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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simultaneous Sleeve Gastrectomy and Hiatus Hernia Repair: a Systematic Review.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Sleeve gastrectomy can exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in some patients and cause de novo reflux in others. Some surgeons believe Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the best bariatric surgical procedure for obese patients with hiatus hernia. Others believe that even patients with hiatus hernia can also be safely offered sleeve gastrectomy if combined with a simultaneous hiatus hernia repair. Still, others will offer these patients sleeve gastrectomy without any attempt to diagnose or repair hiatus hernia repair. The effectiveness of concurrent hiatal hernia repair in reducing the incidence of postoperative reflux after sleeve gastrectomy is unclear. This review systematically investigates the results and techniques of simultaneous sleeve gastrectomy and hiatus hernia repair for the treatment of obesity in accordance with PRISMA guidelines.
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Primary banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a systematic review.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Primary banding of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remains controversial. Though there are surgeons who believe it should be the standard practice as it results in superior weight loss and prevents weight regain in the long term, there are others who are concerned about the risk of food intolerance and complications related to band. This review investigates published English language literature systematically to find out the advantages and disadvantages of primary banding of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
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An evidence-based algorithm for the management of marginal ulcers following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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As the demand for obesity surgery grows, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remains the most commonly performed procedure associated with low complication rates and good long-term co-morbidity resolution and weight loss. Marginal ulcers remain a cause of significant morbidity in medium and long term and are reported in every large series of this operation. Marginal ulceration is a complex problem with unclear aetiology and lack of clear consensus on its prevention and management. A clearer understanding of the available evidence regarding the prevention and treatment of marginal ulcers is needed to improve patient care. We propose an algorithm for management of patients with marginal ulcers based on the best available evidence in the literature.
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Determinants of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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We sought to determine the association between HIV-induced immunosuppression, virologic correlates, and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).
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Are contrast swallows necessary immediately postlaparoscopic Heller cardiomyotomy?
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Laparoscopic cardiomyotomy is an effective treatment for achalasia. Intraoperative leak tests are carried out to exclude mucosal perforations, additionally some surgeon perform postoperative contrast swallows. The aim of the study was to identify whether postoperative contrast swallows were necessary in all patients who undergo laparoscopic cardiomyotomy. All patients who underwent a laparoscopic cardiomyotomy at a single center between 2004 and 2011 were identified. Median age was 55 (18 to 79), median body mass index 26 (17 to 37), and median length of stay was 1 day (1 to 4). A total of 54% of patients had previous pneumatic dilatations. One intraoperative mucosal perforation was identified and repaired. No leaks were seen on the postoperative swallow; however, 1 patient was readmitted with a contained leak, 8 days after surgery. Postoperative contrast swallow did not have any clinical impact. We suggest that they are only indicated if there is a clinical concern and that laparoscopic cardiomyotomy can be safely carried out as a day case procedure.
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AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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Compartmentalization of innate immune responses in the central nervous system during cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis is unclear. We hypothesized that natural killer (NK) cell and monocyte responses show central nervous system (CNS) compartment-specific profiles, and are altered by antifungal therapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection.
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Altered phenotype and function of NK cells infiltrating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts during HIV infection.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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HIV-infected individuals experience more persistent HPV infections and are less likely to resolve genital warts. This study compared phenotype and functions of NK and T cells from genital warts and blood from 67 women. We compared in vitro functional responses of NK and T cells by multiparametric flow cytometry. HIV+ women had significantly lower frequencies of CD4 T cells in warts (p = 0.001) and blood (p = 0.001). While the distribution of NK cell subsets was similar, HIV+ women tended to have lower frequencies of CD56(Dim) NK cells in both blood (p = 0.0001) and warts (p = 0.006) than HIV- women. Wart NK cells from HIV+ women expressed significantly lower CD107a and produced IFN-?. HAART status was not associated with differences in NK cell functionality. We conclude that wart NK cells from HIV+ women have defects in their ability to degranulate and/or secrete IFN-?, which may provide insights into why HIV+ women fail to spontaneously resolve genital warts.
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Chemokine levels and chemokine receptor expression in the blood and the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis and cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with treated cryptococcal meningitis who start combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at risk of further neurological deterioration, in part caused by paradoxical cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). We hypothesized that C-IRIS is associated with alterations of chemokine receptor expression on T cells and chemokine concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that enhance recruitment of T-helper 1 cells and/or myeloid cells to the central nervous system.
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Cryptococcosis-IRIS is associated with lower cryptococcus-specific IFN-? responses before antiretroviral therapy but not higher T-cell responses during therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Cryptococcosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS) may be driven by aberrant T-cell responses against cryptococci. We investigated this in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with treated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
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Neither microbial translocation nor TLR responsiveness are likely explanations for preexisting immune activation in women who subsequently acquired HIV in CAPRISA 004.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Innate immune activation was a strong predictor of HIV acquisition in women at risk for HIV in CAPRISA 004. Identifying the cause(s) of activation could enable targeted prevention interventions. In this study, plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, soluble CD14, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein did not differ between subjects who did or did not subsequently acquire HIV nor were these levels correlated with plasma cytokines or natural killer cell activation. There was no difference between HIV acquirers and non-acquirers in the chemokine and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with TLR2, 4, or 7/8 agonists. Further studies are required.
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Changes in Natural Killer cell activation and function during primary HIV-1 Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Recent reports suggest that Natural Killer (NK) cells may modulate pathogenesis of primary HIV-1 infection. However, HIV dysregulates NK-cell responses. We dissected this bi-directional relationship to understand how HIV impacts NK-cell responses during primary HIV-1 infection.
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Influenza vaccination of parents and guardians by US pediatricians.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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In the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 influenza seasons, 84 pediatric offices participating in a prospective observational study were surveyed about whether the office offered influenza vaccine to parents and guardians of pediatric patients. Each season, approximately half of all offices cited offering seasonal influenza vaccine to parents. In 2008-2009, reported barriers to parental vaccination included reimbursement, medicolegal concerns, and logistics. In 2009-2010, 51% of offices (n = 43) administered one parental seasonal vaccination for every 29 pediatric seasonal vaccinations and one parental H1N1 vaccination for every 23 pediatric H1N1 vaccinations. Currently, the number of parental vaccinations per office is small but parental vaccination by pediatricians may increase in the future given the new recommendations that all adults 18 to 49 years of age should be vaccinated annually. Efforts should be taken to address barriers to parental vaccination so that pediatricians are better able to vaccinate parents/guardians of their patients against influenza.
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Impact of blood processing variations on natural killer cell frequency, activation, chemokine receptor expression and function.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Understanding the role of natural killer (NK) cells in human disease pathogenesis is crucial and necessitates study of patient samples directly ex vivo. Manipulation of whole blood by density gradient centrifugation or delays in sample processing due to shipping, however, may lead to artifactual changes in immune response measures. Here, we assessed the impact of density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at multiple timepoints (2-24 h) on flow cytometric measures of NK cell frequency, activation status, chemokine receptor expression, and effector functions. We found that density gradient centrifugation activated the NK cells and modified the chemokine receptor expression. Delays in processing beyond 8h activated NK cells in PBMC but not in whole blood. Likewise, processing delays decreased chemokine receptor (CCR4 and CCR7) expression in both PBMC and whole blood. Finally, delays in processing PBMC were associated with a decreased ability of NK cells to degranulate (as measured by CD107a expression) or secrete cytokines (IFN-? and TNF-?). In summary, our findings suggest that density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of PBMC can alter measures of clinically relevant NK cell characteristics including effector functions; and therefore should be taken into account in designing clinical research studies.
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Alterations in natural killer cell receptor profiles during HIV type 1 disease progression among chronically infected South African adults.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Recent studies suggest that innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells play a significant role in restricting human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. Our aim was to characterize changes in NK cells associated with HIV-1 clade C disease progression. Here we used multiparametric flow cytometry (LSRII) to quantify phenotype and function of NK cells in a cross-sectional analysis of cryopreserved blood samples from a cohort of 41 chronically HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive adult South Africans. These individuals ranged in disease severity from early (CD4 count >500) to advanced HIV-1 disease (CD4 count <50). We found that the frequency of NK cells expressing KIR2DL1, an inhibitory receptor, and/or KIR2DS1, an activating receptor, tended to decrease with increasing HIV-1 viral load. We also discovered a significant increase (p < 0.05) in overall NK cell degranulation with disease progression. We found that acutely activated NK cells (CD69(pos)) were deficient in NKp46 expression ex vivo. In conclusion, we observed that with viremia and advanced HIV-1 disease, activated NK cells lack NKp46 expression, and KIR2DS1(pos) and/ or KIR2DL1(pos) NK cells are reduced in frequency. These findings suggest that modulation of receptor expression on NK cells may play a role in HIV-1 pathogenesis, and provide new insights on immunological changes in advanced HIV-1 disease.
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An exploration of criminal thinking styles among civil psychiatric patients.
Crim Behav Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
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Several studies have found a relationship between psychiatric illness and criminal behaviour. Despite this, few studies have examined the presence of criminal thinking among civil psychiatric patients.
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A laparoscopic high anterior resection for sigmoid cancer with extraction through incarcerated left inguinal hernia repaired with Permacol mesh.
BMJ Case Rep
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A 65-year-old man presented to the general surgical outpatients with an incarcerated left inguinal hernia. Initial investigations revealed an iron deficiency anaemia that was investigated with a colonoscopy and gastroscopy. This revealed a sigmoid cancer and the staging CT scan confirmed a tumour incarcerated in the sac of the left inguinal hernia. We proceeded with a laparoscopic high anterior resection using the inguinal hernia as the extraction site. The hernia was repaired using Permacol mesh. No postoperative complications occurred.
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Innate immune activation enhances hiv acquisition in women, diminishing the effectiveness of tenofovir microbicide gel.
J. Infect. Dis.
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The antiretroviral agent, tenofovir, formulated as a vaginal microbicide gel, reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition by 39% in women. This study assessed the role of preexisting immune activation in HIV acquisition in women from the CAPRISA 004 trial, to identify potential strategies to increase the effectiveness of tenofovir gel. Systemic cytokine and cellular immune mediators (platelets and natural killer [NK] cells) were assessed in women at high risk for HIV assigned to either tenofovir or placebo gel in the CAPRISA 004 trial. Notwithstanding tenofovir gel use, women who acquired HIV had significantly higher systemic innate immune activation prior to infection than women who remained uninfected. Activation of both soluble (cytokine) and cellular (NK cells) immune mediators were associated with HIV acquisition, individually or in combination. Hence, an innate immune activation suppressant could be added to tenofovir gel as a potential combination gel strategy in developing the next generation of higher efficacy antiretroviral microbicides.
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Rupture of an inferior epigastric artery pseudo-aneurysm following laparoscopic port insertion.
BMJ Case Rep
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Laparoscopic port insertion is a potential cause of trauma to the inferior epigastric artery, resulting in pseudo-aneurysm formation. Treatment of pseudo-aneurysms includes thrombin injection, coil embolisation, embolisation with N-butyl cyanoacrylate, compression therapy or surgical excision and ligation. The authors present a case of pseudo-aneurysm caused by port insertion during laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy. The pseudo-aneurysm was identified using CT and Doppler ultrasound scans, but underwent spontaneous resolution with cessation of flow prior to intervention. The patient was therefore discharged, but he presented again as an emergency with rupture of a clinically infected pseudo-aneurysm and needed emergency surgical intervention.
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In-office influenza vaccination by US pediatric providers varies greatly and is higher among smaller offices.
Clin Pediatr (Phila)
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During the 2010-2011 US influenza season, 105 pediatric and 13 family practice offices participated in a prospective observational study of in-office influenza vaccination of children. Office characteristics, influenza vaccinations, and vaccination-related activities were reported. Among pediatric offices, first dose vaccination rates (2% to 60%), 2-dose compliance (11% to 100%), the duration of vaccine availability (60-302 days), and office visit type (well vs sick vs clinic) used for vaccinations varied greatly. Pediatric offices had higher vaccination coverage than family practice offices, offered vaccine longer, and administered more vaccinations during sick visits. Smaller offices and higher staff vaccination rates were associated with higher vaccination coverage. Smaller offices and video reminders in waiting rooms were associated with enhanced 2-dose compliance among children younger than 9 years. A greater understanding of interoffice variability in influenza vaccine delivery by US pediatric providers should allow for the creation of more effective strategies to improve pediatric influenza vaccination rates.
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Controversy Surrounding Mini Gastric Bypass.
Obes Surg
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Mini gastric bypass is a modification of Mason loop gastric bypass with a longer lesser curvature-based pouch. Though it has been around for more than 15 years, its uptake by the bariatric community has been relatively slow, and the procedure has been mired in controversy right from its early days. Lately, there seems to be a surge in the interest in this procedure, and there is now published experience with more than 5,000 procedures globally. This review examines the major controversial aspects of this procedure against the available scientific literature. Surgeons performing this procedure need to be aware of these controversies and counsel their patients appropriately.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.