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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Amino Acids 736-761 of the MERS-CoV Spike Protein Induce Neutralizing Antibodies: Implications for the Development of Vaccines and Antiviral Agents.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Abstract Based on a bioinformatics analysis of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavvirus (MERS-CoV) S protein, we synthesized a panel of peptides coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and used them to raise antibodies in rabbits. In addition, the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) was used to raise polyclonal antibodies in mice. All of the antibodies raised by S-peptide immunisation were specific and sensitive for S protein expressed in transfected cells in the indirect immunofluorescence assay or Western blotting. The RBD efficiently elicited neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV by blocking viral entry at the binding step. Furthermore, we found that the SP3 peptide, corresponding to amino-acid residues 736-761 of the S protein, elicited robust neutralizing activities by blocking viral entry at the postbinding and membrane fusion steps. We conclude that amino-acid residues 736-761 of the S protein carry neutralizing epitopes that may be used in the development of vaccines and antiviral agents against MERS-CoV.
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Full-Stokes Fourier-transform imaging spectropolarimeter using a time-division polarization modulator.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A Fourier-transform imaging spectropolarimeter is presented and demonstrated. It is composed of a time-division polarization modulator and a high radiation throughput Fourier-transform spectrometer. Four polarization states of the input light are generated by rotating the retarder. Then, the polarized light enters the Fourier-transform spectrometer to create four sets of interferometric images, where we can recover four polarization spectra and calculate the full-Stokes vector in various wavenumber frequency. The method has good performance to resist instrument noise and has the advantage of high spatial resolution. The laboratory setup is described and the noise source is analyzed. Two proven experiments have been carried out in visible light.
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Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts to suppress Yki activity for growth control.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Drosophila Hippo signaling regulates Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki in order to control tissue growth. CK2 is widely expressed and involved in a variety of signaling pathways. In this study we report that Drosophila CK2 promotes Wts activity to phosphorylate and inhibit Yki activity, which is independent of Hpo induced Wts promotion. In vivo, CK2 overexpression suppresses hpo mutant induced Ex upregulation and overgrowth phenotype while it cannot affect wts mutant. Consistent with this, knockdown of CK2 upregulates Hpo pathway target expression. We also found that Drosophila CK2 is essential for tissue growth as a cell death inhibitor as knockdown of CK2 in developing disc induces severe growth defect as well as caspase3 signal. Taken together, our results uncover a dual role of CK2: while its major role is promoting cell survive, it may potentially be a growth inhibitor as well.
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Two new phenol derivatives from Stereum hirsutum FP-91666.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Two new phenol derivatives, 2-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-4-methoxyethyl-phenol (1) and 5-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)cyclohex-4-en-1-one (2), together with eight known compounds consisting of phenol derivatives (3 and 4), niacinamide (5), and five ergosta type compounds (6-10), were isolated from solid fermentation products of Stereum hirsutum FP-91666. Two new structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D NMR and 2D NMR, and HR-EI-MS experiments.
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Automated identification of retinal vessels using a multiscale directional contrast quantification (MDCQ) strategy.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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A novel algorithm is presented to automatically identify the retinal vessels depicted in color fundus photographs.
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Impact of different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities on survival of sinonasal malignant melanoma.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The role of postoperative adjuvant treatment for sinonasal malignant melanoma remains unclear. This study evaluates the impact of three different surgical and postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities: surgery alone(open and endoscopic approaches), surgery plus radiotherapy and surgery, radiotherapy plus chemotherapy on survival of patients with primary sinonasal malignant melanoma (SMM).
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Graphene frameworks promoted electron transport in quantum dot-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Graphene frameworks (GFs) were incorporated into TiO2 photoanode as electron transport medium to improve the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for their excellent conductivity and isotropic framework structure that could permit rapid charge transport. Intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results show that the electron transport time (?(d)) of 1.5 wt % GFs/TiO2 electrode is one-fifth of that of the TiO2 electrode, and electron lifetime (?(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln) are thrice those of the TiO2 electrode. Results also revealed that the GFs/TiO2 electrode has a shorter electron transport time (?(d)), as well as longer electron lifetime (?(n)) and diffusion path length (Ln), than conventional 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode, thus indicating that GFs could promote rapid electron transfer in TiO2 photoanodes. Photocurrent-voltage curves demonstrated that when incorporating 1.5 wt % GFs into TiO2 photoanode, a maximum power conversion efficiency of 4.2% for QDSSCs could be achieved. This value was higher than that of TiO2 photoanode and 2D graphene sheets/TiO2 electrode. In addition, the reasons behind the sensitivity of photoelectric conversion efficiency to the graphene concentration in the TiO2 were also systematically investigated. Our results provide a basic understanding of how GFs can efficiently promote electron transport in TiO2-based solar cells.
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CD105 promotes hepatocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis through VEGF.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Tumor neovascularization is necessarily required for tumor progression and metastasis. CD105 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have separately been identified as important contributors to angiogenesis; however, it is unclear if these factors interact to promote the progression of HCC. The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between CD105 and VEGF in HCC, using HCC tissue samples and the human HCC cell line SMMC-7721. In a survey of 89 HCC tumor samples, we determined that CD105 and VEGF expressions were positively correlated with each other and expressed at a higher level in tumor cells. Furthermore, the expression of CD105 was closely related to the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging of HCC, degree of tumor differentiation, portal vein invasion, and lymph node metastasis (P?
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BAG3 Promoted Starvation-Induced Apoptosis of Thyroid Cancer Cells via Attenuation of Autophagy.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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BAG3 plays a regulatory role in a number of cellular processes. Recent studies have attracted much attention on its role in activation of selective autophagy. In addition, we have very recently reported that BAG3 is implicated in a BECN1-independent autophagy, namely noncanonical autophagy.
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[Isolation, culture and ultrastructure analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from human periodontal ligament].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To isolate and culture human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and observe its ultrastructure.
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[Effect on the retinal fiber thickness in early diabetes].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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To observe the change of the retinal fiber layer thickness in patients at early stage of diabetes.
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High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen are Associated with Poorer Survival and Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Low Hepatitis B Viral Loads.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Recurrence is a disastrous outcome in patients with hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone curative resection, and little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk of HCC recurrence.
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Regioselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of ganglioside disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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A novel chemoenzymatic approach for the synthesis of disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes found as the terminal oligosaccharides of GD1?, GT1a?, and GQ1b? is described. It relies on chemical manipulation of enzymatically generated trisaccharides as conformationally constrained acceptors for regioselective enzymatic ?2-6-sialylation. This strategy provides a new route for easy access to disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes and their derivatives.
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Low-cost counter electrodes from CoPt alloys for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a promising solution to global energy and environmental problems because of its merits on clean, low cost, high efficiency, good durability, and easy fabrication. However, the commercial application of DSSCs has been hindered by the high expenses of counter electrodes (CEs) and limited power conversion efficiency. With an aim of significantly enhancing the power conversion efficiency, here we pioneerly synthesize CoPt alloys using an electrochemically codeposition technique which are employed as CEs for DSSCs. Owing to the rapid charge transfer, electrical conduction, and electrocatalysis, power conversion efficiencies of CoPt-based DSSCs have been markedly elevated in comparison with the DSSC using Pt CE. The DSSC employing CoPt0.02 alloy CE gives an impressive power conversion efficiency of 10.23%. The high conversion efficiency, low cost in combination with simple preparation, and scalability demonstrates the potential use of CoPt alloys in robust DSSCs.
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MnO(x)-modified ZnAl-LDOs as high-performance adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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MnO(x) modified ZnAl layered double oxides (M-LDO) nanocomposites were prepared through an intercalation/reduction/calcination process. The morphology and crystal structure of M-LDO were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis methods. The results confirmed that the manganese oxide nanoparticles were well distributed on the LDO support. Methyl orange (MO) was chosen as a common water-soluble azo dye probe to evaluate the adsorption performance of M-LDO. The effects of MO initial concentration, agitation time, and temperature on MO adsorption were investigated. It was found that adsorption equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherms and the maximum adsorption capacity was 617.28 mg g(-1) obtained from the Langmuir isotherm, which was much larger than some reported adsorbents. Besides, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The mechanism of the adsorption process was elaborated by an intraparticle diffusion model. Moreover, the regeneration test of M-LDO was carried out and it showed that the used M-LDO was feasible for at least five times. In principle, this adsorbent with a high adsorption capacity and great reutilization performance could be a very promising adsorbent for wastewater treatment.
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High expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with favorable prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is frequently downregulated in numerous cancers. 5-hmC and IDH2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be determined.
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[Characteristic of sample banks isolated from EDTA-blood by sedimentation method].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To assess the characteristics of establishing the different sample banks of plasma, leukocytes and DNA by sedimentation method of isolating from ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid(EDTA)-blood and to clarify the sedimentation method of leukocyte isolation and plasma volume by comparative data and recommended procedures for applicability.
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Reduced Krüppel-like factor 17 (KLF17) expression correlates with poor survival in patients with gastric cancer.
Arch. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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To investigate the expression and prognostic significance of Krüppel-like factor 17 (KLF17) in human gastric cancer.
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Effect of methyl jasmonate on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries during cold storage.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The effects of postharvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) fumigation on total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanins (TMAs), individual anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of blueberries stored at 1?°C for 28 days were evaluated. Prior to storage, the blueberries were fumigated with 0.05?mmol?L(-1) MeJA for 12?h. Control blueberries were subjected to the same conditions but were not exposed to MeJA.
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Bidirectional elastic image registration using B-spline affine transformation.
Comput Med Imaging Graph
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A registration scheme termed as B-spline affine transformation (BSAT) is presented in this study to elastically align two images. We define an affine transformation instead of the traditional translation at each control point. Mathematically, BSAT is a generalized form of the affine transformation and the traditional B-spline transformation (BST). In order to improve the performance of the iterative closest point (ICP) method in registering two homologous shapes but with large deformation, a bidirectional instead of the traditional unidirectional objective/cost function is proposed. In implementation, the objective function is formulated as a sparse linear equation problem, and a sub-division strategy is used to achieve a reasonable efficiency in registration. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed using both two-dimensional (2D) synthesized dataset and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric computed tomography (CT) data. Our experiments showed that the proposed B-spline affine model could obtain reasonable registration accuracy.
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Ablation in selective patients with long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation: medium-term results of the Dallas lesion set.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Dallas lesion set, which mimics the Cox-maze III left atrial (LA) lesions, for long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LSPAF).
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Different-frequency ultrasonic effects on properties and structure of corn starch.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Ultrasound is widely used to accelerate many reactions and unit operations, but few studies have reported its effects on starch properties and structure.
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Hyperbaric oxygen treatment produces an antinociceptive response phase and inhibits astrocyte activation and inflammatory response in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has been proven to be a promising candidate for protection of the nervous system after acute injury in animal models of neuropathic pain. The purposes of this study were to examine the antinociceptive response phase induced by HBO treatment in a model of neuropathic pain and to determine the dependence of the treatment's mechanism of alleviating neuropathic pain on the inhibition of spinal astrocyte activation. Neuropathic pain was induced in rats by chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Mechanical threshold and thermal latency were tested preoperatively and for 1 week postoperatively, four times daily at fixed time points. Methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) parameters were used as indices of oxidative stress response and tested before and after the treatment. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-10 were assayed in the sciatic nerve were with enzyme-linked immunoassay. Glial fibrillary acidic protein activation in the spinal cord was evaluated immunohistochemically. The rats exhibited temporary allodynia immediately after HBO treatment completion. This transient allodynia was closely associated with changes in MDA and SOD levels. A single HBO treatment caused a short-acting antinociceptive response phase. Repetitive HBO treatment led to a long-acting antinociceptive response phase and inhibited astrocyte activation. These results indicated that HBO treatment played a dual role in the aggravation and alleviation of neuropathic pain, though the aggravated pain effect (transient allodynia) was far less pronounced than the antinociceptive phase. Astrocyte inhibition and anti-inflammation may contribute to the antinociceptive effect of HBO treatment after nerve injury.
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Size-controlled self-assembly of superparamagnetic polymersomes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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We report the size-controlled self-assembly of polymersomes through the cooperative self-assembly of nanoparticles and amphiphilic polymers. Polymersomes densely packed with magnetic nanoparticles in the polymersome membrane (magneto-polymersome) were fabricated with a series of different sized iron oxide nanoparticles. The distribution of nanoparticles in a polymersome membrane was size-dependent; while small nanoparticles were dispersed in a polymer bilayer, large particles formed a well-ordered superstructure at the interface between the inner and outer layer of a bilayer membrane. The yield of magneto-polymersomes increased with increasing the diameter of incorporated nanoparticles. Moreover, the size of the polymersomes was effectively controlled by varying the size of incorporated nanoparticles. This size-dependent self-assembly was attributed to the polymer chain entropy effect and the size-dependent localization of nanoparticles in polymersome bilayers. The transverse relaxation rates (r2) of magneto-polymersomes increased with increasing the nanoparticle diameter and decreasing the size of polymersomes, reaching 555 ± 24 s(-1) mM(-1) for 241 ± 16 nm polymersomes, which is the highest value reported to date for superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.
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Aerobic exercise inhibits sympathetic nerve sprouting and restores ?-adrenergic receptor balance in rats with myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cardiac sympathetic nerve sprouting and the dysregulation of ?-adrenergic receptor (?-AR) play a critical role in the deterioration of cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI). Growing evidence indicates that exercise provides protection against MI. The aims of this study were to investigate whether aerobic exercise following MI could inhibit sympathetic nerve sprouting and restore the balance of ?3-AR/?1-AR.
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Pulmonary fissure integrity and collateral ventilation in COPD patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate whether the integrity (completeness) of pulmonary fissures affects pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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[The accuracy of probing depth measurements of undergraduate students and associated factors analysis].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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To investigate the accuracy of probing depth measurements of undergraduate students in department of periodontology and analyze the cause of measurement errors.
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[Long-term clinical and hematologic effects of non-surgical treatment on aggressive periodontitis].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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To investigate the long-term effects of non-surgical treatment on clinical and hematologic states of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP).
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[Exercise intervention in skeletal muscle endocrine function].
Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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As a new secretory organ skeletal muscle, which could secrete a variety of biological active substances, plays an important role in biological function and clinical medicine, and has important research value and application scenarios in the field of sports medicine. Different mode and intensity of exercise would give different influences on skeletal muscle endocrine function. Exercise intervention could improve the chronic disease, such as metabolic disease (obesity, diabetes) and muscle atrophy by changing endocrine function of the skeletal muscle. It will be great valuable to explore the mechanisms of exercise-induced skeletal muscle endocrine, seek for the appropriate biomarker, make exercise prescription, which would give improtant theoretical value and application prospect for the exercise system function improvement metabolic disease grevention and exercise rehabilitation of the systemic diseases.
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Corneal arcus and xanthomas in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: First report from China.
Indian J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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We report the case of a 12-year-old male who developed corneal arcus and multiple skin lesions with a 10-year history of xanthomas. The lesions appeared over his fingers, hands, elbows, knees, buttocks and feet. Laboratory studies showed a total serum cholesterol level of 752.1 mg/dL; a triglyceride level of 96.6 mg/dL; a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 661.3 mg/dL. Findings were consistent with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. To our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported from China.
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Disturbance of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and CaMKII/CREB Signaling is Associated with Learning and Memory Impairments Induced by Chronic Aluminum Exposure.
Neurotox Res
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Aluminum-induced neuronal injury has been implicated in various neurodegenerative disorders. However, the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Our present findings demonstrated that chronic aluminum exposure resulted in spatial learning impairment and significantly increased intracellular calcium level in the hippocampus of rats. Examination of the associated protein molecules essential for induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation revealed that aluminum exposure could increase the expression level of calmodulin (CaM), but the expression levels of CaM-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) were significantly reduced, whereas the total protein levels of CaMKII and CREB did not change in the aluminum-treated hippocampus. Thus, we provide a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby chronic aluminum exposure impairs hippocampal learning and memory, at least in part, through disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis and CaM/CaMKII/CREB signaling pathway.
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Development of a new parallelized, optical biosensor platform for label-free detection of autoimmunity-related antibodies.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of autoantibodies in serum of affected patients. The heterogeneity of autoimmune relevant antigens creates a variety of different antibodies, which requires a simultaneous detection mode. For this reason, we developed a tool for parallelized, label-free, optical detection that accomplishes the characterization of multiple antigen-antibody interactions within a single measurement on a timescale of minutes. Using 11-aminoundecyltrimethoxysilane, we were able to immobilize proteinogenic antigens as well as an amino-functionalized cardiolipin on a glass surface. Assay conditions were optimized for serum measurements with a single spot antigen chip on a single spot 1-? detection system. Minimized background signal allows a differentiation between patients and healthy controls with a good sensitivity and specificity. Applying polarized imaging reflectometric interference spectroscopy, we evaluated samples from three APS patients and three control subjects for this proof-of-principle and already obtained good results for ?2-glycoprotein I and cardiolipin.
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Par-1 regulates tissue growth by influencing hippo phosphorylation status and hippo-salvador association.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in organ size control by balancing cell proliferation and cell death. Here, we reported the identification of Par-1 as a regulator of the Hpo signaling pathway using a gain-of-function EP screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Overexpression of Par-1 elevated Yorkie activity, resulting in increased Hpo target gene expression and tissue overgrowth, while loss of Par-1 diminished Hpo target gene expression and reduced organ size. We demonstrated that par-1 functioned downstream of fat and expanded and upstream of hpo and salvador (sav). In addition, we also found that Par-1 physically interacted with Hpo and Sav and regulated the phosphorylation of Hpo at Ser30 to restrict its activity. Par-1 also inhibited the association of Hpo and Sav, resulting in Sav dephosphorylation and destabilization. Furthermore, we provided evidence that Par-1-induced Hpo regulation is conserved in mammalian cells. Taken together, our findings identified Par-1 as a novel component of the Hpo signaling network.
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BAG3 is upregulated by c-Jun and stabilizes JunD.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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BAG3 plays a regulatory role in a number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), autophagy activation, and virus infection. The AP-1 transcription factors are implicated in a variety of important biological processes including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and oncogenesis. Recently, it has been reported that AP-1 protein c-Jun inhibits autophagy and enhances apoptotic cell death mediated by starvation. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. For the first time, the current study demonstrated that serum starvation downregulated BAG3 at the transcriptional level via c-Jun. In addition, the current study reported that BAG3 stabilized JunD mRNA, which was, at least in part, responsible for the promotion of serum starvation mediated-growth inhibition by BAG3.
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Synthesis and antitumor activity evaluation of a novel series of camptothecin analogs.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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A series of novel 10-substituted camptothecin analogs (3-10) with a carbamate linker were synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. The amino acid-linked carbamate derivatives (8-10) of the camptothecin-type natural product not only possessed good to excellent inhibitory activity against three human tumor cell lines K562, HepG2, and HT-29, but also showed significantly less cytotoxicity against normal human cell HEK293 (half maximal inhibiting concentration >10 ?M). The selectivity of compound 9 toward tumor cells relative to normal cells is at least 250 times better than that of camptothecin. The preliminary testing result indicated that the solubility of these compounds was also improved compared to that of 10-hydroxy camptothecin.
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Myosin VI contributes to maintaining epithelial barrier function.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Epithelial barrier dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of immune inflammations; the etiology is not fully understood. The fusion of endosome/lysosome is a critical process in the degradation of endocytic antigens in epithelial cells. Recent reports indicate that myosin VI (myo6) is involved in the activities of endosomes. The present study aims to investigate the role of myo6 in epithelial barrier dysfunction.
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[Predictive model for post-treatment tooth loss of patients with aggressive periodontitis].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To establish a predictive model for long-term tooth loss of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) after periodontal treatment.
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A novel partner of Scalloped regulates Hippo signaling via antagonizing Scalloped-Yorkie activity.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The Hippo (Hpo) pathway controls tissue growth and organ size by regulating the activity of transcriptional co-activator Yorkie (Yki), which associates with transcription factor Scalloped (Sd) in the nucleus to promote downstream target gene expression. Here we identify a novel protein Sd-Binding-Protein (SdBP)/Tgi, which directly competes with Yki for binding to Sd through its TDU domains and inhibits the Sd-Yki transcriptional activity. We also find that SdBP retains Yki in the nucleus through the association with Yki WW domains via its PPXY motifs. Collectively, we identify SdBP as a novel component of the Hpo pathway, negatively regulating the transcriptional activity of Sd-Yki to restrict tissue growth.
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[Detection of periodontal pathogens from saliva of type 2 diabetic patients in urban area of Beijing].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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To investigate the prevalence of periodontal pathogens from saliva of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to characterize the association between the glucose status and periodontal pathogens in oral cavity.
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The evaluation on embryotoxicity of Dipsaci Radix with mice and embryonic stem cells.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Dipsaci Radix (DR), the dried root of Dipsacus asper Wall. ex Henry, has been used to treat pregnant disorders for thousands of years, and currently has been ranked as the first selective herb for prevention of miscarriage clinically; however, there is no sufficient evidence so far to assess its safety. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of DR aqueous extracts on embryonic development with mice and embryonic stem cells (ESCs).
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Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on pain-related behaviors and nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of neuropathic pain.
Pain Res Manag
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Neuropathic pain is complex, and a satisfactory therapeutic method of treatment has yet to be developed; therefore, finding a new and effective therapeutic method is an important issue in the field of neuropathic pain.
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Low-dimensional nanoparticle clustering in polymer micelles and their transverse relaxivity rates.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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One- or two-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanoparticles were formed in colloidal assemblies of amphiphilic polymers. Electron tomography imaging revealed that nanoparticles are arranged into one-dimensional strings in magneto-micelles or two-dimensional sheets in magneto-core/shell assemblies. The distinct directional assembly behavior was attributed to the interparticle interaction relative to the nanoparticle-polymer interaction, which was modulated by varying the cosolvent used for the solution phase self-assembly. Magneto-core/shell assemblies with varying structural parameters were formed with a range of different sized as-synthesized nanoparticles. The transverse magnetic relaxivity rates (r2) of a series of different assemblies were determined to examine the effect of nanoparticle arrangement on the magnetic relaxivity for their potential applications in MRI. The results indicated that the assembly structure of nanoparticles in polymer micelles significantly affects the r2 of surrounding water, providing a way to control magnetic relaxivity.
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Free fatty acid secretion by an engineered strain of Escherichia coli.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Although most bacteria produce fatty acids (FA), few secrete free FAs into the culture media. Over-expression of two FA thioesterases, TesA and AtFatA, facilitated both total and FFA production in a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli. When these thioesterases were expressed in a fadD and fadL double-deletion strain, a further enhancement of FFA secretion was observed. These results support a simple diffusion mechanism for FA transport. In addition, the ATP-binding cassette transporter protein, MsbA, also increased the concentration of FFAs in the culture. The final strain produced 110 mg FFA/l, about 33 % of the total FAs being produced. Our findings support a diffusion mechanism for FA transport.
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BAG3 sensitizes cancer cells exposed to DNA damaging agents via direct interaction with GRP78.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has a modular structure that contains a BAG domain, a WW domain, a proline-rich (PxxP) domain to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and other proteins that participate in more than one signal transduction. In search for novel interacting partners, the current study identified that 78kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) was a novel partner interacting with BAG3. Interaction between GRP78 and BAG3 was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. We also identified that the ATPase domain of GRP78 and BAG domain of BAG3 mediated their interaction. Counterintuitive for a prosurvival protein, BAG3 was found to promote the cytotoxicity of breast cancer MCF7, thyroid cancer FRO and glioma U87 cells subjected to genotoxic stress. In addition, the current study demonstrated that BAG3 interfered with the formation of the antiapoptotic GRP78-procaspase-7 complex, which resulted in an increased genotoxic stress-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of GRP78 significantly blocked the enhancing effects of BAG3 on activation of caspase-7 and induction of apoptosis by genotoxic stress. Overall, these results suggested that through direct interaction BAG3 could prevent the antiapoptotic effect of GRP78 upon genotoxic stress.
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[Effect of recombinant human S100A8 on the proliferation and migration of periodontal ligament cells].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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To investigate the effect of S100A8 on the proliferation and migration of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), and to learn the role of S100A8 in the development of periodontitis.
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Tubular crystals and helical arrays: structural determination of HIV-1 capsid assemblies using iterative helical real-space reconstruction.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Helical structures are important in many different life forms and are well-suited for structural studies by cryo-EM. A unique feature of helical objects is that a single projection image contains all the views needed to perform a three-dimensional (3D) crystallographic reconstruction. Here, we use HIV-1 capsid assemblies to illustrate the detailed approaches to obtain 3D density maps from helical objects. Mature HIV-1 particles contain a conical- or tubular-shaped capsid that encloses the viral RNA genome and performs essential functions in the virus life cycle. The capsid is composed of capsid protein (CA) oligomers which are helically arranged on the surface. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA is connected to its C-terminal domain (CTD) through a flexible hinge. Structural analysis of two- and three-dimensional crystals provided molecular models of the capsid protein (CA) and its oligomer forms. We determined the 3D density map of helically assembled HIV-1 CA hexamers at 16 Å resolution using an iterative helical real-space reconstruction method. Docking of atomic models of CA-NTD and CA-CTD dimer into the electron density map indicated that the CTD dimer interface is retained in the assembled CA. Furthermore, molecular docking revealed an additional, novel CTD trimer interface.
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Mature HIV-1 capsid structure by cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Retroviral capsid proteins are conserved structurally but assemble into different morphologies. The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a fullerene cone model, in which hexamers of the capsid protein are linked to form a hexagonal surface lattice that is closed by incorporating 12 capsid-protein pentamers. HIV-1 capsid protein contains an amino-terminal domain (NTD) comprising seven ?-helices and a ?-hairpin, a carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) comprising four ?-helices, and a flexible linker with a 310-helix connecting the two structural domains. Structures of the capsid-protein assembly units have been determined by X-ray crystallography; however, structural information regarding the assembled capsid and the contacts between the assembly units is incomplete. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8?Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. The structure of the tubular assembly shows, at the three-fold interface, a three-helix bundle with critical hydrophobic interactions. Mutagenesis studies confirm that hydrophobic residues in the centre of the three-helix bundle are crucial for capsid assembly and stability, and for viral infectivity. The cryo-electron-microscopy structures enable modelling by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, resulting in all-atom models for the hexamer-of-hexamer and pentamer-of-hexamer elements as well as for the entire capsid. Incorporation of pentamers results in closer trimer contacts and induces acute surface curvature. The complete atomic HIV-1 capsid model provides a platform for further studies of capsid function and for targeted pharmacological intervention.
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[Association between plasma leptin level and periodontal parameters in patients with aggressive periodontitis].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To detect the plasma leptin levels in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to analyze the relationship between circulating leptin level and periodontal condition.
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Ultrasound-guided percutaneous laser and ethanol ablation of rabbit VX2 liver tumors.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Only a small percentage of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may benefit out of surgical resection. Thus, lots of these patients are in need of local control, such as percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous laser ablation (PLA), or radiofrequency thermal ablation (RF).
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Association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 and epinephrine levels in metabolically healthy but obese individuals: In vitro and in vivo evidence.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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In the present study, we explored the association of serum angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) levels with insulin sensitivity and serum epinephrine levels in metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. We also investigated the effects of epinephrine on ANGPTL2 expression in adipocytes in vitro. We examined the metabolic characteristics and serum ANGPTL2 and epinephrine levels in 100 non-diabetic obese postmenopausal women. Subjects were classified as MHO (n=25) or at-risk (n=25) based on the upper and lower quartiles of insulin sensitivity, respectively. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with increasing doses of epinephrine (10, 30 and 50 nM) in the presence or absence of phentolamine (10 ?M), propranolol (0.3 ?M), LY294002 (50 ?M) or protein kinase A inhibitor fragment 6-22 amide (PKAI, 1 mM) for 24 h. We observed that serum ANGPTL2 levels were negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r=-0.23, P=0.021) and serum epinephrine level (r=-0.62, P<0.001) in the study subjects, with the MHO subjects displaying significantly lower serum ANGPTL2 and higher serum epinephrine levels than the at-risk subjects. Epinephrine reduced the ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein levels in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Propranolol and PKAI were able to eliminate this reduction in ANGPTL2 levels whereas phentolamine and LY294002 were not. The in vitro findings indicated that epinephrine decreased ANGPTL expression at the mRNA and protein levels via the ?-adrenoceptors and the PKA signaling pathway. This study suggests that ?-receptor activation helps to maintain the metabolic profile of MHO individuals and prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by decreasing serum ANGPTL2 levels.
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Fourier transform imaging spectropolarimeter using simultaneous polarization modulation.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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We introduce a Fourier transform imaging spectropolarimeter composed of a simultaneous polarization modulator and a Fourier transform spectrometer without slit. The spectropolarimeter enables the generation of four sets of fringe patterns with different polarization states of light from an object point. Fourier transform of the fringe patterns provides four equations of Stokes parameters in various wavenumbers. And we can obtain the full-stokes vector from the equations. The most significant advantage of the method is that the four polarized fringe patterns are obtained simultaneously and separated without aliasing. Additionally, the advantages of the Fourier transform spectrometer are maintained, such as high radiative throughput.
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[Effect of periodontal therapy on metabolic control and serum biochemical markers in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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To investigate the effect of periodontal therapy on periodontal clinical index, metabolic control and serum biochemical markers in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis comprehensively.
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[Relationship between volatile fatty acids and Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in gingival crevicular fluids of patients with aggressive periodontitis].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, etc. are metabolic product of putative periodontal pathogens, which play significant roles in periodontitis. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis), Treponema denticola (T. denticola), and the concentration of SCFAs in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP).
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Glycosylation of the polypropylene membrane surface via thiol-yne click chemistry for lectin adsorption.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Glycosylated membrane, as one of the most important affinity membranes, permits affinity separation/purification of proteins based on carbohydrate-protein interactions. It is an important scientific issue to screen facile method for fabricating the glycosylated membrane surface with high glycosyl density. Such a surface can be fabricated by the direct covalent immobilization of carbohydrate ligands on the surfaces of microporous polypropylene membrane (MPPM). First, alkyne-functionalized membrane surface was fabricated by plasma pretreatment combined with UV-induced graft polymerization of 3-(trimethylsilyl) propargyl methacrylate. Then, the glycosylated membrane surface was directly fabricated with the thiol-yne click reaction to ensure rapid process, improved efficiency, and high glycosyl density. Chemical and physical properties of the membrane surface were characterized by ATR/FT-IR, XPS, FESEM and water contact angle measurement. Static lectin adsorption indicates that the glycosylated membrane can specifically adsorb lectin concanavalin A (Con A) other than peanut agglutinin (PNA). Break through curves from dynamic Con A adsorption show the membrane has unique properties such as strong specificity, high adsorption capacity, and reversible binding capability. We suggest that the prepared glycosylated membrane is of great potentials in affinity membrane chromatography for rapid and high-resolution separation/purification of lectins.
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The PI(3)P interactome from a colon cancer cell.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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A comprehensive analysis of the phosphoinositide interactome has been performed using an ?-amino analogue of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P immobilised onto Affi-10 beads for use as an affinity absorbent for cytosolic, membrane and nuclear extracts from the LIM1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. Affinity/LC/MS/MS experiments allowed the identification of 681 proteins/protein complexes which interact with PI(3)P. Protein domain enrichment analysis identified proteins possessing PI(3)P (e.g., FYVE, PX, PH), PIP and PIP/phospholipid binding domains along with small GTPases, GTPase regulators, kinases and SH2/SH3 containing proteins. Functional and pathway enrichment analyses highlighted the major role of PI(3)P in endocytosis dynamics and vesicular trafficking, intracellular cell signalling regulation, cell division and cytokinesis.
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The coordination chemistry of two symmetric double-armed oxadiazole-bridged organic ligands with copper salts.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Two new symmetric double-armed oxadiazole-bridged ligands, 4-methyl-{5-[5-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-ylcarbonyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate (L1) and 4-methyl-{5-[5-methyl-2-(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}phenyl pyridine-4-carboxylate (L2), were prepared by the reaction of 2,5-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole with nicotinoyl chloride and isonicotinoyl chloride, respectively. Ligand L1 can be used as an organic clip to bind Cu(II) cations and generate a molecular complex, bis(4-methyl-{5-[5-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-ylcarbonyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}phenyl pyridine-3-carboxylate)bis(perchlorato)copper(II), [Cu(ClO4)2(C28H20N4O5)2], (I). In compound (I), the Cu(II) cation is located on an inversion centre and is hexacoordinated in a distorted octahedral geometry, with the pyridine N atoms of two L1 ligands in the equatorial positions and two weakly coordinating perchlorate counter-ions in the axial positions. The two arms of the L1 ligands bend inward and converge at the Cu(II) coordination point to give rise to a spirometallocycle. Ligand L2 binds Cu(I) cations to generate a supramolecule, diacetonitriledi-?3-iodido-di-?2-iodido-bis(4-methyl-{5-[5-methyl-2-(pyridin-4-ylcarbonyloxy)phenyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl}phenyl pyridine-4-carboxylate)tetracopper(I), [Cu4I4(CH3CN)2(C28H20N4O5)2], (II). The asymmetric unit of (II) indicates that it contains two Cu(I) atoms, one L2 ligand, one acetonitrile ligand and two iodide ligands. Both of the Cu(I) atoms are four-coordinated in an approximately tetrahedral environment. The molecule is centrosymmetric and the four I atoms and four Cu(I) atoms form a rope-ladder-type [Cu4I4] unit. Discrete units are linked into one-dimensional chains through ?-? interactions.
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Brahma is essential for Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and regulated by Hippo signaling.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Chromatin remodeling processes are among the most important regulatory mechanisms in controlling cell proliferation and regeneration. Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs) exhibit self-renewal potentials, maintain tissue homeostasis, and serve as an excellent model for studying cell growth and regeneration. In this study, we show that Brahma (Brm) chromatin-remodeling complex is required for ISC proliferation and damage-induced midgut regeneration in a lineage-specific manner. ISCs and enteroblasts exhibit high levels of Brm proteins; and without Brm, ISC proliferation and differentiation are impaired. Importantly, the Brm complex participates in ISC proliferation induced by the Scalloped-Yorkie transcriptional complex and that the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway directly restricted ISC proliferation by regulating Brm protein levels by inducing caspase-dependent cleavage of Brm. The cleavage resistant form of Brm protein promoted ISC proliferation. Our findings highlighted the importance of Hpo signaling in regulating epigenetic components such as Brm to control downstream transcription and hence ISC proliferation. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00999.001.
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Reduction of in-stent restenosis risk on nickel-free stainless steel by regulating cell apoptosis and cell cycle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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High nitrogen nickel-free austenitic stainless steel (HNNF SS) is one of the biomaterials developed recently for circumventing the in-stent restenosis (ISR) in coronary stent applications. To understand the ISR-resistance mechanism, we have conducted a comparative study of cellular and molecular responses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to HNNF SS and 316L SS (nickel-containing austenitic 316L stainless steel) which is the stent material used currently. CCK-8 analysis and flow cytometric analysis were used to assess the cellular responses (proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle), and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to analyze the gene expression profile of HUVECs exposed to HNNF SS and 316L SS, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 316L SS could activate the cellular apoptosis more efficiently and initiate an earlier entry into the S-phase of cell cycle than HNNF SS. At the molecular level, qRT-PCR results showed that the genes regulating cell apoptosis and autophagy were overexpressed on 316L SS. Further examination indicated that nickel released from 316L SS triggered the cell apoptosis via Fas-Caspase8-Caspase3 exogenous pathway. These molecular mechanisms of HUVECs present a good model for elucidating the observed cellular responses. The findings in this study furnish valuable information for understanding the mechanism of ISR-resistance on the cellular and molecular basis as well as for developing new biomedical materials for stent applications.
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Diagnosis and treatment of a hereditary gingival fibromatosis case.
Chin J Dent Res
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition characterised by severe gingival hyperplasia, which could result in serious aesthetic and emotional problems and functional impairment. Here the present authors report a case of a 28-year-old female patient with generalised severe gingival enlargement covering almost all of the teeth and diagnosed as HGF. Her family history was of significance, since her father and 3-year-old daughter suffered from the same symptoms. Many studies have agreed that surgical removal should be used in the treatment of HGF, and gingivectomy is the most common method. This study tried both external and internal bevel incisions. The results suggest that the former is better for shaping gingival contour, if the attached gingiva is adequate. Correct physiological contour of the marginal gingiva, good oral hygiene and periodic recall can decrease recurrence risk. Post-surgical follow-up after 26 months demonstrated no recurrence and the patient was satisfied with her appearance.
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Fabrication of SiO2@ZrO2@Y2O3:Eu3+ core-multi-shell structured phosphor.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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ZrO2 interface was designed to block the reaction between SiO2 and Y2O3 in SiO2@Y2O3:Eu coreshell structure phosphor. SiO2@ZrO2@Y2O3:Eu core-multi-shell phosphors were successfully synthesized by combing an LBL method with a Sol-gel process. Based on electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and spectroscopy experiments, compelling evidence for the formation of the Y2O3:Eu outer shell on ZrO2 were presented. The presence of ZrO2 layer on SiO2 core can block the reaction of SiO2 core and Y2O3 shell effectively. By this kind of structure, the reaction temperature of the SiO2 core and Y2O3 shell in the SiO2@Y2O3:Eu core-shell structure phosphor can be increased about 200-300 degrees C and the luminescent intensity of this structure phosphor can be improved obviously. Under the excitation of ultraviolet (254 nm), the Eu3+ ion mainly shows its characteristic red (611 nm, 5D0-7F2) emissions in the core-multi-shell particles from Y2O3:Eu3+ shells. The emission intensity of Eu3+ ions can be tuned by the annealing temperatures, the number of coating times, and the thickness of ZrO2 interface, respectively.
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[Near-infrared luminescence and energy transfer of ACaPO4 : Eu2+, Nd3+ (A = Li, K, Na)].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Near-infrared (NIR) luminescence phosphors ACaPO4 : Eu2+, Nd2+ (A = Li, K, Na) were prepared by conventional solid state method and the sensitization of Nd3+ near-infrared luminescence by Eu2+ was investigated. The characteristic NIR luminescence of Nd3+ in ACaPO4 matrix is greatly enhanced by co-doping of Eu2+. The fluorescence properties of ACaPO4 : Eu2+, the NIR luminescence properties of ACaPO4 : Eu2+, Nd3+ and the fluorescence lifetime were studied. The effect of emission wavelength of Eu2+ on NIR luminescence of Nd3+ was investigated; The energy transfer mechanism between Eu2+ and Nd3+ was also discussed. Emission peak wavelength of Eu2+ In ACaPO4 matrixes was found red shift with the series of A = Li, K, Na and the extent of the overlap with the different excitation peaks of Nd3+ changes obviously. It was concluded that the emission peak position of Eu2+ is a very important factor for energy transfer, and the optimal wavelength range for Eu2+ --> Nd3+ energy transfer is 500 to 550 nm.
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Sustained-release oxycodone tablets for moderate to severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a multicenter, open-labeled, postmarketing clinical observation.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sustained-release (SR) oxycodone tablets in the treatment of moderate to severe painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Design.? This was a multicenter, randomized, open-labeled study.
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An intramolecular salt bridge drives the soluble domain of GTP-bound atlastin into the postfusion conformation.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network branching requires homotypic tethering and fusion of tubules mediated by the atlastin (ATL) guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase). Recent structural studies on the ATL soluble domain reveal two dimeric conformers proposed to correspond to a tethered prefusion state and a postfusion state. How the prefusion conformer transitions to the postfusion conformer is unknown. In this paper, we identify an intramolecular salt bridge mediated by two residues outside the GTPase domain near the point of rotation that converts the prefusion dimer to the postfusion state. Charge reversal of either residue blocked ER network branching, whereas a compensatory charge reversal to reestablish electrostatic attraction restored function. In vitro assays using the soluble domain revealed that the salt bridge was dispensable for GTP binding and hydrolysis but was required for forming the postfusion dimer. Unexpectedly, the postfusion conformation of the soluble domain was achieved when bound to the nonhydrolyzable GTP analogue guanosine 5-[?,?-imido]triphosphate, suggesting that nucleotide hydrolysis might not be required for the prefusion to postfusion conformational change.
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[Modified transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: technique and clinical outcomes].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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To evaluate the technique and clinical outcomes of modified transperitoneal laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.
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Structure of HIV-1 capsid assemblies by cryo-electron microscopy and iterative helical real-space reconstruction.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), combined with image processing, is an increasingly powerful tool for structure determination of macromolecular protein complexes and assemblies. In fact, single particle electron microscopy and two-dimensional (2D) electron crystallography have become relatively routine methodologies and a large number of structures have been solved using these methods. At the same time, image processing and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of helical objects has rapidly developed, especially, the iterative helical real-space reconstruction (IHRSR) method, which uses single particle analysis tools in conjunction with helical symmetry. Many biological entities function in filamentous or helical forms, including actin filaments, microtubules, amyloid fibers, tobacco mosaic viruses, and bacteria flagella, and, because a 3D density map of a helical entity can be attained from a single projection image, compared to the many images required for 3D reconstruction of a non-helical object, with the IHRSR method, structural analysis of such flexible and disordered helical assemblies is now attainable. In this video article, we provide detailed protocols for obtaining a 3D density map of a helical protein assembly (HIV-1 capsid is our example), including protocols for cryo-EM specimen preparation, low dose data collection by cryo-EM, indexing of helical diffraction patterns, and image processing and 3D reconstruction using IHRSR. Compared to other techniques, cryo-EM offers optimal specimen preservation under near native conditions. Samples are embedded in a thin layer of vitreous ice, by rapid freezing, and imaged in electron microscopes at liquid nitrogen temperature, under low dose conditions to minimize the radiation damage. Sample images are obtained under near native conditions at the expense of low signal and low contrast in the recorded micrographs. Fortunately, the process of helical reconstruction has largely been automated, with the exception of indexing the helical diffraction pattern. Here, we describe an approach to index helical structure and determine helical symmetries (helical parameters) from digitized micrographs, an essential step for 3D helical reconstruction. Briefly, we obtain an initial 3D density map by applying the IHRSR method. This initial map is then iteratively refined by introducing constraints for the alignment parameters of each segment, thus controlling their degrees of freedom. Further improvement is achieved by correcting for the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the electron microscope (amplitude and phase correction) and by optimizing the helical symmetry of the assembly.
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Beyond flowering time: pleiotropic function of the maize flowering hormone florigen.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a critical turning point in a plant’s life cycle. It is now widely accepted that a leaf-borne signal, florigen, moves via the phloem from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to trigger its reprogramming to produce flowers. In part, the florigenic signal comprises a protein that belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family that is present in all living organisms but displays diverse functions. The founding floral-promoting PEBP gene in Arabidopsis is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) whose functional homologs have been indentified in many flowering plants. We recently accumulated sufficient evidence to demonstrate the maize FT homolog ZCN8 has florigenic function. This task was particularly challenging due to the large number of FT-homologous genes in the maize genome. Here we show that ZCN8 function is more complex than simply regulating the floral transition. ZCN8 appears to play a pleiotropic role in the regulation of generalized growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues.
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(E)-4-Chloro-N-(2,4,6-trimethyl-benzyl-idene)aniline.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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In the title compound, C(16)H(16)ClN, the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 24.61?(13)°. In the crystal, only van der Waals inter-actions occur between neighbouring mol-ecules.
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Glucosamine induces cell death via proteasome inhibition in human ALVA41 prostate cancer cell.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Glucosamine, a naturally occurring amino monosaccharide, has been reported to play a role in the regulation of apoptosis more than half century. However the effect of glucosamine on tumor cells and the involved molecular mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated. Glucosamine enters the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) downstream of the rate-limiting step catalyzed by the GFAT (glutamine:fluctose- 6-phosphate amidotransferase), providing UDPGlcNAc substrates for O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification. Considering that O-GlcNAc modification of proteasome subunits inhibits its activity, we examined whether glucosamine induces growth inhibition via affecting proteasomal activity. In the present study, we found glucosamine inhibited proteasomal activity and the proliferation of ALVA41 prostate cancer cells. The inhibition of proteasomal activity results in the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, followed by induction of apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that glucosamine downregulated proteasome activator PA28? and overexpression of PA28? rescued the proteasomal activity and growth inhibition mediated by glucosamine. We further demonstrated that inhibition of O-GlcNAc abrogated PA28? suppression induced by glucosamine. These findings suggest that glucosamine may inhibit growth of ALVA41 cancer cells through downregulation of PA28? and inhibition of proteasomal activity via O-GlcNAc modification.
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Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by optical and structural modulation of ordered assembly arrays of ZnO nanorods.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Nanomaterials and -structures have attracted much attention owing to their applications to ultrasensitive nanodevices. In this work, ordered assembly arrays of ZnO nanorods have been hydrothermally fabricated and used as optical substrates of fluorescence sensors for toxic vapors. The unique fastigiate nanorod assembly combines merits of single fibers and clusters, possessing identical orientation, large surface-to-volume ratio, evanescent transmission, and evanescent coupling. As coated on the assembly arrays, different sensing materials all generated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) action such that the fluorescence intensity of the narrowed spectrum was 52.4-fold enhanced. Results of sensing experiments indicate that sensors based on the assembly arrays displayed 100% elevated normalized quenching rate and several times longer full-load time compared with reference sensors. This work provides a facile method to fabricate secondary structures of 1D rigid material and presents a new way to design highly sensitive optic sensors. Furthermore, evanescent excitation caused ASE action of fluorescent organics, and the correlative sensitivity gain is of interest in both theoretical research and the applications field.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.