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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sonic hedgehog signalling pathway regulates apoptosis through Smo protein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of smoothened protein (Smo), a sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling component, in synovium of RA and its role in the survival and apoptosis of endothelial cells.
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Impact of CCD camera SNR on polarimetric accuracy.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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A comprehensive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera noise model is employed to study the impact of CCD camera signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on polarimetric accuracy. The study shows that the standard deviations of the measured degree of linear polarization (DoLP) and angle of linear polarization (AoLP) are mainly dependent on the camera SNR. With increase in the camera SNR, both the measurement errors and the standard deviations caused by the CCD camera noise decrease. When the DoLP of the incident light is smaller than 0.1, the camera SNR should be at least 75 to achieve a measurement error of less than 0.01. When the input DoLP is larger than 0.5, a SNR of 15 is sufficient to achieve the same measurement accuracy. An experiment is carried out to verify the simulation results.
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Macromol. Rapid commun. 21/2014.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Front Cover: One-step aqueous synthesis is used to produce low-cost macrocyclic amine-linked oligocarbazole hollow microspheres in an environmentally friendly fashion. Upon adjusting the oxidants and acidic media used, the size and function of hollow microspheres are facilely tunable. Such assembled oligocarbazole hollow microspheres are able to actively remove toxic lead with high sorption capacity (82.5 mg/g) and excellent recyclability (96.5%). Further details can be found in the article by Y. Liao,* S. Cai, S. J. Huang, X. Wang,* and C. F. J. Faul* on page 1833.
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High-Throughput RNA sequencing based virome analysis of 50 lymphoma cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from 50 common lymphoma cell culture models from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia project, we performed an unbiased global interrogation for the presence of a panel of 740 viruses and strains known to infect human and other mammalian cells. This led to the findings of previously identified infections by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). In addition, we also found a previously unreported infection of one cell line (DEL) with a murine leukemia virus. High expression of MuLV transcripts was observed in DEL cells and we identified 4 transcriptionally active integration sites, one being in the TNFRSF6B gene. We also found low levels of MuLV reads in a number of other cell lines and provided evidence suggesting cross-contamination during sequencing. Analysis of HTLV-1 integrations in two cell lines, HuT 102 and MJ, identified 14 and 66 transcriptionally active integration sites with potentially activating integrations in immune regulatory genes including IL15, IL6ST, STAT5B, HIVEP1, and IL9R. While KSHV and EBV do not typically integrate into the genome, we investigated a previously identified integration of EBV into the BACH2 locus in Raji cells. This analysis identified a BACH2 disruption mechanism involving splice donor sequestration. Through viral gene expression analysis, we detected expression of stable intronic RNAs from the EBV BamHI W repeats that may be part of long transcripts spanning the repeat region. We also observed transcripts at the EBV vIL10 locus exclusively in the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell line, Hs 611.T, the expression of which were uncoupled from other lytic genes. Assessment of the KSHV viral transcriptome in BCP-1 cells showed expression of the viral immune regulators, K2/vIL6, K4/vIL8-like vCCL1, and K5/E2-ubiquitin ligase 1 that was significantly higher than expression of the latency-associated nuclear antigen, LANA. Together, this investigation sheds light into the virus composition across these lymphoma model systems and provides insights into common viral mechanistic principles.
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A ZnO-graphene hybrid with remarkably enhanced lithium storage capability.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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In this work, a ZnO-graphene (ZnO-GN) hybrid is successfully synthesized from graphene oxide (GO) and zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] by a facile freeze drying treatment and subsequent heat treatment method. The uniform ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter less than 10 nm were uniformly anchored on a nitrogen-doped conductive GN matrix to form a ZnO-GN hybrid. Moreover, various ZnO-GN hybrids with different ZnO loading amounts are fabricated by changing the dosage of Zn(OH)2. When used as an anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the hybrid showed unprecedentedly enhanced cycling stability and rate performance. More remarkably, the optimized ZnO-GN hybrid achieved an ultrahigh reversible capacity of 900 mA h g(-1), close to the theoretical capacity (978 mA h g(-1)) of ZnO after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1), which so far has been proved to be the best result among all ZnO-GN-based electrode materials. As a result, we attributed the excellent performance to the incorporation of the conductive nitrogen-doped GN matrix and the synergetic effect between GN sheets and ZnO NPs.
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Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Electronic Properties of High-Pressure PdF2-Type Oxides MO2 (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir, Pt).
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The polycrystalline MO2's (HP-PdF2-type MO2, M = Rh, Os, Pt) with high-pressure PdF2 compounds were successfully synthesized under high-pressure conditions for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The crystal structures and electromagnetic properties were studied. Previously unreported electronic properties of the polycrystalline HP-PdF2-type RuO2 and IrO2 were also studied. The refined structures clearly indicated that all compounds crystallized into the HP-PdF2-type structure, M(4+)O(2-)2, rather than the pyrite-type structure, M(n+)(O2)(n-) (n < 4). The MO2 compounds (M = Ru, Rh, Os, Ir) exhibited metallic conduction, while PtO2 was highly insulating, probably because of the fully occupied t2g band. Neither superconductivity nor a magnetic transition was detected down to a temperature of 2 K, unlike the case of 3d transition metal chalcogenide pyrites.
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Late onset temperature reduction can retard aging process in aged fish via a combined action of antioxidant system and IIS pathway.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Two different mechanisms are considered to be related with aging. Cumulative molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Deregulated nutrient sensing by insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is the second mechanism (IIS concept). Temperature reduction (TR) is known to modulate aging and prolong lifespan in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we first demonstrate that late onset TR from 26oC to 22oC extends mean lifespan and maximum lifespan by approximately 5.2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We then show that TR is able to decrease the accumulation of histological aging markers senescence-associated ?-galactosidase (SA-?-Gal) in the epithelium and lipofuscin (LF) in the liver, and to reduce the protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscle. We also show that TR can enhance the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and stimulate the synthesis of SirT1 and FOXO, both of which are the downstream regulator of IIS pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that late onset TR, a simple non-intrusion intervention, can retard aging process in aged fish, resulting in their lifespan extension, via a synergistic action of antioxidant system and IIS pathway. This also suggests that combined assessment of ROS concept and IIS concept will contribute to providing more comprehensive view of anti-aging process.
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A Retrospective Study to Compare the use of Tacrolimus and Cyclosporine in Combination with Adriamycin in Post-Transplant Liver Cancer Patients.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effect of tacrolimus (TAC) versus cyclosporine (CycA) in post-transplant hepatic cancer patients undergoing adriamycin hydrochloride (ADM) chemotherapy. Patients with advanced hepatic cancer who underwent liver transplant and subsequent therapy between March 2007 and March 2009 in our hospital were selected for this study. All of these patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agent adriamycin, with respect to immunosuppressant, whereas they received either TAC or CycA, and hence represented two groups, TAC and controls, respectively. The short- and long-term outcomes of two therapies, ADM + TAC and ADM + CsA, were compared. The TAC group patients showed improved remission compared to the control group (40 cases with 46.0 % versus 32 cases with 31.1 % remission, respectively). The 5-year survival in TAC group was significantly prolonged (20.7 %) compared to that of the controls (8.7 %). The short-term outcomes, such as serum levels of calcium, biomarkers of cardiac toxicity/functioning, and regulatory T lymphocytes counts (markers of immune functioning), were found to be significantly more auspicious with TAC treatment than with CycA. Our study showed that use of TAC plus ADM resulted in improved patient survival, tolerance of the graft, and remission compared to CycA combined with ADM. The serum levels of various markers in the short follow-up analysis indicated a better cardiac and immune functioning with TAC than with CycA treatment.
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The PAX2-null immunophenotype defines multiple lineages with common expression signatures in benign and neoplastic oviductal epithelium.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The oviducts contain high-grade serous cancer (HGSC) precursors (serous tubal intraepithelial neoplasia or STINs), which are ?-H2AX(p) - and TP53 mutation-positive. Although they express wild-type p53, secretory cell outgrowths (SCOUTs) are associated with older age and serous cancer; moreover, both STINs and SCOUTs share a loss of PAX2 expression (PAX2(n) ). We evaluated PAX2 expression in proliferating adult and embryonic oviductal cells, normal mucosa, SCOUTs, Walthard cell nests (WCNs), STINs, and HGSCs, and the expression of genes chosen empirically or from SCOUT expression arrays. Clones generated in vitro from embryonic gynaecological tract and adult Fallopian tube were Krt7(p) /PAX2(n) /EZH2(p) and underwent ciliated (PAX2(n) /EZH2(n) /FOXJ1(p) ) and basal (Krt7(n) /EZH2(n) /Krt5(p) ) differentiation. Similarly, non-ciliated cells in normal mucosa were PAX2(p) but became PAX2(n) in multi-layered epithelium undergoing ciliated or basal (WCN) cell differentiation. PAX2(n) SCOUTs fell into two groups: type 1 were secretory or secretory/ciliated with a 'tubal' phenotype and were ALDH1(n) and ?-catenin(mem) (membraneous only). Type 2 displayed a columnar to pseudostratified (endometrioid) phenotype, with an EZH2(p) , ALDH1(p) , ?-catenin(nc) (nuclear and cytoplasmic), stathmin(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and RUNX2(p) expression signature. STINs and HGSCs shared the type 1 immunophenotype of PAX2(n) , ALDH1(n) , ?-catenin(mem) , but highly expressed EZH2(p) , LEF1(p) , RCN1(p) , and stathmin(p) . This study, for the first time, links PAX2(n) with proliferating fetal and adult oviductal cells undergoing basal and ciliated differentiation and shows that this expression state is maintained in SCOUTs, STINs, and HGSCs. All three entities can demonstrate a consistent perturbation of genes involved in potential tumour suppressor gene silencing (EZH2), transcriptional regulation (LEF1), regulation of differentiation (RUNX2), calcium binding (RCN1), and oncogenesis (stathmin). This shared expression signature between benign and neoplastic entities links normal progenitor cell expansion to abnormal and neoplastic outgrowth in the oviduct and exposes a common pathway that could be a target for early prevention. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Electrospun quercetin-loaded zein nanoribbons.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study investigates quercetin-loaded zein nanoribbons, which were fabricated using different types of electrospinning processes. Using ethanol aqueous solutions as sheath fluids, the widths of quercetin-loaded zein nanoribbons (D, nm) could be manipulated simply through the adjustment of water contents(C) in the sheath fluids according to an equation of D=958-8.01C(r=0.9977), as indicated by the field emission scanning electron microscopic observations. X-ray diffraction and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared analysis suggested that the quercetin presented in the zein nanoribbons in an amorphous state due to their high compability resulted from hydrogen bonds. In vitro dissolution tests verified that nanoribbons from the coaxial process and single fluid process could provide drug sustained release profiles via a typical Fickian diffusion mechanism, and the former exhibited better performance than the later in terms of small initial burst effect and leveling-off release. Coaxial electrospinning with solvents can expand the capability of electrospinning in generating nanoproducts and provide a way for improving the nanoproducts' quality and functional performance.
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Heterodimeric capping protein from Arabidopsis is a membrane-associated, actin-binding protein.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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The actin cytoskeleton is a major regulator of cell morphogenesis and responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. The organization and activities of the cytoskeleton are choreographed by hundreds of accessory proteins. Many actin-binding proteins are thought to be stimulus-response regulators that bind to signaling phospholipids and change their activity upon lipid binding. Whether these proteins associate with and/or are regulated by signaling lipids in plant cells remains poorly understood. Heterodimeric capping protein (CP) is a conserved and ubiquitous regulator of actin dynamics. It binds to the barbed end of filaments with high affinity and modulates filament assembly and disassembly reactions in vitro. Direct interaction of CP with phospholipids, including phosphatidic acid, results in uncapping of filament ends in vitro. Live-cell imaging and reverse-genetic analyses of cp mutants in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) recently provided compelling support for a model in which CP activity is negatively regulated by phosphatidic acid in vivo. Here, we used complementary biochemical, subcellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence microscopy approaches to elucidate CP-membrane association. We found that CP is moderately abundant in Arabidopsis tissues and present in a microsomal membrane fraction. Sucrose density gradient separation and immunoblotting with known compartment markers were used to demonstrate that CP is enriched on membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. This association could facilitate cross talk between the actin cytoskeleton and a wide spectrum of essential cellular functions such as organelle motility and signal transduction.
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Biocatalysis and biotransformation of resveratrol in microorganisms.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Resveratrol, a major stilbene phytoalexin, is a valuable polyphenol that has been recognized for its benefits to human health. Resveratrol has antioxidant and antitumor effects and promotes longevity. It is used in medicine, health care products, cosmetics, and other industries. Therefore, a sustainable source for resveratrol production is required. This review describes the metabolic engineering of microorganisms, the biotransformation and biosynthesis of endophytes and the oxidation or degradation of resveratrol. We compare various available methods for resveratrol production, and summarize the practical challenges facing the microbial production of resveratrol. The future research direction for resveratrol is also discussed.
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[Effects of acetamide at different doses on expression of amino acids in cerebral cortex of rats with acute tetramine poisoning].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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To investigate the effects of acetamide at different doses on the expression of inhibitory amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA) and excitatory amino acid (glutamate, Glu) in the cerebral cortex of rats with acute tetramine (TET) poisoning.
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The dynamics of NF-?B pathway regulated by circadian clock.
Math Biosci
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The circadian clock regulates many physiological parameters involving immune response to infectious agents, which is mediated by activation of the transcription factor NF-?B. Thus, understanding the NF-?B dynamics regulated by circadian clocks will help in developing better therapeutics. To this end, we proposed a detailed model in the present work on the basis of understanding inflammatory response under control from circadian clocks. Our results show that the frequencies and amplitudes of the NF-?B oscillation are dependent on the strength and modes of coupling to circadian clock. This circadian control of NF-?B pathway can therefore serve as a useful mechanism in keeping the system in check and controlling inflammatory response induced by infection and other agents. The results are consistent with earlier experimental findings.
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In situ encapsulation of germanium clusters in carbon nanofibers: high-performance anodes for lithium-ion batteries.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Alloyed anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) usually suffer from considerable capacity losses during charge-discharge process. Herein, in?situ-grown germanium clusters are homogeneously encapsulated into porous nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (N-CNFs) to form Ge/N-CNFs hybrids, using a facile electrospinning method followed by thermal treatment. When used as anode in LIBs, the Ge/N-CNFs hybrids exhibit excellent lithium storage performance in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability, and rate capability. The excellent electrochemical properties can be attributed to the unique structural features: the distribution of the germanium clusters, porous carbon nanofibers, and Ge?N chemical bonds all contribute to alleviating the large volume changes of germanium during the discharge-charge process, while at same time the unique porous N-CNFs not only increase the contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, but also the conductivity of the hybrid.
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Electroaddressing of ZnS quantum dots by codeposition with chitosan to construct fluorescent and patterned device surface.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Electroaddressing is an attractive method for triggering assembly of stimuli-responsive biopolymers with exquisite spatiotemporal control, and it also offers a controllable means to concurrently assemble biological materials and nanoparticles for a diverse range of applications. Here, we demonstrate a novel method to construct fluorescent and patterned device surfaces by electroaddressing of quantum dots (QDs)/chitosan composite. First, the surfaces of ZnS QDs/chitosan composite on the electrodes are built by electrodeposition method. It is shown that the deposited surface displays clear fluorescence under UV light, and the fluorescence intensity of the surface can be controlled by electrodeposition conditions (e.g., deposition time). Furthermore, a variety of fluorescent patterns can be constructed by employing electrodes or substrates with various shapes. Specifically, taking advantage of the spatiotemporal selectivity of electroaddressing and the pH-responsive property of chitosan, we construct diverse fluorescent patterns by electroaddressing QDs/chitosan composite at the localized region. It is also found that the fluorescent patterns of QDs/chitosan composite have reproducibility. Thus, this work presents a convenient, versatile, and controllable method to construct fluorescent and patterned device surface by electroaddressing, which has promising applications in photoluminescence device, fluorescent and patterned coating, and nanocomposite biodevice.
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Reconstruction and minimal gene requirements for the alternative iron-only nitrogenase in Escherichia coli.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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All diazotrophic organisms sequenced to date encode a molybdenum-dependent nitrogenase, but some also have alternative nitrogenases that are dependent on either vanadium (VFe) or iron only (FeFe) for activity. In Azotobacter vinelandii, expression of the three different types of nitrogenase is regulated in response to metal availability. The majority of genes required for nitrogen fixation in this organism are encoded in the nitrogen fixation (nif) gene clusters, whereas genes specific for vanadium- or iron-dependent diazotophy are encoded by the vanadium nitrogen fixation (vnf) and alternative nitrogen fixation (anf) genes, respectively. Due to the complexities of metal-dependent regulation and gene redundancy in A. vinelandii, it has been difficult to determine the precise genetic requirements for alternative nitrogen fixation. In this study, we have used Escherichia coli as a chassis to build an artificial iron-only (Anf) nitrogenase system composed of defined anf and nif genes. Using this system, we demonstrate that the pathway for biosynthesis of the iron-only cofactor (FeFe-co) is likely to be simpler than the pathway for biosynthesis of the molybdenum-dependent cofactor (FeMo-co) equivalent. A number of genes considered to be essential for nitrogen fixation by FeFe nitrogenase, including nifM, vnfEN, and anfOR, are not required for the artificial Anf system in E. coli. This finding has enabled us to engineer a minimal FeFe nitrogenase system comprising the structural anfHDGK genes and the nifBUSV genes required for metallocluster biosynthesis, with nifF and nifJ providing electron transport to the alternative nitrogenase. This minimal Anf system has potential implications for engineering diazotrophy in eukaryotes, particularly in compartments (e.g., organelles) where molybdenum may be limiting.
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Bistable Switch in let-7 miRNA Biogenesis Pathway Involving Lin28.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs capable of regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A growing body of evidence demonstrated that let-7 family of miRNAs, as one of the highly conserved miRNAs, plays an important role in cell differentiation and development, as well as tumor suppressor function depending on their levels of expression. To explore the physiological significance of let-7 in regulating cell fate decisions, we present a coarse grained model of let-7 biogenesis network, in which let-7 and its regulator Lin28 inhibit mutually. The dynamics of this minimal network architecture indicates that, as the concentration of Lin28 increases, the system undergoes a transition from monostability to a bistability and then to a one-way switch with increasing strength of positive feedback of let-7, while in the absence of Lin28 inhibition, the system loses bistability. Moreover, the ratio of degradation rates of let-7 and Lin28 is critical for the switching sensitivity and resistance to stimulus fluctuations. These findings may highlight why let-7 is required for normal gene expression in the context of embryonic development and oncogenesis, which will facilitate the development of approaches to exploit this regulatory pathway by manipulating Lin28/let-7 axis for novel treatments of human diseases.
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Preventive effect of Actinidia valvata Dunn extract on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastrointestinal cancer in rats.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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This study was conducted to assess the preventive effect of Actinidia valvata Dunn (AVD) extract on an animal model of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis on the basis of changes in tumor incidence, cell proliferation, and apoptosis.
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Performance of the Cas9 Nickase System in Drosophila melanogaster.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Recent studies of the Cas9/sgRNA system in Drosophila melanogaster genome editing have opened new opportunities to generate site-specific mutant collections in a high-throughput manner. However, off-target effects of the system are still a major concern when analyzing mutant phenotypes. Mutations converting Cas9 to a DNA nickase have great potential for reducing off-target effects in vitro. Here, we demonstrated that injection of two plasmids encoding neighboring offset sgRNAs into transgenic Cas9(D10A) nickase flies efficiently produces heritable indel mutants. We then determined the effective distance between the two sgRNA targets and their orientations that affected the ability of the sgRNA pairs to generate mutations when expressed in the transgenic nickase flies. Interestingly, Cas9 nickase greatly reduces the ability to generate mutants with one sgRNA, suggesting that the application of Cas9 nickase and sgRNA pairs can almost avoid off-target effects when generating indel mutants. Finally, a defined piwi mutant allele is generated with this system through homology-directed repair. However, Cas9(D10A) is not as effective as Cas9 in replacing the entire coding sequence of piwi with two sgRNAs.
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Synthesis and evaluation of a 18F-labeled spirocyclic piperidine derivative as promising ?1 receptor imaging agent.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Several spirocyclic piperidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as ?1 receptor ligands. In vitro competition binding assays showed that the fluoroalkoxy analogues with small substituents possessed high affinity towards ?1 receptors and subtype selectivity. Particularly for ligand 1'-((6-(2-fluoroethoxy)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3H-spiro[2-benzofuran-1,4'-piperidine] (2), high ?1 receptor affinity (Ki=2.30 nM) and high ?1/?2 subtype selectivity (142-fold) as well as high ?1/VAChT selectivity (234-fold) were observed. [18F]2 was synthesized using an efficient one-pot, two-step reaction method in a home-made automated synthesis module, with an overall isolated radiochemical yield of 8-10%, a radiochemical purity of higher than 99%, and specific activity of 56-78GBq/?mol. Biodistribution studies of [18F]2 in ICR mice indicated high initial brain uptake and a relatively fast washout. Administration of haloperidol, compound 1 and different concentrations of SA4503 (3, 5, or 10 ?mol/kg) 5 min prior to injection of [18F]2 significantly decreased the accumulation of radiotracer in organs known to contain ?1 receptors. Ex vivo autoradiography in Sprague-Dawley rats demonstrated high accumulation of radiotracer in brain areas with high expression of ?1 receptors. These encouraging results prove that [18F]2 is a suitable candidate for ?1 receptor imaging with PET in humans.
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Novel cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl (99m)tc complexes containing 1-piperonylpiperazine moiety: potential imaging probes for sigma-1 receptors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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We report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a series of novel cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl (99m)Tc complexes as potent ?1 receptor radioligands. Rhenium compounds 3-(4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)piperazin-1-yl)propylcarbonylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium (10a) and 4-(4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-ylmethyl)piperazin-1-yl)butylcarbonylcyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium (10b) possessed high in vitro affinity for ?1 receptors and moderate to high selectivity for ?2 receptors and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. Biodistribution studies in mice demonstrated high initial brain uptake for corresponding (99m)Tc derivatives [(99m)Tc]23 and [(99m)Tc]24 of 2.94 and 2.13% injected dose (ID)/g, respectively, at 2 min postinjection. Pretreatment of haloperidol significantly reduced the radiotracer accumulation of [(99m)Tc]23 or [(99m)Tc]24 in the brain. Studies of the cellular uptake of [(99m)Tc]23 in C6 and DU145 tumor cells demonstrated a reduction of accumulation by incubation with haloperidol, 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (SA4503), or 1,3-di-o-tolyl-guanidine (DTG). Furthermore, blocking studies in C6 glioma-bearing mice confirmed the specific binding of [(99m)Tc]23 to ?1 receptors in the tumor.
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Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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To examine and quantify the potential dose-response relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality.
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Contrasting Effects of Ethylene Biosynthesis on Induced Plant Resistance against a Chewing and a Piercing-Sucking Herbivore in Rice.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Ethylene is a stress hormone with contrasting effects on herbivore resistance. However, it remains unknown whether these differences are plant- or herbivore-specific. We cloned a rice 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase gene, OsACS2, whose transcripts were rapidly up-regulated in response to mechanical wounding and infestation by two important pests: the striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis and the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. Antisense expression of OsACS2 (as-acs) reduced elicited ethylene emission, SSB-elicited trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI) activity, SSB-induced volatile release, and SSB resistance. Exogenous application of ACC restored TrypPI activity and SSB resistance. In contrast to SSB, BPH infestation increased volatile emission in as-acs lines. Accordingly, BPH preferred to feed and oviposit on wild-type (WT) plants-an effect that could be attributed to two repellent volatiles, 2-heptanone and 2-heptanol, that were emitted in higher amounts by as-acs plants. BPH honeydew excretion was reduced and natural enemy attraction was enhanced in as-acs lines, resulting in higher overall resistance to BPH. These results demonstrate that ethylene signaling has contrasting, herbivore-specific effects on rice defense responses and resistance against a chewing and a piercing-sucking insect, and may mediate resistance trade-offs between herbivores of different feeding guilds in rice.
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Mesodermal expression of integrin ?5?1 regulates neural crest development and cardiovascular morphogenesis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Integrin ?5-null embryos die in mid-gestation from severe defects in cardiovascular morphogenesis, which stem from defective development of the neural crest, heart and vasculature. To investigate the role of integrin ?5?1 in cardiovascular development, we used the Mesp1(Cre) knock-in strain of mice to ablate integrin ?5 in the anterior mesoderm, which gives rise to all of the cardiac and many of the vascular and muscle lineages in the anterior portion of the embryo. Surprisingly, we found that mutant embryos displayed numerous defects related to the abnormal development of the neural crest such as cleft palate, ventricular septal defect, abnormal development of hypoglossal nerves, and defective remodeling of the aortic arch arteries. We found that defects in arch artery remodeling stem from the role of mesodermal integrin ?5?1 in neural crest proliferation and differentiation into vascular smooth muscle cells, while proliferation of pharyngeal mesoderm and differentiation of mesodermal derivatives into vascular smooth muscle cells was not defective. Taken together our studies demonstrate a requisite role for mesodermal integrin ?5?1 in signaling between the mesoderm and the neural crest, thereby regulating neural crest-dependent morphogenesis of essential embryonic structures.
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Single camera imaging system for color and near-infrared fluorescence image guided surgery.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging systems have been developed for image guided surgery in recent years. However, current systems are typically bulky and work only when surgical light in the operating room (OR) is off. We propose a single camera imaging system that is capable of capturing NIR fluorescence and color images under normal surgical lighting illumination. Using a new RGB-NIR sensor and synchronized NIR excitation illumination, we have demonstrated that the system can acquire both color information and fluorescence signal with high sensitivity under normal surgical lighting illumination. The experimental results show that ICG sample with concentration of 0.13 ?M can be detected when the excitation irradiance is 3.92 mW/cm(2) at an exposure time of 10 ms.
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Macrocyclic amine-linked oligocarbazole hollow microspheres: facile synthesis and efficient lead sorbents.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Novel macrocyclic amine-linked oligocarbazole hollow microspheres are synthesized via a one-step oxidative method in aqueous solution. Upon altering the oxidants and acidic media, the average diameters of the obtained hollow microspheres are tunable from 0.23 to 2.0 ?m. With attractive amine and carbazole functionalities, exposed surface area, thermostability, and photoluminescent properties, the amine-linked oligocarbazole hollow microspheres are directly assembled to yield heavy metal sorbents with excellent selectivity and recyclability, shown to efficiently remove lead from contaminated water.
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Highly dispersible and stable copper terephthalate metal-organic framework-graphene oxide nanocomposite for an electrochemical sensing application.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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A highly dispersible and stable nanocomposite of Cu(tpa)-GO (Cu(tpa) = copper terephthalate metal-organic framework, GO = graphene oxide) was prepared through a simple ultrasonication method. The morphology and structure of the obtained composite were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the basis of the characterization results, the binding mechanism of the Cu(tpa) and GO was speculated to be the cooperative interaction of ?-? stacking, hydrogen bonding, and Cu-O coordination. The electrochemical sensing property of Cu(tpa)-GO composite was investigated through casting the composite on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), followed by an electro-reduction treatment to transfer the GO in the composite to the highly conductive reduced form (electrochemically reduced graphene, EGR). The results demonstrated that the electrochemical signals and peak profiles of the two drugs of acetaminophen (ACOP) and dopamine (DA) were significantly improved by the modified material, owing to the synergistic effect from high conductivity of EGR and unique electron mediating action of Cu(tpa). Under the optimum conditions, the oxidation peak currents of ACOP and DA were linearly correlated to their concentrations in the ranges of 1-100 and 1-50 ?M, respectively. The detection limits for ACOP and DA were estimated to be as low as 0.36 and 0.21 ?M, respectively.
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Increased TRPP2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells from high-salt intake hypertensive rats: The crucial role in vascular dysfunction.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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High-salt intake is a major risk factor in the development of hypertension. The underlying mechanism of high sodium on the cardiovascular system has received extensive attention. TRPP2 (Polycystin-2) is a Ca(2+) permeable non-selective cation channel that mediates Ca(2+) mobilization to control vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contraction. Here, we investigated TRPP2 expression change in VSMCs from high-salt intake hypertensive rats and role of TRPP2 in the development of high-salt diet-induced hypertension.
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Promoter methylation of Raf kinase inhibitory protein: A significant prognostic indicator for patients with gastric adenocarcinoma.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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DNA methylation has an important role in the development of carcinomas. As a metastasis suppressor gene, Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis. In the present study, the associations between RKIP protein expression and promoter methylation with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis and survival rates in gastric adenocarcinoma were investigated. RKIP protein expression and promoter methylation were measured in 135 cases of surgically resected gastric adenocarcinoma specimens and corresponding normal tissues using immunohistochemistry and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to analyze the patient survival rate. Prognostic factors were determined using multivariate Cox analysis. RKIP promoter methylation was detected in 48.9% of gastric carcinoma tissues and 5.17% of adjacent tissues (P<0.05). RKIP protein expression was detected in 43.0% of gastric carcinoma tissues and 91.1% of adjacent tissues (P<0.05). The protein expression levels and promoter methylation of RKIP were shown to correlate with pathological staging, Union for International Cancer Control-stage, tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). In addition, the protein expression of RKIP in gastric carcinomas was demonstrated to be associated with promoter methylation of RKIP. Survival analysis of gastric carcinoma patients revealed that promoter methylation in RKIP-positive tumors correlated with a significantly shorter survival time when compared with RKIP-negative tumors (P=0.0002, using the log-rank test). Using multivariate Cox analysis, promoter methylation of RKIP was shown to be an independent prognostic factor (P=0.033). These results indicated that abnormal promoter methylation of RKIP may be one cause of downregulated RKIP expression. Downregulation of RKIP expression was shown to correlate with the incidence and development of gastric carcinomas. Thus, abnormal promoter methylation of RKIP may be a valuable biomarker for estimating gastric carcinoma prognosis.
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Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 ?g/L and 1.2 ?g/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.
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Th17 cell frequency and IL-17 concentration correlate with pre- and postoperative pain sensation in patients with intervertebral disk degeneration.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Numerous studies have revealed the presence of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in pathologic intervertebral disk (IVD) tissues and the contribution of Th17-associated cytokines to the development of this disease. However, the pre- and postoperative changes in the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 in the peripheral blood of patients with IVD degeneration are not clear. The levels of Th17 frequency and the interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentration in peripheral blood from patients and volunteers were examined by flow cytometry and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The clinical results were evaluated using the visual analogue scale (VAS). These results were subjected to a correlation analysis. Compared with the normal controls, the proportion of Th17 cells and the concentration of IL-17 were significantly increased preoperatively in patients with IVD degeneration. Postoperatively, the levels of Th17 cells and the expression of IL-17 were dramatically decreased. The correlation analysis of the VAS pain scores, Th17 cell frequency, and IL-17 concentration, including the pre- and postoperative levels and the changes induced by the surgery, revealed a positive correlation. The authors' results explain the contribution of Th17 cells and IL-17 to the pain sensation experienced by patients with IVD degeneration. These 2 factors may be good indicators for the evaluation of the surgical outcome of patients with lumbar disk herniation.
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Exogenous IL-1Ra attenuates intestinal mucositis induced by oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil through suppression of p53-dependent apoptosis.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis (CIM) is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemoagents, resulting in weight loss, diarrhea, and even death. The current treatments for CIM are palliative and have limited benefit. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist is a natural antagonist of interleukin-1. Our previous studies showed the protective effect of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on the intestine in mice after 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. In this study, we further evaluated rhIL-1Ra in the treatment of CIM induced by different chemoagents and their combination. Normal as well as tumor-bearing mice were administered oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil, or their combination to induce intestinal mucositis and mortality. rhIL-1Ra administered after the chemotherapy, but not after the onset of diarrhea, significantly improved mouse survival, attenuated body weight loss, and reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of diarrhea. Histological examination showed that rhIL-1Ra-treated mice had a relatively intact mucosa structure, more proliferating crypt cells, and higher acid mucin content than the vehicle-treated mice. rhIL-1Ra suppressed crypt apoptosis by reducing the levels of proapoptotic proteins in wild-type, but not in IL-1RI or p53 mice. In addition, rhIL-1Ra was as effective as octreotide acetate in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea, but with the advantage of reducing the epithelial apoptosis, the major cause of CIM. Importantly, the tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy was not affected by rhIL-1Ra. Thus, our data strongly suggest that rhIL-1Ra may be useful for the treatment of intestinal mucositis and improving the quality of life for cancer patients on chemotherapy.
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Infrapatellar fat pad in the knee: is local fat good or bad for knee osteoarthritis?
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Recent studies regarding the infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) mainly focus on the roles of the cells derived from the IPFP. There have been few clinical or epidemiological studies reporting on the association between the IPFP and knee osteoarthritis (OA). Our objective is to generate hypotheses regarding the associations between IPFP maximum area and knee OA measures in older adults.
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ARRB1/?-arrestin-1 mediates neuroprotection through coordination of BECN1-dependent autophagy in cerebral ischemia.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Autophagy, a highly conserved process conferring cytoprotection against stress, contributes to the progression of cerebral ischemia. ?-arrestins are multifunctional proteins that mediate receptor desensitization and serve as important signaling scaffolds involved in numerous physiopathological processes. Here, we show that both ARRB1 (arrestin, ? 1) and ARRB2 (arrestin, ? 2) were upregulated by cerebral ischemic stress. Knockout of Arrb1, but not Arrb2, aggravated the mortality, brain infarction, and neurological deficit in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Accordingly, Arrb1-deficient neurons exhibited enhanced cell injury upon oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Deletion of Arrb1 did not affect the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase upregulation, but markedly suppressed autophagy and induced neuronal apoptosis/necrosis in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, we found that ARRB1 interacted with BECN1/Beclin 1 and PIK3C3/Vps34, 2 major components of the BECN1 autophagic core complex, under the OGD condition but not normal conditions in neurons. Finally, deletion of Arrb1 impaired the interaction between BECN1 and PIK3C3, which is a critical event for autophagosome formation upon ischemic stress, and markedly reduced the kinase activity of PIK3C3. These findings reveal a neuroprotective role for ARRB1, in the context of cerebral ischemia, centered on the regulation of BECN1-dependent autophagosome formation.
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Genome-wide analysis of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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MYB transcription factor represents one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide, and recently the genome has been sequenced. This provides an opportunity to investigate the organization and evolutionary characteristics of sweet orange MYB genes from whole genome view. In the present study, we identified 100 R2R3-MYB genes in the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive analysis of this gene family was performed, including the phylogeny, gene structure, chromosomal localization and expression pattern analyses. The 100 genes were divided into 29 subfamilies based on the sequence similarity and phylogeny, and the classification was also well supported by the highly conserved exon/intron structures and motif composition. The phylogenomic comparison of MYB gene family among sweet orange and related plant species, Arabidopsis, cacao and papaya suggested the existence of functional divergence during evolution. Expression profiling indicated that sweet orange R2R3-MYB genes exhibited distinct temporal and spatial expression patterns. Our analysis suggested that the sweet orange MYB genes may play important roles in different plant biological processes, some of which may be potentially involved in citrus fruit quality. These results will be useful for future functional analysis of the MYB gene family in sweet orange.
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Chronic stress induces steatohepatitis while decreases visceral fat mass in mice.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Prolonged stress leads over time to allostatic load on the body and is likely to exacerbate a disease process. Long-term of stress exposure is one of a risk factor for metabolism-related diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the relationship between chronic stress and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain unknown.
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Influence of pH, inorganic anions, and dissolved organic matter on the photolysis of antimicrobial triclocarban in aqueous systems under simulated sunlight irradiation.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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The photolysis of the antimicrobial triclocarban (TCC) in aqueous systems under simulated sunlight irradiation was studied. The effects of several abiotic parameters, including solution pH, initial TCC concentration, presence of natural organic matter, and most common inorganic anions in surface waters, were investigated. The results show that the photolysis of TCC followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The TCC photolysis rate constant increased with increasing solution pH and decreasing the initial TCC concentration. Compared with the TCC photolysis in pure water, the presence of aqueous bicarbonate, nitrate, humic acids, and its sodium salt decreased the TCC photolysis rate, but fulvic acid increased the TCC photolysis rate. The electron spin resonance and reactive oxygen species scavenging experiments indicated that TCC may undergo two different types of phototransformation reactions: direct photolysis and energy transfer to generate (1)O2. The main degradation products were tentatively identified by gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a possible degradation pathway was also proposed.
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Diagnostic accuracy of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, interlukine-10 and adenosine deaminase 2 in differential diagnosis between tuberculous pleural effusion and malignant pleural effusion.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The current study was performed to investigate the potential biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) and malignant pleural effusions (MPE).
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Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with pulmonary tuberculosis and gout: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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In China, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and tuberculosis remains high. Additionally, there has been a marked increase in the prevalence of gout. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of co-existing diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous cases reported in the literature with regard to patients suffering from NPC complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis and gout. The present study describes the case of a 59-year-old male with this condition. The patient received a combination of anti-tumor, anti-tuberculosis and anti-gout therapies, and experienced no severe adverse reactions during treatment. At present, the patient's Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status is good, there has been no local recurrence or distant metastasis of the NPC, and the pulmonary tuberculosis and gout are well controlled. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the treatment of patients suffering from co-existing conditions.
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Dietary calcium intake and mortality risk from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Considerable controversy exists regarding the association between dietary calcium intake and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the controversy.
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Inhibitory effect of rhynchophylline on contraction of cerebral arterioles to endothelin 1: role of rho kinase.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Rhynchophylline (Rhy) is a major ingredient of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) used to reduce blood pressure and ameliorate brain ailments. This study was to examine the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in the inhibition of Rhy on contraction of cerebral arterioles caused by endothelin 1 (ET-1).
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Negative methylation status of Vimentin predicts improved prognosis in pancreatic carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To determine the existence of a potential relationship between the methylation state of the Vimentin gene and its prognostic value in pancreatic cancer.
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p63(+)Krt5(+) distal airway stem cells are essential for lung regeneration.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis involve the progressive and inexorable destruction of oxygen exchange surfaces and airways, and have emerged as a leading cause of death worldwide. Mitigating therapies, aside from impractical organ transplantation, remain limited and the possibility of regenerative medicine has lacked empirical support. However, it is clinically known that patients who survive sudden, massive loss of lung tissue from necrotizing pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome often recover full pulmonary function within six months. Correspondingly, we recently demonstrated lung regeneration in mice following H1N1 influenza virus infection, and linked distal airway stem cells expressing Trp63 (p63) and keratin 5, called DASC(p63/Krt5), to this process. Here we show that pre-existing, intrinsically committed DASC(p63/Krt5) undergo a proliferative expansion in response to influenza-induced lung damage, and assemble into nascent alveoli at sites of interstitial lung inflammation. We also show that the selective ablation of DASC(p63/Krt5) in vivo prevents this regeneration, leading to pre-fibrotic lesions and deficient oxygen exchange. Finally, we demonstrate that single DASC(p63/Krt5)-derived pedigrees differentiate to type I and type II pneumocytes as well as bronchiolar secretory cells following transplantation to infected lung and also minimize the structural consequences of endogenous stem cell loss on this process. The ability to propagate these cells in culture while maintaining their intrinsic lineage commitment suggests their potential in stem cell-based therapies for acute and chronic lung diseases.
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Long-term outcome of IgA nephropathy patients with recurrent macroscopic hematuria.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The long-term renal outcomes of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) who present with recurrent macroscopic hematuria (RMH) have not been described in previous studies.
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Mild hypothermia in combination with minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma reduces inflammatory damage in patients via the nuclear factor-?B pathway.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma on the brain function of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Seventy-six patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage were divided into the minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MIHE) and mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma (MHMIHE) groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on the day of admission of the patient and one, three and seven days after the procedure were recorded. Perihematoma brain tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. The tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) level was detected by ELISA. NIHSS scores in the MHMIHE group were significantly lower than those in the MIHE group on days three and seven. TNF-? and NF-?B levels peaked on day three, and the MHMIHE group had significantly lower levels of TNF-? and NF-?B than the MIHE group. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that mild hypothermia and minimally invasive evacuation of hematoma can effectively reduce inflammation and improve the brain function of patients.
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Assessment of serum arginase I as a type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis biomarker in patients.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Previous studies have reported that levels of serum arginase I are increased in certain diseases. However, the exact association between arginase I and diabetes mellitus (DM) has yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between arginase I activity and DM to determine whether arginase I activity may be used as a diagnostic biomarker for DM. DM was induced by a streptozotocin injection, while the arginase inhibitor, citrulline, was administered daily. Serum levels of glucose, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I activity were analyzed, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of arginase I, respectively. In addition, western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of the Tie 2 receptor. Pearson's analysis was used to determine the correlation between arginase I activity and Tie 2 expression, while concordance analysis was performed using the Cohen's test to obtain the Kappa statistic. The results demonstrated that serum arginase I activity levels in the rats with DM were significantly elevated compared with the control group, and positively correlated with the blood glucose levels. In addition, the blood glucose and ROS levels were increased significantly in the rats with DM. Arginase I mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly elevated in the diabetic rats when compared with the control group, and Tie 2 expression levels increased and were shown to correlate with arginase I activity in the diabetic rats. In addition, arginase I activity was shown to correlate with glucose intolerance and post-load glucose values. Good concordance was observed between arginase I activity and the clinical diagnosis for DM (?=0.876; P<0.001). Therefore, the results indicated that arginase I may function as a diagnostic biomarker for DM rats model.
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Germanium quantum dots embedded in N-doping graphene matrix with sponge-like architecture for enhanced performance in lithium-ion batteries.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Germanium quantum dots embedded in a nitrogen-doped graphene matrix with a sponge-like architecture (Ge/GN sponge) are prepared through a simple and scalable synthetic method, involving freeze drying to obtain the Ge(OH)4 /graphene oxide (GO) precursor and subsequent heat reduction treatment. Upon application as an anode for the lithium-ion battery (LIB), the Ge/GN sponge exhibits a high discharge capacity compared with previously reported N-doped graphene. The electrode with the as-synthesized Ge/GN sponge can deliver a capacity of 1258?mAh?g(-1) even after 50 charge/discharge cycles. This improved electrochemical performance can be attributed to the pore memory effect and highly conductive N-doping GN matrix from the unique sponge-like structure.
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Phylogeny and forelimb disparity in waterbirds.
Evolution
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Previous work has shown that the relative proportions of wing components (i.e., humerus, ulna, carpometacarpus) in birds are related to function and ecology, but these have rarely been investigated in a phylogenetic context. Waterbirds including "Pelecaniformes," Ciconiiformes, Procellariiformes, Sphenisciformes, and Gaviiformes form a highly supported clade and developed a great diversity of wing forms and foraging ecologies. In this study, forelimb disparity in the waterbird clade was assessed in a phylogenetic context. Phylogenetic signal was assessed via Pagel's lambda, Blomberg's K, and permutation tests. We find that different waterbird clades are clearly separated based on forelimb component proportions, which are significantly correlated with phylogeny but not with flight style. Most of the traditional contents of "Pelecaniformes" (e.g., pelicans, cormorants, and boobies) cluster with Ciconiiformes (herons and storks) and occupy a reduced morphospace. These taxa are closely related phylogenetically but exhibit a wide range of ecologies and flight styles. Procellariiformes (e.g., petrels, albatross, and shearwaters) occupy a wide range of morphospace, characterized primarily by variation in the relative length of carpometacarpus and ulna. Gaviiformes (loons) surprisingly occupy a wing morphospace closest to diving petrels and penguins. Whether this result may reflect wing proportions plesiomorphic for the waterbird clade or a functional signal is unclear. A Bayesian approach detecting significant rate shifts across phylogeny recovered two such shifts. At the base of the two sister clades Sphenisciformes + Procellariiformes, a shift to an increase evolutionary rate of change is inferred for the ulna and carpometacarpus. Thus, changes in wing shape begin prior to the loss of flight in the wing-propelled diving clade. Several shifts to slower rate of change are recovered within stem penguins.
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The placental specific gene, PLAC1, is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus and is expressed in human tumor cells.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causal agent in a number of malignancies in humans including hematopoietic tumors and non-hematopoietic tumors. Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines containing the Epstein-Barr virus have been shown to form tumors in nude mice while clonal derivatives of such cell lines in which the viral genome has been lost do not (JID 177: 1194-1201, 1998; JV 72: 9150-9156, 1998; JV 68: 6069-6073, 1994). The re-introduction of EBV into these EBV negative BLs reconstitutes the tumor phenotype. Thus, EBV-induced cellular genes play critical role in EBV-related tumors.
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A multicentre randomized clinical trial on efficacy and safety of huxin formula in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is widely used in clinical treatment of coronary artery disease. However, the effects of PCI on preventing restenosis after revascularization and improving the quality of life were not satisfying. Huxin Formula is formulated by modifying an experienced Chinese medicine formula and has been widely used in clinical practice due to its marked effects on coronary heart disease. A multicentre double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the effects and safety of Huxin Formula in patients undergoing PCI. Our results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in main outcomes. For patients with ejection fraction (EF) >50%, score of the quality of life scale was higher in treatment group compared with control group. For patients with unstable angina, score of the quality of life scale in 360 days was significantly higher in treatment group compared with control group (P < 0.05). No obvious adverse reaction was found in the use of Huxin Formula. In conclusion, Huxin Formula, believed to be a safe treatment for patients after PCI, has benefits in improving the quality of life in patients with unstable angina though it failed to show superiority in primary and secondary outcomes.
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Cu2ZnSnSe4 nanocrystals capped with S(2-) by ligand exchange: utilizing energy level alignment for efficiently reducing carrier rec ombination.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this work, we employed a convenient one-step synthesis method for synthesizing Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) nanocrystals (NCs) in an excess selenium environment. This excess selenium situation enhanced the reaction of metal acetylacetonates with selenium, resulting in the burst nucleation of NCs at relatively low temperatures. The phase morphology and surface and optoelectronic properties of NCs before and after ligand exchange were discussed in depth. It was found that pure tetragonal-phase structure CZTSe NCs with approximately 1.7-eV bandgap could be synthesized. The removal of large organic molecules on CZTSe NCs after ligand exchange by S(2-) decreased the resistivity. The bandgap of the films after ligand exchange by 550°C selenization was also decreased due to better crystallinity. For potential application in CZTSe solar cells, we constructed an energy level diagram to explain the mutual effect between the absorption layer and CdS layer. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement, we found that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels of CZTSe films shifted down after ligand exchange. After energy level alignment at the CdS/CZTSe interface, a type I band alignment structure was more conveniently formed after ligand exchange. This structure acted as the barrier against injection electrons from ZnO to the CZTSe layer, and recombination would subsequently be depressed.
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iDrug: a web-accessible and interactive drug discovery and design platform.
J Cheminform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The progress in computer-aided drug design (CADD) approaches over the past decades accelerated the early-stage pharmaceutical research. Many powerful standalone tools for CADD have been developed in academia. As programs are developed by various research groups, a consistent user-friendly online graphical working environment, combining computational techniques such as pharmacophore mapping, similarity calculation, scoring, and target identification is needed.
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Interactions between Zinc Transporter-8 Gene (SLC30A8) and Plasma Zinc Concentrations for Impaired Glucose Regulation and Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Though both SLC30A8 rs13266634 SNP and plasma zinc concentrations have been associated with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), their interactions for IGR and T2D remain unclear. Therefore, to assess zinc-SLC30A8 interactions, we performed a case-control study in 1,796 participants: 218 newly diagnosed IGR patients, 785 newly diagnosed T2D patients, and 793 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes and hypertension, the multivariable OR of T2D associated with a 10-µg/dl higher plasma zinc level was 0.87 (0.85-0.90). Meanwhile, the OR of SLC30A8 rs13266634 homozygous genotypes CC compared with TT was 1.53 (1.11-2.09) for T2D. Similar associations were found in IGR and IGR&T2D groups. Each 10-µg/dl increment of plasma zinc was associated with 22% (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.85) lower odds of T2D in TT genotype carriers, 17% (0.83; 0.80-0.87) lower odds in CT genotype carriers, and 7% (0.93; 0.90-0.97) lower odds in CC genotype carriers (P for interaction = 0.01). Our study suggested that the C allele of rs13266634 was associated with higher odds of T2D, and higher plasma zinc was associated with lower odds. The inverse association of plasma zinc concentrations with T2D was modified by SLC30A8 rs13266634. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and clarify the mechanisms underlying the interaction between plasma zinc and the SLC30A8 gene in relation to T2D.
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Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2 reduces cardiac fibrosis by attenuating macrophage-mediated inflammation.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is an important player in innate immunity, and recent studies have identified TLR2 as a critical mediator in cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the involvement of TLR2 in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced cardiac fibrosis and the underlying mechanisms.
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Global Bidirectional Transcription of the Epstein-Barr Virus Genome During Reactivation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) reactivation involves the ordered induction of approximately 90 viral genes that participate in the generation of infectious virions. Using strand specific RNA-seq to assess the EBV transcriptome during reactivation, we found extensive bidirectional transcription extending across nearly the entire genome. In contrast, only 4% of the EBV genome is currently bidirectionally annotated. Most of the newly identified transcribed regions show little evidence of coding potential, supporting noncoding roles for most of these RNAs. Based on previous cellular long noncoding RNA size calculations, we estimate that there are likely hundreds more EBV genes expressed during reactivation than was previously known. Limited 5 and 3 rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) experiments and findings of novel splicing events by RNA-seq suggest that the complexity of the viral genome during reactivation may be even greater. Further analysis of antisense transcripts at some of the EBV latency gene loci showed that they are "late" genes, they are nuclear, and they tend to localize in areas of the nucleus where others find newly synthesized viral genomes. This raises the possibility that these transcripts perform functions such as new genome processing, stabilization, organization, etc. The finding of a significantly more complex EBV transcriptome during reactivation changes our view of the viral production process from one that is facilitated and regulated almost entirely by previously identified viral proteins to a process that also involves the contribution of a wide array of virus encoded noncoding RNAs.
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Protective effects of Notoginsenoside R1 on intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is a clinical problem occurred for diverse causes with high mortality. Prophylaxis and treatment of intestinal I/R remains a challenge for clinician. The present study was to explore the role of Notoginsenoside R1 (R1), a major component form Panax. Notoginseng, in management of intestinal I/R injury. Intestinal I/R was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min or 3 days. R1 (10 mg/kg/h) was administered either 20 min before ischemia or 20 min after reperfusion. Intestinal microcirculation was evaluated by intravital microscopy over 60 min reperfusion. Sixty min or 3 days after reperfusion, rats were killed for histological examination of the jejunum tissue and immunohistochemical localization of myeloperoxidase and CD68. ATP, ADP and AMP content in jejunum tissue was assessed by ELISA. Activation of NF-?B, expression of ATP5D and tight junction proteins were determined by Western blotting. The results demonstrated that R1 is capable of attenuating intestinal I/R-induced microvascular hyperpermeability, inflammatory cytokine production, NF-?B activation and loss of tight junction proteins, as well as improving energy metabolism during I/R. The results of the present study suggest R1 as an option in protecting against intestinal I/R injury.
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Subarachnoid Extension of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and 90-Day Outcomes in INTERACT2.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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The prognostic significance of subarachnoid extension of intracerebral hemorrhage was determined in the INTEnsive blood pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) study.
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High-pressure synthesis of 5d cubic perovskite BaOsO3 at 17 GPa: ferromagnetic evolution over 3d to 5d series.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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In continuation of the series of perovskite oxides that includes 3d(4) cubic BaFeO3 and 4d(4) cubic BaRuO3, 5d(4) cubic BaOsO3 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction at a pressure of 17 GPa, and its crystal structure was investigated by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction measurements. In addition, its magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, and specific heat were measured over temperatures ranging from 2 to 400 K. The results establish a series of d(4) cubic perovskite oxides, which can help in the mapping of the itinerant ferromagnetism that is free from any complication from local lattice distortions for transitions from the 3d orbital to the 5d orbital. Such a perovskite series has never been synthesized at any d configuration to date. Although cubic BaOsO3 did not exhibit long-range ferromagnetic order unlike cubic BaFeO3 and BaRuO3, enhanced feature of paramagnetism was detected with weak temperature dependence. Orthorhombic CaOsO3 and SrOsO3 show similar magnetic behaviors. CaOsO3 is not as conducting as SrOsO3 and BaOsO3, presumably due to impact of tilting of octahedra on the width of the t2g band. These results elucidate the evolution of the magnetism of perovskite oxides not only in the 5d system but also in group 8 of the periodic table.
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Membrane permeability-guided identification of neuroprotective components from Polygonum cuspidatun.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Abstract Context: Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb et Zucc. (Polygonaceae) possesses various pharmacological activities and has been widely using as one of the most popular and valuable Chinese herbal medicines in clinics. Its usage has increasingly attracted much of our attention and urges investigation on its bioactive components. Objective: To establish a rapid and valid approach for screening potential neuroprotective components from P. cuspidatum. Materials and methods: Potential neuroprotective components from P. cuspidatum were screened utilizing liposome equilibrium dialysis followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Their neuroprotective effects on modulation of protein expression of ?7 nAChR, ?3 nAChR and synaptophysin (SPY) on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) were evaluated by means of Western blotting. Results: Two potential compounds, polydatin (C1) and emodin-8-O-?-d-glucoside (C2), were detected and identified in our study. The biological tests showed that both compounds C1 and C2, respectively, at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.25?mg/mL significantly increased protein expression of ?7 and ?3 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, C1 and C2 at 0.1?mg/mL significantly reversed the A?1-42-induced decrease of ?7 and ?3 nAChRs protein expression in SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, C2 at 0.1?mg/mL significantly increased protein expression of SPY in SH-SY5Y cells and A?1-42-induced SH-SY5Y cells whereas C1 did not provide any positive effects. Discussion and conclusion: In conclusion, our approach utilizing liposome equilibrium dialysis combined with HPLC analysis and cell-based assays is a prompt and useful method for screening neuroprotective agents.
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Fast disintegrating quercetin-loaded drug delivery systems fabricated using coaxial electrospinning.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The objective of this study is to develop a structural nanocomposite of multiple components in the form of core-sheath nanofibres using coaxial electrospinning for the fast dissolving of a poorly water-soluble drug quercetin. Under the selected conditions, core-sheath nanofibres with quercetin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) distributed in the core and sheath part of nanofibres, respectively, were successfully generated, and the drug content in the nanofibres was able to be controlled simply through manipulating the core fluid flow rates. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images demonstrated that the nanofibres prepared from the single sheath fluid and double core/sheath fluids (with core-to-sheath flow rate ratios of 0.4 and 0.7) have linear morphology with a uniform structure and smooth surface. The TEM images clearly demonstrated the core-sheath structures of the produced nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results verified that quercetin and SDS were well distributed in the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) matrix in an amorphous state, due to the favourite second-order interactions. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the core-sheath composite nanofibre mats could disintegrate rapidly to release quercetin within 1 min. The study reported here provides an example of the systematic design, preparation, characterization and application of a new type of structural nanocomposite as a fast-disintegrating drug delivery system.
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Manganese-loaded dual-mesoporous silica spheres for efficient T1- and T2-weighted dual mode magnetic resonance imaging.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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A novel class of manganese-based dual-mode contrast agents (DMCAs) based on the core-shell structured manganese-loaded dual-mesoporous silica spheres (Mn-DMSSs) for simultaneous T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been successfully reported. The in vitro MR tests demonstrate that the Mn-based DMCAs display an excellent simultaneous T1-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging effect with a noticeably high T1 relaxivity (r1) of 10.1 mM(-1) s(-1) and a moderately high T2 relaxivity (r2) of 169.7 mM(-1) s(-1). The Mn-based DMCAs exhibit negligible cytotoxicity with >80% cell viability at a concentration of up to 200 ?g/mL in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) and mouse macrophage (RAW264.7) cells after 24 h. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) results show that the Mn-DMSSs were internalized via endocytosis and located in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus. The in vivo experiment shows that the signals of rat liver increased by 29% under T1-weighted imaging mode and decreased by 28% under T2-weighted imaging mode in 5 min postinjection of Mn-DMSSs, which reveal that the novel Mn-loaded DMSSs can be used as both positive (T1-weighted) and negative (T2-weighted) MR contrast agents in further biomedical applications.
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Magnetic field induced great photoluminescence enhancement in an Er3+:YVO4 single crystal used for high magnetic field calibration.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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An optical technique is proposed for the accurate calibration of pulsed high magnetic fields utilizing the magnetic field dependent photoluminescence (PL) properties in an Er(3+):YVO(4) single crystal at 80 K. Bright green PL emissions are excited by a 487.5 nm laser line and can be enhanced greatly by a magnetic field at certain field values (B(c)). Since the B(c)s under 10 T are extremely stable for a given sample at a certain temperature, and the FWHM of the enhancement peaks are less than 0.9 T, an Er(3+):YVO(4) single crystal is proven to be a good candidate for pulsed high magnetic field calibration. The detailed processes and numerous advantages of the technique are presented in this work.
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Toll-like receptor-2 ligand peptidoglycan upregulates expression and ubiquitin ligase activity of CHIP through JNK pathway.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a component of cell wall in Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammatory responses through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). The carboxyl terminus of constitutive heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70)-interacting protein (CHIP, also known as Stub1) is a U-box-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, which plays an important role in protein quality control and inflammation through ubquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. However, it is unclear whether TLR2 agonist PGN regulates the expression and activation of CHIP.
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An efficient magnetically modified microbial cell biocomposite for carbazole biodegradation.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Magnetic modification of microbial cells enables to prepare smart biocomposites in bioremediation. In this study, we constructed an efficient biocomposite by assembling Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the surface of Sphingomonas sp. XLDN2-5 cells. The average particle size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles was about 20 nm with 45.5 emu g-1 saturation magnetization. The morphology of Sphingomonas sp. XLDN2-5 cells before and after Fe3O4 nanoparticle loading was verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Compared with free cells, the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite had the same biodegradation activity but exhibited remarkable reusability. The degradation activity of the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite increased gradually during recycling processes. Additionally, the microbial cell/Fe3O4 biocomposite could be easily separated and recycled by an external magnetic field due to the super-paramagnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticle coating. These results indicated that magnetically modified microbial cells provide a promising technique for improving biocatalysts used in the biodegradation of hazardous compounds.
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An Intelligent Nanotheranostic Agent for Targeting, Redox-Responsive Ultrasound Imaging, and Imaging-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Synergistic Therapy.
Small
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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A novel multifunctional nanotheranostic agent with targeting, redox-responsive ultrasound imaging and ultrasound imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy (MSNC-PEG-HASS -PFH, abbreviated as MPHSS -PFH) capabilities is developed. The redox-responsive guest molecule release and ultrasound imaging functions can be both integrated in such a "smart" theranostic agent, which is accomplished by the redox-triggered transition from the crosslinking state to retrocrosslinking state of the grafted polyethylene glycol-disulfide hyaluronic acid molecules on the particle surface when reaching a reducing environment in vitro. More importantly, under the tailored ultrasound imaging guiding, in vivo Hela tumor-bearing nude mice can be thoroughly and spatial-accurately ablated during HIFU therapy, due to the targeted accumulation, responsive ultrasound imaging guidance and the synergistic ablation functions of nanotheranostic agent MPHSS -PFH in the tumors. This novel multifunctional nano-platform can serve as a promising candidate for further studies on oncology therapy, due to its high stability, responsive and indicative ultrasound imaging of tumors, and enhanced HIFU therapeutic efficiency and spatial accuracy under ultrasound-guidance.
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Genomic insights into salt adaptation in a desert poplar.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Despite the high economic and ecological importance of forests, our knowledge of the genomic evolution of trees under salt stress remains very limited. Here we report the genome sequence of the desert poplar, Populus euphratica, which exhibits high tolerance to salt stress. Its genome is very similar and collinear to that of the closely related mesophytic congener, P. trichocarpa. However, we find that several gene families likely to be involved in tolerance to salt stress contain significantly more gene copies within the P. euphratica lineage. Furthermore, genes showing evidence of positive selection are significantly enriched in functional categories related to salt stress. Some of these genes, and others within the same categories, are significantly upregulated under salt stress relative to their expression in another salt-sensitive poplar. Our results provide an important background for understanding tree adaptation to salt stress and facilitating the genetic improvement of cultivated poplars for saline soils.
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Lipase-nanoporous gold biocomposite modified electrode for reliable detection of triglycerides.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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For triglycerides biosensor design, protein immobilization is necessary to create the interface between the enzyme and the electrode. In this study, a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with lipase-nanoporous gold (NPG) biocomposite (denoted as lipase/NPG/GCE). Due to highly conductive, porous, and biocompatible three-dimensional structure, NPG is suitable for enzyme immobilization. In cyclic voltammetry experiments, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode displayed surface-confined reaction in a phosphate buffer solution. Linear responses were obtained for tributyrin concentrations ranging from 50 to 250mgdl(-1) and olive oil concentrations ranging from 10 to 200mgdl(-1). The value of apparent Michaelis-Menten constant for tributyrin was 10.67mgdl(-1) and the detection limit was 2.68mgdl(-1). Further, the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode had strong anti-interference ability against urea, glucose, cholesterol, and uric acid as well as a long shelf-life. For the detection of triglycerides in human serum, the values given by the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode were in good agreement with those of an automatic biochemical analyzer. These properties along with a long self-life make the lipase/NPG/GCE bioelectrode an excellent choice for the construction of triglycerides biosensor.
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A ferroelectric-like structural transition in a metal.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Metals cannot exhibit ferroelectricity because static internal electric fields are screened by conduction electrons, but in 1965, Anderson and Blount predicted the possibility of a ferroelectric metal, in which a ferroelectric-like structural transition occurs in the metallic state. Up to now, no clear example of such a material has been identified. Here we report on a centrosymmetric (R3c) to non-centrosymmetric (R3c) transition in metallic LiOsO3 that is structurally equivalent to the ferroelectric transition of LiNbO3 (ref. 3). The transition involves a continuous shift in the mean position of Li(+) ions on cooling below 140 K. Its discovery realizes the scenario described in ref. 2, and establishes a new class of materials whose properties may differ from those of normal metals.
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