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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Staphylococcus epidermidis SrrAB regulates bacterial growth and biofilm formation differently under oxic and micro-aerobic conditions.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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SrrAB expression in Staphylococcus epidermidis strain1457 (SE1457) was up-regulated during a shift from oxic to micro-aerobic conditions. A srrA-deletion mutant (?srrA) was constructed for studying the regulatory function of SrrAB. The deletion resulted in retarded growth and abolished biofilm formation, both in vitro and in vivo and under both oxic and micro-aerobic conditions. Associated with the reduced biofilm formation, ?srrA produced much less polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) and showed decreased initial adherence capacity. Microarray analysis showed that srrA mutation affected transcription of 230 genes under micro-aerobic conditions, and 51 genes under oxic conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), confirmed this observation and showed down-regulation of genes involved in maintaining the electron transport chain by supporting cytochrome and quinol-oxidase assembly (e.g. qoxB, ctaA) and in anaerobic metabolism (e.g. pflBA, nrdD). In ?srrA, expression of biofilm-formation related gene icaR was up-regulated under oxic conditions and down-regulated under micro-aerobic conditions, whereas icaA was down-regulated under both conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further revealed that phosphorylated SrrA bound to the promoter regions of icaR, icaA, qoxB and pflBA as well as its own promoter region. These findings demonstrate that in S. epidermidis SrrAB is an auto-regulator and regulates biofilm formation in an ica-dependent manner. Under oxic conditions, SrrAB modulates electron transport chain activity by positively regulating qoxBACD transcription. Under micro-aerobic conditions, it regulates fermentation processes and DNA synthesis by modulating expression of both pfl operon and nrdDG.
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The association between insulin resistance and vascularization of thyroid nodules.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) is an important factor for the growth and progression of thyroid nodules, which might be associated with the distribution, construction and density of nodular vascularization.
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The vascular KATP channel is targeted by miR-9a-3p in reactive carbonyl stress.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels regulate plasma membrane excitability. The Kir6.1/ SUR2B isoform of KATP channels is expressed in vascular smooth muscles, and plays an important role in vascular tone regulation. This KATP channel is targeted by several reactive species. One of them is methylglyoxal (MGO) that is overly produced with persistent hyperglycemia, and contributes to diabetic vascular complications. We have previously found that MGO causes post-transcriptional inhibition of the KATP channel, aggravating vascular tone regulation. Here we show evidence for the underlying molecular mechanisms. We screened microRNA databases, and found several candidates. Of them, miR-9a-3p increased its expression level by ~240% when the cultured smooth muscle cell line was exposed to micromolar concentrations of MGO. Treatments with exogenous miR-9a-3p down-regulated the SUR2B but not Kir6.1 mRNA. Antisense nucleotides of miR-9a-3p alleviated the effects of MGO. Quantitative PCR showed that the targeting sites of the miR-9a-3p was likely to be in the coding region of SUR2B. The effects of miR-9a-3p were mostly eliminated when the potential targeting site in SUR2B was site-specifically mutated. Our functional assays showed that KATP currents were impaired by miR-9a-3 with MGO treatment. These results suggest that MGO exposure raises the expression of miR-9a-3p that subsequently downregulates the SUR2B mRNA compromising the KATP channel function in vascular smooth muscles.
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Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: Sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.
Evol Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.
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Foetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia--a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To evaluate and analyze the effect of foetal endocsopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) therapy on survival rates of neonatal with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and maternal complications. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The combined data on neonatal survival rates, length of gestational age and rates of premature rupture of membrane from these studies were retrieved and analysed. Pooled data of these three RCTs revealed that FETO provided neonates with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia a significantly higher survival rate: 27/48 VS 12/52. The odds ratio was 5.95 (95% CI: 2.11 - 16.79, p < 0.0008). The gestational age (week) of FETO group was shorter than postnatal standard therapy group. The mean difference was -3.43 (95% CI: -6.82 - -0.04, p < 0.05). FETO group also had a significantly greater rate of premature rupture of membranes than control group with the odds ratio of 3.35 (95% CI: 2.11 - 16.79, p < 0.0008). Foetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion improved neonatal survival rate but also increased major maternal complications including preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes.
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[Effect of matrine on NO and ADMA metabolism pathways in serum and tissues of mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced intestine tissue inflammation].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To discuss the effect of matrine on nitric oxide (NO) and asymmetric methylarginine (ADMA) metabolism pathways in serum and tissues of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced intestine tissue inflammation.
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Totally robotic atrial septal defect closure: 7-year single-institution experience and follow-up.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Robotic technology has been applied to atrial septal defect (ASD) repair for more than 10 years, but the number of cases reported is limited and results of long-term follow-up are not clear. This study reports on a large group of patients who underwent totally robotic ASD repair on an arrested or beating heart at a single institution with a 7-year follow-up.
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Keratocytes Create Stromal Spaces to Promote Corneal Neovascularization Via MMP13 Expression.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To investigate the exact mechanism by which keratocytes promote corneal neovascularization.
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Glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1 expression and osteosarcoma prognosis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1 (GRF-1) is an important Rho family GTPase-activating protein, and the dysregulation of GRF-1 expression maybe involved in tumor progression. However, the role of GRF-1 expression in the osteosarcoma prognosis has been well less elaborated. Here, we conducted a hospital-based case study, including 247 patients with pathologically confirmed osteosarcoma to evaluate the associations between GRF-1 expression and osteosarcoma prognosis. We found that high GRF-1 expression was correlated with poor outcome of osteosarcoma compared with low GRF-1 expression (the median recurrence-free survival times, 11 months vs 56 months; the median overall survival times, 18 months vs 53 months). Like tumor stage, the GRF-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor influencing the survival of osteosarcoma [hazard ratio values (95 % confidence interval) were 5.39 (3.54-8.20) for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and 6.58 (4.44-9.74) for overall survival (OS), respectively]. Furthermore, the high expression of GRF-1 was significantly associated with larger tumor size, tumor dedifferentiation, and increasing metastasis risk. Functionally, the knockdown of GRF-1 expression inhibited tumor cells proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. These results indicate for the first time that GRF-1 expression may modify osteosarcoma prognosis and may be a potential tumor therapeutic target.
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Biological activities of fusarochromanone: a potent anti-cancer agent.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Fusarochromanone (FC101) is a small molecule fungal metabolite with a host of interesting biological functions, including very potent anti-angiogenic and direct anti-cancer activity.
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Successful treatment with oseltamivir phosphate in a patient with chronic immune thrombocytopenia positive for anti-GPIb/IX autoantibody.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Abstract The management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains to be a challenge. Oseltamivir phosphate is a sialidase inhibitor agent used to treat influenza in the conventional sense. At present, we demonstrate for the first time that an adult chronic ITP patient with anti-GP Ib/IX autoantibody, who was resistant to corticosteroids, IVIG, recombinant human thrombopoietin, rituximab, danazol and vindesine, but was successfully treated with oseltamivir phosphate. Through flow cytometric analysis of ?-galactose and ?-GlcNAc exposure on platelet surfaces, we showed that oseltamivir phosphate could reduce the desialylation level of platelet glycoproteins in ITP patient. The substantial alleviation of thrombocytopenia in this case, though not leading to conclusions, lays a foundation for a novel approach for the treatment of ITP.
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Dioscin inhibits colon tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis through regulating VEGFR2 and AKT/MAPK signaling pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Dioscin has shown cytotoxicity against cancer cells, but its in vivo effects and the mechanisms have not elucidated yet. The purpose of the current study was to assess the antitumor effects and the molecular mechanisms of dioscin. We showed that dioscin could inhibit tumor growth in vivo and has no toxicity at the test condition. The growth suppression was accompanied by obvious blood vessel decrease within solid tumors. We also found dioscin treatment inhibited the proliferation of cancer and endothelial cell lines, and most sensitive to primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). What's more, analysis of HUVECs migration, invasion, and tube formation exhibited that dioscin has significantly inhibitive effects to these actions. Further analysis of blood vessel formation in the matrigel plugs indicated that dioscin could inhibit VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. We also identified that dioscin could suppress the downstream protein kinases of VEGFR2, including Src, FAK, AKT and Erk1/2, accompanied by the increase of phosphorylated P38MAPK. The results potently suggest that dioscin may be a potential anticancer drug, which efficiently inhibits angiogenesis induced by VEGFR2 signaling pathway as well as AKT/MAPK pathways.
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Interleukin?15: a potent adjuvant enhancing the efficacy of an autologous whole?cell tumor vaccine against Lewis lung carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Lung cancer is a major cause of cancer?associated mortality worldwide due to its limited response rate to current chemotherapy and radiation, thus immunotherapy is rapidly becoming the most promising approach. Although the highly specific tumor?associated antigen of lung cancer has been found, autologous whole?cell tumor vaccines remain indispensable in the development of therapeutic cancer vaccines. Interleukin (IL)?15 is a T helper type 1 cytokine that has been demonstrated to have a marked antitumor immune response and the potential ability to reverse the host tolerance of tumor antigens in certain preclinical trials. In the present study, a cationic liposome encapsulating IL?15 gene?loaded plasmid acted as an adjuvant of an autologous whole?cell tumor vaccine by subcutaneous injection. The combination immunotherapy resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth without side effects in the preventive tumor inhibition and adoptive therapy study. Cytotoxic lymphocyte assay detection of the serum antigen and cytokines using an enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay suggested that the IL?15 gene can significantly improve the cellular immune response and humoral immune response provoked by autologous whole?cell tumor vaccines. These results demonstrated that the IL?15 gene was an effective adjuvant of autologous whole?cell tumor vaccines against mouse lung cancer and may provide an attractive vaccine strategy for cancer immunotherapy.
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Primary neuronal-astrocytic co-culture platform for neurotoxicity assessment of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Plastics such as polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) are widely used in many indoor constructed environments; however, their unbound chemicals, such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalates (DEHP), can leach into the surrounding environment. This study focused on DEHP's effect on the central nervous system by determining the precise DEHP content in mice brain tissue after exposure to the chemical, to evaluate the specific exposure range. Primary neuronal-astrocyte co-culture systems were used as in vitro models for chemical hazard identification of DEHP. Oxidative stress was hypothesized as a probable mechanism involved, and therefore the total reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration was determined as a biomarker of oxidative stress. In addition, NeuriteTracer, a neurite tracing plugin with ImageJ, was used to develop an assay for neurotoxicity to provide quantitative measurements of neurological parameters, such as neuronal number, neuron count and neurite length, all of which could indicate neurotoxic effects. The results showed that with 1 nmol/L DEHP exposure, there was a significant increase in ROS concentrations, indicating that the neuronal-astrocyte cultures were injured due to exposure to DEHP. In response, astrocyte proliferation (gliosis) was initiated, serving as a mechanism to maintain a homeostatic environment for neurons and protect neurons from toxic chemicals. There is a need to assess the cumulative effects of DEHP in animals to evaluate the possible uptake and effects on the human neuronal system from exposure to DEHP in the indoor environment.
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Role of the two-component regulatory system arlRS in ica operon and aap positive but non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from hospitalized patients.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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The ica operon and aap gene are important factors for Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. However, we found 15 out of 101 S. epidermidis strains isolated from patients had both the ica operon and the aap gene in the genome but could not form biofilms (ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates). Compared with standard strain RP62A, the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates had similar growth curves and initial attachment abilities, but had much lower apparent transcription levels of the icaA gene and significantly less production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA). Furthermore, the expression of accumulation-associated protein in ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates was much weaker than in RP62A. The mRNA levels of icaADBC transcription-related regulatory genes, including icaR, sarA, rsbU, srrA, arlRS and luxS, were measured in the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) clinical isolates. The mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU in all of the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates were lower than in RP62A at 4 h. At 10 h, 14/15 of the isolates showed lower mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU than shown by RP62A. However, expression of sarA, luxS, srrA and icaR varied in different ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates. To further investigate the role of arlRS in biofilm formation, we analyzed icaA, sarA and rsbU transcription, PIA synthesis, Aap expression and biofilm formation in an arlRS deletion mutant of S. epidermidis strain 1457 and all were much less than in the wild type strain. This is consistent with the hypothesis that ArlRS may play an important role in regulating biofilm formation by the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-)S. epidermidis clinical isolates and operate via both ica-dependent and Aap-dependent pathways.
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Synthesis, structure, and properties of the electron-poor II-V semiconductor ZnAs.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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ZnAs was synthesized at 6 GPa and 1273 K utilizing multianvil high-pressure techniques and structurally characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (space group Pbca (No. 61), a = 5.6768(2) Å, b = 7.2796(2) Å, c = 7.5593(2) Å, Z = 8). The compound is isostructural to ZnSb (CdSb type) and displays multicenter bonded rhomboid rings Zn2As2, which are connected to each other by classical two-center, two-electron bonds. At ambient pressure ZnAs is metastable with respect to Zn3As2 and ZnAs2. When heating at a rate of 10 K/min decomposition takes place at ?700 K. Diffuse reflectance measurements reveal a band gap of 0.9 eV. Electrical resistivity, thermopower, and thermal conductivity were measured in the temperature range of 2-400 K and compared to thermoelectric ZnSb. The room temperature values of the resistivity and thermopower are ?1 ? cm and +27 ?V/K, respectively. These values are considerably higher and lower, respectively, compared to ZnSb. Above 150 K the thermal conductivity attains low values, around 2 W/m·K, which is similar to that of ZnSb. The heat capacity of ZnAs was measured between 2 and 300 K and partitioned into a Debye and two Einstein contributions with temperatures of ?D = 234 K, ?E1 = 95 K, and ?E2 = 353 K. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity of ZnSb and ZnAs show very similar features, which possibly relates to their common electron-poor bonding properties.
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Rho GTPase-activating protein 35 rs1052667 polymorphism and osteosarcoma risk and prognosis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The Rho GTPase-activating protein 35 (ARHGAP35), an important Rho family GTPase-activating protein, may be associated with tumorigenesis of some tumors. Here, we investigated the relationship between an important polymorphic variant at 3'-UTR of this gene (rs1052667) and osteosarcoma risk and prognosis. This hospital-based case-control study, including 247 osteosarcoma patients and 428 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls, was conducted in Guangxi population. Genotypes were tested using TaqMan PCR technique. We found a significant difference in the frequency of rs1052667 genotypes between cases and controls. Compared with the homozygote of rs1052667 C alleles (rs1052667-CC), the genotypes with rs1052667 T alleles (namely, rs1052667-CT or -TT) increased osteosarcoma risk (odds ratios: 2.41 and 7.35, resp.). Moreover, rs1052667 polymorphism was correlated with such pathological features of osteosarcoma as tumor size, tumor grade, and tumor metastasis. Additionally, this polymorphism also modified the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of osteosarcoma cases. Like tumor grade, ARHGAP35 rs1052667 polymorphism was an independent prognostic factor influencing the survival of osteosarcoma. These results suggest that ARHGAP35 rs1052667 polymorphism may be associated with osteosarcoma risk and prognosis.
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[Transurethral enucleation plus pneumo-cystostomy rotary cut for large benign prostatic hyperplasia].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To investigate the feasibility, effectiveness and practicability of transurethral enucleation plus pneumocystostomy rotary cut (TUE + PCRC) for large benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
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New insight in understanding oxygen reduction and evolution in solid-state lithium-oxygen batteries using an in situ environmental scanning electron microscope.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Via designing a facile microscale all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery system constructed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, direct visualization of discharge and charge processes of the lithium-oxygen battery is achieved. Different morphologies of the discharge product are observed, including a sphere, conformal film, and red-blood-cell-like shape, with a particle size up to 1.5 ?m; whereas upon charge, the decomposition initiates at their surface and continues along a certain direction, instead of from the contact point at the electrode. These new findings indicate that the electron and lithium ion conductivities of Li2O2 could support the growth and decomposition of the discharge product in our system. In addition, our results indicate that various morphologies of Li2O2 arise from the different current density and surface chemistry of CNT, and the growth and decomposition of the particle are related to the uneven distribution of the ionic and electronic conductivities of Li2O2.
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Strain-enhanced tunneling magnetoresistance in MgO magnetic tunnel junctions.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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While the effects of lattice mismatch-induced strain, mechanical strain, as well as the intrinsic strain of thin films are sometimes detrimental, resulting in mechanical deformation and failure, strain can also be usefully harnessed for applications such as data storage, transistors, solar cells, and strain gauges, among other things. Here, we demonstrate that quantum transport across magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) can be significantly affected by the introduction of controllable mechanical strain, achieving an enhancement factor of ~2 in the experimental tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio. We further correlate this strain-enhanced TMR with coherent spin tunneling through the MgO barrier. Moreover, the strain-enhanced TMR is analyzed using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) quantum transport calculations. Our results help elucidate the TMR mechanism at the atomic level and can provide a new way to enhance, as well as tune, the quantum properties in nanoscale materials and devices.
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Photoresponsive superhydrophobic coating for regulating boundary slippage.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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A photoresponsive copolymer containing catechol and azobenzene derivatives was synthesized. The copolymer easily attached onto various substrates and showed a photoresponsive characteristic because of its catechol and azobenzene functional groups. The copolymer was successfully assembled on nanoparticles, plate mica, and rough anodized aluminum surface. The rough anodized aluminum sheet retained the Cassie-Baxter state after being modified with the copolymer. Moreover, surface adhesion can be interchanged by changing the UV exposure time. The sliding and adhesive states of water droplets were achieved by UV exposure and dark storage. Boundary slip on the rough sheet was measured using a commercial rheometer, and interchangeable slip length was also obtained after irradiation or storage. The versatile, substrate-independent approach may be significant in the development of new materials for smart fluid devices.
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Plasma copeptin as a predictor of intoxication severity and delayed neurological sequelae in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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The present study was designed to assess the usefulness of measuring plasma levels of copeptin (a peptide co-released with the hypothalamic stress hormone vasopressin) as a biomarker for the severity of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and for predicting delayed neurological sequelae (DNS). Seventy-two patients with CO poisoning and 72 sex and age matched healthy individuals were recruited. Plasma copeptin levels were measured on admission from CO poisoning patients and for healthy individuals at study entry by using a sandwich immunoassay. The CO poisoning patients were divided into two groups according to severity (unconscious and conscious) and occurrence of DNS. The mean plasma copeptin levels (52.5±18.5 pmol/L) in the unconscious group were significantly higher than in the conscious group (26.3±12.7 pmol/L) (P<0.001). Plasma copeptin levels of more than 39.0 pmol/L detected CO poisoning with severe neurological symptoms e.g. unconsciousness (sensitivity 84.6% and specificity 81.4%). The plasma copeptin levels were higher in patients with DNS compared to patients without DNS (52.2±20.6 pmol/L vs. 27.9±14.8 pmol/L, P<0.001). Plasma copeptin levels higher than 40.5 pmol/L predicted the development of DNS (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 82.1%). Plasma copeptin levels were identified as an independent predictor for intoxication severity [odds ratio (OR) 1.261, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.112-1.638, P=0.002] and DNS (OR 1.313, 95% CI 1.106-1.859, P=0.001). Thus, plasma copeptin levels independently related to intoxication severity and were identified as a novel biomarker for predicting DNS after acute CO poisoning.
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Switching fluid slippage on pH-responsive superhydrophobic surfaces.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Two stimuli-responsive polymer brushes, poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and poly(methacrylic acid), were grafted from initiator-modified anodized alumina substrates to prepare two pH-responsive surfaces. By regulating the swelling states of the two polymers, water droplets can roll off or adhere onto the textured surface because of different adhesion forces. These forces also strongly affect boundary slippage. To determine the different slippage effects of fluid on our pH-responsive surfaces, a series of rheological experiments are carried out on two kinds of surfaces. A large slip length is obtained and reversibly regulated by changing the fluid pH. These responsive superhydrophobic surfaces with considerable slip length and pH-responsive properties have extensive potential applications in intelligent micro- and nanofluidic devices or biodevices, which can solve fluid flow problems.
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Galactosylated 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide-s-3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide copolymer as a small hairpin RNA carrier for inhibiting human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression.
J Gene Med
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In the present study, a well-defined glucose and guanidine based copolymer, galactosylated 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylamide-s-3-guanidinopropyl methacrylamide (HPMA-s-GPMA) abbreviated as GGH was prepared and self-assembled with small hairpin RNA (shRNA) to inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in vitro to develop a shRNA carrier.
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[Emergency coronary artery bypass grafting for acute coronary syndrome: mid-term follow-up results].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To summarize the experience with emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (ECABG) for management of acute coronary syndrome and analyze the mid-term follow-up results.
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Molecular signatures and transcriptional regulatory networks of human immature decidual NK and mature peripheral NK cells.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Many differences exist between human immature and mature natural killer (NK) cells, but their respective molecular signatures and transcriptional regulators are relatively unknown. To gain new insights into the diversity and developmental regulation of human NK cells, we used data from high-resolution microarrays with independent verification to describe a comprehensive comparative analysis between immature decidual NK (idNK) cells with a CD56(bright) CD16(-) T-bet(-) phenotype and mature peripheral NK (mpNK) cells with a CD56(dim) CD16(+) T-bet(+) phenotype. This study shows that many novel growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines are expressed by NK cells, and they may regulate NK-cell development or function in an autocrine manner. Notably, we present that idNK and mpNK cells are enriched for homeobox and zinc-finger transcription factors (TFs), respectively. Additionally, many novel candidate transcriptional regulators are common to both idNK and mpNK cells. We further describe the transcriptional regulatory networks of NK cells and show that the endogenous growth factors, cytokines, and TFs enriched in idNK cells regulate each other and may contribute to idNK-cell immaturity. Together, these findings provide novel molecular signatures for immature and mature NK cells, and the novel candidate regulators identified here can be used to describe and further understand NK-cell differentiation and function.
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The effects of choline on hepatic lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function and antioxidative status in human hepatic C3A cells exposed to excessive energy substrates.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Choline plays a lipotropic role in lipid metabolism as an essential nutrient. In this study, we investigated the effects of choline (5, 35 and 70 ?M) on DNA methylation modifications, mRNA expression of the critical genes and their enzyme activities involved in hepatic lipid metabolism, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in C3A cells exposed to excessive energy substrates (lactate, 10 mM; octanoate, 2 mM and pyruvate, 1 mM; lactate, octanoate and pyruvate-supplemented medium (LOP)). Thirty five micromole or 70 ?M choline alone, instead of a low dose (5 ?M), reduced hepatocellular triglyceride (TG) accumulation, protected ??m from decrement and increased GSH-Px activity in C3A cells. The increment of TG accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ??m disruption were observed under LOP treatment in C3A cells after 72 h of culture, which were counteracted by concomitant treatment of choline (35 ?M or 70 ?M) partially via reversing the methylation status of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) gene promoter, upregulating PPAR?, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I) and downregulating fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene expression, as well as decreasing FAS activity and increasing CPT-I and GSH-Px activities. These findings provided a novel insight into the lipotropic role of choline as a vital methyl-donor in the intervention of chronic metabolic diseases.
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Cox regression model for dissecting genetic architecture of survival time.
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Common quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping methods fail to analyze survival traits of skewed normal distributions. As a result, some mapping methods for survival traits have been proposed based on survival analysis. Under a single QTL model, however, those methods perform poorly in detecting multiple QTLs and provide biased estimates of QTL parameters. For sparse oversaturated model used to map survival time loci, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for Cox regression model can be employed to efficiently shrink most of genetic effects to zero. Then, a few non-zero genetic effects are re-estimated and statistically tested using the standard maximum Cox partial likelihood method. Simulation shows that the proposed method has higher statistic power for QTL detection than that of the LASSO for logarithmic linear model or the interval mapping based on Cox model, although it somewhat underestimates QTL effects. Especially, computational speed of the method is very fast. An application of this method illustrates mapping main effect and interacting QTLs for heading time in the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project.
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Studies on assessment methods of malignant ascites residue and changes of verapamil concentration in intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To establish a simple method for estimating residual peritoneal ascites in order to determine the optimum verapamil (VRP) initial concentration in the intraperitoneal perfusion chemotherapy.
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The association of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid nodules in Chinese women older than 40 years of age.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The purpose of the study was to explore the association of menstrual and reproductive factors with thyroid nodules in Chinese women older than 40 years of age. A questionnaire was completed by 6,571 women aged 40 years or older in a community-based epidemiological investigation of thyroid nodules conducted from June to November 2011 in Nanjing City. Thyroid nodules were measured by ultrasound. The Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System score was used to differentiate between benign and possibly malignant nodules. Menopausal age (>55 vs. <50 years: RR = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.00-1.34) and number of reproductive years (>40 vs. <35 years: RR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.24) increased the risk of thyroid nodules, but were not associated with suspected malignant nodules. Women who experienced more pregnancies (?5 vs. ?1: RR = 2.09, 95 % CI 1.79-2.40) and abortions (?3 vs. 0: RR = 1.61, 95 % CI 1.41-1.81) were prone to development of thyroid nodules, and more likely to form suspected malignant nodules (pregnancies, RR = 3.59, 95 % CI 1.60-7.20; abortions, RR = 2.36, 95 % CI 1.31-4.06). Furthermore, higher risks of thyroid nodules (RR = 1.36, 95 % CI 1.14-1.59) and suspected malignant nodules (RR = 2.80, 95 % CI 1.08-6.53) were observed in women who had undergone artificial compared with natural abortion. Periods of elevated estrogen and progesterone levels in women, such as pregnancy, were the key occasions for occurrence of both benign and suspiciously malignant thyroid nodules, while longer lifetime length of exposure to female sex hormones might promote the growth of thyroid nodules.
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Neuronal control of Drosophila walking direction.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Most land animals normally walk forward but switch to backward walking upon sensing an obstacle or danger in the path ahead. A change in walking direction is likely to be triggered by descending "command" neurons from the brain that act upon local motor circuits to alter the timing of leg muscle activation. Here we identify descending neurons for backward walking in Drosophila--the MDN neurons. MDN activity is required for flies to walk backward when they encounter an impassable barrier and is sufficient to trigger backward walking under conditions in which flies would otherwise walk forward. We also identify ascending neurons, MAN, that promote persistent backward walking, possibly by inhibiting forward walking. These findings provide an initial glimpse into the circuits and logic that control walking direction in Drosophila.
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Arsenic mobilization in aquifers of the southwest Songnen basin, P.R. China: evidences from chemical and isotopic characteristics.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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High As groundwater has widely been found in the inland basins of China. Little is known about distribution and mobilization mechanisms of high As groundwater in the Songnen basin, where groundwater is the major source for drinking and irrigation. Eighty-seven groundwater samples, three surface water samples and sixty-three sediment samples were taken from the southwest of the Songnen basin, in order to investigate spatial distribution and constrains of groundwater As. Results showed that high As groundwater was generally of Na-Mg/Ca-HCO3 type, which had relatively low Eh values and neutral-weakly alkaline pH. High As groundwater was characterized by low concentrations of NO3(-) and SO4(2-), and high concentrations of Fe, Mn, and H2S. Around 65.5% of sampled shallow groundwater and 96% of sampled deep groundwater had As concentrations greater than 10 ?g/L. Sediments had higher total As contents and higher Fe/Mn oxide-bound As contents in high As groundwater area than in the low As groundwater area. Distribution of groundwater As was dependent upon hydrogeologic settings, redox potential, microbial degradation of organic carbon, and precipitation of pyrite, siderite, and calcite. Along the groundwater flow path, As concentration showed an increasing trend. High As groundwater was mainly distributed in the low-lying areas. Reducing conditions were the major causes for As mobilization in the aquifers, which led to more As released from the sediments with higher contents of Fe/Mn oxide-bound As in higher As groundwater area. Results of (13)CDOC and (13)CDIC showed that dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction coupled with microbial degradation of dissolved organic carbon would be related to As mobilization in the aquifers. Although both Fe and As were released during these redox processes, pyrite, siderite and calcite precipitation would be the sink of dissolved As, which resulted in weak correlation between dissolved Fe and As.
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Heavy metal behavior and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization of vermicomposted pig manure amended with rice straw.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Vermicomposting is an eco-friendly method for disposing of livestock and poultry manure. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) can serve as a carrier that enhances the migration and transformation of heavy metals. Here, pig manure amended with rice straw was vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida. The DOM content, molecular weight distribution, and spectroscopic properties of the amended pig manure were measured before and after vermicomposting. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the earthworms increased from 8.24 and 17.63 to 40.75 and 362.78 mg/kg separately after vermicomposting, and the earthworms also increased the heavy metal availability in the vermicompost. Relative to the DOM properties of conventional compost, the DOM molecular weight decreased and varied widely following vermicomposting, and the C/N ratio of the DOM in the vermicompost treatments decreased from 10.37 to 8.60. The Fourier transform far-infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectra of the DOM indicated that the amounts of oxygen-containing structures increased while the ratio of humic acid to fulvic acid decreased following vermicomposting. Accordingly, the earthworms augmented the heavy metal mitigation risk in the pig manure. This augment potentially resulted from the decreased humic acid-to-fulvic acid (HA/FA) ratio from DOM structural changes.
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Efficacy of novel antibacterial compounds targeting histidine kinase YycG protein.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Treating staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections is challenging. Based on the findings that compound 2 targeting the HK domain of Staphylococcus epidermidis YycG has bactericidal and antibiofilm activities against staphylococci, six newly synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their antibacterial activities. The six derivatives of compound 2 inhibited autophosphorylation of recombinant YycG' and the IC50 values ranged from 24.2 to 71.2 ?M. The derivatives displayed bactericidal activity against planktonic S. epidermidis or Staphylococcus aureus strains in the MIC range of 1.5-3.1 ?M. All the derivatives had antibiofilm activities against the 6- and 24-h biofilms of S. epidermidis. Compared to the prototype compound 2, they had less cytotoxicity for Vero cells and less hemolytic activity for human erythrocytes. The derivatives showed antibacterial activities against clinical methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates. The structural modification of YycG inhibitors will assist the discovery of novel agents to eliminate biofilm infections and multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infections.
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The pilot study of fibrin with temporomandibular joint derived synovial stem cells in repairing TMJ disc perforation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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TMJ disc related diseases are difficult to be cured due to the poor repair ability of the disc. TMJ-SDSCs were ideal cell sources for cartilage tissue engineering which have been widely used in hyaline cartilage regeneration. Fibrin gel has been demonstrated as a potential scaffold for neocartilage formation. The aim of this study was to repair the TMJ disc perforation using fibrin/chitosan hybrid scaffold combined with TMJ-SDSCs. Rat TMJ-SDSCs were cultured on hybrid scaffold or pure chitosan scaffolds. The cell seeding efficiency, distribution, proliferation, and chondrogenic differentiation capacity were investigated. To evaluate the in vivo repair ability of cell/scaffold construct, rat TMJ disc explants were punched with a defect to mimic TMJ disc perforation. Cell seeded scaffolds were inserted into the defect of TMJ disc explants and then were implanted subcutaneously in nude mice for 4 weeks. Results demonstrated that fibrin may improve cell seeding, proliferation, and chondrogenic induction in vitro. The in vivo experiments showed more cartilage ECM deposition in fibrin/chitosan scaffold, which suggested an enhanced reparative ability. This pilot study demonstrated that the regenerative ability of TMJ-SDSCs seeded in fibrin/chitosan scaffold could be applied for repairing TMJ disc perforation.
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A magnetic and conductive study on a stable defective extended cobalt atom chain.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Two pentacobalt(II) EMACs were synthesized. A pyrazine-modulated tripyridyldiamine resulted in an EMAC with fully delocalized Co-Co bonds along molecules. From a pyrazine- and naphthyridine-containing ligand, a defective cobalt linear EMAC with an 8-coordinated cobalt(II) in the center was obtained for the first time. An electrochemistry study on the defective pentacobalt chain compound showed redox peaks at E1/2 = -1.00, +0.76, and +0.98 V (versus EAg/AgCl), indicating that it is quite stable and very resistant to both oxidation and reduction. Research on magnetism revealed that the fully delocalized Co EMAC is a spin mixture, and the defective cobalt EMAC showed a high-spin mononuclear cobalt(II) behaviour with a magnetic moment of 2.63 ?B per molecule at room temperature. Measurement on molecular electric conductance by STM bj showed a single-molecular resistance of 15.4 (± 3.1) M? for defective and 12.3 (± 2.6) M? for delocalized pentacobalt complexes.
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eNOS-JNK1-AR signaling pathway mediates deltamethrin-induced germ cells apoptosis in testes of adult rats.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The purpose of this study is to examine germ cells apoptosis and reduction of spermatogenesis which might be induced by deltamethrin (DM). Furthermore, the study is performed to determine if the apoptosis is mediated by the signaling proteins: eNOS, JNK1 and androgen receptor (AR). Fifty-four male SD rats were divided into nine groups (six rats each): blank control group; corn oil treated group; DM treated group; saline treated group; DM+saline treated group; DM+histamine (eNOS specific agonist) treated group; 50% ethanol treated group; DM+50% ethanol group and DM+quercetagetin (JNK1 specific inhibitor) treated group. The experiment was conducted for 15 days. Apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL; S-nitrosylation of JNK1 was examined by the biotin switch assay; eNOS expression and Ser650 phosphorylation of AR were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. DM treated group showed notable apoptotic cells and reduced production of sperm, while DM plus histamine group and DM plus quercetagetin group showed remarkably decreased apoptosis and improved production of sperm. Administration of DM inhibited spermatogenesis, the activity of eNOS and S-nitrosylation of JNK1. Meanwhile, phosphorylation of AR was shown to be elevated. Histamine and quercetagetin were also examined to have a further confirmation. It is suggested DM-induced germ cells apoptosis and reduction of sperm production were mediated by eNOS-JNK1-AR signaling pathway.
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Triple-Layered Cell Sheet for Tissue-Engineering the Synovial Membrane of the Temporomandibular Joint.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Objective: Temporomandibular disorder causes the dysfunction of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) which are predominant in the lining layer (LL) of synovial membrane (SM) and responsible for the secretion function of the SM of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). This study aimed to construct a triple-layered cell sheet (CS) for tissue-engineering the SM. Methods: FLSs were harvested and identified immunocytochemically. A triple-layered CS was fabricated by an original method of combining type I collagen and FLSs. Staining and a transmission electron microscope were used to compare the morphological similarities between the CS and the natural LL. Hyaluronic acid (HA) production and HA synthase 2 (HAS2) gene expression were assessed by ELISA and PCR, respectively. Transplantation of triple-layered CSs into nude mice was performed and examined by staining and immunohistochemical methods. Results: FLSs expressed vimentin, CD44 and heat shock protein 27. The triple-layered CS possessed a structure similar to natural LL. No tight conjunction was observed between adjacent FLSs. The triple-layered CS secreted HA at a quantity about 3 times that of the single-layered CS. The triple-layered structure induced higher expression of HAS2 in FLSs. No difference in HAS2 expression between the triple-layered CS and natural SM was observed. Multiple-layered FLSs and invasion of host fibroblasts and vessels were observed 2 weeks after transplantation. HAS2 and HA were expressed in surface cells and extracellular matrix, respectively. Conclusion: FLSs of the TMJ were type B synoviocytes. The triple-layered CS mimicked natural SM morphologically and functionally. The CS survived for 2 weeks in vivo. Therefore, triple-layered CS might be highly competent for tissue-engineered SM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Application of vitamin E to antagonize SWCNTs-induced exacerbation of allergic asthma.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The aggravating effects of zero-dimensional, particle-shaped nanomaterials on allergic asthma have been previously investigated, but similar possible effects of one-dimensional shaped nanomaterials have not been reported. More importantly, there are no available means to counteract the adverse nanomaterial effects to allow for their safe use. In this study, an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized rat asthma model was established to investigate whether single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggravate allergic asthma. The results showed that SWCNTs in rats exacerbated OVA-induced allergic asthma and that this exacerbation was counteracted by concurrent administration vitamin E. A mechanism involving the elimination of reactive oxygen species, downregulation of Th2 responses, reduced Ig production, and the relief of allergic asthma symptoms was proposed to explain the antagonistic effects of vitamin E. This work could provide a universal strategy to effectively protect people with allergic asthma from SWCNTs or similar nanomaterial-induced aggravating effects.
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Identification, expression pattern, cellular location and potential role of the caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Caveolins are integral membrane proteins that serve as scaffolds to recruit numerous signaling molecules. Caveolins play an important role in membrane trafficking, signal transduction, substrate transport and endocytosis in differentiated cells. In this study, a caveolin-1 gene from Artemia sinica (As-cav-1) was successfully cloned for the first time. The full-length cDNA of As-cav-1 comprises 974 bp, with a 675 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a polypeptide of 224 amino acids with a caveolin scaffolding domain (CSD) and two transmembrane domains. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the putative As-CAV-1 protein sequence was relatively conserved across species, especially in the CSD domain. Real-time PCR revealed high levels of the As-cav-1 transcript at 0h of embryo development. Furthermore, As-cav-1 transcripts were highly upregulated under high salinity (200‰) and low temperature stresses (15°C). To further characterize As-cav-1, recombinant pET30a-cav-1 protein was expressed using a prokaryotic expression system. The recombinant protein comprised 290 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 32kDa, and a predicted isoelectric point of 5.6. Western blotting of the expression levels of As-CAV-1 during different embryo development stages revealed that As-CAV-1 levels decreased gradually during development stages from 0 h to 40 h, and increased at 3d. Furthermore, western blotting showed that As-CAV-1 was upregulated to its highest expression level by low temperature stress (15°C) and high salinity. Confocal laser microscopy analysis, using antibodies generated against the recombinant As-CAV-1 protein, showed that As-CAV-1 was mostly located in the cell membrane. Our results suggested that As-cav-1 plays a vital role in protecting embryos from high salt damage and low temperature stress, especially during post-diapause embryonic development.
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Oral exposure of Kunming mice to diisononyl phthalate induces hepatic and renal tissue injury through the accumulation of ROS. Protective effect of melatonin.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) has been widely used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is ubiquitous as a substitute; however, its toxicity due to exposure remains to be determined. This study investigated the oxidative damage induced by DINP and the induced production of the pro-inflammation cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). Oral exposure to DINP induced oxidative damage and inflammatory responses in liver and kidney tissues through the accumulation of ROS, which may be an underlying mechanism for its toxicity. These changes may contribute to hepatic and renal histopathological alterations. Our data suggest that oxidative stress is involved in DINP-induced toxicity and that the co-administration of melatonin exerts a protective effect against DINP-induced toxicity.
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Genome-wide detection of selective signatures in Simmental cattle.
J. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Artificial selection has greatly improved the beef production performance and changed its genetic basis. High-density SNP markers provide a way to track these changes and use selective signatures to search for the genes associated with artificial selection. In this study, we performed extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) tests based on Illumina BovineSNP50 (54 K) Chip data from 942 Simmental cattle to identify significant core regions containing selective signatures, then verified the biological significance of these identified regions based on some commonly used bioinformatics analyses. A total of 224 regions over the whole genome in Simmental cattle showing the highest significance and containing some important functional genes, such as GHSR, TG and CANCNA2D1 were chosen. We also observed some significant terms in the enrichment analyses of second GO terms and KEGG pathways, indicating that these genes are associated with economically relevant cattle traits. This is the first detection of selection signature in Simmental cattle. Our findings significantly expand the selection signature map of the cattle genome, and identify functional candidate genes under positive selection for future genetic research.
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A coordination polymer consisting of two different one-dimensional copper(II) chains.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The title compound, catena-poly[[[diaqua(methanol-?O)copper(II)]-?-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl-?N(1))pyrazin-2-amine-?(2)N(1):N(4)] [[aqua(aqua/methanol-?O)(perchlorato-?O)copper(II)]-?-N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl-?N(1))pyrazin-2-amine-?(2)N(1):N(4)] tris(perchlorate) methanol monosolvate 1.419-hydrate], {[Cu(C9H9N5)(CH3OH)(H2O)2][Cu(C9H9N5)(ClO4)(CH3OH)0.581(H2O)1.419](ClO4)3·CH3OH·1.419H2O}n, is a one-dimensional straight-chain polymer of N-(4-methylpyrimidin-2-yl)pyrazin-2-amine (L) with Cu(ClO4)2. The complex consists of two crystallographically independent one-dimensional chains in which the Cu(II) atoms exhibit two different octahedral coordination geometries. The L ligand coordinates to two Cu(II) centres in a tridentate manner, with the pyrazine ring acting as a bridge linking the Cu(II) coordination units and building an infinite one-dimensional chain. Extensive hydrogen bonding among perchlorate anions, water molecules and L ligands results in three-dimensional networks.
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MiR-152 reduces human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation and migration by targeting ADAM17.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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As a cleavage enzyme of precursor TNF-?, the high expression level of ADAM17 in endothelial cells is an important factor in atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that ADAM17 is the target of miR-152. We found that miR-152 could reduce TNF precursor cleavage and inhibit cell proliferation and migration by targeting ADAM17 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Furthermore, the expression pattern of miR-152 and corresponding target ADAM17 was opposite in HUVECs under hypoxic conditions. The levels of circulating miR-152 in AS patient sera were lower than those detected in the sera of normal individuals. Our results indicate that miR-152 may be involved in the development of human atherosclerosis and could be used as diagnostic biomarker or therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.
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Analysis of the learning curve for beating heart, totally endoscopic, coronary artery bypass grafting.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Robotic cardiac surgery has been proved safe and feasible in dedicated centers. We systematically analyzed the learning curve issues associated with totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) using a stepwise approach by a single surgeon who had successfully performed >650 cases of various types of robotic cardiac surgery at our single center.
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Synthesis of a near-infrared fluorescent probe and its application in imaging of MCF-7 cells.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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IR-789, a novel near-infrared fluorescent probe, was designed, synthesized, and applied to living cells. The probe exhibited better response fluorescence characteristics than the only FDA-approved agent, indocyanine green. Cell experiments showed that the probe had high affinity and without apparent cytotoxicity. Fluorescent image experiments in living MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) further demonstrated the potential applications of the probe in biological systems. The probe effectively prevented the influence of autofluorescence and native cellular species in biological systems. It also exhibited high sensitivity, good photostability, and excellent cell membrane permeability.
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Renal tuberculosis and iliopsoas abscess: Two case reports.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The urinary system is the second most commonly affected site of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Due to the diverse and atypical clinical manifestations of urinary TB, the disease is easy to misdiagnose. In the present study, two cases of renal TB are reported, which had completely different clinical manifestations. The first case is a female who presented with loin pain and fever. Purified protein derivative (PPD) and TB antibody tests were negative and computed tomography (CT) scans showed a low density focus in the right kidney with an iliopsoas abscess. The typical CT findings indicated renal tuberculosis. Anti-TB drugs were effective proved the diagnosis. The second case is a male who presented with intermittent gross hematuria. Acid-fast bacilli in urine and TB antibody tests were positive. CT scans revealed a low density focus in the unilateral kidney with a slight expansion of the pelvis, calices and ureter. The patients were treated with the anti-TB drugs and the clinical manifestations disappeared. The diagnosis of urinary TB is challenging in certain cases; when there is no response to the usual antibiotics in patients with fever or gross hematuria, TB should be suspected. CT is the mainstay for investigating possible urinary TB.
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Identification and expression of the elongator protein 2 (Ajelp2) gene, a novel regeneration-related gene from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Elongator proteins comprise six subunits (ELP1-ELP6) and form protein complexes. The elongator protein 2 gene (elp2) encodes a protein with a WD40 repeats domain that acts as a scaffold for complex assembly. It also plays an important role in growth and development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of elongator protein 2 (Ajelp2) was cloned from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR techniques and comprised 3,058 bp, including a 54 bp 5' untranslated (UTR), a 526 bp 3' UTR and a 2,478 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 825 amino acids. The Ajelp2 sequence showed high homology to 12 other species. The molecular weight and isoelectric of point the presumptive protein were 91.6 kDa and 5.84, respectively. In situ hybridization indicated that the gene is expressed in the body wall, intestine, respiratory tree and longitudinal muscle. The expression level of Ajelp2 increased in recovering of organs in sea cucumber and showed it's the highest expression level at the 15th day in the intestine and respiratory tree. Its expression then gradually decreased to normal levels. In the body wall, the expression level of Ajelp2 was up-regulated and then down-regulated. These results indicated that Ajelp2 is involved in protein regulation during the regeneration process in the sea cucumber A. japonicus.
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Establishment of a chronic left ventricular aneurysm model in rabbit.
J Geriatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To establish a cost-effective and reproducible procedure for induction of chronic left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) in rabbits.
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Interception of the endotoxin-induced arterial hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Septic shock is a severe pathophysiologic condition characterized by vasodilation, hypotension, hypoperfusion, tissue hypoxia, multiple organ failure and death. It is unclear what causes the septic vasodilation that may result from general dysfunction of vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) or selective disruption of vasomotor balances in VSMs. The latter could be due to enhanced vasorelaxation and/or depressed vasoconstriction. Understanding these may lead to pharmacological interventions to septic vasodilation. Therefore, we performed studies in isolated and perfused mesenteric arterial rings. A 20-h exposure of the rings to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 ?g/ml) led to hyporeactivity to phenylephrine (PE). However, the responses of the LPS-treated rings to high concentrations of KCl (60 mM) and ATP remained comparable to control rings, suggesting that contractility of VSMs is retained. The hyporeactivity was marginally affected by atropine, indomethacin and L-NAME, suggesting that endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation does not play a major role. In addition to PE, the LPS-treated rings were hyporeactive to dopamine, histamine and angiotensin II. They showed intermediate hyporeactivity to the thromboxane-A2 receptor agonist U46619. Little hyporeactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1), serotonin (5-HT) and vasopressin was found. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction occurred without endothelium, whereas the effect of 5-HT was endothelium dependent. Although rings were hyporeactive to some of the vasopressors, their vasoconstriction effects were significantly potentiated by PE co-application. Taken together, these data suggest that the endotoxin-induced vasodilation may not result from general dysfunction of VSMs, neither from the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The promising vascular response to various vasoconstrictors found in this study warrants further investigations of therapeutic potentials of these agents.
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An Analysis of the Binding Characteristics of a Panel of Recently Selected ICAM-1 Binding Plasmodium falciparum Patient Isolates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The basis of severe malaria pathogenesis in part includes sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) from the peripheral circulation. This phenomenon is mediated by the interaction between several endothelial receptors and one of the main parasite-derived variant antigens (PfEMP1) expressed on the surface of the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of the commonly used host receptors is ICAM-1, and it has been suggested that ICAM-1 has a role in cerebral malaria pathology, although the evidence to support this is not conclusive. The current study examined the cytoadherence patterns of lab-adapted patient isolates after selecting on ICAM-1. We investigated the binding phenotypes using variant ICAM-1 proteins including ICAM-1Ref, ICAM-1Kilifi, ICAM-1S22/A, ICAM-1L42/A and ICAM-1L44/A using static assays. The study also examined ICAM-1 blocking by four anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) under static conditions. We also characterised the binding phenotypes using Human Dermal Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HDMEC) under flow conditions. The results show that different isolates have variant-specific binding phenotypes under both static and flow conditions, extending our previous observations that this variation might be due to variable contact residues on ICAM-1 being used by different parasite PfEMP1 variants.
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Genome-Wide Association Studies Using Haplotypes and Individual SNPs in Simmental Cattle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technologies have provided the opportunity to map genes using associations between complex traits and markers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on either a single marker or haplotype have identified genetic variants and underlying genetic mechanisms of quantitative traits. Prompted by the achievements of studies examining economic traits in cattle and to verify the consistency of these two methods using real data, the current study was conducted to construct the haplotype structure in the bovine genome and to detect relevant genes genuinely affecting a carcass trait and a meat quality trait. Using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, 942 young bulls with genotyping data were introduced as a reference population to identify the genes in the beef cattle genome significantly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels. In total, 92,553 haplotype blocks were detected in the genome. The regions of high linkage disequilibrium extended up to approximately 200 kb, and the size of haplotype blocks ranged from 22 bp to 199,266 bp. Additionally, the individual SNP analysis and the haplotype-based analysis detected similar regions and common SNPs for these two representative traits. A total of 12 and 7 SNPs in the bovine genome were significantly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels, respectively. By comparison, 4 and 5 haplotype blocks containing the majority of significant SNPs were strongly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels, respectively. In addition, 36 SNPs with high linkage disequilibrium were detected in the GNAQ gene, a potential hotspot that may play a crucial role for regulating carcass trait components.
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Dual effects of alpha-arbutin on monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effects of ?-arbutin on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. The results showed that ?-arbutin inhibited monophenolase activity but it activated diphenolase activity. For monophenolase activity, IC50 value was 4.5 mmol·L-1 and 4.18 mmol·L-1 of ?-arbutin could extend the lag time from 40.5 s to 167.3 s. Alpha- arbutin is proposed to be regarded as a triphenolic substrate by the enzyme during catalyzation, leading to the suicide inactivation of the active site of tyrosinase. For diphenolase activity, ?-arbutin acted as an activator and its activation mechanism was mixed type activation. To reveal such activation, it should be mainly refered to the conformational changes in tyrosinase caused by the interaction of ?-arbutin with residues located at the entrance to the active site, and the decrease of the effect of suicide inactivation.
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Generalized linear model for mapping discrete trait loci implemented with LASSO algorithm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Generalized estimating equation (GEE) algorithm under a heterogeneous residual variance model is an extension of the iteratively reweighted least squares (IRLS) method for continuous traits to discrete traits. In contrast to mixture model-based expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm, the GEE algorithm can well detect quantitative trait locus (QTL), especially large effect QTLs located in large marker intervals in the manner of high computing speed. Based on a single QTL model, however, the GEE algorithm has very limited statistical power to detect multiple QTLs because of ignoring other linked QTLs. In this study, the fast least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) is derived for generalized linear model (GLM) with all possible link functions. Under a heterogeneous residual variance model, the LASSO for GLM is used to iteratively estimate the non-zero genetic effects of those loci over entire genome. The iteratively reweighted LASSO is therefore extended to mapping QTL for discrete traits, such as ordinal, binary, and Poisson traits. The simulated and real data analyses are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method to simultaneously identify multiple QTLs for binary and Poisson traits as examples.
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Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor ?B, tumor necrosis factor ?, interleukin-1?), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.
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[Research on soil bacteria under the impact of sealed CO2 leakage by high-throughput sequencing technology].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage has provided a new option for mitigating global anthropogenic CO2 emission with its unique advantages. However, there is a risk of the sealed CO2 leakage, bringing a serious threat to the ecology system. It is widely known that soil microorganisms are closely related to soil health, while the study on the impact of sequestered CO2 leakage on soil microorganisms is quite deficient. In this study, the leakage scenarios of sealed CO2 were constructed and the 16S rRNA genes of soil bacteria were sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology on Miseq platform, and related biological analysis was conducted to explore the changes of soil bacterial abundance, diversity and structure. There were 486,645 reads for 43,017 OTUs of 15 soil samples and the results of biological analysis showed that there were differences in the abundance, diversity and community structure of soil bacterial community under different CO, leakage scenarios while the abundance and diversity of the bacterial community declined with the amplification of CO2 leakage quantity and leakage time, and some bacteria species became the dominant bacteria species in the bacteria community, therefore the increase of Acidobacteria species would be a biological indicator for the impact of sealed CO2 leakage on soil ecology system.
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Identification of the glycerol kinase gene and its role in diapause embryo restart and early embryo development of Artemia sinica.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Glycerol kinase (GK) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glycerol utilization by transferring a phosphate from ATP to glycerol, yielding glycerol 3-phosphate, which is an important intermediate for both energy metabolism and glycerolipid production. Artemia sinica has an unusual diapause process under stress conditions of high salinity, low temperature and lack of food. In the process, diapause embryos of A. sinica (brine shrimp) accumulate high concentrations of glycerol as a cryoprotectant to prevent low temperature damage to embryos. Upon embryo restart, glycerol is converted into glucose and other carbohydrates. Therefore, GK plays an important role in the diapause embryo restart process. However, the role of GK in diapause termination of embryo development in A. sinica remains unknown. In the present study, a 2096bp full-length cDNA of gk from A. sinica (As-gk) was obtained, encoding putative 551 amino acids, 60.6kDa protein. As a crucial enzyme in glycerol uptake and metabolism, GK has been conserved structurally and functionally during evolution. The expression pattern of As-gk was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Expression locations of As-gk were analyzed using in situ hybridization. As-gk was widely distributed in the early embryo and several main parts of Artemia after differentiation. The expression of As-GK was also induced by stresses such as cold exposure and high salinity. This initial research into the expression pattern and stress response of GK in Artemia provides a sound basis for further understanding of the function and regulation of genes in early embryonic development in A. sinica and the stress response.
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PIK3CA and AKT gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to osteosarcoma in a Chinese population.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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To explore the association between PIK3CA and AKT single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) and osteosarcoma susceptibility.
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microRNAs in a multicellular green alga Volvox carteri.
Sci China Life Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key components in the eukaryotic gene regulatory network. We and others have previously identified many miRNAs in a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. To investigate whether mi-RNA-mediated gene regulation is a general mechanism in green algae and how miRNAs have been evolved in the green algal lineage, we examined small RNAs in Volvox carteri, a multicellular species in the same family with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We identified 174 miRNAs in Volvox, with many of them being highly enriched in gonidia or somatic cells. The targets of the miRNAs were predicted and many of them were subjected to miRNA-mediated cleavage in vivo, suggesting that miRNAs play regulatory roles in the biology of green algae. Our catalog of miRNAs and their targets provides a resource for further studies on the evolution, biological functions, and genomic properties of miRNAs in green algae.
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[MicroRNA-133a attenuates isoproterenol-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by downregulating L-type calcium channel ?1C subunit gene expression].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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To investigate the effects of microRNA-133a on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and related molecular mechanism focusing on the changes of L-type calcium channel ?1C subunit.
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Graphene/liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifters.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Due to its high electrical conductivity and excellent transmittance at terahertz frequencies, graphene is a promising candidate as transparent electrodes for terahertz devices. We demonstrate a liquid crystal based terahertz phase shifter with the graphene films as transparent electrodes. The maximum phase shift is 10.8 degree and the saturation voltage is 5 V with a 50 µm liquid crystal cell. The transmittance at terahertz frequencies and electrical conductivity depending on the number of graphene layer are also investigated. The proposed phase shifter provides a continuous tunability, fully electrical controllability, and low DC voltage operation.
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Screening of differentially expressed genes related to bladder cancer and functional analysis with DNA microarray.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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The purpose of this study was to identify genes related to bladder cancer with samples from normal and disease cases by microarray chip.
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Guanidinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymer as siRNA carriers for inhibiting human telomerase reverse transcriptase expression.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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In this report, a series of well-defined glucose- and guanidine-based cationic copolymers as gene carriers were developed to inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression. First of all, guandinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymers (guanidinylated GAPMA-s-APMA, abbreviated as GGA) were prepared via aqueous reversible addition--fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). Then, three target hTERT siRNA TERT-1, TERT-2 and TERT-3 were designed and combined with GGA copolymers to form siRNA/GGA polyplexes. The polyplexes were examined by dynamic light scattering and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that GGA copolymers can condense siRNA effectively to form particles with the diameter from 157?nm to 411?nm and zeta potential values in the range from +3.7 to +15.8?mV at various charge ratios (N/P). The MTT assay data of siRNA/GGA polyplexes on human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) indicated that GGA copolymer had better cell viabilities than polyethylenimine (PEI). Furthermore, the transfection of siRNA/GGA polyplexes was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in HepG2. It was found that siRNA/GGA polyplexes could effectively silence hTERT mRNA expression in serum-free media (p<0.01). In the presence of serum, the hTERT mRNA expression in HepG2 cells have significant difference (p<0.01) between siRNA/GGA3 polyplexes and blank. The results showed that the GAPMA component can reduce the aggregation of protein in serum media. Therefore, the enhancement of transfection may be attributed to the combination of guadino groups and glucose component. And, the guandinylated 3-gluconamidopropyl methacrylamide-s-3-aminopropyl methacrylamide copolymers might be promise in gene delivery.
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[Effect of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine for patients with chronic heart failure: a multi-center research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To assess a multi-center study effectiveness of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine (IM) for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.
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Switching friction with thermal- responsive gels.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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The thermosensitive graphene oxide (GO)/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) composite hydrogels are prepared, and their tribological properties in response to external stimuli are evaluated. The frictional coefficient of the hydrogels is closely related to the gel composition and ambient temperature. When the gel is in swelling state below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), it shows ultra-low friction and exhibits high friction at a shrunk state above the LCST. The huge difference of frictional coefficient under two states can be reversibly switched many times by altering the temperature. The incorporation of a nonthermal sensitive monomer into pNIPAM could change the LCST and thus the transformation point of frictional coefficient can be altered. These reversible and tunable frictional hydrogels have potential application in the design of intelligent control equipment.
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Dihydroartemisinin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated signaling pathways in tumor cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), an antimalarial drug, has previously unrecognized anticancer activity, and is in clinical trials as a new anticancer agent for skin, lung, colon and breast cancer treatment. However, the anticancer mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that DHA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in rhabdomyosarcoma (Rh30 and RD) cells, and concurrently inhibited the signaling pathways mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central controller for cell proliferation and survival, at concentrations (<3 ?M) that are pharmacologically achievable. Of interest, in contrast to the effects of conventional mTOR inhibitors (rapalogs), DHA potently inhibited mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase 1 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 but did not obviously affect mTORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. The results suggest that DHA may represent a novel class of mTORC1 inhibitor and may execute its anticancer activity primarily by blocking mTORC1-mediated signaling pathways in the tumor cells.
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COL1A1 polymorphism is associated with risks of osteosarcoma susceptibility and death.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Osteosarcoma is a life-threatening malignancy that often occurs in teenagers. Collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1) polymorphism is reportedly associated with the occurrence of several human diseases. However, the relationship between COL1A1 and osteosarcoma occurrence remains unknown, and there is no report about the prevalence of COL1A1 in osteosarcoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the associations of COL1A1 polymorphism with the susceptibility and survival of osteosarcoma. The relative risk to develop osteosarcomas and the overall survival associated to COL1A1 polymorphism were investigated in a homogeneous group of 189 osteosarcomas patients. Correlations with overall survival and hazard ratios (HR) were also analyzed. CT genotype and C allele of COL1A1 at rs1061970, and CG genotype and G allele of COL1A1 at rs2075559 are associated with decreased susceptibility to osteosarcoma in the Chinese population. CC genotype and C allele of COL1A1 at rs1061970 are associated with nonmetastasis in patients. CC genotype and CT genotype of COL1A1 at rs1061970 are associated with lower risk of death. Metastasis was found to be an independent prognostic factor for survival. This study provides the first evidence for the association between COL1A1 polymorphism and osteosarcoma risk in Chinese and shows that COL1A1 polymorphism at rs1061970 has a prognostic value for overall survival in osteosarcoma patients.
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Development of an ultra-thin film comprised of a graphene membrane and carbon nanotube vein support.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Graphene, exhibiting superior mechanical, thermal, optical and electronic properties, has attracted great interest. Considering it being one-atom-thick, and the reduced mechanical strength at grain boundaries, the fabrication of large-area suspended chemical vapour deposition graphene remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of an ultra-thin free-standing carbon nanotube/graphene hybrid film, inspired by the vein-membrane structure found in nature. Such a square-centimetre-sized hybrid film can realize the overlaying of large-area single-layer chemical vapour deposition graphene on to a porous vein-like carbon nanotube network. The vein-membrane-like hybrid film, with graphene suspended on the carbon nanotube meshes, possesses excellent mechanical performance, optical transparency and good electrical conductivity. The ultra-thin hybrid film features an electron transparency close to 90%, which makes it an ideal gate electrode in vacuum electronics and a high-performance sample support in transmission electron microscopy.
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Meta-analysis of associations of the ezrin gene with human osteosarcoma response to chemotherapy and prognosis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Various studies examining the relationship between Ezrin overexpression and response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome in patients with osteosarcoma have yielded inconclusive results. We accordingly conducted a meta-analysis of 7 studies (n = 318 patients) that evaluated the correlation between Ezrin and histologic response to chemotherapy and clinical prognosis (death). Data were synthesized in receiver operating characteristic curves and with fixed-effects and random-effects likelihood ratios and risk ratios. Quantitative synthesis showed that Ezrin is not a prognostic factor for the response to chemotherapy. The positive likelihood ratio was 0.538 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.296- 0.979; random-effects calculation), and the negative likelihood ratio was 2.151 (95% CI, 0.905- 5.114; random-effects calculations). There was some between-study heterogeneity, but no study showed strong discriminating ability. Conversely, Ezrin positive status tended to be associated with a lower 2-year survival (risk ratio, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.26-4.76; random-effects calculation) with some between-study heterogeneity that disappeared when only studies that employed immunohistochemistry were considered (risk ratio, 2.97; 95% CI, 2.01- 4.40; fixed-effects calculation). To conclude, Ezrin is not associated with the histologic response to chemotherapy in patients with osteosarcoma, whereas Ezrin positivity was associated with a lower 2-year survival rate regarding risk of death at 2 years. Expression change of Ezrin is an independent prognostic factor in patients with osteosarcoma.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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