[Spatial variability and evaluation of soil heavy metal contamination in the urban-transect of Shanghai].
Soil heavy metal concentrations along the typical urban-transect in Shanghai were analyzed to indicate the effect of urbanization and industrialization on soil environment quality. Spatial variation structure and distribution of 5 heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in the top soil of urban-transect were analyzed. The single pollution index and the composite pollution index were used to evaluate the soil heavy metal pollution. The results showed that the average concentrations of the Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn were 27.80, 28.86, 99.36, 87.72, 556.97 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn were medium in variability, Mn was distributed lognormally, while Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were distributed normally. The results of semivariance analysis showed that Mn was fit for the exponential model, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn were fit for the linear model. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metal content of the topsoil in this city-transect were produced by means of the universal kriging interpolation. Cu was spatially distributed in ribbon, Cr and Mn were distributed in island, while the spatial distribution of Pb and Zn showed the mixed characteristic of ribbon and island. With the result of soil pollution evaluation, it showed that the pollution of Cr, Zn and Pb was relatively severe. Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn and Cu were significantly correlated, and heavy metal co-contamination existed in soil. Difference of soil heavy metals pollution along "Urban-suburban-rural" was obvious, the special variation of heavy metal concentrations in the soil closely related to the degree of industrialization and urbanization of the city.