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Cobalt Alleviates GA-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Wheat Aleurone Layers via the Regulation of H2O2 Production and Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are key signaling molecules that are produced in response to various environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt is able to delay gibberellic acid (GA)-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers. A similar response was observed when samples were pretreated with carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two end-products of HO catalysis. We further observed that increased HO-1 expression played a role in the cobalt-induced alleviation of PCD. The application of HO-1-specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), substantially prevented the increases of HO-1 activity and the alleviation of PCD triggered by cobalt. The stimulation of HO-1 expression, and alleviation of PCD might be caused by the initial H2O2 production induced by cobalt. qRT-PCR and enzymatic assays revealed that cobalt-induced gene expression and the corresponding activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), three enzymes that metabolize reactive oxygen species, were consistent with the H2O2 accumulation during GA treatment. These cobalt responses were differentially blocked by co-treatment with ZnPPIX. We therefore suggest that HO-1 functions in the cobalt-triggered alleviation of PCD in wheat aleurone layers, which is also dependent on the enhancement of the activities of antioxidant enzymes.
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Genetic analysis and QTL detection for resistance to white tip disease in rice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The inheritance of resistance to white tip disease (WTDR) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was analyzed with an artificial inoculation test in a segregating population derived from the cross between Tetep, a highly resistant variety that was identified in a previous study, and a susceptible cultivar. Three resistance-associated traits, including the number of Aphelenchoides besseyi (A. besseyi) individuals in 100 grains (NA), the loss rate of panicle weight (LRPW) and the loss rate of the total grains per panicle (LRGPP) were analyzed for the detection of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in the population after construction of a genetic map. Six QTLs distributed on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9 were mapped. qNA3 and qNA9, conferring reproduction number of A. besseyi in the panicle, accounted for 16.91% and 12.54% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. qDRPW5a and qDRPW5b, associated with yield loss, were located at two adjacent marker intervals on chromosome 5 and explained 14.15% and 14.59% of the total phenotypic variation and possessed LOD values of 3.40 and 3.39, respectively. qDRPW9 was considered as a minor QTL and only explained 1.02% of the phenotypic variation. qLRGPP5 contributed to the loss in the number of grains and explained 10.91% of the phenotypic variation. This study provides useful information for the breeding of resistant cultivars against white tip disease in rice.
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Hydrogen-rich water reestablishes ros homeostasis but exerts differential effects on anthocyanin synthesis in two varieties of radish sprouts under UV-A irradiation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The aims of the study were to investigate whether hydrogen gas (H2) was involved in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two contrasting radish (Raphanus sativus L.) varieties (low [LA] and high [HA] level of anthocyanin) under UV irradiation. The results showed that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) significantly blocked the UV-A-induced increase of H2O2 and O2(•-) accumulation, and enhanced the UV-A-induced increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in LA and HA. Furthermore, UV-A-induced increase of anthocyanin and total phenols was further enhanced only in HA sprouts cotreated with HRW. LC-MS/MS analysis showed that five anthocyanidins existed in HA sprouts, but only two in LA sprouts. Meanwhile, the cyanidin was the most abundant anthocyanidin in HA, and the cyanidin was 2-fold higher cotreated with HRW than UV-A. Molecular analyses showed that the anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes were upregulated significantly in both HA (in particular) and LA sprouts treated with HRW plus UV-A. These data imply that HRW reestablishes reactive oxygen species homeostasis in both LA and HA, but exerts different effects on anthocyanin accumulation between them under UV-A.
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Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to Hydrogen-Promoted Stomatal Closure in Arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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The signaling role of hydrogen gas (H2) has attracted increasing attention from animals to plants. However, the physiological significance and molecular mechanism of H2 in drought tolerance are still largely unexplored. In this article, we report that abscisic acid (ABA) induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by triggering intracellular signaling events involving H2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and the guard cell outward-rectifying K(+) channel (GORK). ABA elicited a rapid and sustained H2 release and production in Arabidopsis. Exogenous hydrogen-rich water (HRW) effectively led to an increase of intracellular H2 production, a reduction in the stomatal aperture, and enhanced drought tolerance. Subsequent results revealed that HRW stimulated significant inductions of NO and ROS synthesis associated with stomatal closure in the wild type, which were individually abolished in the nitric reductase mutant nitrate reductase1/2 (nia1/2) or the NADPH oxidase-deficient mutant rbohF (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the HRW-promoted NO generation is dependent on ROS production. The rbohF mutant had impaired NO synthesis and stomatal closure in response to HRW, while these changes were rescued by exogenous application of NO. In addition, both HRW and hydrogen peroxide failed to induce NO production or stomatal closure in the nia1/2 mutant, while HRW-promoted ROS accumulation was not impaired. In the GORK-null mutant, stomatal closure induced by ABA, HRW, NO, or hydrogen peroxide was partially suppressed. Together, these results define a main branch of H2-regulated stomatal movement involved in the ABA signaling cascade in which RbohF-dependent ROS and nitric reductase-associated NO production, and subsequent GORK activation, were causally involved.
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Multiplex event-specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction for detecting three transgenic rice lines and application of a standard plasmid as a quantitative reference molecule.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The three most well-known genetically modified (GM) rice lines in China are TT51-1, KMD1, and KF6. The purposes of this study were to establish a multiplex event-specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (meqPCR) system for simultaneous detection of the three transgenic rice events and to construct a plasmid as the reference molecule for quantitative analysis. Event-specific primers for each event were selected or designed by focusing on the transgene borders between the inserted DNA and the flanking rice DNA. The developed meqPCR was anticipated to detect distinct amplicons as 454, 398, 301, and 250bp from KF6, KMD1, TT51-1, and the rice endogenous reference gene, respectively. The robustness of the meqPCR was tested with different levels of the three transgenic rice genomic DNAs, and the sensitivity threshold of the meqPCR was at least 50ng of 0.1% rice DNA for each event when the three transgenic rice events present and with other GM materials together. The constructed plasmid was evaluated using mixed samples with known GM contents in real-time quantitative PCR. The results indicated that the constructed plasmid was acceptable and suitable for GM rice quantitative analysis.
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Hydrogen-rich water confers plant tolerance to mercury toxicity in alfalfa seedlings.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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In this report, the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW), which was used to investigate the physiological roles of hydrogen gas (H2) in plants recently, on the regulation of plant adaptation to mercury (Hg) toxicity was studied. Firstly, we observed that the exposure of alfalfa seedlings to HgCl2 triggered production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), growth stunt and increased lipid peroxidation. However, such effects could be obviously blocked by HRW. Meanwhile, significant decreases in the relative ion leakage and Hg accumulation were observed. Hg-induced increases in total and isozymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reversed by HRW. Further results suggested that HRW-induced the activities of guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), two hydrogen peroxide-scavenging enzymes, was at transcriptional levels. Meanwhile, obvious increases of the ratios of reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH), homoglutathione (hGSH), and ascorbic acid (AsA) and corresponding gene expression were consistent with the decreased oxidative damage in seedling roots. In summary, the results of this investigation indicated that HRW was able to alleviate Hg toxicity in alfalfa seedlings by (i) alleviating growth stunt and reducing Hg accumulation, and (ii) avoidance of oxidative stress and reestablishment of redox homeostasis.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a heme oxygenase1 gene from sunflower and its expression profiles in salinity acclimation.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Heme oxygenase1 (HO1) is involved in protecting plants from environmental stimuli. In this study, a sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) HO1 gene (HaHO1) was cloned and sequenced. It was confirmed that HaHO1 encodes a precursor protein of 32.93 kDa with an N-terminal plastid transit peptide which was validated by subcellular localization. The amino acid sequence of HaHO1 shared high homology with other plant HO1s. The predicted three-dimensional structure showed a high degree of structural conservation as compared to the known HO1 crystal structures. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HaHO1 clearly grouped with the plant HO1-like sequences. Moreover, the purified recombinant mature HaHO1 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits HO activity. Thus, it was concluded that HaHO1 encodes a functional HO1 in sunflower. Additionally, HaHO1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, and induced differentially during different growth stages after germination, and could be differentially induced by several stresses and hemin treatment. For example, a pretreatment with a low concentration of NaCl (25 mM) could lead to the induction of HaHO1 gene expression and thereafter a salinity acclamatory response. Above cytoprotective effect could be impaired by the potent HO1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), which was further rescued by the addition of 50% carbon monoxide aqueous solution (in particular) or bilirubin, two catalytic by-products of HO1, respectively. Similarly, a HO1 inducer, hemin, could mimic the salinity acclamatory response. Together, these findings strongly suggested that the up-regulation of HaHO1 might be required for the observed salinity acclimation in sunflower plants.
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Hydrogen-rich water alleviates aluminum-induced inhibition of root elongation in alfalfa via decreasing nitric oxide production.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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One of the earliest and distinct symptoms of aluminum (Al) toxicity is the inhibition of root elongation. Although hydrogen gas (H2) is recently described as an important bio-regulator in plants, whether and how H2 regulates Al-induced inhibition of root elongation is largely unknown. To address these gaps, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to investigate a physiological role of H2 and its possible molecular mechanism. Individual or simultaneous (in particular) exposure of alfalfa seedlings to Al, or a fresh but not old nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compound sodium nitroprusside (SNP), not only increased NO production, but also led to a significant inhibition of root elongation. Above responses were differentially alleviated by pretreatment with 50% saturation of HRW. The addition of HRW also alleviated the appearance of Al toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of seedling growth and less accumulation of Al. Subsequent results revealed that the removal of NO by the NO scavenger, similar to HRW, could decrease NO production and alleviate Al- or SNP-induced inhibition of root growth. Thus, we proposed that HRW alleviated Al-induced inhibition of alfalfa root elongation by decreasing NO production. Such findings may be applicable to enhance crop yield and improve stress tolerance.
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Auxin-induced hydrogen sulfide generation is involved in lateral root formation in tomato.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Similar to auxin, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), mainly produced by l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES; EC 4.4.1.1) in plants, could induce lateral root formation. The objective of this study was to test whether H2S is also involved in auxin-induced lateral root development in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings. We observed that auxin depletion-induced down-regulation of transcripts of SlDES1, decreased DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and the inhibition of lateral root formation were rescued by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor). However, No additive effects were observed when naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) was co-treated with NaHS (lower than 10 mM) in the induction of lateral root formation. Subsequent work revealed that a treatment with NAA or NaHS could simultaneously induce transcripts of SlDES1, DES activity and endogenous H2S contents, and thereafter the stimulation of lateral root formation. It was further confirmed that H2S or HS(-), not the other sulfur-containing components derived from NaHS, was attributed to the stimulative action. The inhibition of lateral root formation and decreased of H2S metabolism caused by an H2S scavenger hypotaurine (HT) were reversed by NaHS, but not NAA. Molecular evidence revealed that both NaHS- or NAA-induced modulation of some cell cycle regulatory genes, including the up-regulation of SlCDKA;1, SlCYCA2;1, together with simultaneous down-regulation of SlKRP2, were differentially reversed by HT pretreatment. To summarize, above results clearly suggested that H2S might, at least partially, act as a downstream component of auxin signaling to trigger lateral root formation.
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Cadmium-induced hydrogen sulfide synthesis is involved in cadmium tolerance in Medicago sativa by reestablishment of reduced (homo)glutathione and reactive oxygen species homeostases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Until now, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the cadmium (Cd) tolerance mediated by endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been elusive. To address this gap, a combination of pharmacological, histochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches was applied. The perturbation of reduced (homo)glutathione homeostasis and increased H2S production as well as the activation of two H2S-synthetic enzymes activities, including L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) and D-cysteine desulfhydrase (DCD), in alfalfa seedling roots were early responses to the exposure of Cd. The application of H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), not only mimicked intracellular H2S production triggered by Cd, but also alleviated Cd toxicity in a H2S-dependent fashion. By contrast, the inhibition of H2S production caused by the application of its synthetic inhibitor blocked NaHS-induced Cd tolerance, and destroyed reduced (homo)glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostases. Above mentioned inhibitory responses were further rescued by exogenously applied glutathione (GSH). Meanwhile, NaHS responses were sensitive to a (homo)glutathione synthetic inhibitor, but reversed by the cotreatment with GSH. The possible involvement of cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in NaHS responses was also suggested. In summary, LCD/DCD-mediated H2S might be an important signaling molecule in the enhancement of Cd toxicity in alfalfa seedlings mainly by governing reduced (homo)glutathione and ROS homeostases.
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Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of a novel gene encoding L-cysteine desulfhydrase from Brassica napus.
Mol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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L-Cysteine desulfhydrase (DES; EC 4.4.1.1) is the most important enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of L-cysteine to pyruvate, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the latter of which has recently been recognized as the third gasotransmitter for multiple signaling events in plants. Previous results showed the existence of DES activity in Brassica napus; however, the gene encoding the true DES protein has not been characterized yet. Here, a rapeseed DES gene was isolated and sequenced. It shared high homology with Arabidopsis DES1, and encodes a polypeptide with 323 amino acids of 34.5 kDa. Subsequently, prokaryotic expression and biochemical analysis demonstrated that this protein predominantly catalyzes the breakdown of L-cysteine with the side reaction of L-cysteine synthesis [O-acetyl-L-serine(thiol)lyase activity], and was designated as BnDES1. Corresponding analysis of structural features was also in agreement with the above proposition. Molecular evidence showed that BnDES1 mRNA was widely expressed, but with the higher expression level in flowers. Further results showed that the BnDES1 transcripts were differentially up-regulated by several plant growth regulators and chemicals. Overall, the above findings provide evidence showing that BnDES1 is a potentially important enzyme responsible for the H2S production, and may play an important role in plant growth regulators and chemical stimuli responses.
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Arabidopsis HY1 Confers Cadmium Tolerance by Decreasing Nitric Oxide Production and Improving Iron Homeostasis.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is a potential contributor of Cd(2+) tolerance; however, the molecular mechanisms are largely unclear. Using genetic and molecular approaches, we revealed that Arabidopsis HY1 (AtHO1) contributes to the alleviation of Cd(2+) toxicity by decreasing NO production and improving Fe homeostasis in root tissues.
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Roles of NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent nitric oxide production and HY1 expression in the modulation of Arabidopsis salt tolerance.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Despite substantial evidence on the separate roles of Arabidopsis nitric oxide-associated 1 (NOA1)-associated nitric oxide (NO) production and haem oxygenase 1 (HY1) expression in salt tolerance, their integrative signalling pathway remains largely unknown. To fill this knowledge gap, the interaction network among nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression was studied at the genetic and molecular levels. Upon salinity stress, the majority of NO production was attributed to NIA/NR/NOA1. Further evidence confirmed that HY1 mutant hy1-100, nia1/2/noa1, and nia1/2/noa1/hy1-100 mutants exhibited progressive salt hypersensitivity, all of which were significantly rescued by three NO-releasing compounds. The salinity-tolerant phenotype and the stronger NO production in gain-of-function mutant of HY1 were also blocked by the NO synthetic inhibitor and scavenger. Although NO- or HY1-deficient mutants showed a compensatory mode of upregulation of HY1 or slightly increased NO production, respectively, during 2 d of salt treatment, downregulation of ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant gene expression (cAPX1/2 and FSD1) was observed after 7 d of treatment. The hypersensitive phenotypes and stress-related genes expression profiles were differentially rescued or blocked by the application of NO- (in particular) or carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing compounds, showing a synergistic mode. Similar reciprocal responses were observed in the nia1/2/noa1/hy1-100 quadruple mutant, with the NO-releasing compounds exhibit the maximal rescuing responses. Overall, the findings present the combination of compensatory and synergistic modes, linking NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression in the modulation of plant salt tolerance.
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Interaction between HY1 and H2O 2 in auxin-induced lateral root formation in Arabidopsis.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are two key downstream signals of auxin, a well-known phytohormone regulating plant growth and development. However, the inter-relationship between HO-1 and H2O2 in auxin-mediated lateral root (LR) formation is poorly understood. Herein, we revealed that exogenous auxin, 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), could simultaneously stimulate Arabidopsis HO-1 (HY1) gene expression and H2O2 generation. Subsequently, LR formation was induced. NAA-induced HY1 expression is dependent on H2O2. This conclusion was supported by analyzing the removal of H2O2 with ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU), both of which could block NAA-induced HY1 expression and LR formation. H2O2-induced LR formation was inhibited by an HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (Znpp) in wild-type and severely impaired in HY1 mutant hy1-100. Simultaneously, HY1 is required for NAA-mediated H2O2 generation, since Znpp inhibition of HY1 blocked the NAA-induced H2O2 production and LR formation. Genetic data demonstrated that hy1-100 was significantly impaired in H2O2 production and LR formation in response to NAA, compared with wild-type plants. The addition of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), the carbon monoxide (CO) donor, induced H2O2 production and LR formation, both of which were decreased by DMTU. Moreover, H2O2 and CORM-2 mimicked the NAA responses in the regulation of cell cycle genes expression, all of which were blocked by Znpp or DMTU, respectively, confirming that both H2O2 and CO were important in the early LR initiation. In summary, our pharmacological, genetic and molecular evidence demonstrated a close inter-relationship between HY1 and H2O2 existing in auxin-induced LR formation in Arabidopsis.
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Hydrogen sulfide delays GA-triggered programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers by the modulation of glutathione homeostasis and heme oxygenase-1 expression.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is considered as a cellular signaling intermediate in higher plants, but corresponding molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways in plant biology are still limited. In the present study, a combination of pharmacological and biochemical approaches was used to study the effect of H2S on the alleviation of GA-induced programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone cells. The results showed that in contrast with the responses of ABA, GA brought about a gradual decrease of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) activity and H2S production, and thereafter PCD occurred. Exogenous H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) not only effectively blocked the decrease of endogenous H2S release, but also alleviated GA-triggered PCD in wheat aleurone cells. These responses were sensitive to hypotaurine (HT), a H2S scavenger, suggesting that this effect of NaHS was in an H2S-dependent fashion. Further experiment confirmed that H2S, rather than other sodium- or sulphur-containing compounds derived from the decomposing of NaHS, was attributed to the rescuing response. Importantly, the reversing effect was associated with glutathione (GSH) because the NaHS triggered increases of endogenous GSH content and the ratio of GSH/oxidized GSH (GSSG) in GA-treated layers, and the NaHS-mediated alleviation of PCD was markedly eliminated by l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO, a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis). The inducible effect of NaHS was also ascribed to the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), because the specific inhibitor of HO-1 zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) significantly suppressed the NaHS-related responses. By contrast, the above inhibitory effects were reversed partially when carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution or bilirubin (BR), two of the by-products of HO-1, was added, respectively. NaHS-triggered HO-1 gene expression in GA-treated layers was also confirmed. Together, the above results clearly suggested that the H2S-delayed PCD in GA-treated wheat aleurone cells was associated with the modulation of GSH homeostasis and HO-1 gene expression.
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Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in Medicago sativa by hydrogen-rich water.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Hydrogen gas (H?) induces plant tolerance to several abiotic stresses, including salinity and paraquat exposure. However, the role of H? in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. Here, pretreatment with hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of H? in the alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa plants. Our results showed that the addition of HRW at 10% saturation significantly decreased contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) caused by Cd, and inhibited the appearance of Cd toxicity symptoms, including the improvement of root elongation and seedling growth. These responses were related to a significant increase in the total or isozymatic activities of representative antioxidant enzymes, or their corresponding transcripts. In vivo imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity provided further evidence for the ability of HRW to improve Cd tolerance significantly, which was consistent with a significant enhancement of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione ((h)GSH). Additionally, plants pretreated with HRW accumulated less amounts of Cd. Together, this study suggested that the usage of HRW could be an effective approach for Cd detoxification and could be explored in agricultural production systems.
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Systematic validation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization under iron deficiency in Arabidopsis.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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A reliable result obtained by qRT-PCR highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. However, the transcript levels of traditional reference genes are not always stable. Also, the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency. Our results revealed that three novel reference genes (SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in both iron deprivation (the addition of Ferrozine to the medium) and starvation (withdrawal of iron from the medium) conditions. This conclusion was also confirmed by publicly available microarray data. In addition, when using SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like as multiple reference genes, the expression patterns of FIT1 and IRT1, two iron deficiency marker genes, were approximately similar with that reported previously. However, a weaker inducible response was obtained from qRT-PCR by normalizating EF-1? alone. Together, we proposed that the combination of SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like can be used for accurate normalization of gene expression in iron deficiency research. These results provide a valuable evidence for the importance of adequate reference genes in qRT-PCR normalization, insisting on the use of appropriate reference gene validation in all transcriptional analyses.
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Haem oxygenase modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K? retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H?-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a common denominator in a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, including salinity. In recent years, haem oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has been described as an important component of the antioxidant defence system in both mammalian and plant systems. Moreover, a recent report on Arabidopsis demonstrated that HO overexpression resulted in an enhanced salinity tolerance in this species. However, physiological mechanisms and downstream targets responsible for the observed salinity tolerance in these HO mutants remain elusive. To address this gap, ion transport characteristics (K(+) and H(+) fluxes and membrane potentials) and gene expression profiles in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana HO-overexpressing (35S:HY1-1/2/3/4) and loss-of-function (hy-100, ho2, ho3, and ho4) mutants were compared during salinity stress. Upon acute salt stress, HO-overexpressing mutants retained more K(+) (less efflux), and exhibited better membrane potential regulation (maintained more negative potential) and higher H(+) efflux activity in root epidermis, compared with loss-of-function mutants. Pharmacological experiments suggested that high activity of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in HO overexpressor mutants provided the proton-motive force required for membrane potential maintenance and, hence, better K(+) retention. The gene expression analysis after 12h and 24h of salt stress revealed high expression levels of H(+)-ATPases (AHA1/2/3) and Na(+)/H(+) antiporter [salt overly sensitive1 (SOS1)] transcripts in the plasma membrane of HO overexpressors. It is concluded that HO modifies salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by controlling K(+) retention via regulation of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and by altering SOS1 transcript levels in roots.
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Hydrogen-rich water regulates cucumber adventitious root development in a heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide-dependent manner.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Hydrogen gas (H2) is an endogenous gaseous molecule in plants. Although its reputation is as a "biologically inert gas", recent results suggested that H2 has therapeutic antioxidant properties in animals and plays fundamental roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. However, whether H2 regulates root morphological patterns is largely unknown. In this report, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) was used to characterize H2 physiological roles and possible signaling transduction pathways in the promotion of adventitious root (AR) formation in cucumber explants. Our results showed that a 50% concentration of HRW was able to mimic the effect of hemin, an inducer of a carbon monoxide (CO) synthetic enzyme, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in restoring AR formation in comparison with the inhibition effect conferred by auxin-depletion treatment alone. It was further shown that the inducible effect of HRW could be further blocked by the co-treatment with N-1-naphthylphtalamic acid (NPA; an auxin transport inhibitor). The HRW-induced response, at least partially, was HO-1-dependent. This conclusion was supported by the fact that the exposure of cucumber explants to HRW up-regulates cucumber HO-1 gene expression and its protein levels. HRW-mediated induction of representative target genes related to auxin signaling and AR formation, such as CsDNAJ-1, CsCDPK1/5, CsCDC6, CsAUX22B-like, and CsAUX22D-like, and thereafter AR formation (particularly in the AR length) was differentially sensitive to the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Above blocking actions were clearly reversed by CO, further confirming that the above response was HO-1/CO-specific. However, the addition of a well-known antioxidant, ascorbic acid (AsA), failed to influence AR formation triggered by HRW, thus ruling out the involvement of redox homeostasis in this process. Together, these results indicated that HRW-induced adventitious rooting is, at least partially, correlated with the HO-1/CO-mediated responses. We also suggested that exogenous HRW treatment on plants might be a good option to induce root organogenesis.
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De-Etiolation of Wheat Seedling Leaves: Cross Talk between Heme Oxygenase/Carbon Monoxide and Nitric Oxide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Greening of etiolated plants is predominantly stimulated by light but the complete molecular mechanism is still unknown. Multiple studies currently focus on the important physiological effects of heme oxygenase (HO)/carbon monoxide (CO) in plants. In this report, firstly, the role of HO/CO in light-induced de-etiolation process was investigated. We discovered that light could significantly increase HO activities, HO-1 gene expression, CO release, and chlorophyll accumulation, all of which were sensitive to zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), the potent inhibitor of HO-1, respectively. Both HO-1 inducer hematin (H) and CO aqueous solution were able to relieve etiolation in wheat seedling leaves under completely darkness by up-regulating endogenous HO/CO system, so as nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) did. Similarly, endogenous NO production was also boost in response to light, SNP, hematin and CO aqueous solution in wheat seedling leaves. Additionally, the restoration of chlorophyll contents was blocked, when the inhibitor of mammalian nitric oxide synthase N(G) -nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride (L-NAME) or the specific scavenger of NO 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO) was added, respectively. Furthermore, the inducible effects of light were different from those of SNP, hematin, and CO on Pfr accumulation and PHYA transcripts. However, all of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), hematin, and CO could accelerate NO emission, which suggested that HO/CO in wheat seedlings de-etiolation under dark-light transition may have a cross talk with NO.
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BnHO1, a haem oxygenase-1 gene from Brassica napus, is required for salinity and osmotic stress-induced lateral root formation.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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In this report, a rapeseed (Brassica napus) haem oxygenase-1 gene BnHO1 was cloned and sequenced. It shared high homology with Arabidopsis HY1 proteins, and encodes a 32.6 kDa protein with a 54-amino-acid transit peptide, predicting the mature protein of 25.1 kDa. The mature BnHO1 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits haem oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, the application of lower doses of NaCl (10 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (2%) mimicked the inducible effects of naphthylacetic acid and the HO-1 inducer haemin on the up-regulation of BnHO1 and subsequent lateral root (LR) formation. Contrasting effects were observed when a higher dose of NaCl or PEG was applied. The above inducible and inhibitory responses were blocked significantly when the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) or haemin was applied, both of which were reversed by the application of carbon monoxide or ZnPPIX, respectively. Moreover, the addition of ZnPPIX at different time points during LR formation indicated that BnHO1 might be involved in the early stages of LR formation. The auxin response factor transcripts and the auxin content in seedling roots were clearly induced by lower doses of salinity or osmotic stress. However, treatment with the inhibitor of polar auxin transport N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid prevented the above inducible responses conferred by lower doses of NaCl and PEG, which were further rescued when the treatments were combined with haemin. Taken together, these results suggested a novel role of the rapeseed HO-1 gene in salinity and osmotic stress-induced LR formation, with a possible interaction with auxin signalling.
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Heme oxygenase-1 is associated with wheat salinity acclimation by modulating reactive oxygen species homeostasis.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been recently identified as an endogenous signaling system in animals. In this study, HO-1 upregulation and its role in acquired salt tolerance (salinity acclimation) were investigated in wheat plants. We discovered that pretreatment with a low concentration of NaCl (25 mmol/L) not only led to the induction of HO-1 protein and gene expression, as well as enhanced HO activity, but also to a salinity acclimatory response thereafter. The effect is specific for HO-1, since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX blocks the above cytoprotective actions, and the cytotoxic responses conferred by 200 mmol/L NaCl are reversed partially when HO-1 inducer hemin is added. Heme oxygenase catalytic product, carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution pretreatment, mimicked the salinity acclimatory responses. Meanwhile, the CO-triggered re-establishment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis was mainly guaranteed by the induction of total and isozymatic activities, or corresponding transcripts of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and cytosolic peroxidase (POD), as well as the downregulation of NADPH oxidase expression and cell-wall POD activity. A requirement of hydrogen peroxide homeostasis for HO-1-mediated salinity acclimation was also discovered. Taken together, the above results suggest that the upregulation of HO-1 expression was responsible for the observed salinity acclimation through the regulation of ROS homeostasis.
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Enhancement of Salinity Tolerance during Rice Seed Germination by Presoaking with Hemoglobin.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The results showed that different concentrations of the hemoglobin (0.01, 0.05, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 g/L) differentially alleviated the inhibition of rice seed germination and thereafter seedling shoot growth caused by 100 mM NaCl stress, and the responses of 1.0 g/L hemoglobin was the most obvious. Further analyses showed that application of hemoglobin not only increased the HO-1 gene expression, but also differentially induced catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities or transcripts, thus decreasing the lipid peroxidation in germinating rice seeds subjected to salt stress. Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K) to sodium (Na) ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) blocked the positive actions of hemoglobin on seed germination and seedling shoot growth. Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination.
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Haem oxygenase delays programmed cell death in wheat aleurone layers by modulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolism.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) confers protection against a variety of oxidant-induced cell and tissue injury in animals and plants. In this report, it is confirmed that programmed cell death (PCD) in wheat aleurone layers is stimulated by GA and prevented by ABA. Meanwhile, HO activity and HO-1 protein expression exhibited lower levels in GA-treated layers, whereas the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content was apparently increased. The pharmacology approach illustrated that scavenging or accumulating H(2)O(2) either delayed or accelerated GA-induced PCD. Furthermore, pretreatment with the HO-1 specific inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), before exposure to GA, not only decreased HO activity but also accelerated GA-induced PCD significantly. The application of the HO-1 inducer, haematin, and the enzymatic reaction product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO) aqueous solution, both of which brought about a noticeable induction of HO expression, substantially prevented GA-induced PCD. These effects were reversed when ZnPPIX was added, suggesting that HO in vivo played a role in delaying PCD. Meanwhile, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities or transcripts were enhanced by haematin, CO, or bilirubin (BR), the catalytic by-product of HO. This enhancement resulted in a decrease in H(2)O(2) production and a delay in PCD. In addition, the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), dithiothreitol (DTT), and ascorbic acid (AsA) were able not only to delay PCD but also to mimic the effects of haematin and CO on HO up-regulation. Overall, the above results suggested that up-regulation of HO expression delays PCD through the down-regulation of H(2)O(2) production.
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Heme oxygenase-1 is involved in the cytokinin-induced alleviation of senescence in detached wheat leaves during dark incubation.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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This study tested whether an inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3), HO-1, is involved in the cytokinin (CTK)-induced alleviation of senescence in detached wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves during dark incubation. We discovered that exogenous supplement of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) at 10 ?M for 48 h not only delayed the dark-induced loss of chlorophyll and protein contents in detached wheat leaves, but also significantly increased HO activity in a time-dependent manner. This induction reached a maximum within 3h of 6-BA supply, which was further confirmed by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and protein gel blot analysis. Furthermore, the decreases in intracellular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content, and the increases in the transcript level, total and isozymatic activities of some important antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7), superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), were observed. Reversed responses of chlorophyll, protein and TBARS contents, HO activity, and the expression of above antioxidant enzymes were observed when zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor, was added together with 6-BA. In contrast, HO-1 inducer hemin could partially mimic the effects of 6-BA. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 might be involved in the CTK-induced alleviation of senescence and lipid peroxidation in detached wheat leaves.
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Cadmium-induced heme oxygenase-1 gene expression is associated with the depletion of glutathione in the roots of Medicago sativa.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Following previous findings that cadmium (Cd) induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) gene expression in alfalfa seedling roots, we now show that the decreased glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, induction of HO-1 gene expression and its protein level by Cd was mimicked by a GSH depletor diethylmaleate (DEM). Meanwhile, above Cd- or DEM-induced decreased GSH content followed by HO-1 up-regulation could be strengthened or reversed differentially by the application of a selective inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis L: -buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO), or exogenous GSH and AsA, respectively. The antioxidative behavior of HO-1 induction was further confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of loss of membrane integrity in a short period of treatment time. Additionally, the induction of HO-1 transcript was inhibited by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) or protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CX, especially). In contrast, the level of HO-2 transcript did not change upon various treatments. Together, above results suggested that Cd-induced up-regulation of HO-1 gene expression is associated with GSH depletion, which is at least existing transcriptional regulation level, thus leading to enhanced antioxidative capability transiently.
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Heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide system participates in regulating wheat seed germination under osmotic stress involving the nitric oxide pathway.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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To investigate the mechanism and signaling pathway of carbon monoxide (CO) and hematin in alleviating seed germination inhibition and lipid peroxidation, polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) was used to mimic osmotic stress in a series of experiments. The results showed that wheat seeds pretreated with a lower dose of PEG (12.5%) showed higher tolerance against osmotic stress as well as the up-regulation of heme oxygenase (HO, EC 1.14.99.3) and decreased lipid peroxidation during recuperation, compared to those with a higher dose of PEG (50%). Exposure of wheat seeds to 25% PEG, HO-1 inhibitor or specific scavenger of nitric oxide (NO) alone differentially led to seed germination inhibition. The PEG-induced inhibitory effects on seed germination were ameliorated by the HO-1 inducer hematin, CO or NO donor. Additionally, hematin was able to markedly boost the HO/CO system. However, the addition of the HO-1 inhibitor or the specific scavenger of NO not only reversed the protective effects conferred by hematin, but also blocked the up-regulation of HO/CO. In addition, hematin-driven NO production in wheat seeds under osmotic stress was confirmed. Based on these results, we conclude that the endogenous HO/CO signal system is required for the alleviation of osmotic stress-induced wheat seed germination inhibition and lipid peroxidation, which might have a possible interaction with NO.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene (LrPAL) from Lycoris radiata.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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LrPAL is a novel full-length cDNA isolated from Lycoris radiata by degenerate oligonucleotide primer PCR (DOP-PCR), 3- and 5-RACE approaches, harbours an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 708 amino acid product. Sequence alignment showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of LrPAL shared more than 80% identity with other PAL sequences reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and other plants. RT-PCR revealed that LrPAL transcripts were higher in bud flowers and wilting flowers (5 days after blooming) than in blooming flowers. The transcript levels of LrPAL in leaves were significantly induced by methyl jasmonate (MJ) and nitric oxide (NO), and salicylic acid (SA). Similarly, HPLC analysis showed that galantamine (GAL) content was also higher in bud flowers and wilting flowers than in blooming flowers. The GAL content in leaves was significantly induced by MJ and NO, and inhibited by SA. This study enables us to further elucidate the role of LrPAL in the biosynthesis of GAL in Lycoris radiata at a molecular level.
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H(2) enhances arabidopsis salt tolerance by manipulating ZAT10/12-mediated antioxidant defence and controlling sodium exclusion.
PLoS ONE
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The metabolism of hydrogen gas (H(2)) in bacteria and algae has been extensively studied for the interesting of developing H(2)-based fuel. Recently, H(2) is recognized as a therapeutic antioxidant and activates several signalling pathways in clinical trials. However, underlying physiological roles and mechanisms of H(2) in plants as well as its signalling cascade remain unknown.
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Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system.
Plant Cell Environ.
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Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a novel antioxidant and signalling molecule in animals. However, the physiological roles of H2 in plants are less clear. Here, we showed that exposure of alfalfa seedlings to paraquat stress increased endogenous H2 production. When supplied with exogenous H2 or the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-inducer hemin, alfalfa plants displayed enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat. This was evidenced by alleviation of the inhibition of root growth, reduced lipid peroxidation and the decreased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical levels. The activities and transcripts of representative antioxidant enzymes were induced after exposure to either H2 or hemin. Further results showed that H2 pretreatment could dramatically increase levels of the MsHO-1 transcript, levels of the protein it encodes and HO-1 activity. The previously mentioned H2-mediated responses were specific for HO-1, given that the potent HO-1-inhibitor counteracted the effects of H2. The effects of H2 were reversed after the addition of an aqueous solution of 50% carbon monoxide (CO). We also discovered enhanced tolerance of multiple environmental stresses after plants were pretreated with H2 . Together, these results suggested that H2 might function as an important gaseous molecule that alleviates oxidative stress via HO-1 signalling.
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Heme oxygenase-1 is involved in nitric oxide- and cGMP-induced ?-Amy2/54 gene expression in GA-treated wheat aleurone layers.
Plant Mol. Biol.
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Here, ?-Amy2/54 gene expression was used as a molecular probe to investigate the interrelationship among nitric oxide (NO), cyclic GMP (cGMP), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in GA-treated wheat aleurone layers. The inducible expressions of ?-Amy2/54 and ?-amylase activity were respectively amplified by two NO-releasing compounds, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and spermine NONOate, in a GA-dependent fashion. Similar responses were observed when an inducer of HO-1, hemin-or one of its catalytic products, carbon monoxide (CO) in aqueous solution-was respectively added. The SNP-induced responses, mimicked by 8-bromoguanosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cGMP), a cGMP derivative, were NO-dependent. This conclusion was supported by the fact that endogenous NO overproduction was rapidly induced by SNP, and thereafter induction of ?-Amy2/54 gene expression and increased ?-amylase activity were sensitive to the NO scavenger. We further observed that the above induction triggered by SNP and 8-Br-cGMP was partially prevented by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX), an inhibitor of HO-1. These blocking effects were clearly reversed by CO, confirming that the above response was HO-1-specific. Further analyses showed that both SNP and 8-Br-cGMP rapidly up-regulated HO-1 gene expression and increased HO activity, and SNP responses were sensitive to cPTIO and the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione (LY83583). Molecular evidence confirmed that GA-induced GAMYB and ABA-triggered PKABA1 transcripts were up-regulated or down-regulated by SNP, 8-Br-cGMP or CO cotreated with GA. Contrasting changes were observed when cPTIO, LY83583, or ZnPPIX was added. Together, our results suggested that HO-1 is involved in NO- and cGMP-induced ?-Amy2/54 gene expression in GA-treated aleurone layers.
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Haem oxygenase-1 is involved in salicylic acid-induced alleviation of oxidative stress due to cadmium stress in Medicago sativa.
J. Exp. Bot.
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This work examines the involvement of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in salicylic acid (SA)-induced alleviation of oxidative stress as a result of cadmium (Cd) stress in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedling roots. CdCl(2) exposure caused severe growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, which were potentiated by pre-treatment with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPPIX), a potent HO-1 inhibitor. Pre-treatment of plants with the HO-1 inducer haemin or SA, both of which could induce MsHO1 gene expression, significantly reduced the inhibition of growth and Cd accumulation. The alleviation effects were also evidenced by a decreased content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The antioxidant behaviour was confirmed by histochemical staining for the detection of lipid peroxidation and the loss of plasma membrane integrity. Furthermore, haemin and SA pre-treatment modulated the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), or their corresponding transcripts. Significant enhancement of the ratios of reduced/oxidized homoglutathione (hGSH), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA), and NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+), and expression of their metabolism genes was observed, consistent with a decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) distribution in the root tips. These effects are specific for HO-1, since ZnPPIX blocked the above actions, and the aggravated effects triggered by SA plus ZnPPIX were differentially reversed when carbon monoxide (CO) or bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HO-1, was added. Together, the results suggest that HO-1 is involved in the SA-induced alleviation of Cd-triggered oxidative stress by re-establishing redox homeostasis.
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RNAi knockdown of rice SE5 gene is sensitive to the herbicide methyl viologen by the down-regulation of antioxidant defense.
Plant Mol. Biol.
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Plant heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the oxygenation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron (Fe(2+))-and Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) HOs are involved in light signaling. Here, we identified that the rice PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY 5 (SE5) gene, which encoded a putative HO with high similarity to HO-1 from Arabidopsis (HY1), exhibited HO activity, and localized in the chloroplasts. Rice RNAi mutants silenced for SE5 were generated and displayed early flowering under long-day conditions, consistent with phenotypes of the null mutation in SE5 gene reported previously (se5 and s73). The herbicide methyl viologen (MV), which produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), was applied to determine whether SE5 regulates oxidative stress response. Compared with wild-type, SE5 RNAi transgenic plants aggravated seedling growth inhibition, chlorophyll loss and ROS overproduction, and decreased the transcripts of some representative antioxidative genes. By contrast, administration of exogenous CO partially rescued corresponding MV hypersensitivity in the SE5 RNAi plants. Alleviation of seed germination inhibition, chlorophyll loss and ROS overproduction, as well as the induction of antioxidant defense were further observed when SE5 or HY1 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, indicating that SE5 may be useful for molecular breeding designed to improve plant tolerance to oxidative stress.
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The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.
J. Food Sci.
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With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels.
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Nitric oxide is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.
J. Plant Physiol.
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Hemin, a heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducer, was shown to exert numerous beneficial physiological functions in animals. Our previous study suggests that HO-1/carbon monoxide (CO) acts as a novel downstream signal system in the auxin-induced adventitious rooting. The objective of this study was to test whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved in hemin-induced cucumber adventitious rooting. Applications of hemin or CO aqueous solution to auxin-depleted cucumber explant induced up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 transcripts (CsHO1), NO production, and thereafter adventitious root formation, and some above responses were blocked by the combination treatment with two nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester hydrochloride and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, a HO-1 specific inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX, and a specific NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt. However, these blocking responses were not observed using tungstate, an inhibitor of nitrate reductase, another NO producing enzyme in plants. Furthermore, the guanylate cyclase inhibitors 1H-(1,2,4)-oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinedione reduced root development induced by hemin, whereas the cell-permeable cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) derivative 8-Br-cGMP reversed this effect. Together, our results indicated that at least in our experimental conditions, NO might operate downstream of hemin promoting adventitious root formation probably in a cGMP-dependent manner.
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Roles of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in the alleviation of cadmium-induced oxidative damage in alfalfa seedling roots.
Biometals
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Despite hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and nitric oxide (NO) are important endogenous signals or bioregulators involved in many vital aspects of plant growth and responses against abiotic stresses, little information was known about their interaction. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of H(2)S and NO on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress. Pretreatment with an H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) and well-known NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) decreased the Cd toxicity. This conclusion was supported by the decreases of lipid peroxidation as well as the amelioration of seedling growth inhibition and Cd accumulation, in comparison with the Cd-stressed alone plants. Total activities and corresponding transcripts of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase were modulated differentially, thus leading to the alleviation of oxidative damage. Effects of H(2)S above were reversed by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the specific scavenger of NO. By using laser confocal scanning microscope combined with Greiss reagent method, further results showed that NO production increased significantly after the NaHS pretreatment regardless of whether Cd was applied or not, all of which were obviously inhibited by cPTIO. These decreases of NO production were consistent with the exaggerated syndromes associated with Cd toxicity. Together, above results suggested that NO was involved in the NaHS-induced alleviation of Cd toxicity in alfalfa seedlings, and also indicated that there exists a cross-talk between H(2)S and NO responsible for the increased abiotic stress tolerance.
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Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 in ?-cyclodextrin-hemin complex-induced cucumber adventitious rooting process.
Plant Cell Rep.
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Our previous results showed that ?-cyclodextrin-hemin complex (CDH) exhibited a vital protective role against cadmium-induced oxidative damage and toxicity in alfalfa seedling roots by the regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression. In this report, we further test whether CDH exhibited the hormonal-like response. The application of CDH and an inducer of HO-1, hemin, were able to induce the up-regulation of cucumber HO-1 gene (CsHO1) expression and thereafter the promotion of adventitious rooting in cucumber explants. The effect is specific for HO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) blocked the above responses triggered by CDH, and the inhibitory effects were reversed further when 30% saturation of CO aqueous solution was added together. Further, molecular evidence showed that CDH triggered the increases of the HO-1-mediated target genes responsible for adventitious rooting, including one DnaJ-like gene (CsDNAJ-1) and two calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) genes (CsCDPK1 and CsCDPK5), and were inhibited by ZnPP and reversed by CO. The calcium (Ca2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis (2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and the Ca2+ channel blocker lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) not only compromised the induction of adventitious rooting induced by CDH but also decreased the transcripts of above three target genes. However, the application of ascorbic acid (AsA), a well-known antioxidant in plants, failed to exhibit similar inducible effect on adventitious root formation. In short, above results illustrated that the response of CDH in the induction of cucumber adventitious rooting might be through HO-1-dependent mechanism and calcium signaling.
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Mutation of Arabidopsis HY1 causes UV-C hypersensitivity by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis and the down-regulation of antioxidant defence.
J. Exp. Bot.
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Previous pharmacological results confirmed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protection of cells against ultraviolet (UV)-induced oxidative damage in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seedlings, but there remains a lack of genetic evidence. In this study, the link between Arabidopsis thaliana HO-1 (HY1) and UV-C tolerance was investigated at the genetic and molecular levels. The maximum inducible expression of HY1 in wild-type Arabidopsis was observed following UV-C irradiation. UV-C sensitivity was not observed in ho2, ho3, and ho4 single and double mutants. However, the HY1 mutant exhibited UV-C hypersensitivity, consistent with the observed decreases in chlorophyll content, and carotenoid and flavonoid metabolism, as well as the down-regulation of antioxidant defences, thereby resulting in severe oxidative damage. The addition of the carbon monoxide donor carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), in particular, and bilirubin (BR), two catalytic by-products of HY1, partially rescued the UV-C hypersensitivity, and other responses appeared in the hy1 mutant. Transcription factors involved in the synthesis of flavonoid or UV responses were induced by UV-C, but reduced in the hy1 mutant. Overall, the findings showed that mutation of HY1 triggered UV-C hypersensitivity, by impairing carotenoid and flavonoid synthesis and antioxidant defences.
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Presence of CP4-EPSPS Component in Roundup Ready Soybean-Derived Food Products.
Int J Mol Sci
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With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soya (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the traceability of transgenic components, especially protein residues, in different soya-related foodstuffs has become an important issue. In this report, transgenic components in commercial soya (including RRS) protein concentrates were firstly detected by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The results illustrated the different degradation patterns of the cp4-epsps gene and corresponding protein in RRS-derived protein concentrates. Furthermore, western blot was applied to investigate the single factor of food processing and the matrix on the disintegration of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder and soya-derived foodstuffs, and trace the degradation patterns during the food production chain. Our results suggested that the exogenous full length of CP4-EPSPS protein in RRS powder was distinctively sensitive to various heat treatments, including heat, microwave and autoclave (especially), and only one degradation fragment (23.4 kD) of CP4-EPSPS protein was apparently observed when autoclaving was applied. By tracing the protein degradation during RRS-related products, including tofu, tou-kan, and bean curd sheets, however, four degradation fragments (42.9, 38.2, 32.2 and 23.4 kD) were displayed, suggesting that both boiling and bittern adding procedures might have extensive effects on CP4-EPSPS protein degradation. Our results thus confirmed that the distinctive residues of the CP4-EPSPS component could be traced in RRS-related foodstuffs.
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