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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Endothelial cells promote islet survival and function].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To investigate islet graft survival and function after co-culture and co-transplantation with vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in diabetic rats.
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Revival, characterization, and hepatitis B virus infection of cryopreserved human fetal hepatocytes.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Primary human hepatocytes are considered the ideal cellular model for in-vitro studies of liver-specific pathology, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, poor accessibility, limited cell numbers, and lot-to-lot variation of primary human hepatocytes limit their broad application. Human fetal hepatocytes were isolated from postmortem embryonic liver tissues by two-step collagenase perfusion and cryopreserved. A monolayer of cryopreserved human fetal hepatocytes was established by optimizing such conditions as cell density and viability and purification of viable cells by Percoll. Finally, revived human fetal hepatocytes were characterized and infected with HBV. A large number of viable human fetal hepatocytes could be isolated and cryopreserved, with seeding density and viability being critical for the establishment of a compact monolayer culture. Using low-viability cryopreserved human fetal hepatocytes, a typical monolayer was established by purification with Percoll. The revived cells were actively proliferative, showed identical morphologic characteristics to non-cryopreserved cells, and had a typical hepatic gene expression profile. Moreover, this optimized model was susceptible to HBV infection and could be used to screen entry inhibitors against HBV infection. In conclusion, these methods can be used on human fetal hepatocytes to provide a cell bank for studies of the early stages of HBV infection.
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CRTC2 enhances HBV transcription and replication by inducing PGC1? expression.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcription and replication are essentially restricted to hepatocytes. Based on the HBV enhancer and promoter complex that links hepatic glucose metabolism to its transcription and replication, HBV adopts a regulatory system that is unique to the hepatic gluconeogenic genes. CRTC2, the CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2, is a critical switch modulating the gluconeogenic program in response to both hormonal and intracellular signals. However, the relationship between CRTC2 and HBV transcription and replication remains unclear.
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[Significance of MICA antibody monitoring in management of acute and chronic rejection after renal transplantation].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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To evaluate the association of major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene A (MICA) antibodies with acute rejection (AR), chronic rejection (CR) and renal function after renal transplantation.
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Evaluation of individual and combined applications of serum biomarkers for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The clinical value of Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) to detect early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been questioned due to its low sensitivity and specificity found in recent years. Other than AFP, several new serum biomarkers including the circulating AFP isoform AFP-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) and Golgi protein-73 (GP73) have been identified as useful HCC markers. In this investigation, we review the current knowledge about these HCC-related biomarkers, and sum up the results of our meta-analysis on studies that have addressed the utility of these biomarkers in early detection and prognostic prediction of HCC. A systematic search in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed for articles published in English from 1999 to 2012, focusing on serum biomarkers for HCC detection. Data on sensitivity and specificity of tests were extracted from 40 articles that met the inclusion criteria, and the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (sROC) was obtained. A meta-analysis was carried out in which the area under the curve (AUC) for each biomarker or biomarker combinations (AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73) was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of different biomarker tests. The AUC of AFP, DCP, GP73, AFP-L3, AFP + DCP, AFP + AFP-L3, and AFP + GP73 are 0.835, 0.797, 0.914, 0.710, 0.874, 0.748, and 0.932 respectively. A combination of AFP + GP73 is superior to AFP in detecting HCC and differentiating HCC patients from non-HCC patients, and may prove to be a useful marker in the diagnosis and screening of HCC. In addition, the AUC of GP73, AFP + DCP and AFP + GP73 are better than that of AFP. The clinical value of GP73, AFP + DCP, or AFP + GP73 as serological markers for HCC diagnosis needs to be addressed further in future studies.
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Association between tumor necrosis factor-? rs1800629 polymorphism and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Gastric cancer is mainly initiated by inflammation and chronic superficial gastritis, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) is an inflammatory cytokine which plays an important role in the inflammation. TNF-? rs1800629 G/A polymorphism was proposed to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but previous studies on Caucasians reported conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the association between TNF-? rs1800629 polymorphism and gastric cancer risk in Caucasians. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to assess the association. Eleven case-control studies with 7,427 subjects were finally included into the meta-analysis. Overall, TNF-? rs1800629 polymorphism was significantly associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer under four genetic comparison models (A versus G: OR?=?1.32, 95 % CI 1.12-1.56, P?=?0.001; AA versus GG: OR?=?1.76, 95 % CI 1.37-2.26, P?
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Long-term maintenance of human fetal hepatocytes and prolonged susceptibility to HBV infection by co-culture with non-parenchymal cells.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Within a few days of being isolated, primary human hepatocytes undergo a rapid dedifferentiation process and lose susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in vitro. This fact has limited their further application. In this study, a convenient and feasible method of preventing this dedifferentiation was established, by co-culturing human fetal hepatocytes with hepatic non-parenchymal cells to maintain the differentiation features of human fetal hepatocytes. Isolated hepatic cells were seeded at a low density, and cultured in dimethyl sulfoxide-free medium for a month to allow rapid proliferation of non-parenchymal cells. Subsequently, 2% dimethyl sulfoxide was added to induce formation of typical hepatic islands, in which hepatocytic features could be further maintained for up to an additional 3 months. These hepatic islands, formed of piled-up hepatocytes, were surrounded and invaded by non-parenchymal cells. Protein expression profiles showed that the human fetal hepatocytes underwent a rapid maturation process, and the hepatocytic features were well preserved. Most importantly, these human fetal hepatocytes still exhibited susceptibility to HBV infection after long-term maintenance, for as long as 10 weeks. This co-culture method has overcome the pre-existing disadvantages of primary human hepatocytes for virological studies, and provides a valuable approach to long-term maintenance of primary human hepatocytes for studies of HBV infection for prolonged periods.
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GCN5 acetyltransferase inhibits PGC1?-induced hepatitis B virus biosynthesis.
Virol Sin
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) biosynthesis is primarily restricted to hepatocytes due to the governing of liver-enriched nuclear receptors (NRs) on viral RNA synthesis. The liver-enriched NR hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?), the key regulator of genes implicated in hepatic glucose metabolism, is also a primary determinant of HBV pregenomic RNA synthesis and HBV replication. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC1?) coactivates and further enhances the effect of HNF4? on HBV biosynthesis. Here, we showed that the acetyltransferase General Control Non-repressed Protein 5 (GCN5) acetylated PGC1?, leading to alteration of PGC1? from a transcriptionally active state into an inactive state. As a result, the coactivation activity of PGC1? on HBV transcription and replication was suppressed. Apparently, an acetylation site mutant of PGC1? (PGC1?R13) still had coactivation activity as GCN5 could not suppress the coactivation activity of the mutant. Moreover, a catalytically inactive acetyltransferase mutant GCN5m, due to the loss of acetylation activity, failed to inhibit the coactivation function of PGC1? in HBV biosynthesis. Our results demonstrate that GCN5, through its acetyltransferase activity, inhibits PGC1?-induced enhancement of HBV transcription and replication both in vitro and in vivo.
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Combined strategy of endothelial cells coating, Sertoli cells coculture and infusion improves vascularization and rejection protection of islet graft.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Improving islet graft revascularization and inhibiting rejection become crucial tasks for prolonging islet graft survival. Endothelial cells (ECs) are the basis of islet vascularization and Sertoli cells (SCs) have the talent to provide nutritional support and exert immunosuppressive effects. We construct a combined strategy of ECs coating in the presence of nutritious and immune factors supplied by SCs in a co-culture system to investigate the effect of vascularization and rejection inhibition for islet graft. In vivo, the combined strategy improved the survival and vascularization as well as inhibited lymphocytes and inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, we found the combinatorial strategy improved the function of islets and the effect of ECs-coating on islets. Combined strategy treated islets revealed higher levels of anti-apoptotic signal molecules (Bcl-2 and HSP-32), survival and function related molecules (PDX-1, Ki-67, ERK1/2 and Akt) and demonstrated increased vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (KDR) and angiogenesis signal molecules (FAk and PLC-?). SCs effectively inhibited the activation of lymphocyte stimulated by islets and ECs. Predominantly immunosuppressive cytokines could be detected in culture supernatants of the SCs coculture group. These results suggest that ECs-coating and Sertoli cells co-culture or infusion synergistically enhance islet survival and function after transplantation.
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Theoretical studies on molecular and structures of mono- and binuclear chromium carbazole derivatives for optoelectronics.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Studies on the molecular geometries, electronic properties and second-order nonlinearities of a series of mono- and binuclear chromium carbazole complexes: (N-vinylcarbazole)Cr(CO)(3) (M1), (N-vinylcarbazole)Cr(CO)(2)PPh(3) (M2), (CO)(3)Cr(N-vinylcarbazole)Cr(CO)(3) (B1), and (CO)(3)Cr(N-vinylcarbazole)Cr(CO)(2)PPh(3) (B2) were carried out, using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP//LanL2DZ/6-31G(d) level. The experimental singlet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((1)MLCT) spectra of these complexes can also be well simulated and discussed by the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) at the B3LYP//LanL2DZ/6-311+G(d) level associated with the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The computational results show that an unusual characteristic of chromium carbazole structures is explained in terms of interaction between frontier molecular orbitals of the metal and its ligands. The highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs) of these complexes are composed of a set of distorted degenerated Cr 3d orbitals, whereas the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) are predominantly the N-vinylcarbazole ligand ?* orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps decrease in the order NVC > M1 > B1 > M2 > B2. The considerable coupling between the carbazole and (CO)(3) in M1 creates an asymmetric environment about the chromium atom, leading to modest second-order responses. The PPh(3) ligand is acting as a donor which increases the donating strength of the d(?) orbitals in chromium carbazole species, resulting in the large electronic asymmetry in M2. As for the binuclear chromium carbazole chromophores, a wide-range (1)MLCT band and large oscillator strength are found, allowing for the electronic interactions between two metal centers which can be modified by altering the ligand bound to the metals to induce peculiar asymmetry. Essentially, Cr(CO)(3) acceptor and Cr(CO)(2)PPh(3) donor units in B2 make significant contribution to the charge-transfer process or NLO responses via conventional push-pull chromophoric architecture.
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Islet graft survival and function: concomitant culture and transplantation with vascular endothelial cells in diabetic rats.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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Human islet transplantation is a great potential therapy for type I diabetes. To investigate islet graft survival and function, we recently showed the improved effects after co-culture and co-transplantation with vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in diabetic rats.
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Porcine Fc?RIIb mediates enhancement of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of virus infection caused by the uptake of virus-antibody complexes by Fc?Rs is a significant obstacle to the development of effective vaccines to control certain human and animal viral diseases. The activation Fc?Rs, including Fc?RI and Fc?RIIa have been shown to mediate ADE infection of virus. In the present paper, we showed that pocine Fc?RIIb, an inhibitory Fc?R, mediates ADE of PRRSV infection. Stable Marc-145 cell lines expressing poFc?RIIb (Marc-poFc?RII) were established. The relative yield of progeny virus was significantly increased in the presence of sub-neutralization anti-PRRSV antibody. The Fab fragment and normal porcine sera had no effect. Anti-poFc?RII antibody inhibited the enhancement of infection when cells were infected in the presence of anti-PRRSV antibody, but not when cells were infected in the absence of antibody. These results indicate that enhancement of infection in these cells by anti-PRRSV virus antibody is Fc?RII-mediated. Identification of the inhibitory Fc?R mediating ADE infection should expand our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis for a broad range of infectious diseases and may open many approaches for improvements to the treatment and prevention of such diseases.
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Improved survival and function of rat cryopreserved islets by coculture with sertoli cells.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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In order to investigate how to improve the function and survival of cryopreserved islets, we cocultured cryopreserved thawed rat islets with rat Sertoli cells. After thawing, the islets were divided into the Sertoli cell coculture group and the control group. Using light and transmission electron microscopes, we examined the morphology of islets and measured their apoptosis index (AI) and insulin release stimulation index (SI). Moreover, we measured apoptosis protein and mRNA by western-blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cytokine concentrations in supernatant by ELISA. We examined islet graft survival time in diabetic mice and detected insulin in grafts by immunohistochemistry. We found that the morphology, AI, and SI of the coculture group were all significantly improved. The relative expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 P20, P11, and caspase-7 in the coculture group were lower than those in the control group. Compared with the control group, the expression level of Bax was decreased, but that of Bcl-2 was increased. After transplantation, islet survival in the coculture group was similar to that of fresh islets but longer than that in the control group. These results suggest that coculture with rat Sertoli cells significantly improves the yield and function of rat cryopreserved thawed islets by effectively reducing islet apoptosis.
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Combination therapy with diltiazem plus CsA/MMF/Pred or CsA/Aza/Pred triple immunosuppressive regimens for use in clinical kidney transplantation in Northwestern China.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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The effects of diltiazem on 1692 kidney transplant recipients under the immunosuppressive regimen of cyclosporine A (CsA) in combination with either mycophenolate mofetil or azothioprine were assessed. The two treatment groups were compared for blood concentrations of CsA, the extent of acceptable dosage reduction for the maintenance of immunotherapy, potential effects of kidney protection, and promotion of graft function.
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Efficacy of Cordyceps sinensis in long term treatment of renal transplant patients.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed)
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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High doses of cyclosporin A (CsA) can not be used in the long term treatment of kidney allograft recipients primarily due to severe side effects. In the present study, we investigated the potential application of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) in the long term treatment of renal transplant patients. The renal function and survival rates of grafts and patients did not show significantly different between the control group and the treatment group. However, the incidences of complications were significantly lower in the treatment group compared with that in control group with the exception of those showing acute rejection. Furthermore, the dosage and the whole blood trough concentrations of CsA were significantly lower than control group. However, there was no significant difference in the serum level of IL-2 in the two groups. Interestingly, the serum level of IL-10 in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group. These data demonstrat that CS may be used in combination with a low dose of CsA in the long term treatment of kideny transplant patients.
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Hypoxic preconditioning advances CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression by activating HIF-1? in MSCs.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Recent evidence indicated that sublethal hypoxic preconditioning (HP) of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) before transplantation could ameliorate their capacity to survive and engraft in the target tissue through yet undefined mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrated that HP (3% oxygen) induced the high expression of both chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in MSCs. HP also improved in vitro migration, adhesion and survival of MSCs. Although SDF-1-induced migration of HP-MSCs was only abolished by an anti-CXCR4 antibody, both CXCR4 and CXCR7 were responsible for elevated adhesion of HP-MSCs. Moreover, CXCR7 but not CXCR4 was essential for the resistance to oxidative stress of HP-MSC. In addition, HP also evoked an increase in expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1?) and phosphorylation of Akt. The chemical inducers of HIF-1?, desferrioxamine (DFX) and cobalt chloride (CoCl?), induced upregulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in MSCs under normoxic conditions. Contrarily, blockade of HIF-1? by siRNA and inhibition of Akt by either wortmannin or LY294002 abrogated upregulation of HP-induced CXCR4 and CXCR7 in MSCs. Collectively, these findings provide evidence for a crucial role of PI3K/Akt-HIF-1?-CXCR4/CXCR7 pathway on enhanced migration, adhesion and survival of HP-MSCs in vitro.
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The effects of diltiazem in renal transplantation patients treated with cyclosporine A.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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To investigate the effects of diltiazem and cyclosporine A (CsA) combination therapy on protecting the kidney, promoting graft functioning and improving post-transplanted kidney recovery.
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Long-term follow-up of co-administration of diltiazem and cyclosporine in Chinese kidney transplant recipients.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Co-administration of diltiazem and cyclosporine A (CsA) in kidney transplant recipients shows improvement of renal transplantation outcomes.
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Aggregation behavior of graft copolymer with rigid backbone.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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The self-assembly behavior of poly(gamma-benzyl-L-glutamate)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) rod-coil graft copolymers in aqueous solution was investigated. With tetrahydrofuran (THF) as initial solvent, vesicles were observed for the graft copolymers with lower degree of grafting. When the degree of grafting increases, the aggregate morphology transforms from vesicles to spindle-like micelles then to spherical micelles. When N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is introduced into the initial solvent, the vesicles transform to spindles. Increasing DMF volume fraction leads to a spindle to connected-spindle transition. On the basis of the experimental results, the mechanism of the morphological transition of the rod-coil graft copolymer is suggested.
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[Living-related donor kidney transplantation in 158 patients].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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To introduce clinical experience for living-related donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) by reviewing LDKT clinical data.
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Cloning and characterization of ovine immunoglobulin G Fc receptor II (FcgammaRII).
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptors (FcgammaRs) bind to immune complexes through interactions with the Fc region of IgG to initiate or inhibit the defense mechanism of the leukocytes on which they are expressed. In this study, we describe the cloning, sequencing and characterization of ovine FcgammaRII. By screening a translated expression sequence tag (EST) database with the protein sequence of bovine IgG Fc receptor II, we identified a putative ovine homologue. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we isolated the cDNA encoding ovine FcgammaRII from peripheral blood leucocyte RNA. The ovine FcgammaRII cDNA contains an 894bp open-reading frame, encoding a 297 amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein composed of two immunoglobulin-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). The glycoprotein encoded by the cloned cDNA was then expressed on the surface of COS-7 cells and immunoglobulin-binding assays show that it binds ovine IgG1, but not IgG2. Identification of the ovine FcgammaRII will aid in the understanding of the molecular basis of IgG-FcgammaR interaction.
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Characterization and ligand specificity of sheep IgG2 receptor.
Immunogenetics
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Neutrophils and macrophages in cattle express a novel class of immunoglobulin Fc receptor, specific for bovine IgG2, termed boFcgamma2R. In cows, the ability of neutrophils to kill immunoglobulin-opsonized microorganisms appears to depend largely on this subclass. Although related to other mammalian FcgammaRs, boFcgamma2R belongs to a novel gene family that includes the human killer Ig-like receptor and FcalphaRI (CD89) proteins. In this study, we describe the presence and characterization of this novel class of FcgammaR in sheep. The comparative analysis of this novel FcgammaR has allowed us to begin an exploration of some immunological characteristic of ruminants.
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Expression, purification and characterization of a functional extracellular domain of porcine FcgammaRII.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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FcgammaRs are involved in regulating a multitude of innate and adaptive immune responses, which makes them attractive targets for the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. In this report, we describe a simple method for the production of a large quantity of recombinant porcine FcgammaRII. The extracellular domain of the porcine FcgammaRII (poFcgammaRII) gene was constructed and cloned into the Escherichiacoli expression vector pET-28a. The recombinant protein was expressed at high level in E. coil BL21 (DE3) and existed mainly as inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were solubilized in 6M guanidine hydrochloride and purified by Ni-chelation, and refolded by rapid dilution. After purification and renaturation, the recombinant soluble protein (rsFcgammaRII) coated on high-binding ELISA plates, showed concentration dependent binding of porcine IgG and the binding of porcine IgG to the surface bound rsFcgammaRII was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by soluble rsFcgammaRII itself. Then by the inhibition assay we evaluated the effectiveness of the rsFcgammaRII in inhibiting the IgG binding to the whole molecule of poFcgammaRII expressed on the Marc-145 cell surface, the rsFcgammaRII inhibited the binding of porcine IgG to the transfected Marc-145 cells surface, with an IC(50) value of 0.87 microM, demonstrating that rsFcgammaRII manifests the similar specificity as native poFcgammaRII. The method for highly efficient production of biologically active poFcgammaRII may be employed for both basic research and potential clinical applications.
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Clinical research and social status investigation for donor and recipient of living-related kidney transplant.
Int Urol Nephrol
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Renal transplantation is the best options for treating end-stage renal disease. Better patient and allograft survival rates are provided by living donation, which has been safe, with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. This study aims to investigate the life status and summarize the clinical experience in living-related kidney transplant (LRKT) before and after renal transplantation.
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Mucroporin-M1 inhibits hepatitis B virus replication by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and down-regulating HNF4? in vitro and in vivo.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a noncytopathic human hepadnavirus that causes acute, chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As the clinical utility of current therapies is limited, new anti-HBV agents and sources for such agents are still highly sought after. Here, we report that Mucroporin-M1, a scorpion venom-derived peptide, reduces the amount of extracellular HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA productions of HepG2.2.15 cells in a dose-dependent manner and inhibits HBV capsid DNA, HBV intracellular RNA replication intermediates and the HBV Core protein in the cytoplasm of HepG2.2.15 cells. Using a mouse model of HBV infection, we found that HBV replication was significantly inhibited by intravenous injection of the Mucroporin-M1 peptide. This inhibitory activity was due to a reduction in HBV promoter activity caused by a decrease in the binding of HNF4? to the precore/core promoter region. Furthermore, we confirmed that Mucroporin-M1 could selectively activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and lead to the down-regulation of HNF4? expression, which explains the decreased binding of HNF4? to the HBV promoter. Moreover, when the protein phosphorylation activity of the MAPK pathway was inhibited, both HNF4? expression and HBV replication recovered. Finally, we proved that treatment with the Mucroporin-M1 peptide increased phosphorylation of the MAPK proteins in HBV-harboring mice. These results implicate Mucroporin-M1 peptide can activate the MAPK pathway and then reduce the expression of HNF4?, resulting in the inhibition of HBV replication in vitro and in vivo. Our work also opens new doors to discovering novel anti-HBV agents or sources.
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Assessment of different biomarkers provides valuable diagnostic standards in the evaluation of the risk of acute rejection.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
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Acute rejection (AR) is a strong risk factor for chronic rejection in renal transplant recipients. Accurate and timely diagnosis of AR episodes is very important for disease control and prognosis. Therefore, objectively evaluated the immune status of patients is essential in the field of post-transplantation treatment. This longitudinal study investigated the usefulness of five biomarkers, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G5 and sCD30 level in sera, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (iATP) release level of CD4(+) T cells, and granzyme B/perforin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and biopsies, to detect AR and the resolution of biomarkers in a total of 84 cases of renal transplantation. The data demonstrated that recipients with clinical or biopsy proven rejection significantly increased iATP release level of CD4(+) T cells, and elevated sCD30 but lowered HLA-G5 level in sera compared with individuals with stable graft function. Expression levels of granzyme B and perforin were also elevated in PBMCs and graft biopsies of AR patients. Taken together, we identified that upregulation of sCD30, iATP, granzyme B, perforin, and downregulation of HLA-G5 could provide valuable diagnostic standards to identify those recipients in the risk of AR. And iATP may be a better biomarker than others for predicting the graft rejection episode.
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Blockade of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway prolonged islet allograft survival.
Artif Organs
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Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway is known for its important role in the upregulation of various inflammatory mediators and its "switch regulator" functionality for transcription factor gene networks which control cytokine-induced ?-cell dysfunction and death. In this study, the islets were divided into the control group, Ad-green fluorescent protein, and the adenovirus transfected with inhibitor kappa B group. The proliferation index of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the islets apoptosis index were examined after mixed lymphocyte-islet reaction with inverted fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The islet graft survival time in diabetic rats, insulin in grafts, and cytokine concentrations in the supernatant were determined by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that blocking of NF-?B activation in ?-cells significantly downregulated inflammatory chemokine production by islets cells in vitro and in vivo, inhibited T-cell recruitment into the pancreatic islets, inhibited ?-cell dysfunction, and effectively prolonged the survival time of islet grafts. The results presented in this work highlight a novel mechanism of blocking NF-?B activation in ?-cells for the treatment of islet cell transplantation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.