Objective: Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have impaired theory of mind (ToM). However, ToM involves a variety of processes, such as understanding a person's intentions ("cognitive" ToM) and emotional states ("affective" ToM). The objectives of the present study were to characterize ToM disorders in TLE patients, identify patients at risk of ToM disorders, and study the relationships between psychobehavioral and quality of life factors and ToM disorders. Method: Fifty TLE patients and 50 controls performed ToM tasks assessing their understanding of verbal clumsiness (faux pas), sarcastic remarks, and mentalistic actions. Demographic, cognitive, and psychobehavioral data, and (for TLE patients) clinical and quality of life factors, were recorded. Results: Compared with controls, TLE patients showed impairments in all ToM tasks: 84% misunderstood faux pas, and around 50% misunderstood sarcasm. A long duration of epilepsy and young age at onset were risk factors for ToM impairments. In TLE patients, ToM impairments were associated with impaired empathy and anhedonia. Their affective states were less positively and more negatively valenced than in controls. Low positive affectivity was predictive of greater cognitive and affective ToM impairments for the faux pas task, and high negative affectivity was predictive of greater cognitive ToM abilities for the sarcasm task. The lack of social support was correlated with impaired ToM but was not a predictive factor. Conclusions: Both cognitive and affective ToM processes are impaired in TLE patients. Impaired ToM has an impact on empathy abilities and is related to affective disturbances in TLE patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG) examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP) to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP) method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30 Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30 Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings.
Further developments in EEG monitoring necessitate new methods of filtering to eliminate artifacts, without transforming relevant signals. This article presents an automatic filtering of EEG recordings, based on a spatio-temporal method called Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection or Dual Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection. Evaluation of filtering methods is difficult, and comparisons between methods remain a challenge; here, we present a method to score the visual assessment of the EEG. The aim of this study was to evaluate an automatic filtering method, called Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection, improved by Dual Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection, of EEG recordings of patients with epilepsy.
Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram and functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) is a powerful tool for localizing epileptic networks via the detection of hemodynamic changes correlated with interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). fMRI can be used to study the long-lasting effect of epileptic activity by assessing stationary functional connectivity during the resting-state period [especially, the connectivity of the default mode network (DMN)]. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) are associated with low responsiveness and disruption of DMN activity. A dynamic functional connectivity approach might enable us to determine the effect of IEDs on DMN connectivity and to better understand the correlation between DMN connectivity changes and altered consciousness.
Attention is often impaired in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The P300 wave (an endogenous, event-related potential) is a correlate of attention which is usually recorded during an "oddball paradigm," where the subject is instructed to detect an infrequent target stimulus presented amongst frequent, standard stimuli. Modifications of the P300 waves latency and amplitude in TLE have been suggested, but it is still not known whether the source regions also differ. Our hypothesis was that temporal lobe dysfunction would modify the P3 source regions in TLE patients.
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