The failure of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) is closely correlated with memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Radial glial-like cells (RGLs) localized to the adult DG generate intermediate progenitor cells and immature neurons and thus contribute to adult hippocampus neurogenesis. Memantine (MEM) has been indicated to dramatically increase hippocampal neurogenesis by promoting the proliferation of RGLs. In this study, we examined the effect of MEM on the capacity for hippocampal cell proliferation and the amount of RGLs in APPswe/PS1?E9 transgenic (APP/PS1) mice between 9 and 13 months of age. MEM could enhance hippocampal neurogenesis and increase the number of RGLs in the DG subgranular zone (DG-SGZ) of APP/PS1 mice of both ages. Moreover, MEM decreased amyloidogenesis in 13-month-old APP/PS1 mice and protected cultured radial glia cells (RGCs, L2.3 cells) from apoptosis induced by the ? amyloid peptide (A?). Additionally, MEM inhibited microglial activation in a vertical process in DG-SGZ of APP/PS1 mice and decreased interacting with RGL processes. Reelin is involved in the proliferation of RGLs in the hippocampus, which was typically upregulated in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice by MEM and thought to be an active signaling pathway associated with the MEM-induced increase in RGLs. Our data suggest a previously uncharacterized role for MEM in treating AD.
Cerebellar Purkinje cell and granule cell development are coordinated by Bergmann glia, and are particularly sensitive to ethanol (EtOH) exposure. The liver X receptor (LXR) plays important roles in Bergmann glial development. However, the effect of LXR activation on EtOH-mediated impairment of Bergmann glia and subsequently on Purkinje cell dendritogenesis remains undetermined. Therefore, using immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, we tested the possible protection of LXR agonist T0901317 (T0) on Bergmann glia and Purkinje cell dendritogenesis in mice exposed to ethanol. Results showed that a brief exposure of EtOH on postnatal day (PD 5) significantly decreased the average body weight of mice at PD 6 without alteration in the brain weight. In EtOH-exposed mice, the number of migrating granule cells in the molecular layer was significantly decreased, and this effect was attenuated by pretreatment of T0. EtOH exposure also resulted in the significant reduction of calbindin-labeled Purkinje cells, their maximum dendrite length, and impairment of Purkinje cell dendritogenesis. Furthermore, EtOH induced the activation of microglia in the Purkinje cell layer and impaired the development of Bergmann glia. However, pretreatment of T0 effectively blocked all of these responses. These responses were found to be mediated by the inhibition of upregulated levels of ?-catenin and transcription factor LEF1 in the cerebellum. Overall, the results suggest that activating LXRs on postnatal mice exposed to EtOH is protective to Bergmann glia, and thus may play a critical role in preventing EtOH-induced defects during cerebellar development.
Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory responses in the central nervous system. Defects in cholesterol homeostasis contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease, multiple sclerosis, and Huntingtons disease. Inflammatory responses could enhance the neurodegenerative process or act independently. The natural and synthetic LXR agonists induce the transcriptional activity of LXR target genes, thus attenuate the imbalance of cholesterol metabolism and overactivation of microglia and astrocytes in inflammation and are widely used in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases animal models. By developing more specific, potent, penetrable, and functional LXR agonist may lead to a better curative effect for neurodegenerative diseases and avoidance of potentially deleterious side effects. Here, we focus on recent advances in our understanding of the role of LXRs and their agonists in cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation, and the potential therapeutic effects in neurodegenerative diseases.
Granule cell migration influences the laminar structure of the cerebellum and thereby affects cerebellum function. Bergmann glia are derived from radial glial cells and aid in granule cell radial migration by providing a scaffold for migration and by mediating interactions between Bergmann glia and granule cells. In this review, we summarize Bergmann glia characteristics and the mechanisms underlying the effect of Bergmann glia on the radial migration of granule neurons in the cerebellum. Furthermore, we will focus our discussion on the important factors involved in glia-mediated radial migration so that we may elucidate the possible mechanistic pathways used by Bergmann glia to influence granule cell migration during cerebellum development.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.