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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Examining the Risks of Cardiac Arrhythmia and Mortality among New-Generation Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, and Beta-Lactam/Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor: A Nationwide Study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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?Previous studies have demonstrated increased cardiovascular mortality related to azithromycin and levofloxacin. Risks associated with alternative drugs in the same class, including clarithromycin and moxifloxacin, were unknown. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database to perform a nationwide, population-based study that compares the risks of ventricular arrhythmia and cardiovascular death among these antibiotics.
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EFFECT OF THE RECREATIONAL LIFE REVIEW PROGRAM ON PATIENTS WITH DEMENTIA IN AN OUTPATIENT CLINIC: A PRELIMINARY STUDY (.)
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Summary.-The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the Life Review Program-Taiwan (LRP-TW) on outpatients with mild to moderate dementia. Ten individuals were selected through purposive sampling and tested using a single group pretest-posttest design. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G) and the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF) were used as outcome measures. The total scores and three subtests of the LOTCA-G revealed significant differences after the intervention. Affective function remained stable through the experiment. The LRP-TW may offer a clinical intervention program for supporting cognitive and mental performance in individuals with dementia.
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Substituent Electronic Effects Govern Direct Intramolecular C-N Cyclization of N-(Biphenyl)pyridin-2-amines Induced by Hypervalent Iodine(III) Reagents.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The hypervalent iodine(III) reagent-induced the direct intramolecular C-N cyclization of N-(biphenyl)pyridin-2-amines to 6-arylbenzimidazoles and N-pyridinyl-9H-carbazoles is presented. The substituent electronic effects governing the formation of benzimidazoles and carbazoles from the reaction of N-(biphenyl)pyridin-2-amines with hypervalent iodine(III) reagents is investigated. Radical trapping and UV-vis spectroscopic experiments on the detection of the cation radical are carried out. Rational mechanisms for these reactions are presented. The selective intramolecular C-N and C-O cyclization of N-(biphenyl)acetamides based on the substituent electronic effects is also presented.
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Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for neuropsychological symptoms in early stage of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Purpose: In addition to testing blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been analyzed in the search for biomarkers. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers in CSF for neuropsychological symptoms in early-stage late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Methods: CSF levels of beta-amyloid 1-42 (A?42), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) were assayed in nine patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), nine patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI) and nine individuals with normal mental function. The three groups underwent neuropsychological testing. Results: CSF levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs did not significantly differ among the three groups. A?42 in CSF was significantly higher in the control group compared with the mild AD group (p < 0.001) and a-MCI group (p = 0.03). There was a significant positive correlation between the level of F2-IsoPs and A?42 in the a-MCI group and between the level of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in the mild AD group. In comparisons between the mild AD group and a-MCI group combined, the cognitive impairment (CI) group, with the control group, the median levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs were significantly higher in the CI group and median level of A?42 was significantly lower in the CI group. Both the levels of F2-IsoPs and A?42 were significantly negatively correlated with paranoid and delusional ideation and total score for the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Scale (BEHAVE-AD). Conclusions: The findings suggest CSF levels of A?42 and F2-IsoPs are associated with the severity of neuropsychological symptoms.
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Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab for Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn's Disease: The Taiwan Society of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (TSIBD) Study.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Only moderate to severe Crohn's Disease (CD) patients without a satisfactory conventional therapy effect are eligible to get reimbursement from the National Health Insurance of Taiwan for using adalimumab. These are more stringent criteria than in many Western countries and Japan and Korea. We aim to explore the efficacy of using adalimumab in CD patients under such stringent criteria.
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Differences in component and limb alignment between computer-assisted and conventional surgery total knee arthroplasty.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Marked coronal femoral bowing may bear a risk for mal-alignment of femoral component and reconstructed mechanical axis (MA) by using conventional instrumentations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of computer-assisted surgery-total knee arthroplasty (CAS-TKA) under this circumstance.
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rs10865331 associated with susceptibility and disease severity of ankylosing spondylitis in a Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly familial rheumatic disorder and is considered as a chronic inflammatory disease. Genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AS. To identify genes which render people susceptible to AS in a Taiwanese population, we selected six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) which were associated with AS in European descendants and Han Chinese. To assess whether the six SNPs contributed to AS susceptibility and severity in Taiwanese population, 475 AS patients fulfilling the modified New York Criteria and 527 healthy subjects were recruited. We found that rs10865331 was significantly associated with AS susceptibility and with Bath AS Function Index (BASFI). The AA and AG genotypes of rs10865331 were also significantly associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Our findings provided evidence that rs10865331 is associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASFI) in a Taiwanese population.
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Injectable synthetic bone graft substitute combined with core decompression in the treatment of advanced osteonecrosis of the femoral head: A 5-year follow-up.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background: Osteonecrosis of the femoral head can lead to destruction of the hip joint and disabling arthritis in young adults, if left untreated. Among the salvage procedures, core decompression combined with bone graft substitutes is a viable option for joint preservation. The purpose of this study was to review the outcomes of using synthetic bone graft substitute (calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate) for the treatment of late-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Methods: From November 2008 to May 2009, 19 hips in 18 patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head [6 hips in Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) stage IIC and 13 hips in stage IIIA] were treated with core decompression combined with PRO-DENSE™ (Injectable Regenerative Graft). The average age of the patients at the time of surgery was 48 years (range 25-67 years). Twelve patients (13 hips) overused alcohol, four patients (4 hips) were idiopathic, one patient (1 hip) used corticosteroids, and one patient (1 hip) was post-traumatic. The clinical failure was defined as conversion to total hip arthroplasty or progression in head collapse. Results: At the conclusion of the study, 3 in the 6 stage IIC hips and 8 in the 13 stage IIIA hips were converted to total hip arthroplasty in an average of 8.5 months (range 4-30 months) postoperatively. Advanced collapse of the femoral head awaiting for total hip arthroplasty was observed in the other six hips. Of the 19 hips, only 2 hips (10.5%) survived without further collapse in the 5-year follow-up. This resulted in 89.5% failure rate with early resorption of the grafting in an average of 5.3 months. Conclusions: Core decompression combined with an injectable calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate composite graft (PRO-DENSE) were associated high failure rates in the early postoperative period. It is not recommended for the treatment of ARCO stage IIC and IIIA osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level IV.
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Genetic variants of CD209 associated with Kawasaki disease susceptibility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis with unknown etiology mainly affecting children in Asian countries. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN, CD209) in humans was showed to trigger an anti-inflammatory cascade and associated with KD susceptibility. This study was conducted to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CD209 and the risk KD.
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GALNT2 suppresses malignant phenotypes through IGF-1 receptor and predicts favorable prognosis in neuroblastoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Aberrant expression of the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens such as Tn antigen is associated with malignant transformation and cancer progression. N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 (GALNT2), one of the enzymes that mediate the initial step of mucin-type O-glycosylation, is responsible for forming Tn antigen. GALNT2 is expressed differentially in nervous tissues during mouse embryogenesis; however, the role of GALNT2 in neuroblastoma (NB) remains unclear. Here we showed that increased GALNT2 expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry in NB tumor tissues correlated well with the histological grade of differentiation as well as younger age at diagnosis, early clinical stage, primary tumor originated from the extra-adrenal site, favorable INPC histology, and MYCN non-amplification. Multivariate analysis showed that GALNT2 expression is an independent prognostic factor for better survival for NB patients. GALNT2 overexpression suppressed IGF-1-induced cell growth, migration, and invasion of NB cells, whereas GALNT2 knockdown enhanced these NB phenotypes. Mechanistic investigations demonstrated that GALNT2 overexpression modified O-glycans on IGF-1R, which suppressed IGF-1-triggered IGF-1R dimerization and subsequent downstream signaling events. Conversely, these properties were reversed by GALNT2 knockdown in NB cells. Our findings suggest that GALNT2 regulates malignant phenotypes of NB cells through the IGF-1R signaling pathway, suggesting a critical role for GALNT2 in the pathogenesis of NB.
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?1, 4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase III modulates cancer stemness through EGFR signaling pathway in colon cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Cancer stem cells are cancer cells characterized with tumor initiating capacity. ?1,4-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase III (B4GALNT3) synthesizes GalNAc?1-4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc) which contributes to self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells. We previously showed that B4GALNT3 overexpression enhances colon cancer cell malignant phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of B4GALNT3 in cancer stemness remains unclear. We found that B4GALNT3 expression was positively correlated with advanced stages and poor survival in colorectal cancer patients. Knockdown of B4GALNT3 using small interfering (si) RNAs in colon cancer cell lines (HCT116, SW480, HCT15, and HT29 cells) decreased sphere formation and the expression of stem cell markers, OCT4 and NANOG. The expression of B4GALNT3 was upregulated in colonospheres. Interestingly, we found that B4GALNT3 primarily modified N-glycans of EGFR with LacdiNAc by Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) pull down assays. B4GALNT3 knockdown suppressed EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules. Furthermore, EGF-induced degradation of EGFR was facilitated. In addition, EGF-induced migration and invasion were significantly suppressed by B4GALNT3 knockdown. Taken together, these data suggest B4GALNT3 regulates cancer stemness and the invasive properties of colon cancer cells through modifying EGFR glycosylation and signaling. Our results provide novel insights into the role of LacdiNAc in colorectal cancer development.
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Trace analysis of methylated and hydroxymethylated cytosines in DNA by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS: first evidence of DNA methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Since 1986 till now, the popular research model organism Caenorhabditis elegans has been thought to completely lack DNA methylation and seems to lost DNA methylation enzymes from its genomes. Here we report the development of a sensitive and selective assay based on LC-MS/MS to simultaneously measure 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-mdC) and 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5-hmdC) in DNA hydrolysates. With the use of isotope internal standards (d3-5-mdC and d3-5-hmdC) and online solid-phase extraction, the detection limits of 5-mdC and 5-hmdC were estimated to be 0.01 and 0.02 pg, respectively, which correspond to 0.000006% and 0.00001% methylation and hydroxymethylation level. This method was applied to investigate whether the DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation exists in C. elegans. Our work for the first time demonstrates that 5-mdC is present in C. elegans genomic DNA (0.0019-0.0033% of cytosine methylated) using LC-MS/MS, while another epigenetic modification 5-hmdC is not detectable. Furthermore, we found that C. elegans DNA was hypomethylated or hypermethylated in a dose-dependent manner by the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT)-inhibiting drug decitabine (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or cadmium, respectively. Our data support the possible existence of active DNA methylation mechanism in C. elegans, in which unidentified DNMTs could be involved. Our work highlights the importance that the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation machinery in the nematodes that were traditionally considered to lack functional DNA methylation, needs to be re-evaluated.
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Rapid Increase in the Height and Width of the Upper Chest in Adolescents with Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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We determined the chest height in a cohort of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) who had received chest radiographic examinations prior to the attack. The aim of this study was to determine when their chest height began to change and how this was related to the PSP.
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Calreticulin Regulates VEGF-A in Neuroblastoma Cells.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Calreticulin (CRT) has been previously correlated with the differentiation of neuroblastoma (NB), implying a favorable prognostic factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported to participate in the behavior of NB. This study investigated the association of CRT and VEGF-A in NB cells. The expressions of VEGF-A and HIF-1?, with overexpression or knockdown of CRT, were measured in three NB cells (SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and stNB-V1). An inducible CRT NB cell line and knockdown CRT stable cell lines were also established. The impacts of CRT overexpression on NB cell apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation were also evaluated. We further examined the role of VEGF-A in the NB cell differentiation via VEGF receptor blockade. Constitutive overexpression of CRT led to NB cell differentiation without proliferation. Thus, an inducible CRT stNB-V1 cell line was generated by a tetracycline-regulated gene system. CRT overexpression increased VEGF-A and HIF-1? messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions in SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and stNB-V1 cells. CRT overexpression also enhanced VEGF-A protein expression and secretion level in conditioned media in different NB cell lines. Knockdown of CRT decreased VEGF-A and HIF-1? mRNA expressions and lowered VEGF-A protein expression and secretion level in conditioned media in different NB cell lines. We further demonstrated that NB cell apoptosis was not affected by CRT overexpression in stNB-V1 cells. Nevertheless, overexpression of CRT suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cell differentiation in stNB-V1 cells, whereas blockage of VEGFR-1 markedly suppressed the expression of neuron-specific markers including GAP43, NSE2, and NFH, as well as TrkA, a molecular marker indicative of NB cell differentiation. Our findings suggest that VEGF-A is involved in CRT-related neuronal differentiation in NB. Our work may provide important information for developing a new therapeutic strategy to improve the outcome of NB patients.
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Structural study of the microtubule-associated protein tau locus of Alzheimer's disease in Taiwan.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Haplotype structure of the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene is associated with various tauopathies in the Caucasian population. With the knowledge that the association between MAPT structure and disease may be distinct in different ethnics, we intend to investigate the haplotype structure of MAPT in Taiwanese and test it for association with Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Adolescents' physical activities and peer norms: the mediating role of self-efficacy.
Percept Mot Skills
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among adolescents' self-efficacy and social norms, and physical activity and whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between social norms and physical activity. 400 junior high school students (202 boys, 198 girls, 2 not identified; M age = 15.3yr., SD = 0.6) completed a demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Perceived Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity Scale, and the Physical Activity Social Norms Scale. Regression analyses indicated that both self-efficacy and social norms predicted physical activity. Self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between peer norms and physical activity for boys but partially mediated the relationship for girls. An application of the results may be to foster self-efficacy and peer norms as a motivational strategy for supporting increased physical activity.
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Ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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We describe in this paper the current status of ophthalmic plastic and orbital surgery in Taiwan. Data were collected from the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan, the Bulletin of the Taiwan Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Society, and the Statistics Yearbook of Practicing Physicians and Health Care Organizations in Taiwan by the Taiwan Medical Association. We ascertained that 94 ophthalmologists were oculoplastic surgeons and accounted for 5.8% of 1621 ophthalmologists in Taiwan. They had their fellowship training abroad (most ophthalmologists trained in the United States of America) or in Taiwan. All ophthalmologists were well trained and capable of performing major oculoplastic surgeries. The payment rates by our National Health Insurance for oculoplastic and orbital surgeries are relatively low, compared to Medicare payments in the United States. Ophthalmologists should promote the concept that oculoplastic surgeons specialize in periorbital plastic and aesthetic surgeries. However, general ophthalmologists should receive more educational courses on oculoplastic and cosmetic surgery.
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Using volume index and lateral hepatic angle to differentiate biliary atresia from TPN-associated cholestasis.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Differential diagnosis between biliary atresia (BA) and total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPN-AC) and early treatment for cholestatic infants are challenges for evaluating neonatal or infantile cholestasis. The aim of our retrospective study was to apply noninvasive indices of magnetic resonance images to differentiate BA from TPN-AC.
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Acid suppressive agents and risk of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: case-control study.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The acid-suppressive agents have been linked with an increased risk of infectious disease. The relationship between these drugs and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB) was not been reported.
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Psychometric properties of the finding a balance scale for family caregivers of elders with dementia in Taiwan.
Res Nurs Health
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The Finding a Balance Scale, designed to measure the degree to which caregivers can balance the competing demands of caregiving and other priorities, assists health care providers in understanding the process of family caregiving. The aim of this study was to examine the scale's psychometric properties and determine an appropriate cutoff score for identifying caregivers at high risk for poor caregiving consequences. We found adequate reliabilities and appropriate validities in a convenience sample of 197 family caregivers of elders with dementia in Taiwan. The optimal cutoff was also determined. The validated Finding a Balance Scale provides an assessment tool to explore the competing responsibilities, conditions, and difficulties for family caregivers of elders with dementia in Taiwan.
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Double jeopardy: metabolic syndrome leads to increased sedentary behavior in peri-pubertal minority females.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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While most studies have focused on investigating the preventive effects of physical activity on metabolic risk, the longitudinal impacts of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on activity levels is poorly understood. This study aims to examine the influence of MetS on initial activity levels and the trajectory of activity levels in Latina and African American female children over 12 months (n = 55, 9 ± 1 years). Metabolic measures, including fat and lean tissue mass by BodPod, fasting glucose, lipids, blood pressure, and waist circumference, were collected at baseline. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior by accelerometry were collected on a quarterly basis. There were no significant differences in either initial activity levels by MetS status (Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: 33 ± 12 mins/day for MetS, 48 ± 28 mins/day for Non-MetS, p = .12; sedentary behavior: 408 ± 57 mins/day for MetS, 421 ± 72 mins/day for Non-MetS, p = .67). Longitudinal declines in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p = .038) and increases in sedentary behavior (p = .003) were found. Daily sedentary behavior increased by 82.64 more minutes in youth with MetS than in those without over one year (p = .015). This study yields the first evidence of the adverse effect of MetS on sedentary behavior. Targeted intervention strategies to reduce progressive sedentariness evident in minority youth with MetS are warranted.
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Insomnia subtypes and the subsequent risks of stroke: report from a nationally representative cohort.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The studies assessing the impact of insomnia on stroke are still lacking. We aim to investigate insomnia in relation to subsequent stroke during the 4-year follow-up.
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Calreticulin activates ?1 integrin via fucosylation by fucosyltransferase 1 in J82 human bladder cancer cells.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Fucosylation regulates various pathological events in cells. We reported that different levels of CRT (calreticulin) affect the cell adhesion and metastasis of bladder cancer. However, the precise mechanism of tumour metastasis regulated by CRT remains unclear. Using a DNA array, we identified FUT1 (fucosyltransferase 1) as a gene regulated by CRT expression levels. CRT regulated cell adhesion through ?1,2-linked fucosylation of ?1 integrin and this modification was catalysed by FUT1. To clarify the roles for FUT1 in bladder cancer, we transfected the human FUT1 gene into CRT-RNAi stable cell lines. FUT1 overexpression in CRT-RNAi cells resulted in increased levels of ?1 integrin fucosylation and rescued cell adhesion to type-I collagen. Treatment with UEA-1 (Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1), a lectin that recognizes FUT1-modified glycosylation structures, did not affect cell adhesion. In contrast, a FUT1-specific fucosidase diminished the activation of ?1 integrin. These results indicated that ?1,2-fucosylation of ?1 integrin was not involved in integrin-collagen interaction, but promoted ?1 integrin activation. Moreover, we demonstrated that CRT regulated FUT1 mRNA degradation at the 3'-UTR. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that CRT stabilized FUT1 mRNA, thereby leading to an increase in fucosylation of ?1 integrin. Furthermore, increased fucosylation levels activate ?1 integrin, rather than directly modifying the integrin-binding sites.
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Health-related quality of life and self-efficacy of managing behavior problems for family caregivers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease patients.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Little is known about the differences in patients' behavioral problems and health outcomes of family caregivers of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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Proliferative effects of melatonin on Schwann cells: implication for nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Activation of proliferation of Schwann cells is crucial for axonal guidance and successful nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Considering melatonin plays an important role in proliferative regulation of central glial cells, the present study determined whether melatonin can effectively promote Schwann cell proliferation and improve nerve regeneration after PNI. The spontaneous immortalized rat Schwann cell line (RSC 96 cells) was first analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) to detect the potential existence of melatonin receptors. The melatonin receptor-mediated signaling responsible for proliferation was examined by measuring the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) pathway. The in vivo model of PNI was performed by the end-to-side neurorrhaphy. The quantity of Schwann cells as well as the number of re-innervated motor end plates (MEP) on target muscles was examined to represent the functional recovery of injured nerves. QPCR results indicated that MT1 is the dominant receptor in Schwann cells. Immunoblotting and proliferation assay revealed an enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and increased number of RSC 96 cells following melatonin administration. Nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist (luzindole) treatment significantly suppressed all the above findings, suggesting that the proliferative effects of melatonin were mediated by a receptor-dependent pathway. In vivo results corresponded well with in vitro findings in which melatonin effectively increased the amount of proliferated Schwann cells and re-innervated MEP on target muscles following PNI. As melatonin successfully improves nerve regeneration by promoting Schwann cell proliferation, therapeutic use of melatonin may thus serve as a promising strategy to counteract the PNI-induced neuronal disability.
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Effects of circuit exercise and Tai Chi on body composition in middle-aged and older women.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To investigate the impact of circuit exercise and Tai Chi exercise on body composition in middle-aged and older women.
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Safety and mutagenicity evaluation of red mold dioscorea fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Monascus-fermented products, including red mold rice and red mold dioscorea, have been developed as functional foods with many health benefits. We performed safety and mutagenic evaluations on red mold dioscorea powder (RMDP) fermented from Monascus purpureus NTU 568. The results of Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 showed that RMDP (?5 mg/plate) was not mutagenic. The mammalian chromosomal aberration test showed that the number of Chinese hamster ovary cells with abnormal chromosomes was <3% after RMDP treatment (maximum concentration: 5 mg/mL). Imprinting control region mice were used to estimate the genotoxicity of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) did not show significant differences in the number of reticulocytes or the occurrence of micronucleated reticulocytes. A 28-day oral toxicity assay in Sprague-Dawley rats was performed to investigate the no observed adverse effect level of RMDP. Compared with the control, high-dose RMDP administration (2000 mg/kg) caused no toxicological responses such as mortality, variation in body weight, or toxicopathologic lesions. Thus, RMDP from M. purpureus NTU 568 shows no significant mutagenic or toxic effects.
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Tract-based spatial statistics: application to mild cognitive impairment.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity in different subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using tract-based spatial statistics of diffusion tensor imaging.
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Elevated activation of CaMKII? in the CPEB3-knockout hippocampus impairs a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3 (CPEB3) is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that confines the strength of glutamatergic synapses by translationally downregulating the expression of multiple plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), including the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and the postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95). CPEB3 knockout (KO) mice exhibit hippocampus-dependent abnormalities related not only to long-term spatial memory but also to the short-term acquisition and extinction of contextual fear memory. In this study, we identified a specific form of NMDAR-dependent synaptic depotentiation (DPT) that is impaired in the adult CPEB3 KO hippocampus. In parallel, cultured KO neurons also exhibited delayed morphological and biochemical responses under NMDA-induced chemical long-term depression (c-LTD). The c-LTD defects in the KO neurons include elevated activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKII?), increased Ser831 phosphorylation of GluA1 and slow degradation of PSD95 and GluA1. Because transient pharmacological suppression of CaMKII? activity during the DPT-initiating phase successfully reversed the LTP in the KO hippocampus, DPT and c-LTD in the two different systems shared common molecular defects due to the absence of CPEB3. Together, our results suggest that CPEB3 deficiency imbalances NMDAR-activated CaMKII? signaling, which consequently fails to depress synaptic strength under certain stimulation conditions.
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Arabidopsis mTERF15 Is Required for Mitochondrial nad2 Intron 3 Splicing and Functional Complex I Activity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mitochondria play a pivotal role in most eukaryotic cells, as they are responsible for the generation of energy and diverse metabolic intermediates for many cellular events. During endosymbiosis, approximately 99% of the genes encoded by the mitochondrial genome were transferred into the host nucleus, and mitochondria import more than 1000 nuclear-encoded proteins from the cytosol to maintain structural integrity and fundamental functions, including DNA replication, mRNA transcription and RNA metabolism of dozens of mitochondrial genes. In metazoans, a family of nuclear-encoded proteins called the mitochondrial transcription termination factors (mTERFs) regulates mitochondrial transcription, including transcriptional termination and initiation, via their DNA-binding activities, and the dysfunction of individual mTERF members causes severe developmental defects. Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa contain 35 and 48 mTERFs, respectively, but the biological functions of only a few of these proteins have been explored. Here, we investigated the biological role and molecular mechanism of Arabidopsis mTERF15 in plant organelle metabolism using molecular genetics, cytological and biochemical approaches. The null homozygous T-DNA mutant of mTERF15, mterf15, was found to result in substantial retardation of both vegetative and reproductive development, which was fully complemented by the wild-type genomic sequence. Surprisingly, mitochondria-localized mTERF15 lacks obvious DNA-binding activity but processes mitochondrial nad2 intron 3 splicing through its RNA-binding ability. Impairment of this splicing event not only disrupted mitochondrial structure but also abolished the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. These effects are in agreement with the severe phenotype of the mterf15 homozygous mutant. Our study suggests that Arabidopsis mTERF15 functions as a splicing factor for nad2 intron 3 splicing in mitochondria, which is essential for normal plant growth and development.
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Influence of patterned sapphire substrates with different symmetry on the light output power of InGaN-based LEDs.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This paper aims to investigate the light output power (LOP) of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) with different symmetry. The GaN epitaxial layers grown on the hexagonal lattice arrangement PSS (HLAPSS) have a lower compressive strain than the ones grown on the square lattice arrangement PSS (SLAPSS). The quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) is also affected by the residual compressive strain. Based on the experimentally measured data and the ray tracing simulation results, the InGaN-based LED with the HLAPSS has a higher LOP than the one with the SLAPSS due to the weaker QCSE within multiple-quantum wells (MQWs).
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The relationship between health-related fitness and quality of life in postmenopausal women from Southern Taiwan.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Health-related fitness has been reported to be associated with improved quality of life (QoL) in the elderly. Health-related fitness is comprised of several dimensions that could be enhanced by specific training regimens. It has remained unclear how various dimensions of health-related fitness interact with QoL in postmenopausal women.
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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor downregulates MYCN expression and promotes cell differentiation of neuroblastoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common malignant disease of infancy. MYCN amplification is a prognostic factor for NB and is a sign of highly malignant disease and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate novel MYCN-related genes and assess how they affect NB cell behavior. The different gene expression found in 10 MYCN amplification NB tumors and 10 tumors with normal MYCN copy number were analyzed using tissue oligonucleotide microarrays. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was subsequently performed to identify the potential genes involved in MYCN regulation pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, was found to be inversely correlated with MYCN expression in NB tissues. This correlation was confirmed in a further 14 human NB samples. Moreover, AHR expression in NB tumors was found to correlate highly with histological grade of differentiation. In vitro studies revealed that AHR overexpression in NB cells induced spontaneous cell differentiation. In addition, it was found that ectopic expression of AHR suppressed MYCN promoter activity resulting in downregulation of MYCN expression. The suppression effect of AHR on the transcription of MYCN was compensated for by E2F1 overexpression, indicating that E2F1 is involved in the AHR-regulating MYCN pathway. Furthermore, AHR shRNA promotes the expression of E2F1 and MYCN in NB cells. These findings suggest that AHR is one of the upstream regulators of MYCN. Through the modulation of E2F1, AHR regulates MYCN gene expression, which may in turn affect NB differentiation.
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Deletion of CPEB3 enhances hippocampus-dependent memory via increasing expressions of PSD95 and NMDA receptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Long-term memory requires activity-dependent synthesis of plasticity-related proteins (PRPs) to strengthen synaptic efficacy and consequently consolidate memory. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB)3 is a sequence-specific RNA-binding protein that regulates translation of several PRP RNAs in neurons. To understand whether CPEB3 plays a part in learning and memory, we generated CPEB3 knock-out (KO) mice and found that the null mice exhibited enhanced hippocampus-dependent, short-term fear memory in the contextual fear conditioning test and long-term spatial memory in the Morris water maze. The basal synaptic transmission of Schaffer collateral-CA1 neurons was normal but long-term depression evoked by paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation was modestly facilitated in the juvenile KO mice. Molecular and cellular characterizations revealed several molecules in regulating plasticity of glutamatergic synapses are translationally elevated in the CPEB3 KO neurons, including the scaffolding protein PSD95 and the NMDA receptors along with the known CPEB3 target, GluA1. Together, CPEB3 functions as a negative regulator to confine the strength of glutamatergic synapses by downregulating the expression of multiple PRPs and plays a role underlying certain forms of hippocampus-dependent memories.
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Monacolin K and monascin attenuated pancreas impairment and hyperglycemia induced by advanced glycation endproducts in BALB/c mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Several lines of evidence have implicated high levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in diabetes. Pancreas impairment caused by AGEs has been found in recent studies. Monascin (MS) and monacolin K (MK) are active compounds identified from Monascus-fermented products, which have been reported to inhibit inflammation and improve insulin resistance. In order to confirm the protective effects of MS and MK on pancreatic function, BALB/c mice were treated with AGEs via intraperitoneal injection for 22 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, and the pancreas-protecting mechanism of MS and MK from AGE-induced damage was investigated. We found that the expression of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) was recovered by MS or MK administration to AGE-treated mice. In addition, MS strongly improved performance in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the insulin tolerance test (ITT), suggesting that MS sensitized to insulin in AGE-treated mice. Both MS and MK elevated pancreatic insulin expression when compared to the AGE-treated group, suggesting that MS and MK attenuated AGE-induced pancreatic dysfunction. Histopathology studies showed that intraperitoneal injection of AGEs did not result in pancreas damage. These findings confirm that the potential mechanism of AGEs on pancreatic dysfunction involves the induction of inflammation and the suppression of PDX-1 and GLUT2 expression. Taken together, MS and MK may be developed as an anti-diabetic agent in the future.
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Treatment outcomes of injection laryngoplasty using cross-linked porcine collagen and hyaluronic Acid.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Objective To investigate the treatment outcomes and prognostic factors of injection laryngoplasty (IL) using cross-linked porcine collagen (PC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting A tertiary teaching hospital. Subjects and Methods This study reviewed 60 consecutive patients with UVFP who underwent IL with PC (n = 33) or HA (n = 27). Objective evaluations included maximal phonation time (MPT) and 10-item voice handicap index (VHI-10). Kaplan-Meier method was applied to evaluate the subjective treatment outcomes according to the patients self-assessment of symptom recurrence via chart review for the follow-up period of 15 months. Log-rank tests were applied to evaluate the association between clinical factors and subjective treatment outcomes. Results Objective outcome measurements revealed significantly improved MPT and VHI-10 at 1, 3, and 6 months posttreatment, with nonsignificant differences between the PC and HA groups. Subjective treatment outcomes also revealed a nonsignificant difference between the 2 groups. The median symptom-free durations were 10.9 and 14.4 months for the PC and HA groups, respectively. Subsequent analyses failed to identify prognostic significance of sex, time to treatment, etiology, side, injection approaches, and the presence of aspiration. No significant adverse effects occurred during the follow-up period. Conclusion This study demonstrated comparable subjective and objective improvements following IL using PC or HA in patients with UVFP. No significant prognostic factor of IL was discovered in the present research. Porcine collagen and HA as medium duration materials might play a role in the future of IL.
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Surface passivation of efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells using thermal atomic layer deposition.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Efficient nanotextured black silicon solar cells passivated by an Al2O3 layer are demonstrated. The broadband antireflection of the nanotextured black silicon solar cells was provided by fabricating vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays on the n(+) emitter. A highly conformal Al2O3 layer was deposited upon the SiNW arrays by the thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) based on the multiple pulses scheme. The nanotextured black silicon wafer covered with the Al2O3 layer exhibited a low total reflectance of ?1.5% in a broad spectrum from 400 to 800 nm. The Al2O3 passivation layer also contributes to the suppressed surface recombination, which was explored in terms of the chemical and field-effect passivation effects. An 8% increment of short-circuit current density and 10.3% enhancement of efficiency were achieved due to the ALD Al2O3 surface passivation and forming gas annealing. A high efficiency up to 18.2% was realized in the ALD Al2O3-passivated nanotextured black silicon solar cells.
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Ligand-Dependent Activation of EphA4 Signaling Regulates the Proteolysis of Amyloid Precursor Protein Through a Lyn-Mediated Pathway.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Alzheimers disease is the most common dementia afflicting the elderly in modern society. This disease arises from the neurotoxicity elicited by abnormal aggregates of amyloid-? (A?) protein. Such aggregates form through the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by ?-secretase and the subsequent proteolysis of the APP C-terminal fragment (APP-?CTF or C99) by ?-secretase to yield A? and APP intracellular domain (AICD). Recent evidence suggests that C99 and AICD may exert harmful effects on cells, suggesting that the proteolytic products of APP, including A?, C99, and AICD, could play a pivotal role in neuronal viability. Here, we demonstrate that ligand-activated EphA4 signaling governs the proteostasis of C99, AICD, and A?, without significantly affecting ?-secretase activity. EphA4 induced accumulation of C99 and AICD through a Lyn-dependent pathway; activation of this pathway triggered phosphorylation of EphA4, resulting in positive feedback of C99 and AICD proteostasis. Inhibition of EphA4 by dasatinib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, effectively suppressed C99 and AICD accumulation. Furthermore, EphA4 signaling controlled C99 and AICD proteolysis through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In conclusion, we have identified an EphA4-Lyn pathway that is essential for the metabolism of APP and its proteolytic derivatives, thereby providing novel pharmacological targets for the development of anti-A? therapeutics for AD.
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Risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients receiving levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, or moxifloxacin in Taiwan.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational studies and fatal case reports raise concern about the safety of severe dysglycemia associated with fluoroquinolone use. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of severe dysglycemia among diabetic patients who received different fluoroquinolones.
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Inhibition of Th2 cytokine production in T cells by monascin via PPAR-? activation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Yellow pigment monascin (MS) is a secondary metabolite isolated from Monascus -fermented products and has numerous physiological activities. However, the potential use of MS for immunomodulation remains unclear. We showed that MS and the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? ligand rosiglitazone (RG) significantly inhibited the production of Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, in PMA/ionomycin-activated mouse EL-4 T cells. Moreover, we showed that this was due to cellular PPAR-? translocation. These results indicate that MS and RG promote PPAR-?-DNA interactions and suggest that the regulatory effects of MS and RG on Th2 cytokine production could be abolished with PPAR-? antagonist treatment. MS and RG also suppressed Th2 transcription factor translocation (e.g., GATA-3 and nuclear factor of activated T cells) by preventing the phosphorylation of protein kinase C and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6.
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Low effect-site concentration of propofol target-controlled infusion reduces the risk of hypotension during endoscopy in a Taiwanese population.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol is an effective way of delivering propofol during endoscopy. However, the ideal effect-site concentration (Ce) of propofol has not yet been defined in an Asian population. This study aimed to determine the ideal Ce of propofol in painless gastrointestinal endoscopy in a Taiwanese population.
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Calnexin is required for zebrafish posterior lateral line development.
Int. J. Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The lateral line is a mechanosensory system in fish and amphibians to detect local water flow and pressure. Development of the posterior lateral line (PLL) originates from the migrating PLL primordium (PLLP). The PLLP deposits neuromasts on the trunk during migration to the tail. Molecular dissection revealed that PLL development is associated with genes mediating cell adhesion, morphogenesis, neurogenesis and development, but the regulatory signaling network is far from completion. To further investigate candidate regulatory genes for lateral line development, we found using whole-mount in situ hybridization that calnexin, an endoplasmic reticular (ER) calcium-binding protein gene, is expressed in PLL neuromasts. Knockdown of calnexin using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in neuromasts and hair cells of the PLL. Using a transgenic claudin b:gfp line, we observed a notably reduced PLLP size, but no significant migration defect in calnexin morphants. Finally, we discovered that the reduced PLLP is associated with a reduction in cell proliferation and an increase in ER stress-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that calnexin is essential for neuromast formation during lateral line development in the zebrafish.
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Temporal relationship between insulin sensitivity and the pubertal decline in physical activity in peripubertal Hispanic and African American females.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Little attention has been paid to possible intrinsic biological mechanisms for the decline in physical activity that occurs during puberty. This longitudinal observational study examined the association between baseline insulin sensitivity (SI) and declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior in peripubertal minority females over a year.
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The effect of renal function on surgical outcomes of intracapsular hip fractures with osteosynthesis.
Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects many physiologic systems, including bone quality, nutrition, and cardiovascular condition. Femoral neck fractures in patients on dialysis are associated with frequent complications and a high risk of mortality. However, the effect of CKD on clinical outcomes of patients with hip fractures treated with osteosynthesis remains unclear.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activators monascin and rosiglitazone attenuate carboxymethyllysine-induced fibrosis in hepatic stellate cells through regulating the oxidative stress pathway but independent of the receptor for advanced glycat
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) signaling through its receptors (RAGE) results in an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is thought to contribute to hepatic fibrosis via hyperglycemia. Carboxymethyllysine (CML) is a key AGE, with highly reactive dicarbonyl metabolites. We investigated the inhibitory effect of Monascus -fermented metabolite monascin and rosiglitazone on CML-induced RAGE signaling in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and its resulting antihepatic fibrosis activity. We found that monascin and rosiglitazone upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) to attenuate ?-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and ROS generation in CML-treated HSCs in a RAGE activation-independent pathway. Therefore, monascin may delay or inhibit the progression of liver fibrosis through the activation of PPAR-? and might prove to be a major antifibrotic mechanism to prevent liver disease.
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Eating breakfast more frequently is cross-sectionally associated with greater physical activity and lower levels of adiposity in overweight Latina and African American girls.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Eating breakfast is believed to promote a healthy body weight. Yet, few studies have examined the contribution of energy balance-related behavioral factors to this relation in minority youth.
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Suppression of dimerumic acid on hepatic fibrosis caused from carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) by attenuating oxidative stress depends on Nrf2 activation in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Hyperglycemia facilitates the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in type-2 diabetes. Evidence indicates that carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) is highly prevalent in diabetes, resulting in hepatic fibrosis. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of dimerumic acid (DMA) identified from Monascus-fermented products on receptor for AGEs (RAGE) signal and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation by CML treatment. We found that DMA (50?M) eliminated collagen generation, mRNA expressions of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor-? receptor (PDGF-?R), and procollagen 1a1 (proCol-1a1) in CML (100?g/ml)-treated HSCs, and these effects were similar to allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; 50?M). In addition, the suppression of ?-SMA, PDGF-?R, proCol-1a1 by DMA were abolished while nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) silence in CML-treated HSCs. These findings suggested that DMA and AITC increased Nrf2 and glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) activities thereby inhibiting oxidative stress caused by CML and showing anti-fibrogentic effect in HSCs.
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Monascin and AITC Attenuate Methylglyoxal-Induced PPAR? Phosphorylation and Degradation through Inhibition of the Oxidative Stress/PKC Pathway Depending on Nrf2 Activation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Abnormal cellular accumulation of the dicarbonyl metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) results in cell damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. It is also associated with increased protein linkage to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) or induce DNA strand breaks. The association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is unclear. This study investigated Nrf2 activator protection against PPAR? phosphorylation and degradation to maintain pancreatic function. MG was used at a noncytotoxic concentration (200 ?M) to induce protein kinase C (PKC) and PPAR? phosphorylation in pancreatic RINm5F cells. For in vivo studies, MG (60 mg/kg bw) was intraperitoneally (IP) injected into Balb/C mice for 28 d to induce pancreas damage, at which point we investigated the effect of monascin protection (PPAR? and Nrf2 activator), rosiglitazone (PPAR? activator), allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; Nrf2 activator), or N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on pancreatic function. The in vitro and in vivo results indicated that MG leads to marked PPAR? phosphorylation (serine 82); this effect led to reduction in pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1), glucokinase (GCK), and insulin expression. However, monascin and rosiglitazone may protect PPAR? degradation by elevating PDX-1, GCK, and as a result, insulin expression. Monascin and AITC can attenuate PKC activation to suppress PPAR? phosphorylation caused by oxidative stress through the Nrf2 pathway. Similarly, the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) antioxidant also improved oxidative stress and pancreatic function. This study examined whether MG caused impairment of PDX-1, GCK, and insulin through PPAR? phosphorylation and degradation. MG and AGE accumulation improved on Nrf2 activation, thereby protecting against pancreas damage. Taken together, PPAR? activation maintained pancreatic PDX-1, GCK, and insulin expression levels to regulate blood glucose levels.
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Monascin improves diabetes and dyslipidemia by regulating PPAR? and inhibiting lipogenesis in fructose-rich diet-induced C57BL/6 mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Monascin (MS) is a yellow compound isolated from Monascus-fermented products that has pancreatic protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hypolipidemic activity. We recently found that MS also acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) agonist, thereby promoting insulin sensitivity in C2C12 cells. However, the attenuation of hyperglycemia by MS treatment in vivo remains uncertain. In the present study, both MS and pioglitazone significantly down-regulated blood glucose and hyperinsulinemia in fructose-rich diet (FRD)-induced C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks). In addition, inhibitions of inflammatory factor production, serum dyslipidemia, and hepatic fatty acid accumulation by MS and pioglitazone were attenuated by GW9662 (PPAR? antagonist). These results were mediated by MS-suppressing FRD-elevated lipogenic transcription factors, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), and PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). Taken together, de novo lipogenesis results in hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia by fructose induction thereby leading to diabetes development; we found that MS may inhibit lipogenesis in FRD-induced mice. These findings suggest that MS acts as an antidiabetic agent and thus may have therapeutic potential for prevention of diabetes.
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Current pharmacological management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a common disorder with troublesome symptoms caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, has adverse impact on quality of life. A variety of medications have been used in GERD treatment, and acid suppression therapy is the mainstay of treatment for GERD. Although proton pump inhibitor is the most potent acid suppressant and provides good efficacy in esophagitis healing and symptom relief, about one-third of patients with GERD still have persistent symptoms with poor response to standard dose PPI. Antacids, alginate, histamine type-2 receptor antagonists, and prokinetic agents are usually used as add-on therapy to PPI in clinical practice. Development of novel therapeutic agents has focused on the underlying mechanisms of GERD, such as transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation, motility disorder, mucosal protection, and esophageal hypersensitivity. Newer formulations of PPI with faster and longer duration of action and potassium-competitive acid blocker, a newer acid suppressant, have also been investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the current and developing therapeutic agents for GERD treatment.
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Evaluation and development of a real-time predictive model for ultrasound investigation of malignant thyroid nodules.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Ultrasound investigations and correct identification of malignant thyroid nodules depend on the experience and qualifications of the investigators; thus, a model that provides better evaluation before needle aspiration is desired. Data from 687 patients with 726 thyroid nodules comprising 65 malignant nodules (61 papillary and 4 follicular carcinoma) and 661 benign nodules were used to construct a predictive model. Presence of micro-calcification, taller-than-wide shape, predominant solid echostructure, and irregular margins were shown to be good independent predictive parameters. A thyroid nodule was predicted as malignant with a score ?3.3. Internal validation of this predictive tool by the bootstrapping method showed excellent overall model performance.
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Long-term biometric optic components of diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity at 9 years of age.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To assess quantitatively the biometric optic components and its relationship with refractive status in preterm school children with diode laser-treated threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
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B3GNT3 expression suppresses cell migration and invasion and predicts favorable outcomes in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Aberrant expression of the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens such as T, Tn, sialyl-T and sialyl-Tn is associated with poor prognosis in several cancers. ?1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 (B3GNT3), a member of the ?3GlcNAcT family, is responsible for forming extended core 1 (T antigen) oligosaccharides. The role of B3GNT3, which is expressed in various tissues including human fetal brain, in regulating neuroblastoma (NB) formation and cell behaviors remains unclear. Here, we showed that increased B3GNT3 expression evaluated using immunohistochemistry in NB tumor tissues correlated well with the histological grade of differentiation as well as a favorable Shimadas subset of pathology. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that positive B3GNT3 expression in tumor tissues predicted a favorable prognosis in NB patients independent of other prognostic markers. B3GNT3 overexpression suppresses T antigen formation and malignant phenotypes including migration and invasion of SK-N-SH cells, whereas B3GNT3 knockdown enhances these phenotypes of SK-N-SH cells. Moreover, B3GNT3 expression decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, paxillin, Akt and ERK1/2. We conclude that B3GNT3 predicts a favorable cancer behavior of NB and suppresses malignant phenotypes by modulating mucin-type O-glycosylation and signaling in NB cells.
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Retinoic acid-elicited RAR?/RXR? signaling attenuates A? production by directly inhibiting ?-secretase-mediated cleavage of amyloid precursor protein.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Retinoic acid (RA)-elicited signaling has been shown to play critical roles in development, organogenesis, and the immune response. RA regulates expression of Alzheimers disease (AD)-related genes and attenuates amyloid pathology in a transgenic mouse model. In this study, we investigated whether RA can suppress the production of amyloid-? (A?) through direct inhibition of ?-secretase activity. We report that RA treatment of cells results in significant inhibition of ?-secretase-mediated processing of the amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragment APP-C99, compared with DMSO-treated controls. RA-elicited signaling was found to significantly increase accumulation of APP-C99 and decrease production of secreted A?40. In addition, RA-induced inhibition of ?-secretase activity was found to be mediated through significant activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2). Treatment of cells with the specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 completely abolished RA-mediated inhibition of ?-secretase. Consistent with these findings, RA was observed to inhibit secretase-mediated proteolysis of full-length APP. Finally, we have established that RA inhibits ?-secretase through nuclear retinoic acid receptor-? (RAR?) and retinoid X receptor-? (RXR?). Our findings provide a new mechanistic explanation for the neuroprotective role of RA in AD pathology and add to the previous data showing the importance of RA signaling as a target for AD therapy.
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A home-based training program improves caregivers skills and dementia patients aggressive behaviors: a randomized controlled trial.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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To investigate the effects of an individualized, home-based caregiver-training program for caregivers of elderly patients with dementia and behavioral problems.
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Effect of basal metabolic rate on the bone mineral density in middle to old age women in Taiwan.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Basal metabolic rate (BMR) reflects a combination of cardiopulmonary function and lean body mass resulting from regular physical activity. Though many studies have examined the relationships between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, little is known regarding the relationship between BMD and BMR.
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Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) and panretinal photocoagulation in the treatment of high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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To report the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) injection with panretinal laser photocoagulation (PRP) in patients with high-risk proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study criteria.
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Anti-inflammatory Properties of Yellow and Orange Pigments from Monascus purpureus NTU 568.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The Monascus species has been used in foods for thousands of years in China. In this study, 10 azaphilone pigments, including four yellow and six orange pigments, were isolated from the fermented rice and dioscorea of Monascus purpureus NTU 568. By employing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, we determined the inhibitory activities of these pigments on nitric oxide (NO) production. As a result, four orange pigments, monaphilols A-D, showed the highest activities (IC50 = 1.0-3.8 ?M), compared with the other two orange pigments, monascorubrin (IC50 > 40 ?M) and rubropunctatin (IC50 = 21.2 ?M), and the four yellow pigments ankaflavin (IC50 = 21.8 ?M), monascin (IC50 = 29.1 ?M), monaphilone A (IC50 = 19.3 ?M), and monaphilone B (IC50 = 22.6 ?M). Using Western blot and ELISA kits, we found that treatments with 30 ?M of the yellow pigments and 5 ?M of the orange pigments could down-regulate the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and suppress the production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). We also used two animal experiments to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of these pigments. In a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema model, eight of these pigments (0.5 mg/ear) could prevent ear edema against TPA administrations on the ears of BALB/c mice. In an LPS-injection mice model, several of these pigments (10 mg/kg) could inhibit the NO, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 levels in the plasma of BALB/c mice. As concluded from the in vitro and in vivo studies, six azaphilonoid pigments, namely, ankaflavin, monaphilone A, and monaphilols A-D, showed high potential to be developed into chemopreventive foods or drugs against inflammation-associated diseases.
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A novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist (monascin) attenuates the toxicity of methylglyoxal and hyperglycemia.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Methylglyoxal (MG) is a toxic-glucose metabolite and a major precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). MG has been reported to result in inflammation by activating receptor for AGEs (RAGE). We recently found that Monascus-fermented metabolite monascin acts as a novel natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonist that improves insulin sensitivity. We investigated the metabolic, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes in MG-treated Wistar rats treated with oral administration of monascin or rosiglitazone. Monascin (a novel PPAR? agonist) activated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated hyperinsulinmia in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Monascin was able to elevate glyoxalase-1 expression via activation of hepatic Nrf2, hence, resulting in MG metabolism to d-lactic acid and protected from AGEs production in MG-treated rats. Rosiglitazone did not activate Nrf2 nor glyoxalase expression to lower serum and hepatic AGEs levels. Monascin acts as a novel natural Nrf2 activator with PPAR?-agonist activity were confirmed by Nrf2 and PPAR? reporter assays in Hep G2 cells. These findings suggest that monascin acts as an anti-diabetic and anti-oxidative stress agent to a greater degree than rosiglitazone and thus may have therapeutic potential for the prevention of diabetes.
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Monascin and ankaflavin act as natural AMPK activators with PPAR? agonist activity to down-regulate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Yellow pigments monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) are secondary metabolites derived from Monascus-fermented products. The hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of MS and AK indicate that they have potential on preventing or curing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Oleic acid (OA) and high-fat diet were used to induce steatosis in FL83B hepatocytes and NAFLD in mice, respectively. We found that both MS and AK prevented fatty acid accumulation in hepatocytes by inhibiting fatty acid uptake, lipogenesis, and promoting fatty acid beta-oxidation mediated by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, MS and AK significantly attenuated high-fat diet-induced elevation of total cholesterol (TC), triaceylglycerol (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in plasma. MS and AK promoted AMPK phosphorylation, suppressed the steatosis-related mRNA expression and inflammatory cytokines secretion, as well as upregulated farnesoid X receptor (FXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1?, and PPAR? expression to induce fatty acid oxidation in the liver of mice. We provided evidence that MS and AK act as PPAR? agonists to upregulate AMPK activity and attenuate NAFLD. MS and AK may be supplied in food supplements or developed as functional foods to reduce the risk of diabetes and obesity.
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?-1,4-Galactosyltransferase III enhances invasive phenotypes via ?1-integrin and predicts poor prognosis in neuroblastoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Neuroblastoma (NB) is a neural crest-derived tumor that commonly occurs in childhood. ?-1,4-Galactosyltransferase III (B4GALT3) is highly expressed in human fetal brain and is responsible for the generation of poly-N-acetyllactosamine, which plays a critical role in tumor progression. We therefore investigated the expression and role of B4GALT3 in NB.
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In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) is considered a potential risk for cardiovascular events. Little is known about whether improving air quality in car can modify cardiovascular effects among human subjects during commuting. We recruited a panel of 60 healthy subjects to commute for 2 h by a car equipped with an air conditioning (AC) system during the morning rush hour in Taipei. Operation modes of AC system using outside air (OA-mode), circulating inside air (IA-mode) and turning off (Off-mode) were examined. Repeated measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) indices, PM?2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and noise level were conducted for each participant in different modes during the commute. We used linear mixed-effects models to associate HRV indices with in-car PM2.5. We found that decreases in HRV indices were associated with increased levels of in-car PM2.5. For Off-mode, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average was associated with 2.7% and 4.1% decreases in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN) and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals (r-MSSD), respectively. During OA and IA modes, participants showed slight decreases in SDNN (OA mode: 0.1%; IA mode: 1.3%) and r-MSSD (OA mode: 1.1%; IA mode: 1.8%) by an IQR increase in in-car PM2.5 with 15-min moving average. We concluded that in-car PM2.5 is associated with autonomic alteration. Utilization of the cars AC system can improve air quality and modify the effects of in-car PM2.5 on HRV indices among human subjects during the commute.
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Presenilin-1 Regulates the Expression of p62 to Govern p62-dependent Tau Degradation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Mutations in presenilin-1 (PS1) are tightly associated with early-onset familial Alzheimers disease (FAD), which is characterized by extracellular amyloid plaques and the accumulation of intracellular Tau. In addition to being the catalytic subunit of ?-secretase, PS1 has been shown to regulate diverse cellular functions independent of its proteolytic activity. We found that cells deficient in PS1 exhibit reduced levels of p62 protein, a cargo-receptor shuttling Tau for degradation. The downregulation of PS1 led to a significant decrease in both the protein and mRNA transcript of p62, concomitant with attenuated p62 promoter activity. This PS1-dependent regulation of p62 expression was mediated through an Akt/AP-1 pathway independent of the proteolytic activity of PS1/?-secretase. This p62-mediated Tau degradation was significantly impaired in PS1-deficient cells, which can be rescued by ectopic expression of either p62 or wild-type PS1 but not mutant PS1 containing FAD-linked mutations. Our study suggests a novel function for PS1 in modulating p62 expression to control the proteostasis of Tau.
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Discrimination between Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment using SOM and PSO-SVM.
Comput Math Methods Med
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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In this study, an MRI-based classification framework was proposed to distinguish the patients with AD and MCI from normal participants by using multiple features and different classifiers. First, we extracted features (volume and shape) from MRI data by using a series of image processing steps. Subsequently, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to convert a set of features of possibly correlated variables into a smaller set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables, decreasing the dimensions of feature space. Finally, we developed a novel data mining framework in combination with support vector machine (SVM) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the AD/MCI classification. In order to compare the hybrid method with traditional classifier, two kinds of classifiers, that is, SVM and a self-organizing map (SOM), were trained for patient classification. With the proposed framework, the classification accuracy is improved up to 82.35% and 77.78% in patients with AD and MCI. The result achieved up to 94.12% and 88.89% in AD and MCI by combining the volumetric features and shape features and using PCA. The present results suggest that novel multivariate methods of pattern matching reach a clinically relevant accuracy for the a priori prediction of the progression from MCI to AD.
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Regional amyloid deposition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease evaluated by [18F]AV-45 positron emission tomography in Chinese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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To compare the neocortical amyloid loads among cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and Alzheimers disease (AD) subjects with [(18)F]AV-45 positron emission tomography (PET).
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Monascus-fermented yellow pigments monascin and ankaflavin showed antiobesity effect via the suppression of differentiation and lipogenesis in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Monascus-fermented monascin and ankaflavin are found to strongly inhibit differentiation and lipogenesis and stimulate lipolysis effects in a 3T3-L1 preadipocyte model, but the in vivo regulation mechanism is unclear. This study uses obese rats caused by a high-fat diet to examine the effects of daily monascin and ankaflavin feeding (8 weeks) on antiobesity effects and modulation of differentiation, lipogenesis, and lipid absorption. The results show that monascin and ankaflavin had a significant antiobesity effect, which should result from the modulation of monascin and ankaflavin on the inhibition of differentiation by inhibiting CCAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) expression (36.4% and 48.3%) and its downstream peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) (55.6% and 64.5%) and CCAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) expressions (25.2% and 33.2%) and the inhibition of lipogenesis by increasing lipase activity (14.0% and 10.7%) and decreasing heparin releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) activity (34.8% and 30.5%). Furthermore, monascin and ankaflavin are the first agents found to suppress Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) protein expression (73.6% and 26.1%) associated with small intestine tissue lipid absorption. Importantly, monascin and ankaflavin are not like monacolin K, which increases creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity, known as a rhabdomyolysis indicator.
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Longitudinal trends of the healthcare-seeking prevalence and incidence of insomnia in Taiwan: an 8-year nationally representative study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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We used insurance claims of a nationally representative population-based cohort to assess the longitudinal healthcare-seeking prevalence and incidence of insomnia.
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Effects of monascin on anti-inflammation mediated by Nrf2 activation in advanced glycation end product-treated THP-1 monocytes and methylglyoxal-treated wistar rats.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Hyperglycemia is associated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). This study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of monascin on receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) signal and THP-1 monocyte inflammation after treatment with S100b, a specific ligand of RAGE. Monascin inhibited cytokine production by S100b-treated THP-1 monocytes via up-regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and alleviated p47phox translocation to the membrane. Methylglyoxal (MG, 600 mg/kg bw) was used to induce diabetes in Wistar rats. Inhibitions of RAGE and p47phox by monascin were confirmed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MG-induced rats. Silymarin (SM) was used as a positive control group. It was found that monascin promoted heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by Nrf2. Suppressions of AGEs, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-?) in serum of MG-induced rats were attenuated in the monascin administration group treated with retinoic acid (RA). RA treatment resulted in Nrf2 inactivation by increasing RA receptor-? (RAR?) activity, suggesting that RA acts as an inhibitor of Nrf2. The results showed that monascin exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects mediated by Nrf2 to prevent the development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes caused by inflammation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.