loci: TBC1D4-COMMD6-UCHL3 (rs9565164, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)), LRP2-BBS5 (rs1399634, P = 2.0 × 10(-6)) and ARL4C-SH3BP4 (rs2380261, P = 2.1 × 10(-6)). Analysis of an independent cohort of 585 Hispanics diabetics with or without DR though did not confirm these signals. These genes are still of particular interest because they are involved in insulin regulation, inflammation, lipid signaling and apoptosis pathways, all of which are possibly involved with DR. Our finding nominates possible novel loci as potential DR susceptibility genes in the Chinese that are independent of the level of HbA1c and duration of diabetes and may provide insight into the pathophysiology of DR.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a chip-based multiplexed immunoassay using liposomal nanovesicles and its application in the detection of pathogens causing female lower genital tract infections.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervicovaginitis is a highly prevalent disease that is a burden on healthcare globally. Immediate and adequate treatment can eradicate the infection and block subsequent complications. The feasibility of achip-based multiplexed immunoassay using liposomal nanovesicles was tested.
Related JoVE Video
Artocarpin attenuates ultraviolet B-induced skin damage in hairless mice by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Artocarpin, a prenylated flavonoid isolated from an agricultural plant Artocarpus communis, has been documented to possess anti-inflammation and anticancer activities. As oxidative stress and inflammation promote the development of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation-induced photodamage, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the photoprotective effect of artocarpin on UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice. Artocarpin at a topical dose of 0.05% and 0.1% showed a significant photoprotective effect by decreasing histopathological changes, such as desquamation, epidermal thicken and sunburn cell formation, but 0.1% of artocarpin administration did not show better effect. Regarding the antioxidant activities, artocarpin exhibited a significant effect (P<0.05) by decreasing levels of reactive species oxygen and lipid peroxidation. In addition, artocarpin can significant decrease the level of tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1? for downregulating the inflammation protein, including the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that artocarpin can prevent skin damage from UVB irradiation-induced photodamage in hairless mice and this is likely mediated through its antioxidant and anti-inflammation mechanisms. Therefore, we suggested that artocarpin could be a useful photoprotective agent in medicine and/or cosmetics.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanism and management of burr entrapment: A nightmare of interventional cardiologists.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Entrapment of the burr within calcified lesion is an uncommon, but serious complication during rotational atherectomy and usually needs surgical retrieval. We report a case series of this complication and also review the possible mechanisms, such as kokesi phenomenon or insufficient pecking motion with decreased rotational speed. We also review the potential techniques ever proposed to rescue this complication percutaneously, including simple manual traction, balloon dilation to release the trap, snaring the burr as distal as possible for forceful local traction and wedging the burr with a child catheter to facilitate retrieval. Gentle pecking motion of the burr for sufficient ablation and shortening the run less than 15 s may avoid such complications. Interventional cardiologists using the rotablator should be familiar with the tips and tricks to avoid and rescue this complication.
Related JoVE Video
Rotablation in the treatment of high-risk patients with heavily calcified left-main coronary lesions.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heavily calcified left-main coronary diseases (LMCA) remain a formidable challenge for percutaneous interventions (PCI). This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of using rotational atherectomy (RA) in treating such lesions in actual practice.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Norartocarpetin from a folk medicine Artocarpus communis plays a melanogenesis inhibitor without cytotoxicity in B16F10 cell and skin irritation in mice.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many natural products used in preventive medicine have also been developed as cosmeceutical ingredients in skin care products, such as Scutellaria baicalensis and Gardenia jasminoides. Norartocarpetin is one of the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity compound in Artocarpus communis; however, the cytotoxicity, skin irritation and antimelanogenesis mechanisms of norartocarpetin have not been investigated yet.
Related JoVE Video
Breakthrough disseminated cryptococcosis during micafungin therapy.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Echinocandins are not active against basidiomycetous yeasts, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichosporon, and Rhodotorula species, and zygomycosis. We present a patient with renal failure and candidemia, who developed a breakthrough fungal infection with cryptococcemia and cryptococcuria while receiving micafungin therapy.
Related JoVE Video
P27/Kip1 is responsible for magnolol-induced u373 apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously, we demonstrated that magnolol, a hydroxylated biphenyl compound isolated from the bark of Magnolia officinalis , at low concentrations (3-10 ?M) exerted an antiproliferation effect in colon cancer, hepatoma, and glioblastoma (U373) cell lines through upregulation of the p21/Cip1 protein. Magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 ?M, however, induced apoptosis and upregulated p27/Kip1 expression in U373. In the present study, we further studied whether the increased p27/Kip1 expression contributes to the magnolol-induced apoptosis in U373. Our data show that knock-down of p27/Kip1 expression significantly suppressed the magnolol-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p27/Kip1 might play an important role in the regulation of magnolol-induced apoptosis. This notion was further supported by demonstrating that magnolol induced an increase of the caspase activity in U373 in vitro and in vivo, and these effects were abolished by pretransfection of the cell with p27/Kip1 siRNA. To delineate the possible signaling pathways involved in the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 expression and apoptosis, we found that magnolol (100 ?M) increased the levels of phosphorylated cSrc (p-cSrc), p-ERK, p-p38 MAP kinase (p-p38 MAPK), and p-AKT but not p-JNK in U373. Moreover, pretreatment of U373 with a cSrc inhibitor (PP2), a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), an ERK inhibitor (PD98059), or a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) but not a JNK inhibitor (SP600125) significantly reduced the magnolol-induced increases of p27/Kip1 protein levels and apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that magnolol at a higher concentration of 100 ?M induced apopotosis in U373 cells through cSrc-mediated upregulation of p27/Kip1.
Related JoVE Video
Case-control analysis of endemic Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to characterize the clinical manifestations and outcomes of patients with Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Related JoVE Video
Trans-ethnic fine mapping identifies a novel independent locus at the 3 end of CDKAL1 and novel variants of several susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified ?60 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. A majority of these loci have been discovered and tested only in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of trans-ethnic effects of these loci in an East Asian population.
Related JoVE Video
Different Mid-Term Prognostic Predictors of Major Adverse Events in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Peripheral Artery Disease Presenting With Critical Limb Ischemia.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared midterm prognostic predictors of peripheral artery disease (PAD) with or without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with critical lower limb ischemia (CLI). A total of 172 patients with PAD (109 DM; 63 non-DM) were enrolled. The major adverse events (MAEs) were death or amputation. The diabetic group had a higher MAE rate (39% vs 22%, P = .042) with a mean follow-up duration of 30 ± 19 months. In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, revascularization (odds ratio = 0.289, P = .006) and higher serum cholesterol (odds ratio=0.988, P = .027) predicted a lower MAE rate in the DM group. In contrast, the presence of severe chronic kidney disease (stage 4 or 5, odds ratio = 5.238, P = .025) was a positive predictor of MAEs in the nondiabetic group. In conclusion, the prognostic predictors of MAE in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with PAD and CLI were different.
Related JoVE Video
Tpl2 inhibitors thwart endothelial cell function in angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiogenesis is critical in the development of cancer, which involves several angiogenic factors in its peritoneal dissemination. The role of protein tumor progression locus 2 (Tpl2) in angiogenic factor-related endothelial cell angiogenesis is still unclear. To understand the precise mechanism(s) of Tpl2 inhibition in endothelial cells, this study investigated the role of Tpl2 in mediating angiogenic signals using in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo models. Results showed that inhibition of Tpl2 inhibitor significantly reduced peritoneal dissemination in a mouse model by positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging. Simultaneously, inhibiting Tpl2 blocked angiogenesis in tumor nodules and prevented angiogenic factor-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) increased Tpl2 kinase activity and phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, Tpl2 inhibition or ablation by siRNA prevented the angiogenic signal-induced tube formation in Matrigel plug assay or aortic ring assay. Inhibiting Tpl2 also prevented the angiogenic factor-induced chemotactic motility and migration of endothelial cells. Tpl2 inhibition by CXCL1 or epidermal growth factor in endothelial cells was associated with inactivation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ?, nuclear factor ? light-chain enhancer of activated B cells, and activating protein 1 and suppression of VEGF expression. Thus, Tpl2 inhibitors thwart Tpl2-regulated VEGF by inactivating transcription factors involved in angiogenic factor-triggered endothelial cell angiogenesis. These results suggest that the therapeutic inhibition of Tpl2 may extend beyond cancer and include the treatment of other diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM) in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05), but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin 1?. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-?-independent pathways (p < 0.05) in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.
Related JoVE Video
Carbapenem susceptibilities and non-susceptibility concordance to different carbapenems amongst clinically important Gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in Taiwan: results from the Surveillance of Multicentre Antimicrobial Resistance
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the in vitro susceptibilities to various carbapenems amongst clinical Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients in intensive care units of ten major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2009, a survey was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 594), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 185), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 192) and Burkholderia cepacia (n = 23) using the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities were determined according to 2009, 2011 and 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by the CLSI as well as 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by EUCAST. Based on CLSI 2012 criteria, the ertapenem susceptible rate was 93%, 81%, 68% and 92% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens, respectively. All Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolates were susceptible to ertapenem; however, 64% of P. mirabilis and all M. morganii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem. Meropenem and doripenem had better activities than imipenem against ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae with ertapenem MICs?4 mg/L were synchronously not susceptible to imipenem, meropenem and doripenem. Imipenem susceptibility was 65% and 29% for P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii, respectively. Additionally, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs?8 mg/L were also not susceptible to meropenem and doripenem. These data provide a better understanding of choosing appropriate carbapenem agents to treat infections caused by ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae as well as P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates with imipenem MICs?4 mg/L.
Related JoVE Video
Axillofemoral bypass relieves visceral malperfusion in type B aortic dissection.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 58-year-old man with acute type B aortic dissection presented with right lower limb cyanosis, mesenteric ischemia, and acute renal failure. He was treated with extraanatomic right axillofemoral bypass surgery alone, recovered completely from renal, mesenteric, and lower extremity malperfusion shortly thereafter, and lived free of symptoms for the following year. Follow-up computed tomography angiograms documented adequate expansion of the true aortic lumen and good perfusion of visceral organs. Thus, managing such patients with coexisting visceral and extremity malperfusion may be accomplished with axillofemoral bypass exclusively, which can relieve ischemia of upstream abdominal organs and downstream lower extremities effectively and durably.
Related JoVE Video
Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4) in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.
Related JoVE Video
Utilization of electronic medical records to build a detection model for surveillance of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we propose an approach to build a detection model for surveillance of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (HA-UTI) based on the variables extracted from the electronic medical records (EMRs) in a 730-bed, tertiary-care teaching hospital in Taiwan. Firstly we mapped the CDCs HA-UTI case definitions to a set of variables, and identified the variables whose values could be derived from the EMRs of the hospital automatically. Then with these variables we performed discriminant analysis (DA) on a training set of the EMRs to construct a discriminant function (DF) for the classification of a patient with or without HA-UTI. Finally, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the function using a testing set of EMRs. In this study, six surveillance variables (fever, urine culture, blood culture, routine urinalysis, antibiotic use, and invasive devices) were identified whose values could be derived from the EMRs of the hospital. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the built DF were 100 %, 94.61 %, and 94.65 %, respectively. Since most hospitals may adopt their EMRs piece-by-piece to meet their functional requirements, the variables that are available in the EMRs may differ. Our approach can build a detection model with these variables to achieve a high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for automatically detecting suspected HA-UTI cases. Therefore, our approach on one hand can reduce the efforts in building the model; on the other hand, can facilitate adoption of EMRs for HAI surveillance and control.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of folate on homocysteine-challenged rat aortic smooth muscle cells.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Homocysteine is an intermediate product formed during the metabolism of methionine, and is increased in cells with folate deficiency. Patients with hyperhomocysteinemia tend to develop cardiovascular disease. Here, we have examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-proliferative and anti-migratory effects of folate on homocysteine-challenged rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs).
Related JoVE Video
Thalidomide inhibits fibronectin production in TGF-?1-treated normal and keloid fibroblasts via inhibition of the p38/Smad3 pathway.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Keloids are characterized by the vigorously continuous production of extracellular matrix protein and aberrant cytokine activity in the dermis. There is a growing body of evidence that thalidomide, ?-N-phthalimidoglutarimide, has anti-fibrotic properties. The aims were to examine possible therapeutic effects of thalidomide on fibronectin expression in transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1)-treated normal fibroblasts (NFs) and keloid-derived fibroblasts (KFs) and the underlying mechanism of action, especially the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) and Sma- and Mad-related family (Smads) pathways. In surgically removed human tissues, TGF-?1 and fibronectin immunoreactivity was high in keloid tissue, but barely detectable in normal tissue. TGF-?1 induced significant fibronectin expression in NFs and KFs and the effect was inhibited by pretreatment with thalidomide. TGF-?1 also induced phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and Smad2/3 and pretreatment with PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) inhibited TGF-?1-induced fibronectin expression. Furthermore, pretreatment with thalidomide inhibited the TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of p38 and Smad3, but not that of ERK1/2, JNK, and Smad2. In addition, thalidomide pretreatment inhibited the TGF-?-induced DNA binding activity of AP-1 and Smad3/4, caused fibronectin degradation by increasing the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9, and decreased production of TGF-?1 and fibronectin and the number of fibroblasts in an in vivo keloid model. These results show that thalidomide has an antifibrotic effect on keloid fibroblasts that is caused by suppression of TGF-?1-induced p38 and Smad3 signaling. Our findings indicate that thalidomide may be a potential candidate drug for the treatment and prevention of keloids.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of weight loss on epicardial adipose tissue thickness and its relationship between serum soluble CD40 ligand levels in obese men.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) induces activated inflammatory cells secreting cytokines, including soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L). In turn, the serum sCD40L can trigger inflammatory responses. We examined the reduction of EAT in response to weight loss (WL) and its relationship with alterations in sCD40L in obese men.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.