We described a method where the secret binary image that has been encoded into a single amplitude pattern in Fresnel domain can be recovered based on phase retrieval with an aperture-key and wavelength keys, and no holographic recording is needed in the encryption. The predesigned aperture-key not only realizes the intensity modulation of the encrypted image, but also helps to retrieve the secret image with high quality. All the necessary decryption keys can be kept in digital form that facilitates data transmission and loading in image retrieval process. Numerical simulation results are given for testing the validity and security of the proposed approach.
A concise synthesis of both (S)- and (R)-enantiomers of tricladins A and B from l-Boc alanine was achieved. The diastereomeric intermediates were separated by chiral column chromatography, and the absolute configuration of the 2-position was assigned by observed NOE interactions with the known stereogenic center at the 5-position. By comparison of all synthesized final enantiomers with the corresponding natural products, we concluded that the natural tricladins A and B must have the (R)-configuration.
To observe the expression and localization of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) classic signaling pathway in the radial artery of the coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with diabetes and non-diabetes.
Regarding the impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor cells, many contradictory reports have been published. We have hypothesized that these controversies result from differences in tissue types and tumor stages, in which immune cells are variably distributed and differentially associated with epithelial cells. Our current study compared the pattern and frequency of physical association of tumor-infiltrating immune cells with different parenchymal cells of human breast and prostate tumors harboring normal, hyperplastic, in situ, and invasive components.
To explore the effects of anti-aging Klotho protein in the proliferation, migration and adhesiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and its influence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HUVEC.
We present a novel image hiding method based on phase retrieval algorithm under the framework of nonlinear double random phase encoding in fractional Fourier domain. Two phase-only masks (POMs) are efficiently determined by using the phase retrieval algorithm, in which two cascaded phase-truncated fractional Fourier transforms (FrFTs) are involved. No undesired information disclosure, post-processing of the POMs or digital inverse computation appears in our proposed method. In order to achieve the reduction in key transmission, a modified image hiding method based on the modified phase retrieval algorithm and logistic map is further proposed in this paper, in which the fractional orders and the parameters with respect to the logistic map are regarded as encryption keys. Numerical results have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Abstract NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2) is one of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) protein coding genes, which is a subunit of NADH dehydrogenase. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the variation/heteroplasmic sites of chicken ND2, and thus to evaluate the association with chicken growth traits, carcass traits, and serum biochemical indexes. Seventeen variants were detected in the ND2 gene by Sanger sequencing, which constructed 15 haplotypes; the haplotype diversity (hd) was 0.7692. Mt.A5703T and mt.T5727G in the ND2 gene had been detected as the heteroplasmic sites via the created restriction site restriction fragment length polymorphism (CRS-PCR-RFLP) method. Moreover, the study on distribution of two heteroplasmic variants in the Gushi chicken F2 resource population revealed that the heteroplasmic ratio of mt.A5703T and mt.T5727G was 9% and 40%, respectively. It showed that there was obvious heteroplasmic difference between two sites. Association analysis of the variation/heteroplasmy with the related traits in Gushi chicken F2 population showed that the mt.A5703T and mt.T5727G were significantly associated with the pectoral muscle fat content and the duodenum length, but no significance was found with body weight (BW). It was the first time to indicate that heteroplasmic variation had significant effect on growth traits, carcass parameters, and meat quality traits, which showed the potential importance of related variation.
Great challenges in transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for treating ischemic diabetic ulcers (IDUs) are to find a suitable carrier and create beneficial microenvironment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of neurotrophin family, is considered angiogenic and neuroprotective. Given that IDUs are caused by vascular disease and peripheral neuropathy, we used BDNF as a stimulant, and intended to explore the role of new biomaterials complex with MSCs in wound healing. BDNF promoted the proliferation and migration of MSCs using MTT, transwell and cell scratch assays. The activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was also enhanced by the MSC-conditioned medium in the presence of BDNF, via a VEGF-independent pathway. Because proliferated HUVECs in the BDNF group made the microenvironment more conducive to endothelial differentiation of MSCs, by establishing co-culture systems with the two cell types, endothelial cells derived from MSCs increased significantly. A new biomaterial made of polylactic acid, silk and collagen was used as the carrier dressing. After transplantation of the BDNF-stimulated MSC/biomaterial complex, the ulcers in hindlimb ischemic mice healed prominently. More blood vessel formation was observed in the wound tissue, and more MSCs were co-stained with some endothelial-specific markers such as CD31 and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) in the treatment group than in the control group. These results demonstrated that BDNF could improve microenvironment in the new biomaterial, and induce MSCs to differentiate into endothelial cells indirectly, thus accelerating ischemic ulcer healing.
Autocatalytic activation of an initiator caspase triggers the onset of apoptosis. In dying cells, caspase-9 activation is mediated by a multimeric adaptor complex known as the Apaf-1 apoptosome. The molecular mechanism by which caspase-9 is activated by the Apaf-1 apoptosome remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the previously reported 1:1 interaction between Apaf-1 caspase recruitment domain (CARD) and caspase-9 CARD is insufficient for the activation of caspase-9. Rather, formation of a multimeric CARD:CARD assembly between Apaf-1 and caspase-9, which requires three types of distinct interfaces, underlies caspase-9 activation. Importantly, an additional surface area on the multimeric CARD assembly is essential for caspase-9 activation. Together, these findings reveal mechanistic insights into the activation of caspase-9 by the Apaf-1 apoptosome and support the induced conformation model for initiator caspase activation by adaptor complexes.
C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ mice display significant differences in sociability and response to drugs, but the phenotypic variability of their susceptibility to cocaine is still not well known. In this study, the differences between these two mice strains in the persistence of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), as well as the locomotion and social behaviors after the 24-hour withdrawal from a four-day cocaine (20 mg/kg/day) administration were investigated. The results showed that the cocaine-induced CPP persisted over two weeks in C57BL/6J mice, while it diminished within one week among BALB/cJ mice. After 24-hours of cocaine withdrawal, high levels of locomotion as well as low levels of social interaction and aggressive behavior were found in C57BL/6J mice, but no significant changes were found in BALB/cJ mice, indicating that cocaine-induced CPP persistence, locomotion and social behavior are not consistent between these two strains, and that overall C57BL/6J mice are more susceptible to cocaine than BALB/cJ mice at the tested doses.
To investigate the effects of LingQiJuanGan Capsule medicated serum on the apoptosis of and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax in hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6) activated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).
To examine the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes on the sensitivity of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) for screening, and colposcopy for diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+).
Objective To explore the efficacy of the modified extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) in improving the apoptotic rate of lymphocytes in vitro. Methods The spleens which were obtained from liver transplantation donor under aseptic condition were used as experimental materials. Splenic lymphocytes (SPs) suspensions were prepared by modified and traditional ECP method, respectively. And then the isolated SPs were treated by the irradiation of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) combined with ultraviolet A (UVA) named PUVA, 8-MOP and UVA, and compared with a blank group meanwhile. The treated SPs were cultured overnight in an incubator at 37DegreesCelsius, in a humidified atmosphere of 50 mL/L CO2 for 6-8 hours. The morphological changes of cells were observed using an inverted microscope, the apoptotic rates of SPs were detected by flow cytometry, and the difference between groups was analyzed finally. Results The apoptotic rate at early stage and the total apoptotic rate of SPs prepared by the modified ECP method were respectively (95.33±3.03)% and (97.10±2.12)% after treated by PUVA, (23.39±4.55)% and (36.32±6.63)% after treated by 8-MOP, and (66.98±3.60)% and (68.65±4.35)% by UVA. Compared with control group (12.82±1.86% and 13.4±2.65%), there were statistically significant differences (P<0.01). The apoptotic rate at early stage and the total apoptotic rate of SPs prepared by the traditional ECP method were respectively (79.73±4.21)% and (82.70±4.13)%, (61.42±2.28)% and (68.91±2.18)%, (19.30±1.78)% and (28.06±1.88)%, (10.84±0.98)% and (12.77±1.22)%, and the statistical comparisons between groups also had significant difference (P<0.01). In addition, there was a significant difference in the early and total apoptosis between the modified and traditional ECP (P<0.01), but no obvious variation in the end-stage apoptosis in the two groups (P>0.05). Conclusion The modified ECP method can promote apoptosis of SPs in vitro conveniently, safely and efficiently, especially in the early stage. This can lay a foundation for the further study on dendritic cell immunomodulation induced by ECP method.
Investigating the distribution of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV-IgG), anti-human papillomavirus (HPV L1-IgG) and risk factors among female residents in Xinmi County, to explore the influencing factors of HPV vaccine study using HEV vaccinated population as a control.
The formation of ?-H2AX in response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) marks damaged regions for recognition and repair. Dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX is required for cells to resume cell cycle. However, the mechanisms of ?-H2AX dephosphorylation remain underexplored. Using a loss of function screen, we identified PP2A specific subunits, B56? and ?4, involved in elimination of ?-H2AX during DSBs repair process. In the early stage of DSBs repair the inhibitory subunit ?4 binds and renders PP2Ac inactive. As DNA is repaired, ?4 releases PP2Ac and triggers the assembly of an active PP2A B56? holoenzyme. PP2A B56?, which translocates from cytoplasm into the nucleus upon DNA damage, is responsible for a direct dephosphorylation of ?-H2AX. Suppression of both B56? and ?4 leads to persistence of ?-H2AX and defects in DNA repair. In contrast, the rapid clearance of ?-H2AX in human hepatocarcinoma is correlated with the over-expression of both B56? and ?4. Functional analysis reveals that PP2A B56? coordinates with ?4 in accelerating HR repair upon DNA damage. Together, these observations gain insight of how ?-H2AX dephosphorylation is kinetically regulated during DNA repair response.
Carbon nanotubes can carry protein into cells to induce biological effects. Amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes are soluble and biocompatible, have high reactivity and low toxicity, and can help promote nerve cell growth. In this study, amino-functionalized ethylenediamine-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to prepare carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complexes by non-covalent grafting. The physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity to PC12 and chick embryo dorsal root ganglion, and biological activity of the carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complexes were investigated. The results showed that amino functionalization improved carbon nanotubes-nerve growth factor complex dispersibility, reduced their toxicity to PC12 cells, and promoted PC12 cell differentiation and chick embryo dorsal root ganglion.
To determine the distribution of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG antibody and anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) IgG antibody among female residents of Xinmi and investigate the risk factors of HEV infection.
We conducted a pilot study of whether nonpathologists could accurately diagnose cervical precancer in biopsies using only a basic light microscope, evaluating p16 immunohistochemistry (p16 IHC) of biopsies, and video-based training for both.
The transport and intracellular trafficking of heme biosynthesis intermediates are crucial for hemoglobin production, which is a critical process in developing red cells. Here, we profiled gene expression in terminally differentiating murine fetal liver-derived erythroid cells to identify regulators of heme metabolism. We determined that TMEM14C, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that is enriched in vertebrate hematopoietic tissues, is essential for erythropoiesis and heme synthesis in vivo and in cultured erythroid cells. In mice, TMEM14C deficiency resulted in porphyrin accumulation in the fetal liver, erythroid maturation arrest, and embryonic lethality due to profound anemia. Protoporphyrin IX synthesis in TMEM14C-deficient erythroid cells was blocked, leading to an accumulation of porphyrin precursors. The heme synthesis defect in TMEM14C-deficient cells was ameliorated with a protoporphyrin IX analog, indicating that TMEM14C primarily functions in the terminal steps of the heme synthesis pathway. Together, our data demonstrate that TMEM14C facilitates the import of protoporphyrinogen IX into the mitochondrial matrix for heme synthesis and subsequent hemoglobin production. Furthermore, the identification of TMEM14C as a protoporphyrinogen IX importer provides a genetic tool for further exploring erythropoiesis and congenital anemias.
Piscidin 1 and piscidin 3, which were discovered in the mast cells of hybrid striped sea bass, are homologous antimicrobial peptides that are active against drug-resistant bacteria. Piscidin 1, the more antimicrobial and hemolytic peptide, also has anti-HIV-1 and anti-cancer properties. To understand the reasons underlying the different biological activities of the two peptides and identify principles to design antimicrobial drugs with improved efficacy and lower toxicity, their atomic-level structures must be obtained under physiologically-relevant conditions. High-resolution backbone structures of both piscidins exist in the presence of hydrated phospholipid bilayers but full structures that include the side chains are missing. Here, the piscidins 1 and 3 genes were cloned into the TrpLE vector. The corresponding TrpLE-piscidin fusion partners were expressed in Escherichiacoli and recovered from inclusion bodies. Following steps that included Ni-NTA chromatography, cyanogen bromide cleavage of the fusion proteins, and reverse-phase HPLC, purified piscidins 1 and 3 were recovered in very good yield and characterized by NMR. High quality (15)N-(1)H HSQC spectra of piscidins 1 and 3 bound to SDS micelles were collected, demonstrating the feasibility of producing and purifying the isotopically-labeled piscidin peptides required to determine their full structures by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.
Spermiogenesis is a complex process of terminal differentiation that is necessary to produce mature sperm. Using protein expression profiles of mouse and human testes generated from our previous studies, we chose to examine the actions of lamin A/C in the current investigation. Lamin A and lamin C are isoforms of the A-type lamins that are encoded by the LMNA gene. Our results showed that lamin A/C was expressed in the mouse testis throughout the different stages of spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. Lamin A/C was also expressed in mouse haploid germ cells and was found to be localized to the acroplaxome in spermiogenesis, from round spermatids until mature spermatozoa. The decreased expression of lamin A/C following injections of siRNA against Lmna caused a significant increase in caudal sperm head abnormalities when compared with negative controls. These abnormalities were characterized by increased fragmentation of the acrosome and abnormal vesicles, which failed to fuse to the developing acrosome. This fragmentation also caused significant alterations in nuclear elongation and acrosome formation. Furthermore, we found that lamin A/C interacted with the microtubule plus-end-tracking protein CLIP170. These results suggest that lamin A/C is critical for proper structural and functional development of the sperm acrosome and head shape.
In order to improve the efficiency of energy conversion and increase the driving range of electric vehicles, the regenerative energy captured during braking process is stored in the energy storage devices and then will be re-used. Due to the high power density of supercapacitors, they are employed to withstand high current in the short time and essentially capture more regenerative energy. The measuring methods for regenerative energy should be investigated to estimate the energy conversion efficiency and performance of electric vehicles. Based on the analysis of the regenerative braking energy system of a supercapacitor vehicle, an evaluation system for energy recovery in the braking process is established using USB portable data-acquisition devices. Experiments under various braking conditions are carried out. The results verify the higher efficiency of energy regeneration system using supercapacitors and the effectiveness of the proposed measurement method. It is also demonstrated that the maximum regenerative energy conversion efficiency can reach to 88%.
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of different specimens for detecting CIN2(+), and to find the solution of the problem that why the performance of self-collected specimen is worse than cervical specimen collected by physician.
Oxidized hydrothermal biochar was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of Spartina alterniflora biomass (240°C for 4h) and subsequent oxidization (240°C for 10min) under air. Oxidized hydrochar achieved a Fe(III) reducing capacity of 2.15mmol/g at pH 2.0 with 120h, which is 1.2 times higher than un-oxidized hydrochar. Low temperature oxidization increases the contents of carboxyl and carbonyl groups on hydrochar surface. It is supposed that carboxyl groups provide bonding sites for soluble Fe species and carbonyl groups are responsible for Fe(3+) reduction. A Fenton-like process was established with Fe(2+) replaced by oxidized hydrochar and tested for methylene blue (MB) decoloration. Oxidized hydrochar achieved a MB decolorization (200mg/L, pH 7.0) rate of 99.21% within 3h and demonstrates prominent prevail over H2O2 absent control test. This study reveals low temperature oxidization is an effective way to improve and restore abiotic reducing ability of hydrochar.
Post-burn cicatricle contractures of neck pose a challenge for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. To improve functional and cosmetic results, and to minimize the donor-site morbidity, we use pre-expanded cervico-acromial fasciocutaneous flap based on the supraclavicular artery as a feasible choice for resurfacing large skin defects of the neck.
Induction of metallothionein (MT) expression is involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification. To identify the key pathways that regulate metal-induced cytotoxicity, we investigate how phosphorylated metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) contributed to induction of MT expression. Immortal human embryonic kidney cells (HEK cells) were treated with seven kinds of metals including cadmium chloride (CdCl2), zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), copper sulfate(CuSO4), lead acetate (PbAc), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2), and potassium bichromate (K2Cr2O7). The MT expression was induced in a dose-response and time-dependent manner upon various metal treatments. A cycle of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation was required for translocation of MTF-1 from cytoplasm to nucleus, leading to the up-regulation of MTs expression. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) participated in regulating MT expression through dephosphorylation of MTF-1. A loss-of-function screen revealed that the specific PP2A complexes containing PR110 were involved in metal-induced MT expression. Suppression of PP2A PR110 in HEK cells resulted in the persistent MTF-1 phosphorylation and the disturbance of MTF-1 nuclear translocation, which was concomitant with a significant decrease of MT expression and enhanced cytotoxicity in HEK cells. Notably, MTF-1 was found in complex with specific PP2A complexes containing the PR110 subunit upon metal exposure. Furthermore, we identify that the dephosphorylation of MTF-1 at residue Thr-254 is directly regulated by PP2A PR110 complexes and responsible for MTF-1 activation. Taken together, these findings delineate a novel pathway that determines cytotoxicity in response to metal treatments and provide new insight into the role of PP2A in cellular stress response.
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates numerous neuronal processes, including metabolism, antioxidation and aging, through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1-? (PGC-1?), an upstream regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. However, the role of SIRT1 in the oxidative stress induced by seizures has yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate whether SIRT1 was involved in the activation of the PGC-1?/mitochondrial antioxidant system following status epilepticus (SE) in rats. The data demonstrated that SIRT1 expression and activity were enhanced in the rat hippocampus following SE. SIRT1 inhibition effectively blocked the SE-associated increase in PGC-1? and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2). Additionally, it was also demonstrated that the activation of SIRT1 enhanced mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and increased ATP content. In conclusion, the present results suggest that SIRT1 activation may alleviate mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by seizures partially via PGC-1? signaling.
BackgroundIt is known that the risk of stroke in patients with traumatic brain injury might be increased. However, the relationship between mild traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke has never been established. We conducted a study of patients in Taiwan with mild traumatic brain injury to evaluate if they had a higher risk of stroke compared with the general population.MethodsWe utilized a sampled National Health Insurance claims database containing one million beneficiaries. We followed all adult beneficiaries older than 18 years from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 to determine if they were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. We further identified patients with mild traumatic brain injury and compared their risk of ischemic stroke with the general population.ResultsWe identified 24,905 patients with mild traumatic brain injury and 719,811 patients without mild traumatic brain injury. After controlling for age, gender, urbanization level, socioeconomic status, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, history of alcohol intoxication, malignancies, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, smoking, obesity, epilepsy, peripheral artery disease and Charlson Comorbidity Index score, the adjusted hazard ratio for ischemic stroke was 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 1.33¿1.62).ConclusionMild traumatic brain injury is an independent significant risk factor for ischemic stroke.
The effects of long-term excessive maternal iodine intake on neonatal thyroid function are less known. This study aimed to assess the effects of maternal excessive iodine intake from drinking water on thyroid functions of both mothers and their neonates.
Abstract Relationship between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer from the published reports are still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between VDR TaqI (rs731236), BsmI (rs1544410) and ApaI (rs7975232) gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed and Cochrane Library on 1 December 2013, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. Six reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of VDR gene polymorphism with lung cancer susceptibility. In the meta-analysis for ApaI gene polymorphism, AA genotype was associated with the risk of lung cancer in Asians. In the meta-analysis for BsmI gene polymorphism, B allele, BB genotype and bb genotype were associated with lung cancer in Asians, and B allele bb genotype were associated with lung cancer risk in overall populations; furthermore, bb genotype was associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. In the meta-analysis for TaqI gene polymorphism, t allele and TT genotype were associated with lung cancer in overall populations and in Caucasians. In conclusion, B allele bb genotype t allele and TT genotype were associated with lung cancer risk in overall populations. AA genotype, B allele, BB genotype and bb genotype were associated with the risk of lung cancer in Asians. Furthermore, bb genotype t allele and TT genotype was associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians. However, more studies should be conducted to confirm it.
Vitamin D has important functions in the immune system, and it may suppress the proliferation of T helper (Th) cells and modulate their cytokine production. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal supplementation with different doses of vitamin D on the allergy status of the offspring. We gave pregnant female rats a low dose (48000IU/kg, equal to 800IU/d in human) and a high dose (240000IU/kg,equal to 4000IU/d in human) of vitamin D3 intramuscular injection on gestation day (GD)17, and we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the levels of immune responsive cytokines including IL-4, IgE, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in the offspring. On postnatal day (PND) 21, plasma IL-4 levels were elevated by 10.43% (p < 0.01) in the offspring from the high dose vitamin D3 group compared with the control group. And offspring plasma IL-4 levels in the low dose group decreased by 7.27% (p < 0.05) compared with the control dose group. We found that the offspring of mothers given a low dose of vitamin D3 had a 6.17% (p < 0.01) decrease in their plasma IgE levels compared to control animals, but the high dose of vitamin D3 showed no effect. The serum 25(OH)D3 levels were negatively correlated with the IL-4 (r = -0.561, p < 0.01) and IgE (r = -0.421, p < 0.05) levels of the offspring from the low dose group. In the lung tissues of the offspring of the high dose group, we observed thickening of the alveolar septa and more inflammatory cells compared with the control group and low dose group. Thickened alveolar septa were also found in the lung tissues of the offspring from the control group. We conclude that high dose vitamin D3 maternal supplementation during pregnancy induced an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells in their offspring resulting allergic and inflammatory response.
The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. Here, we announce the draft genome sequences of three strains of Arcobacter species cultured from pig and dairy cattle manure tanks. This information will assist in the characterization of features related to host specificities and identify potential pathogenic health risks to humans and animals.
Pectobacterium wasabiae, originally causing soft rot disease in horseradish in Japan, was recently found to cause blackleg-like symptoms on potato in the United States, Canada, and Europe. A draft genome sequence of a Canadian potato isolate of P. wasabiae CFIA1002 will enhance the characterization of its pathogenicity and host specificity features.
Few-layer graphene/TiO2 nanocrystal composites are successfully in situ synthesized at a low temperature of 400 °C using C28H16Br2 as the precursor. Raman mapping images show that the TiO2 nanocrystals are very uniformly dispersed in the composite films, and the in situ coating during the thermal decomposition process will favor the formation of a good interface combination between the few-layered graphene and the TiO2 nanocrystals. The few-layer graphene/TiO2 nanocrystal composites are used as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), and the conversion efficiency of 8.25% is obtained under full sun irradiation (AM 1.5), which increases by 65% compared with that of the pure TiO2 nanocrystal DSSCs (5.01%). It is found that the good interface combination between few-layered graphene and TiO2 nanocrystals may improve the electric conductivity and lifetime of photoinduced electrons in DSSCs. Moreover, some carbon atoms are doped into the crystal structure of the TiO2 nanocrystals during the thermal decomposition process, which will enhance the light absorption by narrowing the band gap and favor the improvement of the photovoltaic efficiency.
Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) generate nearly 80% of the jobs in China, but the dangerous work environment often found in these enterprises poses a major concern for public health. Psychosocial pressure and mental health problems among the workers are also common in SMEs. However, mental health of workers in SMEs is largely neglected in occupational health research and practice in China. The purpose of this study is to assess mental health of the workers and to explore the associations between physical and psychosocial work environment and workers' mental health in SMEs in South China.
A series of novel 1-((indol-3-yl)methyl)-1H-imidazolium salts were prepared and evaluated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. The results suggest that the 5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazole ring, and substitution of the imidazolyl-3-position with a naphthylacyl or 4-bromophenacyl group, were vital for modulating inhibitory activity of cell growth. In particular, 1-((N-Boc-indol-3-yl)methyl)-3-(2-naphthylacyl)-1H-5,6-dimethyl-benzimidazolium bromide was found to be the most potent derivative and more selective against myeloid liver carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung carcinoma (A549) and breast carcinoma (MCF-7), with IC50 values 1.9-fold, 1.7-fold and 4.8-fold lower than DDP. This compound can induce significant cell apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells.
A tissue-engineered blood vessel (TEBV) modified with CS/?-CD nanoparticles is constructed, effectively controling the release of adenosine, and this type of TEBV can keep open for over 6 months. This study also demonstrates for the first time that adenosine promotes endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization and homing via energy conversion, achieving rapid endothelialization of TEBV.
LIF/Stat3 signaling is critical for maintaining the self-renewal and differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES cells). However, the upstream effectors of this pathway have not been clearly defined. Here, we show that periodic tryptophan protein 1 (Pwp1), a WD-40 repeat-containing protein associated with histone H4 modification, is required for the exit of mES cells from the pluripotent state into all lineages. Knockdown of Pwp1 does not affect mES cell proliferation, self-renewal or apoptosis. However, knockdown of Pwp1 impairs the differentiation potential of mES cells both in vitro and in vivo. PWP1 ChIP-seq results revealed that the PWP1-occupied regions were marked with significant levels of H4K20me3. Moreover, Pwp1 binds to sites in the upstream region of Stat3. Knockdown of Pwp1 decreases the level of H4K20me3 in the upstream region of Stat3 gene and upregulates the expression of Stat3. Furthermore, Pwp1 knockdown (KD) mES cells recover their differentiation potential through suppressing the expression of Stat3 or inhibiting the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. Together, our results suggest that Pwp1 plays important roles in the differentiation potential of mES cells. Stem Cells 2014.
Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a circulating myokine involved in glucose uptake and utilization in skeletal muscle. However, the role and mechanism of IL-15 in exercise improving insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. Here, we investigated the alteration in expression of IL-15 and IL-15 receptor ? (IL-15R?) in skeletal muscle during treadmill running in rats with IR induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and elucidated the mechanism of the anti-IR effects of IL-15. At 20 weeks of HFD, rats showed severe IR, with increased levels of fasting blood sugar and plasma insulin, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced glucose transport activity. IL-15 immunoreactivity and mRNA level in gastrocnemius muscle were decreased markedly as compared with controls. IL-15R? protein and mRNA levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were significantly decreased, which might attenuate the signaling or secretion of IL-15 in muscle. Eight-week treadmill running completely ameliorated HFD-induced IR and reversed the downregulated level of IL-15 and IL-15R? in skeletal muscle of HFD-fed rats. To investigate whether IL-15 exerts its anti-IR effects directly in muscle, we pre-incubated muscle strips with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inducer dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin (Tm); IL-15 treatment markedly decreased the protein expression of the ERS markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein and C/EBP homologous protein and inhibited ERS induced by DTT or Tm. Therefore, treadmill running promoted skeletal IL-15 and IL-15R? expression in HFD-induced IR in rats. The inhibitory effect of IL-15 on ERS may be involved in improved insulin sensitivity with exercise training.
There are no reliable risk factors to accurately predict progression to cervical cancer in patients with chronic cervicitis infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). The aim of this study was to create a validated predictive model based on the risk factors for cervical cancer. A model to estimate the risk of cervical cancer may help select patients for intervention therapy in order to reduce the occurrence of cervical cancer after HPV infection.
When repairing nerves with adhesives, most researchers place glue directly on the nerve stumps, but this method does not fix the nerve ends well and allows glue to easily invade the nerve ends. In this study, we established a rat model of completely transected sciatic nerve injury and repaired it using a modified 1 cm-length conduit with inner diameter of 1.5 mm. Each end of the cylindrical conduit contains a short linear channel, while the enclosed central tube protects the nerve ends well. Nerves were repaired with 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate and suture, which complement the function of the modified conduit. The results demonstrated that for the same conduit, the average operation time using the adhesive method was much shorter than with the suture method. No significant differences were found between the two groups in sciatic function index, motor evoked potential latency, motor evoked potential amplitude, muscular recovery rate, number of medullated nerve fibers, axon diameter, or medullary sheath thickness. Thus, the adhesive method for repairing nerves using a modified conduit is feasible and effective, and reduces the operation time while providing an equivalent repair effect.
To evaluate the current maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and selenium (Se), and their potential effect on newborn birth outcomes, a cross-sectional study involving an assessment of the levels of these three metals in maternal blood, urine and umbilical cord blood was conducted in 209 pregnant women living in Eastern China. The maternal blood, urine and cord blood samples were collected and measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maternal blood concentrations of Cd, Pb and Se (the geometric means (GMs) were 0.48, 39.50 and 143.53 ?g L(-1)) were significantly higher than and correlated with those in the cord blood (GM: 0.09, 31.62 and 124.61 ?g L(-1)). In the urine samples, the GMs for Cd, Pb and Se were 0.13, 0.48, and 4.78 ?g L(-1), respectively. Passive smoking was found to positively correlate with urine Cd (r=0.16) and negatively correlate with urine Se (r=-0.29). The maternal blood Se level was negatively associated with the cord Cd levels (r=-0.41). The blood Cd concentration in the mother could significantly affect the newborn birth weight (r=-0.22), but it was not correlated with birth height. We identified cord Se as a new factor which significantly correlated with birth weight. In conclusion, maternal Cd, Pb, Se exposure correlated with their umbilical cord concentration, and maternal Cd exposure might affect the newborn birth weight. Increasing the Se intake might reduce the cord blood Cd concentration and promote the fetal growth.
Pyrethroids are commonly used as pesticides which are suspected as endocrine disruptors in many studies; however, still we do not know their effects on different species. To compare their effects on human estrogen receptor (hER?) and rat estrogen receptor (rER?), we developed a hER? and rER? mediated luciferase reporter assay to investigate the (anti)estrogenic activities of three frequently used pyrethroids (fenvalerate, cypermethrin, permethrin) and their metabolite 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA). All three pyrethroids significantly induced expression of the luciferase, while none of them were antagonistic to 1 nM E? mediated induction. Interestingly, 3-PBA, showed antagonist activity by decreasing the effect of 1 nM E? to 55.12% in hER? assay and to 45.12% in rER? assay. Our results firstly demonstrated that pyrethroids and 3-PBA showed similar response in the hER? and rER? mediated reporter gene assay, which indicated that data derived from reporter gene assay or other receptor mediated assay systems with rat ER system might be used to predict to estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects to human systems.
Jatropha curcus is a good candidate plant for biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical regions. However, J. curcus is susceptible to the geminivirus Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV), and frequent viral disease outbreaks severely limit productivity. Therefore the development of J. curcus to carry on durable virus resistance remains crucial and poses a major biotechnological challenge.
The study was to investigate the effects of oxygen concentration at different levels for culturing pre-compaction embryos on human embryo development competence. A total of 1254 oocytes from 92 patients treated with conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) were harvested in this study. Oocytes were randomly assigned to the atmospheric (~20%) or low (~5%) oxygen concentration groups on the retrieval day (day 0). Groups were compared with respect to fertilization rates, embryo development, and reproductive outcome. We failed to detect a significant difference on fertilization rate between two groups. However, the low oxygen group yielded more optimal embryos on day 3 when compared with the atmospheric group (72.4% vs. 64.2%). The low oxygen group had a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate than the atmospheric oxygen group (64.5% vs. 52.9%). It is seemly that the optimal blastocyst and frozen blastocyst rates was higher in the low oxygen group, but the data did not reach a statistical significance. Although the use of low oxygen will not affect the clinical outcome in the fresh cleavage-transfer cycles, but it will result in more favorable clinical outcomes in the subsequent warming blastocyst-transfer cycles, with statistically significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and implantation rate (IR) compared with atmospheric oxygen. In conclusion, a low oxygen concentration may significantly improve the developmental potential of pre-compaction embryos, thus resulting in a positive effect on subsequent blastocyst cultivation and optimizing the treatment cycle.
A third-order double-slit interference experiment with a pseudothermal light source in the high-intensity limit has been performed by actually recording the intensities in three optical paths. It is shown that not only can the visibility be dramatically enhanced compared to the second-order case as previously theoretically predicted and shown experimentally, but also that the higher visibility is a consequence of the contribution of third-order correlation interaction terms, which is equal to the sum of all contributions from second-order correlation. It is interesting that, when the two reference detectors are scanned in opposite directions, negative values for the third-order correlation term of the intensity fluctuations may appear. The phenomenon can be completely explained by the theory of classical statistical optics and is the first concrete demonstration of the influence of the third-order correlation terms.
To evaluate the quality of the radial artery for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from patients with diabetes by observing the morphology of the radial artery and detecting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which may attribute to the long-term patency rate of the coronary artery bypass grafting.
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a useful tool for functional characterization of genes in plants. Unfortunately, the efficiency of infection by Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is relatively low for some non-Solanaceae plants, which are economically important, such as rose (Rosa sp.). Here, to generate an easy traceable TRV vector, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was tagged to the 3 terminus of the coat protein gene in the original TRV2 vector, and the silencing efficiency of the modified TRV-GFP vector was tested in several plants, including Nicotiana benthamiana, Arabidopsis thaliana, rose, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), and chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum). The results showed that the efficiency of infection by TRV-GFP was equal to that of the original TRV vector in each tested plant. Spread of the modified TRV virus was easy to monitor by using fluorescent microscopy and a hand-held UV lamp. When TRV-GFP was used to silence the endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene in rose cuttings and seedlings, the typical photobleached phenotype was observed in 75-80% plants which were identified as GFP positive by UV lamp. In addition, the abundance of GFP protein, which represented the concentration of TRV virus, was proved to correlate negatively with the level of the PDS gene, suggesting that GFP could be used as an indicator of the degree of silencing of a target gene. Taken together, this work provides a visualizable and efficient tool to predict positive gene silencing plants, which is valuable for research into gene function in plants, especially for non-Solanaceae plants.
Field and numerical experiments of solute transport through heterogeneous porous and fractured media show that the growth of contaminant plumes may not exhibit constant scaling, and may instead transition between diffusive states (i.e., superdiffusion, subdiffusion, and Fickian diffusion) at various transport scales. These transitions are likely attributed to physical properties of the medium, such as spatial variations in medium heterogeneity. We refer to this transitory dispersive behavior as "transient dispersion", and propose a variable-index fractional-derivative model (FDM) to describe the underlying transport dynamics. The new model generalizes the standard constant-index FDM which is limited to stationary heterogeneous media. Numerical methods including an implicit Eulerian method (for spatiotemporal transient dispersion) and a Lagrangian solver (for multiscaling dispersion) are utilized to produce variable-index FDM solutions. The variable-index FDM is then applied to describe transient dispersion observed at two field tracer tests and a set of numerical experiments. Results show that 1) uranine transport at the small-scale Grimsel test site transitions from strong subdispersion to Fickian dispersion, 2) transport of tritium at the regional-scale Macrodispersion Experimental (MADE) site transitions from near-Fickian dispersion to strong superdispersion, and 3) the conservative particle transport through regional-scale discrete fracture network transitions from superdispersion to Fickian dispersion. The variable-index model can efficiently quantify these transitions, with the scale index varying linearly in time or space.
To analyze the effects of Ling Qi Juan Gan capsule drug-containing serum at different concentrations on the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferative capabilities of and JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein expression in hepatic stellate cells (HSC) using an in vitro system.
Many studies have examined the association between APE1 Asp148Glu (rs3136820) polymorphism gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for case-control studies published up to October 2013. Data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 14 studies, comprising 4,165 lung cancer cases and 5,438 controls were included. Overall, for Glu carriers (Asp/Glu?+?Glu/Glu) versus wild-type homozygotes (Asp/Asp), the pooled OR was 1.05 (95 % CI?=?0.96-1.15 P?=?0.000 for heterogeneity); for Glu/Glu versus Asp/Asp, the pooled OR was 1.07 (95 % CI?=?0.95-1.21 P?=?0.007 for heterogeneity). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the significantly risks were not found among Asians or Caucasians. This updated meta-analysis suggests that the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphisms are not associated with lung cancer risk among Asians or Caucasians.
We present a new method using single-path beam-propagation-based imaging via aperture movement for optical encryption. The aperture is sequentially moved in the transverse domain, and a series of diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) are correspondingly recorded during optical encryption. An iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied for the decryption. It is illustrated that the proposed optical security system possesses several significant advantages, such as high flexibility and high security. The proposed optical security system also provides an effective channel to control information assignment and authentication.
Previous studies have indicated an association between iodine excess and increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction in adults. However, there have been few studies on how the intake of excessive iodine affects thyroid function in children. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a long-term exposure to excessive iodine on thyroid dysfunction in children. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid function in 371 children from a high iodine (HI) area (water iodine: 150-963 ?g/L) and 150 children from an adequate iodine (AI) area (water iodine: 12.8-50.9 ?g/L) were measured. The water iodine concentration in the HI area was higher than that in the AI area (P < 0.001) and the median urinary iodine concentration of children in the HI area was 1030 ?g/L, which was 8.6 times that of children in the AI area (123 ?g/L) (P < 0.001). Children in the HI area had a higher concentration of sensitive thyroid stimulating hormone and higher positivity of both thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb). The prevalence of thyroid diseases was higher in HI area children than that in AI area children (P = 0.000), especially subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH; P = 0.004). A body mass index (BMI) of ?22.3 kg/m(2) was associated with the incidence of SCH (OR: 5.51; 95% CI: 1.52, 19.9; P = 0.009). UIC ?600 ?g/L (OR: 3.62; 95% CI: 1.22, 10.8; P = 0.024) and TPOAb or TGAb-positivity (Ab+ OR: 6.48; 95% CI: 1.78, 23.6; P = 0.005) in children were significantly and independently associated with SCH. Interactions between UIC ?800 ?g/L and Ab+ (P-interaction = 0.004) were found. Furthermore, increased thyroid volume was correlated with higher UIC (? = 0.22; P = 0.002). Excessive iodine intake in children in HI areas is associated with impaired thyroid function; UIC ?600 ?g/L and Ab+ are the risk factors for SCH. Effective measures need to be taken for reducing excessive iodine intake.
This investigation was aimed to explore whether over-expression of 27heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) could protect bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs)against injury induced by high-concentration glucose. We cultured BMSCs in high-concentration glucose medium, and up-regulated or inhibited HO-1 expression in BMSCs through its agonist or inhibitor. We detected the ability of BMSCs proliferation and secretion respectively by MTT and enzyme-linked immunosorbnent assay (ELISA). Then we detected the effect of BMSCs conditions medium on proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through scratch experiments and transwell assay. It was found that HO-1 over-expression could not only promote BMSCs proliferation, but also promote secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and could further accelerate the proliferation and migration of HUVECs. It could be well concluded that HO-1-over-expressing BMSCs can not only inhibit damage induced by high-concentration glucose, but can promote the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells through paracrine as well. The result indicated that HO-1-over-expressing BMSCs played an important role in the treatment of diabetic vascular complication.
Hierarchical or micro-nano structured porous VOx@carbon composites were synthesized by a one-step method using phenolic resin as the carbon precursor and ammonium metavanadate as the source of vanadium oxides. The effects of the vanadium source loading on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the composites were investigated. X-ray diffraction results showed that as the vanadium oxides source loading increased, vanadium oxides in the composites changed oxidation states from V2O3 to mixed states of V2O3 and VO2. Electrochemical test results indicated that the micro-nano porous structure of the composites could facilitate the ion diffusion in the rich porous structure and then promote the electrochemical reaction. More importantly, we found that vanadium oxides greatly enhanced the electrochemical performance of the materials, due to the faradic capacitance generated from vanadium oxide nanoparticles. A maximum specific capacitance of 171 F/g was obtained from VOx@carbon composite with vanadium loading of ?44 wt%. Further increasing the VOx loading over this fraction was not beneficial. Our results suggested that hierarchical porous VOx@carbon composites were promising candidates for supercapacitor applications.
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