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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Asymmetric Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction of Diazenes Catalyzed by Chiral Silver Phosphate: Water Participates in the Catalysis and Stereocontrol.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The chiral silver phosphate was confirmed to efficiently catalyze a highly regio- and enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of diazenes to furnish piperazine derivatives in high yields and excellent ee values. DFT calculations revealed that the water molecule participates in the catalysis by coordination to silver phosphate and also found that the hydroxy group of 1-hydroxy-2,3-hexadiene not only formed a hydrogen bond with the oxygen of phosphate but also coordinated to the Ag(I) to simultaneously stabilize the transition states and control the regioselectivity.
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Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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Nitrous oxide emission factors for urine and dung from sheep fed either fresh forage rape (Brassica napus L.) or fresh perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).
Animal
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In New Zealand, agriculture is predominantly based on pastoral grazing systems and animal excreta deposited on soil during grazing have been identified as a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Forage brassicas (Brassica spp.) have been increasingly used to improve lamb performance. Compared with conventional forage perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), a common forage in New Zealand, forage brassicas have faster growth rates, higher dry matter production and higher nutritive value. The aim of this study was to determine the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) between urine and dung in the excreta from sheep fed forage brassica rape (B. napus subsp. oleifera L.) or ryegrass, and then to measure N2O emissions when the excreta from the two different feed sources were applied to a pasture soil. A sheep metabolism study was conducted to determine urine and dung-N outputs from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and N partitioning between urine and dung. Urine and dung were collected and then used in a field plot experiment for measuring N2O emissions. The experimental site contained a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on a poorly drained silt-loam soil. The treatments included urine from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, dung from sheep fed forage rape or ryegrass, and a control without dung or urine applied. N2O emission measurements were carried out using a static chamber technique. For each excreta type, the total N2O emissions and emission factor (EF3; N2O-N emitted during the 3- or 8-month measurement period as a per cent of animal urine or dung-N applied, respectively) were calculated. Our results indicate that, in terms of per unit of N intake, a similar amount of N was excreted in urine from sheep fed either forage rape or ryegrass, but less dung N was excreted from sheep fed forage rape than ryegrass. The EF3 for urine from sheep fed forage rape was lower compared with urine from sheep fed ryegrass. This may have been because of plant secondary metabolites, such as glucosinolates in forage rape and their degradation products, are transferred to urine and affect soil N transformation processes. However, the difference in the EF3 for dung from sheep fed ryegrass and forage rape was not significant.
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Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We investigated the electrical properties and optical quality of two layers a titanium dioxide (TiO2) selective layer and a sol-gel silica cladding layer for use as coating layers for nonlinear optic (NLO) polymers in electro-optic (EO) polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators. We used a simple ellipsometric reflective technique developed by Teng and Man to measure the electro-optic (EO) coefficients of poled thin films of an EO polymer in an EO multilayer device. The Pockels coefficient was enhanced up to 226 and 198 pm/V at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55 ?m, respectively, when optimally poled with TiO2 and a sol-gel silica cladding.
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A modified model of helical resonator with predictable loaded resonant frequency and Q-factor.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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High voltage radio frequency (RF) supply is a critical part in an ion trapping system. The RF supply should have high Q-factor and relatively high driving frequency. A frequently used RF supply for an ion trap system is a helical resonator. In certain applications, it is advantageous to have a predictable resonant frequency and Q-factor when the helical resonator is connected to a capacitive load. We develop a model to describe the behavior of a helical resonator with capacitive load. With this model, we can correctly predict the loaded resonant frequency and the loaded Q-factor. To test our prediction, we construct a helical resonator, and measure its resonant frequencies and Q-factors under different capacitive loads. The experimental results agree with our prediction.
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Neurodevelopment. Dendrite morphogenesis depends on relative levels of NT-3/TrkC signaling.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Neurotrophins regulate diverse aspects of neuronal development and plasticity, but their precise in vivo functions during neural circuit assembly in the central brain remain unclear. We show that the neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase C (TrkC) is required for dendritic growth and branching of mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Sparse TrkC knockout reduced dendrite complexity, but global Purkinje cell knockout had no effect. Removal of the TrkC ligand neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from cerebellar granule cells, which provide major afferent input to developing Purkinje cell dendrites, rescued the dendrite defects caused by sparse TrkC disruption in Purkinje cells. Our data demonstrate that NT-3 from presynaptic neurons (granule cells) is required for TrkC-dependent competitive dendrite morphogenesis in postsynaptic neurons (Purkinje cells)--a previously unknown mechanism of neural circuit development.
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Developmental Sculpting of Intracortical Circuits by MHC Class I H2-Db and H2-Kb.
Cereb. Cortex
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Synapse pruning is an activity-regulated process needed for proper circuit sculpting in the developing brain. Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are regulated by activity, but little is known about their role in the development of connectivity in cortex. Here we show that protein for 2 MHCI molecules H2-Kb and H2-Db is associated with synapses in the visual cortex. Pyramidal neurons in mice lacking H2-Kb and H2-Db (KbDb KO) have more extensive cortical connectivity than normal. Modified rabies virus tracing was used to monitor the extent of pyramidal cell connectivity: Horizontal connectivity is greater in the visual cortex of KbDb KO mice. Basal dendrites of L2/3 pyramids, where many horizontal connections terminate, are more highly branched and have elevated spine density in the KO. Furthermore, the density of axonal boutons is elevated within L2/3 of mutant mice. These increases are accompanied by elevated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequency, consistent with an increase in functional synapses. This functional and anatomical increase in intracortical connectivity is also associated with enhanced ocular dominance plasticity that persists into adulthood. Thus, these MHCI proteins regulate sculpting of local cortical circuits and in their absence, the excess connectivity can function as a substrate for cortical plasticity throughout life.
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Active and passive smoking in relation to lung cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study prospective cohort.
Ann. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Lung cancer is the leading cause of worldwide cancer deaths. While smoking is its leading risk factor, few prospective cohort studies have reported on the association of lung cancer with both active and passive smoking. This study aimed to determine the relationship between lung cancer incidence with both active and passive smoking (childhood, adult at home, and at work).
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Implementation of the scale factor balance on two pairs of quartz-flexure capacitive accelerometers by trimming bias voltage.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Gravity gradient measurement makes use of the difference between the outputs of pairs of linear accelerometers, which results in cancelling out the common mode accelerations caused by mounting platform and external environment. One of the key technologies is to match the acceleration-to-voltage or acceleration-to-current transfer functions of the pairs of the accelerometers to an extremely high degree of accuracy. The differential signals then make the gravity gradients observable. By using two pairs of the quartz-flexure accelerometers with a capacitive sensing and electrostatic closed-loop control, the electrostatic control bias voltages were trimming remotely and automatically in real time. Each pair of accelerometers was matched individually and then all four accelerometers were finally re-balanced. The experimental results show that the consistency of five digits is achieved at a noise level of ~5×10(-8) g/?Hz (1?g ??9.8 m/s(2)) and the scale factors ranging from 0.25 to 0.32 V/mg. Further improvement to the achieved level of matching is limited by the intrinsic noise of the accelerometers used.
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CT evaluation of gastroenteric neuroendocrine tumors: relationship between ct features and the pathologic classification.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The objective of our study was to compare the CT features of gastroenteric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GE-NENs) with the pathologic classification and to analyze the correlation between the CT features and classification of GE-NENs.
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NLRP3 gene silencing ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy in a type 2 diabetes rat model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is associated with metabolic disorder and cell death, which are important triggers in diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We aimed to explore whether NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to DCM and the mechanism involved.
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Selective attention. Long-range and local circuits for top-down modulation of visual cortex processing.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Top-down modulation of sensory processing allows the animal to select inputs most relevant to current tasks. We found that the cingulate (Cg) region of the mouse frontal cortex powerfully influences sensory processing in the primary visual cortex (V1) through long-range projections that activate local ?-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) circuits. Optogenetic activation of Cg neurons enhanced V1 neuron responses and improved visual discrimination. Focal activation of Cg axons in V1 caused a response increase at the activation site but a decrease at nearby locations (center-surround modulation). Whereas somatostatin-positive GABAergic interneurons contributed preferentially to surround suppression, vasoactive intestinal peptide-positive interneurons were crucial for center facilitation. Long-range corticocortical projections thus act through local microcircuits to exert spatially specific top-down modulation of sensory processing.
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Storage of Gold Nanoclusters in Muscle Leads to their Biphasic in Vivo Clearance.
Small
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Ultrasmall gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) show great potential in biomedical applications. Long-term biodistribution, retention, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics profiles are pre-requisites in their potential clinical applications. Here, the biodistribution, clearance, and toxicity of one widely used Au NC species-glutathione-protected Au NCs or GSH-Au NCs-are systematically investigated over a relatively long period of 90 days in mice. Most of the Au NCs are cleared at 30 days post injection (p.i.) with a major accumulation in liver and kidney. However, it is surprising that an abnormal increase of the Au amount in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, and testis is observed at 60 and 90 days p.i., indicating that the injected Au NCs form a V-shaped time-dependent distribution profile in various organs. Further investigations reveal that Au NCs are steadily accumulating in the muscle in the first 30 days p.i., and the as-stored Au NCs gradually release into the blood in 30-90 days p.i., which induces a re-distribution and re-accumulation of Au NCs in all blood-rich organs. Further hematology and biochemistry studies show that the re-accumulation of Au NCs still causes some liver toxicity at 30 days p.i. The muscle storage and subsequent release may give rise to the potential accumulation and toxicity risk of functional nanomaterials over long periods of time.
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Toward understanding the growth mechanism: tracing all stable intermediate species from reduction of Au(I)-thiolate complexes to evolution of Au?? nanoclusters.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Despite 20 years of progress in synthesizing thiolated gold nanoclusters (Au NCs), the knowledge of their growth mechanism still lags behind. Herein the detailed process from reduction of Au(I)-thiolate complex precursors to the eventual evolution of and focusing to the atomically precise Au25 NCs was revealed for the first time by monitoring the time evolution of Au(I) precursor and Au NC intermediate species with ESI-MS. A two-stage, bottom-up formation and growth process was proposed: a fast stage of reduction-growth mechanism, followed by a slow stage of intercluster conversion and focusing. Balanced reactions of formation for each identified NC were suggested, backed by theoretical calculations of the thermodynamic driving force. This work advances one step further toward understanding the mechanism of formation and growth of thiolated Au NCs.
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Dietary Glutamine Supplementation Partly Reverses Impaired Macrophage Function Resulting From Overload Training in Rats.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of overload training on the function of peritoneal macrophages in rats, and to test the hypothesis that glutamine in vivo supplementation would partly reverse the eventual functional alterations induced by overload training in these cells. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (C), overload training group (E1), overload training and restore one week group (E2), glutamine-supplementation group (EG1), and glutamine-supplementation and restore one week group (EG2). All rats, except those placed on sedentary control were subjected to 11 weeks of overload training protocol. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and corticosterone of rats were measured. Moreover, the functions (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokines synthesis, reactive oxygen species generation) of peritoneal macrophages were determined. Data showed that blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone, corticosterone and body weight in the overload training group decreased significantly as compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the chemotaxis capacity (decreased by 31%, p=0.003), the phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 27%, p=0.005), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (decreased by 35%, p=0.003) and the cytokines response capability of macrophages were inhibited by overload training. However, the hindering of phagocytosis and the cytokines response capability of macrophages induced by overload training could be ameliorated and reversed respectively, by dietary glutamine supplementation. These results suggest that overload training impairs the function of peritoneal macrophages, which is essential for the microbicidal actions of macrophages. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunodepression induced by overload training. Nonetheless, dietary glutamine supplementation could partly reverse the impaired macrophage function resulting from overload training.
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The Effect of Season on Spermatozoa Motility, Plasma Membrane and Acrosome Integrity in Fresh and Frozen-Thawed Semen from Xinong Saanen Bucks.
Reprod. Domest. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the season of ejaculate collection influences seminal quality parameters of pre- and post-freeze-thawing in Xinong Saanen bucks. Ejaculates were collected from eight bucks throughout the four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter) in a 12 months' time period, identified in the Northern Hemisphere. Semen samples were evaluated by the combinations of conventional and Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) when fresh and after frozen-thawed, respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that season of ejaculate collection influenced (p < 0.05) fresh semen quality. Highest semen quality was observed during autumn. On the contrary, undesirable indices (significantly lower, p < 0.05) were observed in winter as compared with the other remaining seasons. CASA has clearly shown the influences of seasonal variations on semen motility parameters. Furthermore, season of ejaculate collection was also found to influence sperm freezability. Semen characteristics after frozen-thawed followed a similar pattern with that of fresh ejaculate except in spring. The results revealed that sperm quality was higher (p < 0.01) in summer and autumn than in spring and winter. In conclusion, seasonal variation influences semen quality in Xinong Saanen bucks. In addition to summer and autumn, fresh ejaculates in spring can also be successfully used for AI. Sperm from ejaculates collected during summer and autumn are more suitable for cryopreservation. Hence, it is possible to increase the efficiency of goat breeding by manipulating the seasonal variations of semen quality for immediate AI and/or cryopreservation.
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Improved ion implant fluence uniformity in hydrogen enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation into silicon.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation does not require an external plasma source but ion focusing affects the lateral ion fluence uniformity, thereby hampering its use in high-fluence hydrogen ion implantation for thin film transfer and fabrication of silicon-on-insulator. Insertion of a metal ring between the sample stage and glass chamber improves the ion uniformity and reduces the ion fluence non-uniformity as the cathode voltage is raised. Two-dimensional multiple-grid particle-in-cell simulation confirms that the variation of electric field inside the chamber leads to mitigation of the ion focusing phenomenon and the results are corroborated experimentally by hydrogen forward scattering.
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Presynaptic partners of dorsal raphe serotonergic and GABAergic neurons.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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The serotonin system powerfully modulates physiology and behavior in health and disease, yet the circuit mechanisms underlying serotonin neuron activity are poorly understood. The major source of forebrain serotonergic innervation is from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), which contains both serotonin and GABA neurons. Using viral tracing combined with electrophysiology, we found that GABA and serotonin neurons in the DR receive excitatory, inhibitory, and peptidergic inputs from the same specific brain regions. Embedded in this overall similarity are important differences. Serotonin neurons are more likely to receive synaptic inputs from anterior neocortex while GABA neurons receive disproportionally higher input from the central amygdala. Local input mapping revealed extensive serotonin-serotonin as well as GABA-serotonin connectivity with a distinct spatial organization. Covariance analysis suggests heterogeneity of both serotonin and GABA neurons with respect to the inputs they receive. These analyses provide a foundation for further functional dissection of the serotonin system.
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Health care costs for prostate cancer patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy: treatment and adverse events.
Curr Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Serious adverse events have been associated with androgen deprivation therapy (adt) for prostate cancer (pca), but few studies address the costs of those events.
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Drosophila Strip serves as a platform for early endosome organization during axon elongation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Early endosomes are essential for regulating cell signalling and controlling the amount of cell surface molecules during neuronal morphogenesis. Early endosomes undergo retrograde transport (clustering) before their homotypic fusion. Small GTPase Rab5 is known to promote early endosomal fusion, but the mechanism linking the transport/clustering with Rab5 activity is unclear. Here we show that Drosophila Strip is a key regulator for neuronal morphogenesis. Strip knockdown disturbs the early endosome clustering, and Rab5-positive early endosomes become smaller and scattered. Strip genetically and biochemically interacts with both Glued (the regulator of dynein-dependent transport) and Sprint (the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab5), suggesting that Strip is a molecular linker between retrograde transport and Rab5 activation. Overexpression of an active form of Rab5 in strip-mutant neurons suppresses the axon elongation defects. Thus, Strip acts as a molecular platform for the early endosome organization that has important roles in neuronal morphogenesis.
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Synaptic organization of the Drosophila antennal lobe and its regulation by the Teneurins.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Understanding information flow through neuronal circuits requires knowledge of their synaptic organization. In this study, we utilized fluorescent pre- and postsynaptic markers to map synaptic organization in the Drosophila antennal lobe, the first olfactory processing center. Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a constant synaptic density across different glomeruli. Each ORN within a class contributes nearly identical active zone number. Active zones from ORNs, projection neurons (PNs), and local interneurons have distinct subglomerular and subcellular distributions. The correct number of ORN active zones and PN acetylcholine receptor clusters requires the Teneurins, conserved transmembrane proteins involved in neuromuscular synapse organization and synaptic partner matching. Ten-a acts in ORNs to organize presynaptic active zones via the spectrin cytoskeleton. Ten-m acts in PNs autonomously to regulate acetylcholine receptor cluster number and transsynaptically to regulate ORN active zone number. These studies advanced our ability to assess synaptic architecture in complex CNS circuits and their underlying molecular mechanisms.
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Plasmon hybridization in composite nanostructures with tunable resonances and vertex truncation analysis.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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An Ag/SiO?/Ag sandwich delta nanostar with three sharp angles (30°) is proposed. The extinction efficiency property with a variation in environment refractive index has been investigated in detail by the finite difference time domain method. The refractive index response sensitivity is 482.67??nm/RIU. And the correlations between resonance wavelengths and thickness of the dielectric layer are also established. It reveals that as the thickness increases, the peak wavelength turns to red shift, and a tunable resonance wavelength is achieved through the thickness adjusting of the SiO? layer. The maximum of the electric field enhancement is 833.776 with the thickness of the dielectric layer h=40??nm. Moreover, the influence of the vertex truncation on the extinction spectra and the refractive index sensitivity has also been analyzed.
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Inhibition of FASN reduces the synthesis of medium-chain fatty acids in goat mammary gland.
Animal
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is known as a crucial enzyme of cellular de novo fatty acid synthesis in mammary gland which has been proved as the main source of short and medium-chain fatty acids of milk. However, the regulatory role of FASN in goat-specific milk fatty acids composition remains unclear. We cloned and analyzed the full-length of FASN gene from the mammary gland of Capra hircus (Xinong Saanen dairy goat) (DQ 915966). Comparative gene expression analysis suggested that FASN is predominantly expressed in fat, small intestine and mammary gland tissues, and expresses higher level at lactation period. Inhibition of FASN activity by different concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25 and 35 ?M) of orlistat, a natural inhibitor of FASN, resulted in decreased expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ? (ACC?), lipoprotein lipase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in a concentration-dependent manner in goat mammary gland epithelial cells (GMEC). Similar results were also obtained by silencing of FASN. Additionally, reduction of FASN expression also led to apparent decline of the relative content of decanoic acid (C10:0) and lauric acid (C12:0) in GMEC. Our study provides a direct evidence for inhibition of FASN reduces cellular medium-chain fatty acids synthesis in GMEC.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?1 and ?2 isoforms alter lipogenic gene networks in goat mammary epithelial cells to different extents.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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In nonruminants, the alternative splicing of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPARG) generates PPARG1 and PPARG2 isoforms. Although transcriptional control differences between isoforms have been reported in human adipose tissue, their roles in ruminant mammary cells are not well known. To assess which of these isoforms is more closely associated with the regulation of mammary lipogenic pathways, their tissue distribution was analyzed and the expression of key genes regulating lipogenic gene networks was measured after overexpression of the 2 isoforms in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). The expression of PPARG2 was markedly greater in adipose tissue, whereas PPARG1 is the main isoform in goat mammary tissue (ratio of PPARG1:PPARG2 was close to 37:1). As was reported in previous work, PPARG1 upregulated the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG and the lipogenic genes FASN, ACACA, and SCD. Along with a tendency for greater expression of AGPAT6, DGAT1, and PLIN2, these data suggest that PPARG1 is the isoform controlling lipogenesis in mammary cells. Addition of the PPARG ligand rosiglitazone (ROSI) to GMEC overexpressing both isoforms upregulated the expression of LPL and CD36, which help control uptake of long-chain fatty acids into mammary cells. Other responses to ROSI addition to GMEC overexpressing PPARG1 and PPARG2 included upregulation of AGPAT6, DGAT1, INSIG1, SREBF1, and NR1H3. Although the data suggest that both PPARG1 and PPARG2 could affect mammary lipogenesis via control of gene expression when stimulated (e.g., by ROSI), the fact that PPARG1 is more abundant in mammary tissue and that its overexpression alone upregulated key lipogenic gene networks suggest that it is the more important isoform in goat mammary cells.
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Resonant frequency detection and adjustment method for a capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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The capacitive transducer with differential transformer bridge is widely used in ultra-sensitive space accelerometers due to their simple structure and high resolution. In this paper, the front-end electronics of an inductive-capacitive resonant bridge transducer is analyzed. The analysis result shows that the performance of this transducer depends upon the case that the AC pumping frequency operates at the resonance point of the inductive-capacitive bridge. The effect of possible mismatch between the AC pumping frequency and the actual resonant frequency is discussed, and the theoretical analysis indicates that the output voltage noise of the front-end electronics will deteriorate by a factor of about 3 due to either a 5% variation of the AC pumping frequency or a 10% variation of the tuning capacitance. A pre-scanning method to determine the actual resonant frequency is proposed followed by the adjustment of the operating frequency or the change of the tuning capacitance in order to maintain expected high resolution level. An experiment to verify the mismatching effect and the adjustment method is provided.
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Facile synthesis of water-soluble Au(25-x)Ag(x) nanoclusters protected by mono- and bi-thiolate ligands.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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A series of water-soluble Au25-xAgx nanoclusters (NCs) protected by mono- and bi-thiolate ligands are synthesized via the NaOH-mediated NaBH4 reduction method. Compositions of both the metal core and the ligand shell can be tailored by varying the feeding ratios of metal precursors and hetero-ligands, further enriching the functionalities of the NCs.
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Existing cardiomyocytes generate cardiomyocytes at a low rate after birth in mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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The mammalian heart has long been considered a postmitotic organ, implying that the total number of cardiomyocytes is set at birth. Analysis of cell division in the mammalian heart is complicated by cardiomyocyte binucleation shortly after birth, which makes it challenging to interpret traditional assays of cell turnover [Laflamme MA, Murray CE (2011) Nature 473(7347):326-335; Bergmann O, et al. (2009) Science 324(5923):98-102]. An elegant multi-isotope imaging-mass spectrometry technique recently calculated the low, discrete rate of cardiomyocyte generation in mice [Senyo SE, et al. (2013) Nature 493(7432):433-436], yet our cellular-level understanding of postnatal cardiomyogenesis remains limited. Herein, we provide a new line of evidence for the differentiated ?-myosin heavy chain-expressing cardiomyocyte as the cell of origin of postnatal cardiomyogenesis using the "mosaic analysis with double markers" mouse model. We show limited, life-long, symmetric division of cardiomyocytes as a rare event that is evident in utero but significantly diminishes after the first month of life in mice; daughter cardiomyocytes divide very seldom, which this study is the first to demonstrate, to our knowledge. Furthermore, ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, which causes a myocardial infarction in the mosaic analysis with double-marker mice, did not increase the rate of cardiomyocyte division above the basal level for up to 4 wk after the injury. The clonal analysis described here provides direct evidence of postnatal mammalian cardiomyogenesis.
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A molecular basis for classic blond hair color in Europeans.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Hair color differences are among the most obvious examples of phenotypic variation in humans. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple loci in human pigment variation, the causative base-pair changes are still largely unknown. Here we dissect a regulatory region of the KITLG gene (encoding KIT ligand) that is significantly associated with common blond hair color in northern Europeans. Functional tests demonstrate that the region contains a regulatory enhancer that drives expression in developing hair follicles. This enhancer contains a common SNP (rs12821256) that alters a binding site for the lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) transcription factor, reducing LEF1 responsiveness and enhancer activity in cultured human keratinocytes. Mice carrying ancestral or derived variants of the human KITLG enhancer exhibit significant differences in hair pigmentation, confirming that altered regulation of an essential growth factor contributes to the classic blond hair phenotype found in northern Europeans.
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Independent risk factors for massive ascites after living donor liver transplantation in adults.
Transplant. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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This study sought to define the perioperative recipient and donor factors that contribute to the occurrence of massive ascites after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adults.
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Metabolomics approach to assessing plasma 13- and 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid and linoleic acid metabolite responses to 75-km cycling.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites (OXLAMs) include 13- and 9-hydroxy-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE + 9-HODE) and have been linked to oxidative stress, inflammation, and numerous pathological and physiological states. The purpose of this study was to measure changes in plasma 13-HODE + 9-HODE following a 75-km cycling bout and identify potential linkages to linoleate metabolism and established biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes) and inflammation (cytokines) using a metabolomics approach. Trained male cyclists (N = 19, age 38.0 ± 1.6 yr, wattsmax 304 ± 10.5) engaged in a 75-km cycling time trial on their own bicycles using electromagnetically braked cycling ergometers (2.71 ± 0.07 h). Blood samples were collected preexercise, immediately post-, 1.5 h post-, and 21 h postexercise, and analyzed for plasma cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor), F2-isoprostanes, and shifts in metabolites using global metabolomics procedures with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). 13-HODE + 9-HODE increased 3.1-fold and 1.7-fold immediately post- and 1.5 h postexercise (both P < 0.001) and returned to preexercise levels by 21-h postexercise. Post-75-km cycling plasma levels of 13-HODE + 9-HODE were not significantly correlated with increases in plasma cytokines but were positively correlated with postexercise F2-isoprostanes (r = 0.75, P < 0.001), linoleate (r = 0.54, P = 0.016), arachidate (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), 12,13-dihydroxy-9Z-octadecenoate (12,13-DiHOME) (r = 0.60, P = 0.006), dihomo-linolenate (r = 0.57, P = 0.011), and adrenate (r = 0.56, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that prolonged and intensive exercise caused a transient, 3.1-fold increase in the stable linoleic acid oxidation product 13-HODE + 9-HODE and was related to increases in F2-isoprostanes, linoleate, and fatty acids in the linoleate conversion pathway. These data support the use of 13-HODE + 9-HODE as an oxidative stress biomarker in acute exercise investigations.
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Association between diabetes, diabetes treatment and risk of developing endometrial cancer.
Br. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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A growing body of evidence suggests that diabetes is a risk factor for endometrial cancer incidence. However, most of these studies used case-control study designs and did not adjust for obesity, an established risk factor for endometrial cancer. In addition, few epidemiological studies have examined the association between diabetes treatment and endometrial cancer risk. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships among diabetes, diabetes treatment and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI).
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Analysis of survival factors in patients with intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with sorafenib.
Clin Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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To retrospectively analyze the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in combination with sorafenib for the treatment of patients with intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and assess the prognostic impact of baseline characteristics.
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Targeting the androgen receptor pathway in castration-resistant prostate cancer: progresses and prospects.
Oncogene
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a critical pathway for prostate cancer cells, and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the principal treatment for patients with locally advanced and metastatic disease. However, over time, most tumors become resistant to ADT. The view of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has changed dramatically in the last several years. Progress in understanding the disease biology and mechanisms of castration resistance led to significant advancements and to paradigm shift in the treatment. Accumulating evidence showed that prostate cancers develop adaptive mechanisms for maintaining AR signaling to allow for survival and further evolution. The aim of this review is to summarize molecular mechanisms of castration resistance and provide an update in the development of novel agents and strategies to more effectively target the AR signaling pathway.Oncogene advance online publication, 19 May 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.115.
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Balancing the rate of cluster growth and etching for gram-scale synthesis of thiolate-protected Au(25) nanoclusters with atomic precision.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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We report a NaOH-mediated NaBH4 reduction method for the synthesis of mono-, bi-, and tri-thiolate-protected Au25 nanoclusters (NCs) with precise control of both the Au core and thiolate ligand surface. The key strategy is to use NaOH to tune the formation kinetics of Au NCs, i.e., reduce the reduction ability of NaBH4 and accelerate the etching ability of free thiolate ligands, leading to a well-balanced reversible reaction for rapid formation of thermodynamically favorable Au25 NCs. This protocol is facile, rapid (?3?h), versatile (applicable for various thiolate ligands), and highly scalable (>1?g Au NCs). In addition, bi- and tri-thiolate-protected Au25 NCs with adjustable ratios of hetero-thiolate ligands were easily obtained. Such ligand precision in molecular ratios, spatial distribution and uniformity resulted in richly diverse surface landscapes on the Au NCs consisting of multiple functional groups such as carboxyl, amine, and hydroxy. Analysis based on NMR spectroscopy revealed that the hetero-ligands on the NCs are well distributed with no ligand segregation. The unprecedented synthesis of multi-thiolate-protected Au25 NCs may further promote the practical applications of functional metal NCs.
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Ultrasmall Au(10-12)(SG)(10-12) nanomolecules for high tumor specificity and cancer radiotherapy.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Radiosensitizers can increase local treatment efficacy under a relatively low and safe radiation dose, thereby facilitating tumor eradication and minimizing side effects. Here, a new class of radiosensitizers is reported, which contain several gold (Au) atoms embedded inside a peptide shell (e.g., Au10-12 (SG)10-12 ) and can achieve ultrahigh tumor uptake (10.86 SUV at 24 h post injection) and targeting specificity, efficient renal clearance, and high radiotherapy enhancement.
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Mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) in mice.
Cold Spring Harb Protoc
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The human brain comprises more than 100 billion neurons, each of which has an elaborate shape and a complex pattern of connections. To untangle this complexity, it is often useful to visualize one neuron at a time. Mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM) is a genetic method for labeling and manipulating individual neurons. This method was developed in mice and it allows simultaneous labeling and gene knockout in clones of somatic cells or isolated single cells in vivo. In MADM, labeling is achieved by using site-specific recombinases to induce the reconstitution of chimeric fluorescent proteins. Here we provide the standard procedure for utilizing MADM to examine lineage analysis, neural circuit tracing, and gene function. ROSA26-MADM is used as an example because the reagents are published and available. As MADM cassettes are introduced onto more chromosomes, genes located on these other chromosomes can be subjected to mosaic analysis in an analogous manner to that described below. We present detailed protocols with troubleshooting guides, as well as applications of the technique in tracing neural circuits, live imaging of developing neurons, and studying mechanisms of neuronal morphogenesis.
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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs.
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Identification of a highly luminescent Au22(SG)18 nanocluster.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The luminescence property of thiolated gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) is thought to involve the Au(I)-thiolate motifs on the NC surface; however, this hypothesis remains largely unexplored because of the lack of precise molecular composition and structural information of highly luminescent Au NCs. Here we report a new red-emitting thiolated Au NC, which has a precise molecular formula of Au22(SR)18 and exhibits intense luminescence. Interestingly, this new Au22(SR)18 species shows distinctively different absorption and emission features from the previously reported Au22(SR)16, Au22(SR)17, and Au25(SR)18. In stark contrast, Au22(SR)18 luminesces intensely at ?665 nm with a high quantum yield of ?8%, while the other three Au NCs show very weak luminescence. Our results indicate that the luminescence of Au22(SR)18 originates from the long Au(I)-thiolate motifs on the NC surface via the aggregation-induced emission pathway. Structure prediction by density functional theory suggests that Au22(SR)18 has two RS-[Au-SR]3 and two RS-[Au-SR]4 motifs, interlocked and capping on a prolate Au8 core. This predicted structure is further verified experimentally by Au L3-edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis.
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Genetic control of wiring specificity in the fly olfactory system.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Precise connections established between pre- and postsynaptic partners during development are essential for the proper function of the nervous system. The olfactory system detects a wide variety of odorants and processes the information in a precisely connected neural circuit. A common feature of the olfactory systems from insects to mammals is that the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) expressing the same odorant receptor make one-to-one connections with a single class of second-order olfactory projection neurons (PNs). This represents one of the most striking examples of targeting specificity in developmental neurobiology. Recent studies have uncovered central roles of transmembrane and secreted proteins in organizing this one-to-one connection specificity in the olfactory system. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how this wiring specificity is genetically controlled and focus on the mechanisms by which transmembrane and secreted proteins regulate different stages of the Drosophila olfactory circuit assembly in a coordinated manner. We also discuss how combinatorial coding, redundancy, and error-correcting ability could contribute to constructing a complex neural circuit in general.
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Assembly of nanoions via electrostatic interactions: ion-like behavior of charged noble metal nanoclusters.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The assembly of ultrasmall metal nanoclusters (NCs) is of interest to both basic and applied research as it facilitates the determination of cluster structures and the customization of cluster physicochemical properties. Here we present a facile and general approach to assemble noble metal NCs by selectively inducing electrostatic interactions between negatively-charged metal NCs and divalent cations. The charged metal NCs, which have well-defined sizes, charges and structures; and behave similarly to multivalent anions, can be considered as nanoions. These nanoions exhibit step-like assembly behavior when interacting with the counter cations - assembly only occurs when the solubility product (Ksp) between the carboxylate ions on the NC surface and the divalent cations is exceeded. The assembly here is distinctively different from the random aggregation of colloidal particles by counter ions. The nanoions would assemble into fractal-like monodisperse spherical particles with a high order of regularity that mimic the assembly of ionic crystals.
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Impaired Autophagy Contributes to Adverse Cardiac Remodeling in Acute Myocardial Infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autophagy is activated in ischemic heart diseases, but its dynamics and functional roles remain unclear and controversial. In this study, we investigated the dynamics and role of autophagy and the mechanism(s), if any, during postinfarction cardiac remodeling.
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Cyclin D1 G870A Polymorphism and Risk of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cyclin D1 (CCND1) plays a key role in cell cycle regulation. It is a well-established human oncogene which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in cancers. The association between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and cancer risk has been widely assessed. However, a definitive conclusion between CCND1 G870A polymorphism and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains elusive.
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Influence of Pistachios on Performance and Exercise-Induced Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, Immune Dysfunction, and Metabolite Shifts in Cyclists: A Randomized, Crossover Trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pistachio nut ingestion (3 oz./d, two weeks) was tested for effects on exercise performance and 21-h post-exercise recovery from inflammation, oxidative stress, immune dysfunction, and metabolite shifts.
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Functional transformations of odor inputs in the mouse olfactory bulb.
Front Neural Circuits
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium to the olfactory bulb (OB) are organized as a discrete map in the glomerular layer (GL). This map is then modulated by distinct types of local neurons and transmitted to higher brain areas via mitral and tufted cells. Little is known about the functional organization of the circuits downstream of glomeruli. We used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging for large scale functional mapping of distinct neuronal populations in the mouse OB, at single cell resolution. Specifically, we imaged odor responses of mitral cells (MCs), tufted cells (TCs) and glomerular interneurons (GL-INs). Mitral cells population activity was heterogeneous and only mildly correlated with the olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) inputs, supporting the view that discrete input maps undergo significant transformations at the output level of the OB. In contrast, population activity profiles of TCs were dense, and highly correlated with the odor inputs in both space and time. Glomerular interneurons were also highly correlated with the ORN inputs, but showed higher activation thresholds suggesting that these neurons are driven by strongly activated glomeruli. Temporally, upon persistent odor exposure, TCs quickly adapted. In contrast, both MCs and GL-INs showed diverse temporal response patterns, suggesting that GL-INs could contribute to the transformations MCs undergo at slow time scales. Our data suggest that sensory odor maps are transformed by TCs and MCs in different ways forming two distinct and parallel information streams.
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MR Quantification of Total Liver Fat in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Healthy Subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects.
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pH-sensitive nanomicelles for controlled and efficient drug delivery to human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The triblock copolymers PEG-P(Asp-DIP)-P(Lys-Ca) (PEALCa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(N-(N',N'-diisopropylaminoethyl) aspartamide) (P(Asp-DIP)), and poly (lysine-cholic acid) (P(Lys-Ca)) were synthesized as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system. In neutral aqueous environment such as physiological environment, PEALCa can self-assemble into stable vesicles with a size around 50-60 nm, avoid uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and encase the drug in the core. However, the PEALCa micelles disassemble and release drug rapidly in acidic environment that resembles lysosomal compartments.
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Engineering ultrasmall water-soluble gold and silver nanoclusters for biomedical applications.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Gold and silver nanoclusters or Au/Ag NCs with core sizes smaller than 2 nm have been an attractive frontier of nanoparticle research because of their unique physicochemical properties such as well-defined molecular structure, discrete electronic transitions, quantized charging, and strong luminescence. As a result of these unique properties, ultrasmall size, and good biocompatibility, Au/Ag NCs have great potential for a variety of biomedical applications, such as bioimaging, biosensing, antimicrobial agents, and cancer therapy. In this feature article, we will first discuss some critical biological considerations, such as biocompatibility and renal clearance, of Au/Ag NCs that are applied for biomedical applications, leading to some design criteria for functional Au/Ag NCs in the biological settings. According to these biological considerations, we will then survey some efficient synthetic strategies for the preparation of protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs with an emphasis on our recent contributions in this fast-growing field. In the last part, we will highlight some potential biomedical applications of these protein- and peptide-protected Au/Ag NCs. It is believed that with continued efforts to understand the interactions of biomolecule-protected Au/Ag NCs with the biological systems, scientists can largely realize the great potential of Au/Ag NCs for biomedical applications, which could finally pave their way towards clinical use.
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Lighting up thiolated Au@Ag nanoclusters via aggregation-induced emission.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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A simple strategy has been developed to synthesize highly luminescent thiolated Au@Ag nanoclusters (NCs) by using Ag(i) ions to bridge small Au(i)-thiolate motifs on the weakly luminescent thiolated Au NCs, leading to the formation of large Au(i)/Ag(i)-thiolate motifs on the NC surface and thus generating strong luminescence via aggregation-induced emission.
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High-speed laser microsurgery of alert fruit flies for fluorescence imaging of neural activity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Intravital microscopy is a key means of monitoring cellular function in live organisms, but surgical preparation of a live animal for microscopy often is time-consuming, requires considerable skill, and limits experimental throughput. Here we introduce a spatially precise (<1-µm edge precision), high-speed (<1 s), largely automated, and economical protocol for microsurgical preparation of live animals for optical imaging. Using a 193-nm pulsed excimer laser and the fruit fly as a model, we created observation windows (12- to 350-µm diameters) in the exoskeleton. Through these windows we used two-photon microscopy to image odor-evoked Ca(2+) signaling in projection neuron dendrites of the antennal lobe and Kenyon cells of the mushroom body. The impact of a laser-cut window on fly health appears to be substantially less than that of conventional manual dissection, for our imaging durations of up to 18 h were ?5-20 times longer than prior in vivo microscopy studies of hand-dissected flies. This improvement will facilitate studies of numerous questions in neuroscience, such as those regarding neuronal plasticity or learning and memory. As a control, we used phototaxis as an exemplary complex behavior in flies and found that laser microsurgery is sufficiently gentle to leave it intact. To demonstrate that our techniques are applicable to other species, we created microsurgical openings in nematodes, ants, and the mouse cranium. In conjunction with emerging robotic methods for handling and mounting flies or other small organisms, our rapid, precisely controllable, and highly repeatable microsurgical techniques should enable automated, high-throughput preparation of live animals for optical experimentation.
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Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13) and placebo (n = 15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively), with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001), with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day) significantly increased 25(OH)D2 and decreased 25(OH)D3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.
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A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 8-weeks ingestion of a commercialized joint pain dietary supplement (InstaflexTM Joint Support, Direct Digital, Charlotte, NC) compared to placebo on joint pain, stiffness, and function in adults with self-reported joint pain. InstaflexTM is a joint pain supplement containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane (MSM), white willow bark extract (15% salicin), ginger root concentrate, boswella serrata extract (65% boswellic acid), turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid.
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Construction of recombinant adenoviruses carrying the optimal shRNA template against goat PTHrP and successful suppression of PTHrP expression in mammary epithelial cells.
Genet. Mol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family that regulates the dynamic balance between blood and bone calcium during lactation. However, the mechanism of its regulation is not very clear. In order to establish a framework for further functional studies of the PTHrP gene in goat mammary gland epithelial cells during the lactation period, PTHrP cDNA was isolated from Xinong Saanen dairy goats. Its coding sequence is 534 bp in size. We also designed a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to efficiently inhibit PTHrP expression and constructed recombinant adenoviruses carrying a template encoding this shRNA (AD-PTHrP-322) using the Block-iT shRNA interference system. Finally, the inhibition of PTHrP expression by the recombinant adenoviruses was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of PTHrP mRNA in mammary epithelial cells was downregulated by 29.2, 68.1, and 82.6% 24, 48, and 72 h after the cells were infected with AD-PTHrP-322, respectively. Western blotting also showed that the expression of PTHrP was reduced in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest that AD-PTHrP-322 significantly inhibits the expression of PTHrP.
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Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p < 0.05), except for sheep urine and urea fertiliser. For soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain.
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Tailoring the protein conformation to synthesize different-sized gold nanoclusters.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Gold nanoclusters with five discrete sizes (Au4, Au8, Au10, Au13, and Au25) are synthesized in a protein template with predefined conformation via a CO-mediated synthesis.
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Development and characterization of microsatellite loci in a threatened marine fish, Cheilinus undulatus (humphead wrasse).
Genet. Mol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Cheilinus undulatus (humphead wrasse) is a marine fish distributed widely throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It has been listed as vulnerable in the IUCN Red Data Book and in CITES Appendix II four times. Fifteen microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for this species. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15 per locus, and the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.0323-0.7742 and 0.2597-0.8773, respectively. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.2353-0.8520. Four microsatellite loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. No significant linkage disequilibrium was found among any of the loci. These microsatellite loci will be useful for future investigations of genetic variation in the wrasse population.
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Dissecting local circuits: parvalbumin interneurons underlie broad feedback control of olfactory bulb output.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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In the mouse olfactory bulb, information from sensory neurons is extensively processed by local interneurons before being transmitted to the olfactory cortex by mitral and tufted (M/T) cells. The precise function of these local networks remains elusive because of the vast heterogeneity of interneurons, their diverse physiological properties, and their complex synaptic connectivity. Here we identified the parvalbumin interneurons (PVNs) as a prominent component of the M/T presynaptic landscape by using an improved rabies-based transsynaptic tracing method for local circuits. In vivo two-photon-targeted patch recording revealed that PVNs have exceptionally broad olfactory receptive fields and exhibit largely excitatory and persistent odor responses. Transsynaptic tracing indicated that PVNs receive direct input from widely distributed M/T cells. Both the anatomical and functional extent of this M/T?PVN?M/T circuit contrasts with the narrowly confined M/T?granule cell?M/T circuit, suggesting that olfactory information is processed by multiple local circuits operating at distinct spatial scales.
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Measurement of the edge plasma rotation on J-TEXT tokamak.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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A multi-channel high resolution spectrometer was developed for the measurement of the edge plasma rotation on J-TEXT tokamak. With the design of two opposite viewing directions, the poloidal and toroidal rotations can be measured simultaneously, and velocity accuracy is up to 1 km?s. The photon flux was enhanced by utilizing combined optical fiber. With this design, the time resolution reaches 3 ms. An assistant software "Spectra Assist" was developed for implementing the spectrometer control and data analysis automatically. A multi-channel monochromatic analyzer is designed to get the location of chosen ions simultaneously through the inversion analysis. Some preliminary experimental results about influence of plasma density, different magnetohydrodynamics behaviors, and applying of biased electrode are presented.
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The effects of moderate exercise on chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and antimicrobial defense.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of moderate exercise on repeated restraint stress (RRS)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and explore possible mechanisms in a mouse model. Male Balb/c mice (6weeks) were randomized into 7 groups: CON functioned as controls with no intervention; RRS was subjected to 6h per day RRS for 7 consecutive days; RRS+SWIM received 30min per day of swimming prior to RRS; CON+SWIM only received 30min per day of swimming; and the other groups received one session of 30min swimming prior to sacrifice at 1-, 3- and 6h recovery. Intestinal permeability was quantified with FITC-dextran. Bacterial translocation was determined by quantification of bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) in cultured mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Antimicrobial related gene expression at baseline and 1h after one session of 30min swimming was tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in small intestinal segments. Protein expression of 5 genes with statistically significant increase was measured at baseline, and 1-, 3- and 6h post-swimming using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Thirty minutes per day of swimming before RRS attenuated bacterial translocations and maintained intestinal permeability. Gene expression and protein levels for four antimicrobial peptides (?-defensin 5, ?-defensin 1, RegIII? and RegIII?) were significantly increased after one 30min swimming session. In conclusion, moderate exercise attenuated chronic stress-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction in mice, possibly due to augmentation of antimicrobial responses in the small intestine.
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Pharmacodynamic changes with vecuronium in sepsis are associated with expression of ?7- and ?-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in an experimental rat model of neuromyopathy.
Br J Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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/st> Resistance to non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents induced by sepsis is associated with the qualitative change in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). This study aims to investigate the effects of sepsis on the neuromuscular block properties of vecuronium in relation to the expression of fetal and neuronal ?7 type nAChR.
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Immune and inflammation responses to a 3-day period of intensified running versus cycling.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Functional overreaching has been linked to alterations in immunity and host pathogen defense, but little is known as to whether or not running and cycling evoke different responses. This study compared inflammation, muscle damage and soreness, and innate immune function responses to a 3-day period of intensified exercise in trained long distance runners (N=13, age 34.4±2.4year) and cyclists (N=22, age 36.6±1.7year, P=0.452). Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptomatology was monitored for 12weeks using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS), and subjects from both athletic groups came to the lab during week five and exercised 2.5h/day for 3days in a row at 70% VO2max. Blood samples were collected before and after the 3-day period of exercise, with recovery samples collected 1-, 14-, and 38h-post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO)], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP), and innate immunity [granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis (GR-PHAG and MO-PHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GR-OBA and MO-OBA)]. Runners compared to cyclists experienced significantly more muscle damage (CK 133% and MYO 404% higher post-3days exercise), inflammation (CRP 87%, IL-6 256%, IL 8 61%, IL-10 32%, MCP 29%), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS, 87%). The 3-day period of exercise caused significant downturns in GR-PHAG, MO-PHAG, GR-OBA, MO-OBA by 14- and 38h-recovery, but the pattern of change did not differ between groups. No group differences were measured for 12-week URTI severity (18.3±5.6 and 16.6±4.0, P=0.803) and symptom scores (33.4±12.6 and 24.7±5.8, P=0.477). These data indicate that a 3-day period of functional overreaching results in substantially more muscle damage and soreness, and systemic inflammation in runners compared to cyclists, but without group differences for 12-week URTI symptomatology and post-exercise decrements in innate immune function.
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K_{S}^{0} and ? Production in Pb-Pb Collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76??TeV.
B Abelev, J Adam, D Adamová, A M Adare, M M Aggarwal, G Aglieri Rinella, M Agnello, A G Agocs, A Agostinelli, Z Ahammed, N Ahmad, A Ahmad Masoodi, I Ahmed, S U Ahn, S A Ahn, I Aimo, S Aiola, M Ajaz, A Akindinov, D Aleksandrov, B Alessandro, D Alexandre, A Alici, A Alkin, J Alme, T Alt, V Altini, S Altinpinar, I Altsybeev, C Alves Garcia Prado, C Andrei, A Andronic, V Anguelov, J Anielski, T Antičić, F Antinori, P Antonioli, L Aphecetche, H Appelshäuser, N Arbor, S Arcelli, N Armesto, R Arnaldi, T Aronsson, I C Arsene, M Arslandok, A Augustinus, R Averbeck, T C Awes, M D Azmi, M Bach, A Badalà, Y W Baek, R Bailhache, V Bairathi, R Bala, A Baldisseri, F Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, J Bán, R C Baral, R Barbera, F Barile, G G Barnaföldi, L S Barnby, V Barret, J Bartke, M Basile, N Bastid, S Basu, B Bathen, G Batigne, B Batyunya, P C Batzing, C Baumann, I G Bearden, H Beck, N K Behera, I Belikov, F Bellini, R Bellwied, E Belmont-Moreno, G Bencedi, S Beole, I Berceanu, A Bercuci, Y Berdnikov, D Berenyi, A A E Bergognon, R A Bertens, D Berzano, L Betev, A Bhasin, A K Bhati, J Bhom, L Bianchi, N Bianchi, J Bielcik, J Bielcikova, A Bilandzic, S Bjelogrlic, F Blanco, D Blau, C Blume, F Bock, A Bogdanov, H Bøggild, M Bogolyubsky, L Boldizsár, M Bombara, J Book, H Borel, A Borissov, J Bornschein, M Botje, E Botta, S Böttger, P Braun-Munzinger, M Bregant, T Breitner, T A Broker, T A Browning, M Broz, R Brun, E Bruna, G E Bruno, D Budnikov, H Buesching, S Bufalino, P Buncic, O Busch, Z Buthelezi, D Caffarri, X Cai, H Caines, A Caliva, E Calvo Villar, P Camerini, V Canoa Roman, G Cara Romeo, F Carena, W Carena, F Carminati, A Casanova Díaz, J Castillo Castellanos, E A R Casula, V Catanescu, C Cavicchioli, C Ceballos Sanchez, J Cepila, P Cerello, B Chang, S Chapeland, J L Charvet, S Chattopadhyay, M Cherney, C Cheshkov, B Cheynis, V Chibante Barroso, D D Chinellato, P Chochula, M Chojnacki, S Choudhury, P Christakoglou, C H Christensen, P Christiansen, T Chujo, S U Chung, C Cicalo, L Cifarelli, F Cindolo, J Cleymans, F Colamaria, D Colella, A Collu, M Colocci, G Conesa Balbastre, Z Conesa del Valle, M E Connors, G Contin, J G Contreras, T M Cormier, Y Corrales Morales, P Cortese, I Cortés Maldonado, M R Cosentino, F Costa, P Crochet, R Cruz Albino, E Cuautle, L Cunqueiro, A Dainese, R Dang, A Danu, K Das, D Das, I Das, A Dash, S Dash, S De, H Delagrange, A Deloff, E Dénes, A Deppman, G D'Erasmo, G O V de Barros, A De Caro, G de Cataldo, J de Cuveland, A De Falco, D De Gruttola, N De Marco, S De Pasquale, R de Rooij, M A Diaz Corchero, T Dietel, R Divià, D Di Bari, C Di Giglio, S Di Liberto, A Di Mauro, P Di Nezza, Ø Djuvsland, A Dobrin, T Dobrowolski, B Dönigus, O Dordic, A K Dubey, A Dubla, L Ducroux, P Dupieux, A K Dutta Majumdar, D Elia, D Emschermann, H Engel, B Erazmus, H A Erdal, D Eschweiler, B Espagnon, M Estienne, S Esumi, D Evans, S Evdokimov, G Eyyubova, D Fabris, J Faivre, D Falchieri, A Fantoni, M Fasel, D Fehlker, L Feldkamp, D Felea, A Feliciello, G Feofilov, J Ferencei, A Fernández Téllez, E G Ferreiro, A Ferretti, A Festanti, J Figiel, M A S Figueredo, S Filchagin, D Finogeev, F M Fionda, E M Fiore, E Floratos, M Floris, S Foertsch, P Foka, S Fokin, E Fragiacomo, A Francescon, U Frankenfeld, U Fuchs, C Furget, M Fusco Girard, J J Gaardhøje, M Gagliardi, A Gago, M Gallio, D R Gangadharan, P Ganoti, C Garabatos, E Garcia-Solis, C Gargiulo, I Garishvili, J Gerhard, M Germain, A Gheata, M Gheata, B Ghidini, P Ghosh, P Gianotti, P Giubellino, E Gladysz-Dziadus, P Glässel, L Goerlich, R Gomez, P González-Zamora, S Gorbunov, S Gotovac, L K Graczykowski, R Grajcarek, A Grelli, C Grigoras, A Grigoras, V Grigoriev, A Grigoryan, S Grigoryan, B Grinyov, N Grion, J F Grosse-Oetringhaus, J-Y Grossiord, R Grosso, F Guber, R Guernane, B Guerzoni, M Guilbaud, K Gulbrandsen, H Gulkanyan, T Gunji, A Gupta, R Gupta, K H Khan, R Haake, Ø Haaland, C Hadjidakis, M Haiduc, H Hamagaki, G Hamar, L D Hanratty, A Hansen, J W Harris, H Hartmann, A Harton, D Hatzifotiadou, S Hayashi, A Hayrapetyan, S T Heckel, M Heide, H Helstrup, A Herghelegiu, G Herrera Corral, N Herrmann, B A Hess, K F Hetland, B Hicks, B Hippolyte, Y Hori, P Hristov, I Hřivnáčová, M Huang, T J Humanic, D Hutter, D S Hwang, R Ilkaev, I Ilkiv, M Inaba, E Incani, G M Innocenti, C Ionita, M Ippolitov, M Irfan, M Ivanov, V Ivanov, O Ivanytskyi, A Jachołkowski, C Jahnke, H J Jang, M A Janik, P H S Y Jayarathna, S Jena, R T Jimenez Bustamante, P G Jones, H Jung, A Jusko, S Kalcher, P Kaliňák, A Kalweit, J H Kang, V Kaplin, S Kar, A Karasu Uysal, O Karavichev, T Karavicheva, E Karpechev, A Kazantsev, U Kebschull, R Keidel, B Ketzer, M M Khan, P Khan, S A Khan, A Khanzadeev, Y Kharlov, B Kileng, T Kim, B Kim, D J Kim, D W Kim, J S Kim, M Kim, S Kim, S Kirsch, I Kisel, S Kiselev, A Kisiel, G Kiss, J L Klay, J Klein, C Klein-Bösing, A Kluge, M L Knichel, A G Knospe, C Kobdaj, M K Köhler, T Kollegger, A Kolojvari, V Kondratiev, N Kondratyeva, A Konevskikh, V Kovalenko, M Kowalski, S Kox, G Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, J Kral, I Králik, F Kramer, A Kravčáková, M Krelina, M Kretz, M Krivda, F Krizek, M Krus, E Kryshen, M Krzewicki, V Kucera, Y Kucheriaev, T Kugathasan, C Kuhn, P G Kuijer, I Kulakov, J Kumar, P Kurashvili, A B Kurepin, A Kurepin, A Kuryakin, V Kushpil, S Kushpil, M J Kweon, Y Kwon, P Ladrón de Guevara, C Lagana Fernandes, I Lakomov, R Langoy, C Lara, A Lardeux, A Lattuca, S L La Pointe, P La Rocca, R Lea, M Lechman, S C Lee, G R Lee, I Legrand, J Lehnert, R C Lemmon, M Lenhardt, V Lenti, M Leoncino, I León Monzón, P Lévai, S Li, J Lien, R Lietava, S Lindal, V Lindenstruth, C Lippmann, M A Lisa, H M Ljunggren, D F Lodato, P I Loenne, V R Loggins, V Loginov, D Lohner, C Loizides, X Lopez, E López Torres, G Løvhøiden, X-G Lu, P Luettig, M Lunardon, J Luo, G Luparello, C Luzzi, P M Jacobs, R Ma, A Maevskaya, M Mager, D P Mahapatra, A Maire, M Malaev, I Maldonado Cervantes, L Malinina, D Mal'Kevich, P Malzacher, A Mamonov, L Manceau, V Manko, F Manso, V Manzari, M Marchisone, J Mareš, G V Margagliotti, A Margotti, A Marín, C Markert, M Marquard, I Martashvili, N A Martin, P Martinengo, M I Martínez, G Martínez García, J Martin Blanco, Y Martynov, A Mas, S Masciocchi, M Masera, A Masoni, L Massacrier, A Mastroserio, A Matyja, J Mazer, R Mazumder, M A Mazzoni, F Meddi, A Menchaca-Rocha, J Mercado Pérez, M Meres, Y Miake, K Mikhaylov, L Milano, J Milosevic, A Mischke, A N Mishra, D Miśkowiec, C Mitu, J Mlynarz, B Mohanty, L Molnar, L Montaño Zetina, M Monteno, E Montes, M Morando, D A Moreira De Godoy, S Moretto, A Morreale, A Morsch, V Muccifora, E Mudnic, S Muhuri, M Mukherjee, H Muller, M G Munhoz, S Murray, L Musa, B K Nandi, R Nania, E Nappi, C Nattrass, T K Nayak, S Nazarenko, A Nedosekin, M Nicassio, M Niculescu, B S Nielsen, S Nikolaev, S Nikulin, V Nikulin, B S Nilsen, M S Nilsson, F Noferini, P Nomokonov, G Nooren, A Nyanin, A Nyatha, J Nystrand, H Oeschler, S K Oh, S Oh, L Olah, J Oleniacz, A C Oliveira Da Silva, J Onderwaater, C Oppedisano, A Ortiz Velasquez, A Oskarsson, J Otwinowski, K Oyama, Y Pachmayer, M Pachr, P Pagano, G Paić, F Painke, C Pajares, S K Pal, A Palaha, A Palmeri, V Papikyan, G S Pappalardo, W J Park, A Passfeld, D I Patalakha, V Paticchio, B Paul, T Pawlak, T Peitzmann, H Pereira Da Costa, E Pereira De Oliveira Filho, D Peresunko, C E Pérez Lara, D Perrino, W Peryt, A Pesci, Y Pestov, V Petráček, M Petran, M Petris, P Petrov, M Petrovici, C Petta, S Piano, M Pikna, P Pillot, O Pinazza, L Pinsky, N Pitz, D B Piyarathna, M Planinic, M Płoskoń, J Pluta, S Pochybova, P L M Podesta-Lerma, M G Poghosyan, B Polichtchouk, A Pop, S Porteboeuf-Houssais, V Pospíšil, B Potukuchi, S K Prasad, R Preghenella, F Prino, C A Pruneau, I Pshenichnov, G Puddu, V Punin, J Putschke, H Qvigstad, A Rachevski, A Rademakers, J Rak, A Rakotozafindrabe, L Ramello, S Raniwala, R Raniwala, S S Räsänen, B T Rascanu, D Rathee, W Rauch, A W Rauf, V Razazi, K F Read, J S Real, K Redlich, R J Reed, A Rehman, P Reichelt, M Reicher, F Reidt, R Renfordt, A R Reolon, A Reshetin, F Rettig, J-P Revol, K Reygers, L Riccati, R A Ricci, T Richert, M Richter, P Riedler, W Riegler, F Riggi, A Rivetti, M Rodríguez Cahuantzi, A Rodriguez Manso, K Røed, E Rogochaya, S Rohni, D Rohr, D Röhrich, R Romita, F Ronchetti, P Rosnet, S Rossegger, A Rossi, P Roy, C Roy, A J Rubio Montero, R Rui, R Russo, E Ryabinkin, A Rybicki, S Sadovsky, K Šafařík, R Sahoo, P K Sahu, J Saini, H Sakaguchi, S Sakai, D Sakata, C A Salgado, J Salzwedel, S Sambyal, V Samsonov, X Sanchez Castro, L Šándor, A Sandoval, M Sano, G Santagati, R Santoro, D Sarkar, E Scapparone, F Scarlassara, R P Scharenberg, C Schiaua, R Schicker, C Schmidt, H R Schmidt, S Schuchmann, J Schukraft, M Schulc, T Schuster, Y Schutz, K Schwarz, K Schweda, G Scioli, E Scomparin, R Scott, P A Scott, G Segato, I Selyuzhenkov, J Seo, S Serci, E Serradilla, A Sevcenco, A Shabetai, G Shabratova, R Shahoyan, S Sharma, N Sharma, K Shigaki, K Shtejer, Y Sibiriak, S Siddhanta, T Siemiarczuk, D Silvermyr, C Silvestre, G Simatovic, R Singaraju, R Singh, S Singha, V Singhal, B C Sinha, T Sinha, B Sitar, M Sitta, T B Skaali, K Skjerdal, R Smakal, N Smirnov, R J M Snellings, R Soltz, M Song, J Song, C Soos, F Soramel, M Spacek, I Sputowska, M Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, B K Srivastava, J Stachel, I Stan, G Stefanek, M Steinpreis, E Stenlund, G Steyn, J H Stiller, D Stocco, M Stolpovskiy, P Strmen, A A P Suaide, M A Subieta Vásquez, T Sugitate, C Suire, M Suleymanov, R Sultanov, M Sumbera, T Susa, T J M Symons, A Szanto de Toledo, I Szarka, A Szczepankiewicz, M Szymański, J Takahashi, M A Tangaro, J D Tapia Takaki, A Tarantola Peloni, A Tarazona Martinez, A Tauro, G Tejeda Muñoz, A Telesca, C Terrevoli, A Ter Minasyan, J Thäder, D Thomas, R Tieulent, A R Timmins, A Toia, H Torii, V Trubnikov, W H Trzaska, T Tsuji, A Tumkin, R Turrisi, T S Tveter, J Ulery, K Ullaland, J Ulrich, A Uras, G M Urciuoli, G L Usai, M Vajzer, M Vala, L Valencia Palomo, P Vande Vyvre, L Vannucci, J W Van Hoorne, M van Leeuwen, A Vargas, R Varma, M Vasileiou, A Vasiliev, V Vechernin, M Veldhoen, M Venaruzzo, E Vercellin, S Vergara, R Vernet, M Verweij, L Vickovic, G Viesti, J Viinikainen, Z Vilakazi, O Villalobos Baillie, A Vinogradov, L Vinogradov, Y Vinogradov, T Virgili, Y P Viyogi, A Vodopyanov, M A Völkl, S Voloshin, K Voloshin, G Volpe, B von Haller, I Vorobyev, D Vranic, J Vrláková, B Vulpescu, A Vyushin, B Wagner, V Wagner, J Wagner, Y Wang, M Wang, D Watanabe, K Watanabe, M Weber, J P Wessels, U Westerhoff, J Wiechula, J Wikne, M Wilde, G Wilk, J Wilkinson, M C S Williams, B Windelband, M Winn, C Xiang, C G Yaldo, Y Yamaguchi, H Yang, P Yang, S Yang, S Yano, S Yasnopolskiy, J Yi, Z Yin, I-K Yoo, I Yushmanov, V Zaccolo, C Zach, C Zampolli, S Zaporozhets, A Zarochentsev, P Závada, N Zaviyalov, H Zbroszczyk, P Zelnicek, I S Zgura, M Zhalov, F Zhang, Y Zhang, H Zhang, X Zhang, D Zhou, Y Zhou, F Zhou, X Zhu, J Zhu, H Zhu, A Zichichi, M B Zimmermann, A Zimmermann, G Zinovjev, Y Zoccarato, M Zynovyev, M Zyzak, .
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The ALICE measurement of K_{S}^{0} and ? production at midrapidity in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76??TeV is presented. The transverse momentum (p_{T}) spectra are shown for several collision centrality intervals and in the p_{T} range from 0.4??GeV/c (0.6??GeV/c for ?) to 12??GeV/c. The p_{T} dependence of the ?/K_{S}^{0} ratios exhibits maxima in the vicinity of 3??GeV/c, and the positions of the maxima shift towards higher p_{T} with increasing collision centrality. The magnitude of these maxima increases by almost a factor of three between most peripheral and most central Pb-Pb collisions. This baryon excess at intermediate p_{T} is not observed in pp interactions at sqrt[s]=0.9??TeV and at sqrt[s]=7??TeV. Qualitatively, the baryon enhancement in heavy-ion collisions is expected from radial flow. However, the measured p_{T} spectra above 2??GeV/c progressively decouple from hydrodynamical-model calculations. For higher values of p_{T}, models that incorporate the influence of the medium on the fragmentation and hadronization processes describe qualitatively the p_{T} dependence of the ?/K_{S}^{0} ratio.
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Development of universal influenza vaccines based on influenza virus M and NP genes.
Infection
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Vaccination is the safest and most effective measure against influenza virus infections. However, traditional influenza vaccines cannot respond effectively to an unforeseen epidemic or pandemic caused by a virus with antigenic drifts or antigenic shifts. Therefore, developing a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) that induces broad-spectrum and long-term immunity has become a major trend in influenza vaccine research and development.
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Hierarchically structured Co?O?@Pt@MnO? nanowire arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Here we proposed a novel architectural design of a ternary MnO2-based electrode - a hierarchical Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 core-shell-shell structure, where the complemental features of the three key components (a well-defined Co3O4 nanowire array on the conductive Ti substrate, an ultrathin layer of small Pt nanoparticles, and a thin layer of MnO2 nanoflakes) are strategically combined into a single entity to synergize and construct a high-performance electrode for supercapacitors. Owing to the high conductivity of the well-defined Co3O4 nanowire arrays, in which the conductivity was further enhanced by a thin metal (Pt) coating layer, in combination with the large surface area provided by the small MnO2 nanoflakes, the as-fabricated Co3O4@Pt@MnO2 nanowire arrays have exhibited high specific capacitances, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability. The architectural design demonstrated in this study provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance MnO2-based nanowire arrays for constructing next-generation supercapacitors.
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Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in runners following a competitive marathon.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Adaptogens modulate intracellular signaling and increase expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72). Rhodiola rosea (RR) is a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of RR supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), plasma cytokines, and extracellular HSP72 (eHSP72) in experienced runners completing a marathon. Experienced marathon runners were randomized to RR (n=24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male) groups and under double-blinded conditions ingested 600mg/day RR extract or placebo for 30days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood samples were collected, and vertical jump and DOMS assessed the day before, 15min post- and 1.5h post-marathon. DOMS was also assessed for seven days post-marathon. Marathon race performance did not differ between RR and placebo groups (3.87±0.12h and 3.93±0.12h, respectively, p=0.722). Vertical jump decreased post-marathon (time effect, p<0.001) with no difference between groups (interaction effect, p=0.673). Post-marathon DOMS increased significantly (p<0.001) but the pattern of change did not differ between groups (p=0.700). Myoglobin (Mb), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and eHSP72 all increased post-marathon (all p<0.001), with no group differences over time (all p>0.300). In conclusion, RR supplementation (600mg/day) for 30days before running a marathon did not attenuate the post-marathon decrease in muscle function, or increases in muscle damage, DOMS, eHSP72, or plasma cytokines in experienced runners.
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Induction of autophagy contributes to the myocardial protection of valsartan against ischemia?reperfusion injury.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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The mechanisms underlying the myocardial protection of valsartan against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are complicated and remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether autophagy machinery was involved in the protection against I/R injury that is induced by valsartan. In vivo rat hearts were subjected to ischemia by 30 min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by a 120 min reperfusion. 3?methyladenine (3?MA), a specific inhibitor on autophagic sequestration, was used to inhibit autophagy. The hemodynamics, infarct size of the ventricle and LC3B protein were measured. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the mechanism by which autophagy was induced by valsartan. Valsartan preconditioning resulted in a significant decrease in infarct size and induced autophagy in the rat heart subjected to I/R injury. The hemodynamics assay showed that the valsartan?induced cardiac functional recovery was attenuated by 3?MA. By contrast, 3?MA decreased the improvement induced by valsartan on the histology and infarction of the rat heart subjected to I/R injury. Valsartan preconditioning induced autophagy via the AKT/mTOR/S6K pathway, independent of Beclin1. In conclusion, valsartan preconditioning induced autophagy via the AKT/mTOR/S6K pathway, which contributed to the myocardial protection against I/R injury.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? stimulates the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids in dairy goat mammary epithelial cells via the control of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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In rodents, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPARG) plays a crucial role in fatty acid (FA) metabolism through regulation of gene expression, including stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the biosynthesis of monounsaturated FA. However, whether or how PPARG regulates the activity of mammary SCD in ruminants is unknown. This study explored the potential role of PPARG isoforms in regulating SCD mRNA expression in lactating goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Using quantitative real-time PCR, we observed a positive correlation between PPARG and SCD expression in the goat mammary gland at peak lactation. Overexpression of both PPARG1 and PPARG2 in GMEC increased markedly the expression of SCD, the concentration of 16:1 and 18:1, and the desaturation indices of 16:1 and 18:1. The PPARG ligand rosiglitazone further increased SCD expression and desaturation indices in GMEC, overexpressing PPARG1 and PPARG2. Incubation with rosiglitazone alone increased the expression of SCD, but did not alter the concentration of 16- to 18-carbon FA or their desaturation indices. The results provide evidence that PPARG regulates the expression and activity of SCD in GMEC. As such, PPARG may contribute to regulation of SCD and monounsaturated FA synthesis during lactation.
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GABAergic projection neurons route selective olfactory inputs to specific higher-order neurons.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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We characterize an inhibitory circuit motif in the Drosophila olfactory system, parallel inhibition, which differs from feedforward or feedback inhibition. Excitatory and GABAergic inhibitory projection neurons (ePNs and iPNs) each receive input from antennal lobe glomeruli and send parallel output to the lateral horn, a higher center implicated in regulating innate olfactory behavior. Ca(2+) imaging of specific lateral horn neurons as an olfactory readout revealed that iPNs selectively suppressed food-related odor responses, but spared signal transmission from pheromone channels. Coapplying food odorant did not affect pheromone signal transmission, suggesting that the differential effects likely result from connection specificity of iPNs, rather than a generalized inhibitory tone. Ca(2+) responses in the ePN axon terminals show no detectable suppression by iPNs, arguing against presynaptic inhibition as a primary mechanism. The parallel inhibition motif may provide specificity in inhibition to funnel specific olfactory information, such as food and pheromone, into distinct downstream circuits.
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Enhanced Tumor Accumulation of Sub-2 nm Gold Nanoclusters for Cancer Radiation Therapy.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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A new type of metabolizable and efficient radiosensitizers for cancer radiotherapy is presented by combining ultrasmall Au nanoclusters (NCs, <2 nm) with biocompatible coating ligands (glutathione, GSH). The new nanoconstruct (GSH-coated Au25 NCs) inherits attractive features of both the Au core (strong radiosensitizing effect) and GSH shell (good biocompatibility). It can preferentially accumulate in tumor via the improved EPR effect, which leads to strong enhancement for cancer radiotherapy. After the treatment, the small-sized GSH-Au25 NCs can be efficiently cleared by the kidney, minimizing any potential side effects due to the accumulation of Au25 NCs in the body.
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Precursor engineering and controlled conversion for the synthesis of monodisperse thiolate-protected metal nanoclusters.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In very recent years, thiolate-protected metal nanoclusters (or thiolated MNCs) with core sizes smaller than 2 nm have emerged as a new direction in nanoparticle research due to their discrete and size dependent electronic structures and molecular-like properties, such as HOMO-LUMO transitions in optical absorptions, quantized charging, and strong luminescence. Synthesis of monodisperse thiolated MNCs in sufficiently large quantities (up to several hundred micrograms) is necessary for establishing reliable size-property relationships and exploring potential applications. This Feature Article reviews recent progress in the development of synthetic strategies for the production of monodisperse thiolated MNCs. The preparation of monodisperse thiolated MNCs is viewed as an engineerable process where both the precursors (input) and their conversion chemistry (processing) may be rationally designed to achieve the desired outcome - monodisperse thiolated MNCs (output). Several strategies for tailoring the precursor and the conversion process are analyzed to arrive at a unifying understanding of the processes involved.
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