JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS) SINUS TUMORS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH COINFECTIONS BY POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) sinus tumors are hyperplastic to neoplastic, predominantly stromal masses of the paranasal sinuses that expand the sinus lining and obstruct the sinus cavities. Obstruction of the sinus cavities and disruption of normal sinus lining anatomy may interfere with clearance of bacterial pathogens from the upper respiratory tract. To examine this possibility, we explored whether the presence of sinus tumor features (tumor score) affected the likelihood of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria from upper respiratory sinus lining tissues in bighorn sheep. We developed or used existing PCR assays for the detection of leukotoxigenic Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in sinus lining tissues collected from 97 bighorn sheep in Colorado, USA from 2009 to 2012. With the use of logistic regression analyses we found that tumor score was a good predictor of the probability of detecting potentially pathogenic bacteria in sinus lining tissues; we were more likely to detect potentially pathogenic bacteria from samples with high tumor scores. These findings add to our understanding of possible mechanisms for the maintenance and shedding of bacterial agents from the upper respiratory tracts of bighorn sheep.
Related JoVE Video
Electrogram Guidance: A Method to Increase the Precision and Diagnostic Yield of Endomyocardial Biopsy for Suspected Cardiac Sarcoidosis and Myocarditis.
JACC Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe the method used to perform electrogram-guided EMB and correlate electrogram characteristics with pathological and clinical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Family-centered care during acute neonatal transport.
Adv Neonatal Care
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate current transport team communication practices and identify areas for improvement from the parents' perspective. We also sought to determine whether parents perceived that they were active participants in the care of their infants during the transport process, consistent with the concepts of providing family-centered care (FCC).
Related JoVE Video
Using EPR spectroscopy as a unique probe of molecular-scale reorganization and solvation in self-assembled gel-phase materials.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe the synthesis of spin-labeled bis-ureas which coassemble with bis-urea gelators and report on self-assembly as detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Specifically, EPR detects the gel-sol transition and allows us to quantify how much spin-label is immobilized within the gel fibers and how much is present in mobile solvent pools-as controlled by temperature, gelator structure, and thermal history. EPR is also able to report on the initial self-assembly processes below the gelation threshold which are not macroscopically visible and appears to be more sensitive than NMR to intermediate-sized nongelating oligomeric species. By studying dilute solutions of gelator molecules and using either single or double spin-labels, EPR allows quantification of the initial steps of the hierarchical self-assembly process in terms of cooperativity and association constant. Finally, EPR enables us to estimate the degree of gel-fiber solvation by probing the distances between spin-labels. Comparison of experimental data against the predicted distances assuming the nanofibers are only composed of gelator molecules indicates a significant difference, which can be assigned to the presence of a quantifiable number of explicit solvent molecules. In summary, EPR provides unique data and yields powerful insight into how molecular-scale mobility and solvation impact on assembly of supramolecular gels.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of incidental amyloidosis on the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the impact of amyloid on the prognosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), we reviewed outcomes of patients who underwent septal myectomy for HC from March 7, 1996, to October 9, 2012, with amyloid deposits identified in operative specimens. Amyloid subtypes were differentiated by mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The survival rate was compared with that of an age-matched population (2:1) without amyloid who underwent septal myectomy for HC. Sixteen patients (mean age ± SD 71 ± 8 years; 12 men) met study criteria. All 16 had intraventricular peak systolic gradients reduced intraoperatively from 105 ± 53 mm Hg to 3 ± 7 mm Hg (p <0.001). Amyloid deposits in specimens ranged from minimal to mild. Nine patients had senile (transthyretin-type) amyloidosis, 4 had immunoglobulin-associated amyloidosis, 2 had apolipoprotein A4 amyloidosis type, and 1 had serum amyloid A type. There were no deaths before 30 days. Twelve patients had New York Heart Association class III or IV function preoperatively, and at last follow-up (median 3 years), class I or II. Only 1 patient received postoperative amyloidosis treatment. The postoperative survival rate at 2 and 4 years was 100% (n = 11 at risk) and 91% (n = 6 at risk), respectively, similar to that of the age-matched population with HC without amyloid who underwent myectomy (p = 0.13). Patients undergoing septal myectomy for HC who have histologic evidence of mild amyloidosis have early outcomes and midterm survival similar to those of patients with HC without amyloidosis who undergo myectomy. In conclusion, although longer follow-up is necessary, small amounts of amyloid, regardless of subtype, do not confer a poor prognosis on patients with HC who undergo septal myectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Left ventricular amyloid deposition in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.
JACC Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study sought to determine the frequency of left ventricular amyloid in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Related JoVE Video
PRKAR1A in the development of cardiac myxoma: a study of 110 cases including isolated and syndromic tumors.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac myxoma usually occurs as a solitary mass, but occasionally develops as part of a familial syndrome, the Carney complex (CNC). Two thirds of CNC-associated cardiac myxomas exhibit mutations in PRKAR1A. PRKAR1A mutations occur in both familial and sporadic forms of CNC but have not been described in isolated (nonsyndromic) cardiac myxomas. A total of 127 consecutive cardiac myxomas surgically resected at Mayo Clinic (1993 to 2011) from 110 individuals were studied. Clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings were reviewed. Of these, 103 patients had isolated cardiac myxomas, and 7 patients had the tumor as a component of CNC. Age and sex distributions were different for CNC (mean 26 y, range 14 to 44 y, 71% female) and non-CNC (mean 62 y, range 18 to 92 y, 63% female) patients. PRKAR1A immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) was performed, and myxoma cell reactivity was graded semiquantitatively. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing was performed in 3 CNC patients and 29 non-CNC patients, to test for the presence of mutations in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the PRKAR1A gene. IHC staining showed that all 7 CNC cases lacked PRKAR1A antigenicity and that 33 (32%) isolated cardiac myxomas were similarly nonreactive. Of tumors subjected to sequencing analysis, 2 (67%) CNC myxomas and 9 (31%) non-CNC myxomas had pathogenic PRKAR1A mutations. No germline mutations were found in 4 non-CNC cases tested. PRKAR1A appears to play a role in the development of both syndromic and nonsyndromic cardiac myxomas. Routine IHC evaluation of cardiac myxomas for PRKAR1A expression may be useful in excluding a diagnosis of CNC.
Related JoVE Video
Enantioselective component selection in multicomponent supramolecular gels.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigate a two-component acid-amine gelation system in which chirality plays a vital role. A carboxylic acid based on a second generation l-lysine dendron interacts with chiral amines and subsequently assembles into supramolecular gel fibers. The chirality of the amine controls the assembly of the resulting diastereomeric complexes, even if this chirality is relatively "poor quality". Importantly, the selective incorporation of one enantiomer of an amine over the other into the gel network has been demonstrated, with the R amine that forms complexes which assemble into the most stable gel being primarily selected for incorporation. Thermodynamic control has been proven by forming a gel exclusively with an S amine, allowing the R enantiomer to diffuse through the gel network, and displacing it from the "solidlike" fibers, demonstrating that these gels adapt and evolve in response to chemical stimuli to which they are exposed. Excess amine, which remains unincorporated within the solidlike gel fiber network, can diffuse out and be reacted with an isocyanate, allowing us to quantify the enantioselectivity of component selection but also demonstrating how gels can act as selective reservoirs of potential reagents, releasing them on demand to undergo further reactions; hence, component-selective gel assembly can be coupled with controlled reactivity.
Related JoVE Video
The role of Iex-1 in the pathogenesis of venous neointimal hyperplasia associated with hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) used for hemodialysis fail because of venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH). There are 1,500,000 patients that have end stage renal disease worldwide and the majority requires hemodialysis. In the present study, the role of the intermediate early response gene X-1 (IEX-1), also known as IER-3 in the pathogenesis of VNH was evaluated. In human samples removed from failed AVF, there was a significant increase in IEX-1 expression localized to the adventitia. In Iex-1-/- mice and wild type (WT) controls, chronic kidney disease was induced and an AVF placed 28 days later by connecting the carotid artery to jugular vein. The outflow vein was removed three days following the creation of the AVF and gene expression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1) gene expression in Iex-1-/- mice when compared to WT mice (P<0.05). At 28 days after AVF placement, histomorphometric and immune-histochemical analyses of the outflow vein demonstrated a significant decrease in neointimal hyperplasia with an increase in average lumen vessel area associated with a decrease in fibroblast, myofibroblast, and Ly6C staining. There was a decrease in proliferation (Ki-67) and an increase in the TUNEL staining in Iex-1 KO mice compared to WT. In addition, there was a decrease in Vegf-A, Mcp-1, and matrix metalloproteiniase-9 (Mmp-9) staining. Iex-1 expression was reduced in vivo and in vitro using nanoparticles coated with calcitriol, an inhibitor of Iex-1 that demonstrated that Iex-1 reduction results in decrease in Vegf-A. In aggregate, these results indicate that the absence of IEX-1 gene results in reduced VNH accompanied with a decrease in proliferation, reduced fibroblast, myofibroblast, and Ly6C staining accompanied with increased apoptosis mediated through a reduction in Vegf-A/Mcp-1 axis and Mmp-9. Adventitial delivery of nanoparticles coated with calcitriol reduced Iex-1 and VNH.
Related JoVE Video
Pneumatic compression for embolic protection during upper extremity endovascular intervention.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Embolic protection devices are occasionally employed during endovascular interventions to prevent complications caused by embolic debris. However, these devices have imperfect efficacy, confer risk of endovascular trauma, and are expensive. We report a patient with giant cell arteritis and symptomatic axillary artery stenosis, with a perceived elevated risk of distal embolization during endovascular intervention. We describe a straightforward embolic protection technique of brachial pressure cuff inflation during endovascular intervention and aspiration of displaced thrombotic material from the static column of blood. This novel, effective, and cost-free technique could also be employed in other vascular beds during endovascular intervention.
Related JoVE Video
PCR ASSAY DETECTS MANNHEIMIA HAEMOLYTICA IN CULTURE-NEGATIVE PNEUMONIC LUNG TISSUES OF BIGHORN SHEEP (OVIS CANADENSIS) FROM OUTBREAKS IN THE WESTERN USA, 2009-2010.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
abstract : Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.
Related JoVE Video
Type A aortic dissection in patients with bicuspid aortic valves: clinical and pathological comparison with tricuspid aortic valves.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with a higher risk of type A aortic dissection (AD) compared with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). We sought to study differences between patients with BAV and TAV with AD.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical pathology of hypothenar hammer syndrome with new pathogenetic insights: A 25-year institutional experience with clinical and pathologic review of 67 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypothenar hammer syndrome (HHS) is characterized by digital ischemia after repetitive traumatic injury to the ulnar artery. Some hypothesize that susceptible patients have an intrinsic vasculopathy such as fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). To investigate this hypothesis, we reviewed our institutional experience with this syndrome over 25 years. Clinical records were reviewed from all patients who underwent surgical treatment for HHS (1987 to 2011), and histologic features of excised ulnar arteries were characterized. A total of 67 patients (mean age 45 y; range, 21 to 75 y; 65 men) were treated for unilateral or bilateral disease. Common symptoms included digital pain (96% of cases), cold intolerance (79%), cyanosis (70%), numbness (54%), tingling (51%), and ulceration (40%). Angiography showed ulnar artery occlusion (89%), irregularity (56%), tortuosity (46%), and digital emboli (89%). Common pathologic features (from 75 specimens) included: luminal thrombosis (87%); intimal thickening (60%) and fibrosis (57%); internal elastic membrane disruption (95%); medial fibrosis (96%), hypertrophy (43%), neovascularization (49%), dilatation (29%), and disruption (25%); and adventitial neovascularization (53%). Specific features of dysplasia were present in 10 cases (15%), including smooth muscle disorganization and additional smooth muscle bundles outside the external elastic membrane, but typical FMD was not identified. Histologic features in HHS most often represent secondary changes consistent with repetitive trauma. Dysplastic features can be found in occasional cases, but FMD does not appear to contribute to HHS in most patients. Angiography should be interpreted with caution in superficial locations, as a string-of-beads appearance may simply reflect a posttraumatic corkscrew deformity of the ulnar artery.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among Pasteurellaceae from Colorado bighorn sheep herds.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We used 16S rRNA sequencing and leukotoxin gene (lktA) screening via PCR assay to clarify phylogenetic and epidemiologic relationships among Pasteurellaceae isolated from bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). Only six of 21 bighorn isolates identified as "Mannheimia haemolytica" in original laboratory reports appeared to be isolates of M. haemolytica sensu stricto based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons; the remainder grouped with M. glucosida (n=8) or M. ruminalis (n=7). Similarly, 16S rRNA sequence comparisons grouped only 16 of 25 trehalose-fermenting bighorn isolates with reference strains of Bibersteinia trehalosi; nine other trehalose-fermenting bighorn isolates formed a clade divergent from B. trehalosi reference strains and may belong to another species. Of the 16 bighorn isolates identified as B. trehalosi by 16S rRNA sequences, only nine carried detectable lktA and thus seemed likely pathogens; none of the Bibersteinia clade isolates yielded detectable lktA despite reportedly showing ? hemolysis in culture. Our findings suggest that traditional metabolism-based methods for identifying Pasteurellaceae isolates lack sufficient accuracy and resolution for reliably discerning bacterial causes of respiratory disease in bighorn sheep. Consequently, these traditional methods should minimally be augmented by molecular techniques to improve epidemiologic relevance. Streamlined surveillance approaches focused primarily on detecting pathogenic Pasteurellaceae (e.g., M. haemolytica sensu stricto and lktA-positive B. trehalosi) and other select pathogens may be most informative for investigating and managing bighorn respiratory disease.
Related JoVE Video
A novel sonification strategy for auditory display of heart rate and oxygen saturation changes in clinical settings.
Hum Factors
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was development of a sonification scheme to convey deviations in heart rate and oxygen saturation from a desired target level.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical pathology of atrial appendages removed during the cox-maze procedure: a review of 86 cases (2004 to 2005) with implications for prognosis.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Some patients are managed surgically (Cox-maze procedure) with removal of 1 or both atrial appendages. A retrospective review was performed on surgically excised atrial appendages from 86 consecutive patients with AF (2004 to 2005), at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. These were compared with atrial appendages removed from 2 autopsy control groups without a history of AF (26 without heart disease, and 20 with heart disease). Compared with the 2 control groups, appendages from patients with AF contained more myocyte vacuolization, fatty infiltration, and myocardial inflammation. Among the AF patients, left atrial appendages (LAA) were larger and more likely to show fatty infiltration, endocardial fibroelastosis, and mural thrombus than were right atrial appendages (RAA); in contrast, RAA were more likely to show myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis than were LAA. In the LAA, myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis were more often seen in patients with long-term AF recurrence than were those who remained in normal sinus rhythm postoperatively (P=0.045 and 0.036, respectively). Given the potential clinical relevance of these findings, it is recommended that the presence or absence of hypertrophy and fibrosis, and their extent, be incorporated into the surgical pathology report of all patients undergoing resection of an atrial appendage.
Related JoVE Video
In vivo loading model to examine bone adaptation in humans: a pilot study.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone is typically well suited for its habitual loading environment because of its ability to adapt. Although characteristics of the mechanical loading environment predict the bone adaptive response in animals, this has not been prospectively validated in humans. Here, we describe an in vivo loading model in which women apply forces to the radius by leaning onto their hand. We characterized the strain environment imposed on the radius using cadaveric experimentation and conducted a prospective study in which 19 adult women loaded their distal radii 50 cycles/day, 3 days/week, for 28 weeks and seven additional adult women served as controls. In four cadaveric specimens, loading caused compressive principal strains of -1,695 ± 396 ?? with radial bending dorsally and towards the ulna. Prospective in vivo loading produced measurable improvements to bone and appeared to protect against bone loss associated with seasonal fluctuations in physical activity and sun exposure. Experimental subjects had significant gains to bone volume (BV) and moments of inertia, while, control subjects had significant losses in BMC and moments of inertia. The loading model is thus suitable as a model system for exploring bone adaptation in humans, and may eventually be clinically useful for strengthening the radius of women.
Related JoVE Video
PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for direct detection of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance from heart valves in patients with infective endocarditis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbiological diagnosis is pivotal to the appropriate management and treatment of infective endocarditis. We evaluated PCR-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) for bacterial and candidal detection using 83 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded heart valves from subjects with endocarditis who had positive valve and/or blood cultures, 63 of whom had positive valvular Gram stains. PCR/ESI-MS yielded 55% positivity with concordant microbiology at the genus/species or organism group level (e.g., viridans group streptococci), 11% positivity with discordant microbiology, and 34% with no detection. PCR/ESI-MS detected all antimicrobial resistance encoded by mecA or vanA/B and identified a case of Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis not previously recognized.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic evolving two-component supramolecular gels-hierarchical control over component selection in complex mixtures.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a two-component acid-amine gelation system which forms instant organogels on simple mixing. We investigate self-assembly using a wide range of different amines and identify the optimum amines for gelation to occur. Using NMR and other spectroscopic methods, we unambiguously determine the stoichiometry of the complex responsible for gelation (1:1) and characterize the noncovalent interactions responsible for gelation. Using Kamlet-Taft parameters we gain a detailed understanding of the role of solvent on gelation. Most importantly, we explore the ability of these multicomponent systems to assemble from complex mixtures, and using NMR can determine which components are preferentially taken up into the immobile "solid-like" fiber network and which components remain mobile in the "liquid-like" solvent phase. In this way, we determine that the component selection process is controlled by the two key steps in hierarchical assembly: (i) acid-base complex formation (as predicted by the pKa of the amine) and (ii) gel fiber assembly (as predicted by the Tgel value). These parameters therefore enable a predictive understanding of the way in which complex mixtures self-organize and assemble and also how the sorted assemblies disassemble on heating. In a key experiment, we demonstrate that these materials are highly responsive and that a preformed gel, exposed to a new component, evolves, adapts, and heals its composition in response to the thermodynamic preferences of the overall system.
Related JoVE Video
Diffuse diseases of the myocardium: MRI-pathologic review of cardiomyopathies with dilatation.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this radiologic-pathologic review of the cardiomyopathies, we present the pertinent imaging findings of diffuse myocardial diseases that are associated with ventricular dilatation, including ischemic cardiomyopathy, nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, cardiac sarcoidosis, and iron overload cardiomyopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Diffuse diseases of the myocardium: MRI-pathologic review of nondilated cardiomyopathies.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article will present correlation of the key radiologic findings with gross and microscopic pathology for the characterization of diffuse myocardial diseases using advanced imaging techniques. Our goal is to provide a focused and in-depth review of the pathophysiology underlying each entity and to emphasize the structural basis for the corresponding imaging characteristics. This article is limited to those disorders characterized by ventricular wall thickening without chamber dilatation, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertensive cardiomyopathy, and cardiac amyloidosis.
Related JoVE Video
A concise one-pot synthesis of trifluoromethyl-containing 2,6-disubstituted 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinolines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthyridines.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroquinolines and 5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthyridines with appended trifluoromethyl groups are valuable chemotypes in medicinal chemistry due to the presence of a partially-saturated bicyclic ring and metabolically-stable CF(3) group. (1)H NMR studies were used to optimize the preparation of such compounds, using a three-step/one-pot procedure, to provide novel 2,6-disubstitued derivatives with a tertiary-substituent. Racemic 2,6-disubstituted tetrahydroquinolines were separated by chiral HPLC to provide single enantiomers.
Related JoVE Video
Post Christian pastoral care: the wisdom of not knowing.
J Pastoral Care Counsel
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emergent religious pluralism leads many of us to reflect on pastoral care practices that have evolved mostly within the Judeo Christian tradition. This article makes public my reflections and offers ideas for a ministry of curiosity that is more conversant with an increasingly Post Christian society.
Related JoVE Video
Incidence of aortic complications in patients with bicuspid aortic valves.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the most common congenital heart defect, has been thought to cause frequent and severe aortic complications; however, long-term, population-based data are lacking.
Related JoVE Video
Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care: changing the mental model from inevitability to preventability.
Am J Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previously considered unavoidable complications of hospital care (reflecting an "entitlement" mental model), health care-associated infections are now considered as medical errors and cause significant preventable morbidity and mortality in neonates. Prevention of such infections, particularly central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), should be an important patient safety priority for all neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). An important first step is to promote a mental model of CLABSIs as preventable complications of care. Other general strategies are (1) promoting an organizational culture of safety and empowerment of staff; (2) hand hygiene; (3) avoiding overcrowding and understaffing; (4) using breast milk for enteral feedings; and (5) involving families in infection prevention efforts. Specific strategies to prevent CLABSI are (1) insertion practices: insertion of all central vascular catheters under strict sterile conditions with the aid of a checklist; (2) maintenance practices: ensuring that entries into the lumen of the vascular catheter always occur under aseptic conditions, minimizing catheter disconnections, and replacement of intravenous infusion sets at recommended intervals; (3) removal of all central lines as soon as possible. Participation in national or statewide quality improvement collaboratives is an emerging trend in neonatology that can enhance CLABSI prevention efforts by NICUs.
Related JoVE Video
2011 consensus statement on endomyocardial biopsy from the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology and the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology.
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology and the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology have produced this position paper concerning the current role of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) for the diagnosis of cardiac diseases and its contribution to patient management, focusing on pathological issues, with these aims: • Determining appropriate EMB use in the context of current diagnostic strategies for cardiac diseases and providing recommendations for its rational utilization • Providing standard criteria and guidance for appropriate tissue triage and pathological analysis • Promoting a team approach to EMB use, integrating the competences of pathologists, clinicians, and imagers.
Related JoVE Video
Unicommissural aortic valves: gross, histological, and immunohistochemical analysis of 52 cases (1978-2008).
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Unicommissural aortic valves (UAVs) are rare anomalies in which adjacent cusps of two commissures are congenitally fused. Currently, features of UAVs are poorly characterized.
Related JoVE Video
MR imaging findings in 76 consecutive surgically proven cases of pericardial disease with CT and pathologic correlation.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe findings of patients with surgically confirmed pericardial disease on state of the art MR sequences. Retrospective review was performed for patients who underwent pericardiectomy and preoperative MR over a 5 year period ending in 2009. Patients records were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, or pericardial tumor. MR imaging findings of pericardial thickness, IVC diameter, presence or absence of pericardial or pleural effusion, pericardial edema, pericardial enhancement, and septal "bounce" were recorded. Patients with constriction had a larger IVC diameter (3.1 ± 0.4 cm) than patients with recurrent pain and no constriction (2.0 ± 0.4 cm). Mean pericardial thickness for the 16 patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis but no evidence of constriction was 4.8 ± 2.9 mm. Mean pericardial thickness for patients with constriction was 9.2 ± 7.0 cm with calcification, and 4.6 ± 2.1 cm without calcification. 94% of patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis had gadolinium enhancement of the pericardium, while 76% of patients with constriction had pericardial enhancement. Septal "bounce" was present in 19% of chronic recurrent pericarditis cases and 86% of constriction cases. 5 patients had a pericardial neoplasm, 1 of which was not identified preoperatively. State of the art MR techniques can identify significant and distinct findings in patients with chronic recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis, and pericardial tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Maintaining clinical tissue archives and supporting human research: challenges and solutions.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The increasing number of requests for use of clinically archived tissue in translational research poses unique challenges. Conflicts may arise between pathologists who are responsible for overseeing and preserving the tissues and investigators who need these materials for research purposes.
Related JoVE Video
NIH Consensus Development Conference statement: inhaled nitric-oxide therapy for premature infants.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Premature birth is a major public health problem in the United States and internationally. Infants born at or before 32 weeks gestation (2% of all births in the United States in 2007) are at extremely high risk for death in the neonatal period or for pulmonary, visual, and neurodevelopmental morbidities with lifelong consequences including bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and brain injury. Risks for adverse outcomes increase with decreasing gestational age. The economic costs to care for these infants are also substantial (estimated at $26 billion in 2005 in the United States). It is clear that the need for strategies to improve outcomes for this high-risk population is great, and this need has prompted testing of new therapies with the potential to decrease pulmonary and other complications of prematurity. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) emerged as one such therapy. To provide health care professionals, families, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding the benefits and risks of iNO in premature infants, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the Office of Medical Applications of Research of the National Institutes of Health convened a consensus-development conference. Findings from a substantial body of experimental work in developing animals and other model systems suggest that nitric oxide may enhance lung growth and reduce lung inflammation independently of its effects on blood vessel resistance. Although this work demonstrates biological plausibility and the results of randomized controlled trials in term and near-term infants were positive, combined evidence from the 14 randomized controlled trials of iNO treatment in premature infants of ? 34 weeks gestation shows equivocal effects on pulmonary outcomes, survival, and neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
NIH consensus development conference: Inhaled nitric oxide therapy for premature infants.
NIH Consens State Sci Statements
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To provide healthcare providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data on the use of inhaled nitric oxide in early routine, early rescue, or later rescue regimens in the care of premature infants <34 weeks gestation who require respiratory support.
Related JoVE Video
Status of brucellosis in free-ranging elk and bison in Wyoming.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucella abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis, a disease enzootic in populations of free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) and bison (Bison bison) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, USA. We define the distribution of the disease in elk throughout Wyoming, USA, using three epidemiologic/geographic classifications based on winter-foraging opportunity. Antibody prevalence for >3,300 yearling and adult, female elk, sampled from supplemental feedgrounds in western Wyoming, USA, since 1985, was 21.9%. Surveillance of nearly 3,800 winter free-ranging, adult, female elk, sampled from herd units adjacent to feedgrounds from 1991 to 2008, indicated a total antibody prevalence of 3.7%. In contrast, none of the 1,930 male and female elk sampled from 1991 to 2008 in herd units distant from feedgrounds in Wyoming, USA, demonstrated exposure to B. abortus. In comparison to elk, bison had a higher incidence of brucellosis. Surveillance of 321 cow bison harvested within the Absaroka and Jackson bison herds in western Wyoming, USA, from 1992 to 2008 yielded an antibody prevalence of 63.9%.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomical correlates relevant to ablation above the semilunar valves for the cardiac electrophysiologist: a study of 603 hearts.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Certain outflow tract tachyarrhythmias require ablation above the semilunar valves. Understanding of the regional anatomy of these arrhythmogenic sites is required to avoid complications.
Related JoVE Video
Papillary fibroelastomas in 19 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy undergoing septal myectomy.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize papillary fibroelastomas (PFEs) and their clinical sequelae in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). PFE is the third most common primary cardiac tumor and can be associated with neurologic events. Because endocardial trauma has been implicated in its pathogenesis, the occurrence and outcomes of PFEs in patients with HCM were retrospectively analyzed in this study.
Related JoVE Video
Location of coronary culprit lesions at autopsy in 41 nondiabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction (MI) are major causes of patient morbidity, hospital mortality, and out-of-hospital sudden death. The precise location of culprit lesions in acute MI at autopsy has not been reported.
Related JoVE Video
The Vermont Oxford Network: a community of practice.
Clin Perinatol
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Vermont Oxford Network is a not-for-profit organization established in the late 1980s with the goals of improving the quality and safety of medical care for newborn infants and their families through a coordinated program of research, education, and quality improvement. In this paper the authors discuss the activities and programs sponsored by the Network to achieve those goals.
Related JoVE Video
Mapping brucellosis increases relative to elk density using hierarchical Bayesian models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between host density and parasite transmission is central to the effectiveness of many disease management strategies. Few studies, however, have empirically estimated this relationship particularly in large mammals. We applied hierarchical Bayesian methods to a 19-year dataset of over 6400 brucellosis tests of adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in northwestern Wyoming. Management captures that occurred from January to March were over two times more likely to be seropositive than hunted elk that were killed in September to December, while accounting for site and year effects. Areas with supplemental feeding grounds for elk had higher seroprevalence in 1991 than other regions, but by 2009 many areas distant from the feeding grounds were of comparable seroprevalence. The increases in brucellosis seroprevalence were correlated with elk densities at the elk management unit, or hunt area, scale (mean 2070 km(2); range = [95-10237]). The data, however, could not differentiate among linear and non-linear effects of host density. Therefore, control efforts that focus on reducing elk densities at a broad spatial scale were only weakly supported. Additional research on how a few, large groups within a region may be driving disease dynamics is needed for more targeted and effective management interventions. Brucellosis appears to be expanding its range into new regions and elk populations, which is likely to further complicate the United States brucellosis eradication program. This study is an example of how the dynamics of host populations can affect their ability to serve as disease reservoirs.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative pathology of congenital heart disease.
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evaluation of congenitally malformed hearts that have been subjected to operative and nonoperative interventions includes not only a categorization of the underlying anomalies and various procedures but also an assessment of interventional complications, postprocedural changes in chamber, valvular, and vascular sizes, presence of ischemia or fibrosis, presence of cardiac or extracardiac infections, and evidence of regression or progression of hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. Input from clinicians or surgeons may be helpful, but biases should be avoided. Referral of cardiopulmonary specimens to experienced pathologists may also be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Role of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of cardiac amyloidosis.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our aim was to evaluate the role and mechanism of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in identifying cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and to investigate associations between LGE and clinical, morphologic, functional, and biochemical features.
Related JoVE Video
De novo development of eosinophilic myocarditis with left ventricular assist device support as bridge to transplant.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The de novo development of myocarditis during left ventricular assist device support for dilated cardiomyopathy has not been previously described. We report a case of severe eosinophilic myocarditis associated with the use of leukotriene-receptor antagonist montelukast that developed during left ventricular assist device support accompanied by intra-device thrombus formation that was hemodynamically tolerated and subsequently discovered in the explanted heart. There may be no visible change in cardiac function as assessed by echocardiography, but the diagnosis should be entertained with the development of peripheral eosinophilia.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of in vivo-induced conserved sequences from Yersinia pestis during experimental plague infection in the rabbit.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In an effort to identify the novel virulence determinants of Yersinia pestis, we applied the gene "discovery" methodology, in vivo-induced (IVI) antigen technology, to detect genes upregulated during infection in a laboratory rabbit model for bubonic plague. After screening over 70,000 Escherichia coli clones of Y. pestis DNA expression libraries, products from 25 loci were identified as being seroreactive to reductively adsorbed, pooled immune serum. Upon sequence analysis of the predicted IVI gene products, more frequently encountered conserved protein functional categories have emerged, to include type-V autotransporters and components of more complex secretion systems including types III and VI. The recombinant products from eight selected clones were subsequently immunoblotted against pooled immune serum from two naturally infected host species: the prairie dog, and a species refractory to lethal disease, the coyote. Immune prairie dog serum recognized 2-3 of the rabbit-reactive antigens, suggesting at least some overlap in the pathogens in vivo survival mechanisms between these two hosts. Although the coyote serum failed to recognize most of the IVI antigens, LepA was universally reactive with all three host sera. Collectively, the profiles/patterns of IVI conserved sequences (IVICS) may represent immune "signatures" among different host species, possessing the potential for use as a diagnostic tool for plague. Further, the antigenic nature of IVICS makes them ideal for further evaluation as novel subunit vaccine candidates. The gathering of additional data and analysis of the intact IVI genes and the expressed IVICS products should provide insight into the unique biologic processes of Y. pestis during infection and reveal the genetic patterns of the pathogens survival strategy in different hosts.
Related JoVE Video
Myocardial fibrosis in patients with symptomatic obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlation with echocardiographic measurements, sarcomeric genotypes, and pro-left ventricular hypertrophy polymorphisms involving the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heterogeneous disorder of the cardiac sarcomere, resulting in myocyte hypertrophy and disarray, interstitial fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction. Our aim was to determine whether the amount of fibrosis in HCM correlates with echocardiographic measures of diastolic dysfunction, presence of HCM-susceptibility mutations, or polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
Related JoVE Video
Embolization of hydrophilic catheter coating to the lungs: report of a case mimicking granulomatous vasculitis.
Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hydrophilic coatings are used on intravascular devices to facilitate ease of manipulation and to minimize complications such as thrombosis during a procedure and vasospasm after a procedure. We report a case of embolization of hydrophilic coating of a central venous catheter to the lung that resulted in cavitary lung nodules in a 34-year-old woman. The microscopic features of this unusual complication warrant emphasis so that pathologists will not overlook the embolic foreign material and make a faulty diagnosis of noniatrogenic granulomatous vasculitis.
Related JoVE Video
Electrophysiological anatomy of typical atrial flutter: the posterior boundary and causes for difficulty with ablation.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The electrophysiological anatomy of cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent atrial flutter (CVTI-AFL) has not been fully elucidated.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation of heteroaryloxetanes and heteroarylazetidines by use of a Minisci reaction.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction of oxetan-3-yl and azetidin-3-yl groups into heteroaromatic bases was achieved by using a radical addition method (Minisci reaction). To demonstrate utility, the process was used to introduce an oxetane or azetidine into heteroaromatic systems that have found important uses in the drug discovery industry, such as the marketed EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, a quinolinecarbonitrile Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and the antimalarial hydroquinine.
Related JoVE Video
Histologic characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with and without myofilament mutations.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Between 30% and 60% of clinical cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) can be attributed to mutations in the genes encoding cardiac myofilament proteins. Interestingly, it appears that the likelihood of an underlying myofilament mutation can be predicted by echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular morphology. However, it is not known whether genotypically characterized HC exists as a separate entity with discrete phenotypic morphology and histology or to what extent recognized polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) influence this relationship. The presence of cardiac myofilament and mutations and RAAS polymorphisms will have a strong association with the severity of histologic features of HC and characteristic septal shape.
Related JoVE Video
Congenital aortic sinus aneurysm causing sudden unexpected death in a 56-year-old woman.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sudden unexpected death due to hemopericardium generally has 2 main causes, rupture of the ascending aorta or rupture of a transmural myocardial infarct. We report an unusual cause of fatal hemopericardium in a 56-year-old woman that occurred in the setting of a motor vehicle mishap.At autopsy, 300 mL of blood were present in the pericardial sac, due to rupture of a previously undetected congenital aortic sinus aneurysm. The low velocity of the automobile at the time of impact with a fence, and the absence of vehicle-related trauma, led to the conclusion that rupture of the aneurysm caused the motor vehicle mishap, rather than vice versa. Because of the typically silent nature of such aneurysms, it is likely that their rupture will occur out-of-hospital and require a forensic investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Tissue-specific expression patterns of Arabidopsis NF-Y transcription factors suggest potential for extensive combinatorial complexity.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All aspects of plant and animal development are controlled by complex networks of transcription factors. Transcription factors are essential for converting signaling inputs, such as changes in daylength, into complex gene regulatory outputs. While some transcription factors control gene expression by binding to cis-regulatory elements as individual subunits, others function in a combinatorial fashion. How individual subunits of combinatorial transcription factors are spatially and temporally deployed (e.g. expression-level, posttranslational modifications and subcellular localization) has profound effects on their control of gene expression. In the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we have identified 36 Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) transcription factor subunits (10 NF-YA, 13 NF-YB, and 13 NF-YC subunits) that can theoretically combine to form 1,690 unique complexes. Individual plant subunits have functions in flowering time, embryo maturation, and meristem development, but how they combine to control these processes is unknown. To assist in the process of defining unique NF-Y complexes, we have created promoter:beta-glucuronidase fusion lines for all 36 Arabidopsis genes. Here, we show NF-Y expression patterns inferred from these promoter:beta-glucuronidase lines for roots, light- versus dark-grown seedlings, rosettes, and flowers. Additionally, we review the phylogenetic relationships and examine protein alignments for each NF-Y subunit family. The results are discussed with a special emphasis on potential roles for NF-Y subunits in photoperiod-controlled flowering time.
Related JoVE Video
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in a 31-year-old woman presenting as biventricular heart failure with restrictive features.
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 31-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and left-sided chest discomfort and was found to have biventricular heart failure with impaired ventricular filling. Clinically, she was thought to have restrictive cardiomyopathy or constrictive pericarditis. Transmission electron microscopy of myocardial tissue unexpectedly revealed crosshatched, curvilinear, and fingerprint depositions, which were characteristic for neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. Cardiac involvement by this inherited disorder is discussed in light of the findings in this patient and in 15 other reported cases.
Related JoVE Video
Intracardiac thrombosis and anticoagulation therapy in cardiac amyloidosis.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary amyloidosis has a poor prognosis as a result of frequent cardiac involvement. We recently reported a high prevalence of intracardiac thrombus in cardiac amyloid patients at autopsy. However, neither the prevalence nor the effect of anticoagulation on intracardiac thrombus has been evaluated antemortem.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of management, behavior, and scavenging on risk of brucellosis transmission in elk of western Wyoming.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brucellosis is endemic in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using winter feedgrounds of western Wyoming, USA presumably because of increased animal density, duration of attendance, and subsequent contact with aborted fetuses. However, previous research addressed antibody prevalence rather than more direct measures of transmission and did not account for elk behavior or scavenging in transmission risk. Throughout March and early April 2005-07, we monitored 48 sets of culture-negative, pseudoaborted elk fetuses, placentas, and fluids (fetal units, FUs) on one winter free-ranging (WFR) location and four sites (Feedline, High Traffic, Low Traffic, Adjacent) associated with four feedgrounds. "At-risk" elk (total elk within 5 m of FU) and proportions of elk sniffing and contacting FUs were highest on Feedlines and decreased toward Low Traffic sites. We did not observe elk investigating FUs Adjacent to feedgrounds or on the WFR location. At-risk elk on Feedline and High Traffic sites decreased throughout the sampling period, whereas proportions of elk investigating FUs were correlated positively to at-risk elk among all sites within feedgrounds. At-risk elk and proportions of elk investigating FUs were correlated with total feedground elk density and population only on High Traffic and Low Traffic sites. Proportions of sex/age groups (female, juvenile, male) investigating FUs did not differ from background populations. Females, however, spent more time (mean [SE], 21.07 [3.47] sec) investigating FUs than juveniles (14.73 [3.53] sec) and males (10.12 [1.45] sec), with positive correlation between total investigations and time spent investigating per female. Eight species of scavengers consumed FUs, removing FUs faster on feedgrounds than WFR locations and reducing proportions of elk that investigated FUs. Our results suggest that 1) reduction of elk density and time attending feedgrounds, particularly on Feedlines; and 2) protection of scavengers on and adjacent to feedgrounds would likely reduce intraspecific transmission risk of brucellosis.
Related JoVE Video
The cardiac veins in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries: delivery options for cardiac devices.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Device implantation is sometimes required in congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) because of morphologic right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and complete heart block. The anatomical course of the veins remains unknown, despite well-described coronary arterial anatomy. Knowledge of the venous anatomy may facilitate planning of percutaneous cardiac procedures in these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Candles in the snow: ritual and memory for siblings of infants who died in the intensive care nursery.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the developmental impact of surviving a sibling who dies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).
Related JoVE Video
Anatomy of the patent foramen ovale for the interventionalist.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an interatrial communication whose management is controversial. Several manufacturers have submitted protocols for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of their PFO closure device. The purpose of this study was to define anatomy relevant to percutaneous PFO closure, validate the clinical observation that most PFOs contain little tissue rim at the aorta, comment on proposed closure guidelines, and to discuss approaches to PFO closure.
Related JoVE Video
"Its a toss up between my hearing, my heart, and my hip": prioritizing and accommodating multiple morbidities by vulnerable older adults.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nearly three quarters of older adults have multiple morbidities (MM). This study investigated which morbidities older adults prioritize, why, and how they accommodate these conditions, focusing on elders with two or more chronic conditions and low socioeconomic status. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted with 41 older adults (most being African American women from the southeastern U.S., with two or more chronic illnesses). Results. Many participants reported worrying most about their heart disease, diabetes, and disability/mobility problems, and about their synergistic effects. Many worried that MMs might tip them into a downward spiral. Participants spent the most time and money on arthritis and diabetes. Few received help; when they did, relatives assisted with arthritis/mobility, diabetes, and effects of stroke. Discussion. Enhanced formal care coordination, increased use of technological innovations, and understanding elders priorities are necessary to improve self-care/management and quality of life.
Related JoVE Video
Echocardiographic features of cardiac amyloidosis presenting as endomyocardial disease in a 54-year-old male.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although primary cardiac amyloidosis is a rare affliction of the heart, its clinical and pathology features have been well described. Patients generally present with exertional dyspnea, chest discomfort, or congestive heart failure. Cardiac imaging typically reveals ventricular wall thickening, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, valvular thickening, and pericardial effusion. In the case reported herein, a patient with suspected cardiac amyloid demonstrated electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings that were not only inconsistent with typical depositional patterns, but also potentially suggestive of endomyocardial disease.
Related JoVE Video
Atrial giant cell myocarditis: a distinctive clinicopathologic entity.
Circulation
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) typically causes fulminant heart failure, arrhythmias, or heart block, necessitating aggressive immunosuppression, ventricular assist device insertion, or cardiac transplantation. We describe a novel variant of GCM, primarily involving the atria, that displays distinctive clinical features and follows a more benign course than ventricular GCM.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomy of the coronary sinus and epicardial coronary venous system in 620 hearts: an electrophysiology perspective.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cannulation of the coronary sinus (CS) is a prerequisite for left ventricular (LV) pacing and certain ablation procedures. The detailed regional anatomy for the coronary veins and potential anatomic causes for difficulty with these procedures has not been established.
Related JoVE Video
Myocardium of the superior vena cava, coronary sinus, vein of Marshall, and the pulmonary vein ostia: gross anatomic studies in 620 hearts.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) frequently involves energy delivery at the ostia of the thoracic veins. Detailed evaluation of the myocardium extending into the caval veins, vein of Marshall, as well as at the pulmonary vein ostia has not been completely evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical pathology of native valve endocarditis in 310 specimens from 287 patients (1985-2004).
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few large studies have documented the clinical and pathologic features of native valve endocarditis (NVE) independently from prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE).
Related JoVE Video
Yersinia enterocolitica: an unlikely cause of positive brucellosis tests in greater yellowstone ecosystem bison (Bison bison).
J. Wildl. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 has identical O-antigens to those of Brucella abortus and has apparently caused false-positive reactions in numerous brucellosis serologic tests in elk (Cervus canadensis) from southwest Montana. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was occurring in brucellosis antibody-positive bison (Bison bison) using Y. enterocolitica culturing techniques and multiplex PCR of four diagnostic loci. Feces from 53 Yellowstone bison culled from the population and 113 free-roaming bison from throughout the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) were tested. Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 was not detected in any of 53 the bison samples collected at slaughter facilities or in any of the 113 fecal samples from free-ranging bison. One other Y. enterocolitica serotype was isolated; however, it is not known to cause cross-reaction on B. abortus serologic assays because it lacks the perosamine synthetase gene and thus the O-antigens. These findings suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:9 cross-reactivity with B. abortus antigens is unlikely to have been a cause of false-positive serology tests in GYE bison and that Y. enterocolitica prevalence was low in bison in the GYE during this study.
Related JoVE Video
Gut microbial colonisation in premature neonates predicts neonatal sepsis.
Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neonatal sepsis due to intestinal bacterial translocation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding microbial colonisation of the gut in prematurity may predict risk of sepsis to guide future strategies to manipulate the microbiome.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular epidemiology of Brucella abortus isolates from cattle, elk, and bison in the United States, 1998 to 2011.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) protocol targeting 10 loci in the Brucella abortus genome was used to assess genetic diversity among 366 field isolates recovered from cattle, bison, and elk in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Texas during 1998 to 2011. Minimum spanning tree (MST) and unweighted-pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analyses of VNTR data identified 237 different VNTR types, among which 14 prominent clusters of isolates could be identified. Cattle isolates from Texas segregated into three clusters: one comprised of field isolates from 1998 to 2005, one comprised of vaccination-associated infections, and one associated with an outbreak in Starr County in January 2011. An isolate obtained from a feral sow trapped on property adjacent to the Starr County herd in May 2011 clustered with the cattle isolates, suggesting a role for feral swine as B. abortus reservoirs in Starr County. Isolates from a 2005 cattle outbreak in Wyoming displayed VNTR-10 profiles matching those of strains recovered from Wyoming and Idaho elk. Additionally, isolates associated with cattle outbreaks in Idaho in 2002, Montana in 2008 and 2011, and Wyoming in 2010 primarily clustered with isolates recovered from GYA elk. This study indicates that elk play a predominant role in the transmission of B. abortus to cattle located in the GYA.
Related JoVE Video
Cation-responsive silver-selective organogel-exploiting silver-alkene interactions in the gel-phase.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a gelator that is responsive to Ag(+) and Li(+) cations but unresponsive to Na(+) and K(+), and demonstrate that silver-alkene interactions play a vital role in mediating the selective gel-sol response to Ag(+).
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of atrial morphology and sinus node morphology in heterotaxy syndrome: an autopsy-based study of 41 cases (1950-2008).
Cardiovasc. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterotaxy syndrome affects the sidedness of heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera, and is associated with complex congenital heart disease. Cardiac sidedness is defined by the position of the morphological right atrium and may be normal, mirror-image, or isomeric. The sinus node has been reported to be present bilaterally in right isomerism and absent bilaterally in left isomerism, although exceptions may occur.
Related JoVE Video
TGF?-inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
J. Cell. Biochem.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heritable cardiovascular disease. A recent study showed that male KLF10-encoded TGF? Inducible Early Gene-1 knock-out mice (TIEG-/-) develop HCM with 13-fold up-regulation of PTTG1-encoded pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1. We hypothesized TIEG1 could be a novel candidate gene in the pathogenesis of genotype negative HCM in humans, possibly through a loss of its repression on PTTG1 expression. A cohort of 923 unrelated patients from two independent HCM centers was analyzed for mutations in TIEGs four translated exons using DHPLC and direct DNA-sequencing. Site directed mutagenesis was performed to clone novel variants. The effect of TIEG1 mutations on SMAD7 and PTTG1 promoters was studied using transient transfection and luciferase-assays. Altered expression of PTTG1 in cardiac tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to determine levels of PTTG1 protein in hypertrophic diseases. Six novel TIEG1 missense mutations were discovered in six patients (two males/four females, mean age at diagnosis 56.2±23 years, MLVWT 20.8±4?mm). Compared to WT TIEG1, five TIEG1 mutants significantly increased PTTG1 promoter function similar to TIEG1-/--mice. By IHC, PTTG1-protein expression was significantly increased in multiple models of hypertrophic cardiac disease, including TIEG1-mutation positive HCM compared to normal hearts. This is the first article to associate mutations in TIEG1 to human disease with the discovery of six novel, HCM-associated variants. Functional assays suggest a role for PTTG1 in the pathogenesis of TIEG1-mediated HCM. Up-regulation of PTTG1 seems to be a common pathway in hypertrophic heart disease, including TIEG1-mediated HCM.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.