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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
First Complete Genome Sequence of a Lineage III Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III peste des petits ruminants virus (KN5/2011) using RNA extracted from goat lung tissue collected in Kenya in 2011. The genome shows the highest nucleotide sequence identity with lineage II peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) (86.1 to 87.2%) and the lowest with lineage IV PPRVs (82.5 to 83.8%).
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Identification of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) lineage IV, the Asian lineage, in Nigeria and co-circulation with PPRV lineage II.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), a major small ruminant transboundary animal disease, is endemic in Nigeria. Strains of the causal agent, the peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV), have been differentiated into four genetically distinct lineages based on the partial sequence of the virus nucleoprotein (N) or fusion (F) genes. Initially PPRV strains that were identified in Africa were grouped into lineages I, II and III while viruses from Asia were classified as lineage IV and referred to as the Asian lineage. Many recent reports indicate that the Asian lineage is now also present in Africa. With this in mind, this study was conducted to re-assess the epidemiology of PPRV in Nigeria. A total of 140 clinical samples from 16 sheep and 63 goats with symptoms suggestive of PPR were collected from different states in Nigeria during a four year period (2010-2013). The samples were analyzed by RT-PCR to detect from the presence of PPRV RNA. Results for 33 (42%) animals were positive. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gene sequences of the N and F amplified from the positive samples revealed that the viruses belonged to both lineages II and IV and that the lineage IV isolates grouped into 2 clades, one being predominant in northeastern Nigeria and the other found primarily in the southern regions of the country. In conclusion, this study reports the presence of the PPRV Asian lineage IV in Nigeria for the first time.
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A pilot trial of injectable, extended-release naltrexone for the treatment of co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence.
Am J Addict
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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There is a high co-occurrence of cocaine and alcohol use disorders, and patients with both of these problems are difficult to treat. There is a reasonable rationale and some empirical data to justify a pilot trial of an injectable, extended-release formulation of naltrexone for treating co-occurring cocaine and alcohol addiction.
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Current status of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders: a new therapeutic target.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Mood and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, yet there is little evidence-based research to guide the pharmacologic management of these comorbid disorders. The authors review the existing empirical findings, some of which may call into question current clinical pharmacotherapy practices for treating co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. The authors also highlight knowledge gaps that can serve as a basis for future research. The specific mood disorders reviewed are bipolar and major depressive disorders (either one co-occurring with a substance use disorder). Overall, findings from the relatively small amount of available data indicate that pharmacotherapy for managing mood symptoms can be effective in patients with substance dependence, although results have not been consistent across all studies. Also, in most studies, medications for managing mood symptoms did not appear to have an impact on the substance use disorder. In a recent trial for comorbid major depression and alcohol dependence, combination treatment with a medication for depression and another for alcohol dependence was found to reduce depressive symptoms and excessive drinking simultaneously. However, research has only begun to address optimal pharmacologic management of co-occurring disorders. In addition, current clinical treatment for alcohol and drug dependence often excludes new pharmacotherapies approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating certain types of addiction. With new data becoming available, it appears that we need to revisit current practice in the pharmacological management of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders.
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The PDZ-ligand and Src-homology type 3 domains of epidemic avian influenza virus NS1 protein modulate human Src kinase activity during viral infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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The Non-structural 1 (NS1) protein of avian influenza (AI) viruses is important for pathogenicity. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized tandem PDZ-ligand (TPL) domain in the extreme carboxy terminus of NS1 proteins from a subset of globally circulating AI viruses. By using protein arrays we have identified several human PDZ-cellular ligands of this novel domain, one of which is the RIL protein, a known regulator of the cellular tyrosine kinase Src. We found that the AI NS1 proteins bind and stimulate human Src tyrosine kinase, through their carboxy terminal Src homology type 3-binding (SHB) domain. The physical interaction between NS1 and Src and the ability of AI viruses to modulate the phosphorylation status of Src during the infection, were found to be influenced by the TPL arrangement. These results indicate the potential for novel host-pathogen interactions mediated by the TPL and SHB domains of AI NS1 protein.
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Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011--review and recommendations for surveillance.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Since 2006, the members of the molecular epidemiological working group of the European "EPIZONE" network of excellence have been generating sequence data on avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses from both European and African sources in an attempt to more fully understand the circulation and impact of these viruses. This review presents a timely update on the epidemiological situation of these viruses based on sequence data generated during the lifetime of this project in addition to data produced by other groups during the same period. Based on this information and putting it all into a European context, recommendations for continued surveillance of these important viruses within Europe are presented.
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Improving heat stability of haemagglutinating antigens for avian influenza.
Biologicals
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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The increasing demand for avian influenza diagnostic reagents worldwide, has included requests for significant supplies of product to developing countries. Difficulties in dispatching to remote areas and tropical countries are a major concern to suppliers, international organisations and donors as delays in forwarding parcels often result in storage at non-optimal or inadequate temperatures results in loss in titre and thus wastage of resources. In this study we demonstrate that the heat stability of avian influenza haemagglutination inhibition antigens of the H5, H7 and H9 subtype following 14 days of exposure to 37°C and 45°C is significantly increased by adding D-(+)-Trehalose to the freshly prepared antigen. Increased stability was detected both for freeze-dried antigens over an extended period of 6 months and also in heat exposed antigens that were then stored at +4C for up to 35 days post reconstitution.
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Full-length genome sequencing of the Polish HPAI H5N1 viruses suggests separate introductions in 2006 and 2007.
Avian Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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This paper describes the results of the molecular and phylogenetic analysis of seven highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 strains isolated in 2006 (n = 5) and 2007 (n = 2) from wild birds and poultry in Poland. The whole genome sequence of these isolates was determined. All of the isolates possessed the hemagglutinin (HA) cleavage site sequence PQGERRRKKR*GLF typical of HPAI. Molecular markers associated with increased adaptation and virulence in mammals, as well as susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors, were revealed in the HA, neuraminidase (NA), and PB2 proteins. Based on the sequencing results related to the HA and NA genomic segments, H5N1 viruses circulating in Poland all belong to lineage 2.2. However, isolates isolated in 2006 were genetically distinct from those isolated in 2007 and grouped in different sublineages. H5N1 viruses isolated from wild birds in 2006 are almost identical to each other (99.9% HA; 99.6%-100% NA), and they are grouped within a cluster of viruses isolated in Germany from wild and domestic birds and mammals in 2006. Isolates from 2007 are also closely related to each other (nucleotide homologies 99.9% and 100% for HA and NA, respectively), and they are grouped together with isolates from wild and domestic birds collected in Eastern and Central Europe (Romania, Germany), and the Middle East (Kuwait, Saudi Arabia). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences related to the internal proteins confirmed the results obtained for the HA and NA genes. Overall, the results indicate that HPAI H5N1 in Poland in 2006-07 was caused by at least two separate incursions of genetically distinct viruses.
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A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial combining sertraline and naltrexone for treating co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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Empirical evidence has only weakly supported antidepressant treatment for patients with co-occurring depression and alcohol dependence. While some studies have demonstrated that antidepressants reduce depressive symptoms in individuals with depression and alcohol dependence, most studies have not found antidepressant treatment helpful in reducing excessive drinking in these patients. The authors provide results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of combining approved medications for depression (sertraline) and alcohol dependence (naltrexone) in treating patients with both disorders.
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Genetic variation of Italian avian paramyxoviruses serotype 9.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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The haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F) gene of four avian paramyoviruses serotype 9 (APMV9) recently isolated from wild birds in Italy have been sequenced. A comparison between the sequences of these four isolates and the prototype virus PMV-9/domestic Duck/New York/22/78 revealed significant sequence variation that suggests that different lineages exist among APMV-9 viruses similar to that seen for APMV-1 (Newcastle disease).
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A Closer Look at the NS1 of Influenza Virus.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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The Non-Structural 1 (NS1) protein is a multifactorial protein of type A influenza viruses that plays an important role in the virulence of the virus. A large amount of what we know about this protein has been obtained from studies using human influenza isolates and, consequently, the human NS1 protein. The current global interest in avian influenza, however, has highlighted a number of sequence and functional differences between the human and avian NS1. This review discusses these differences in addition to describing potential uses of NS1 in the management and control of avian influenza outbreaks.
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Evolutionary history and dynamics of dog rabies virus in western and central Africa.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The burden of rabies in Africa is estimated at 24,000 human deaths year(-1), almost all of which result from infection with dog rabies viruses (RABV). To investigate the evolutionary dynamics of RABV in western and central Africa, 92 isolates sampled from 27 African countries over 29 years were collected and sequenced. This revealed that RABV currently circulating in dogs in this region fell into a single lineage designated Africa 2. A detailed analysis of the phylogeographical structure of this Africa 2 lineage revealed strong population subdivision at the country level, with only limited movement of virus among localities, including a possible east-to-west spread across Africa. In addition, Bayesian coalescent analysis suggested that the Africa 2 lineage was introduced into this region of Africa only recently (probably <200 years ago), in accordance with the timescale of expanding European colonial influence and urbanization, and then spread relatively slowly, perhaps occupying the entire region in a 100 year period.
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Variability among the neuraminidase, non-structural 1 and PB1-F2 proteins in the influenza A virus genome.
Virus Genes
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Influenza A viruses infect a large number of mammals and birds resulting in sporadic infections, seasonal epidemics, epizootics and pandemics. The segmented genome of the virus encodes 10 or 11 proteins depending on the strain. The neuraminidase, non-structural 1 and the PB1-F2 proteins are known to be variable in their length due to very specific deletions, truncations and elongations. This review presents an update on what is currently known about these three proteins and discusses their length variations in relation to virulence and host adaptation in addition to identifying possible areas of future research.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.