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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evolution and Transmission Patterns of Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in China.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The emergence and transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) pose an increasing threat to global TB control. This study aimed to identify patterns of evolution and transmission dynamics of XDR-TB in high-epidemic populations in China. We analyzed a total of 95 XDR-TB isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 in Chongqing, China. Eight drug resistance genes covering 7 drugs that define XDR-TB were amplified by PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR)-16 loci genotyping and genotypic drug resistance profiles were used to determine the evolution or transmission pattern of XDR-TB strains. Our results indicated that the Beijing genotype was predominant (85/95, 89.5%) in XDR-TB strains and as high as 40.0% (38/95) isolates were distributed into 6 clusters based on VNTR-16 genotyping as well as drug resistance mutation profiles. All isolates of each cluster harbored as many as six identical resistance mutations in drug resistance genes rpoB, katG, inhA promoter, embB, rpsL, and gidB. Among the nine cases with continuous isolates from MDR to XDR, 4 cases belonged to acquired drug resistance, 4 cases were caused by transmission, and 1 case was due to exogenous superinfection. The XDR-TB epidemic in China is mainly caused by a high degree of clonal transmission but evolution from MDR to XDR and even superinfection with new XDR strain can also occur.
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Dual Use of Department of Veterans Affairs and Medicare Benefits and Use of Test Strips in Veterans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Self-monitoring of blood glucose is a costly component of care for diabetes mellitus, with unclear benefits for patients not taking insulin. Veterans with dual Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and Medicare benefits have access to test strips through both systems, raising the potential for overuse.
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Radiation dose calculations for CT scans with tube current modulation using the approach to equilibrium function.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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The approach to equilibrium function has been used previously to calculate the radiation dose to a shift-invariant medium undergoing CT scans with constant tube current [Li, Zhang, and Liu, Med. Phys. 39, 5347-5352 (2012)]. The authors have adapted this method to CT scans with tube current modulation (TCM).
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Research on the characteristics of the water quality of rainwater runoff from green roofs.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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This paper investigates the water quality characteristics of rainwater runoff from dual-substrate-layer green roofs in Tianjin, China. The data were collected from four different assemblies and three types of simulated rains. The storm-water runoff quality was monitored from early June through late October 2012 and from July through late November 2013. The results revealed that the runoff water quality would be improved to some extent with the ageing of green roofs and that the quality retention rate better reflected the pollutant retention capacity of the green roof than the pollutant concentration in the runoff water. The investigation clearly demonstrated that green roofs also effectively reduced the chemical oxygen demand and turbidity value and neutralised acid rain to stabilise the pH of the runoff.
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Intestinal microbial variation may predict early acute rejection after liver transplantation in rats.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Acute rejection (AR) remains a life-threatening complication after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and there are few available diagnostic biomarkers clinically for AR. This study aims to identify intestinal microbial profile and explore potential application of microbial profile as a biomarker for AR after OLT.
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The Production and Comparative Evaluation of Native and Recombinant Antigens for the Fast Serodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis with Dot Immunogold Filtration Assay.
Parasite Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Clinical diagnosis and post-surgery assessment of cystic echinococcosis depend on laboratory serodiagnosis and ultrasound examinations. The current study aim to produce the recombinant antigen (rAgB) and compare its diagnostic effect with natural antigens (crude fluid antigen, protoscolex antigen).
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Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths.
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Identification and characterization of an antifungal protein AfAFPR9 produced by marine derived Aspergillus fumigatus R9.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A fungal strain R9 was isolated from the South Atlantic sediment sample and identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. An antifungal protein AfAFPR9 was purified from the culture supernatant of Aspergillus fumigatus R9. AfAFPR9 was identified to be restrictocin, which belonged to a member of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. AfAFPR9 displayed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria longipes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma viride at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.6, 0.6, 1.2, 1.2, and 2.4 ?g/disc, respectively. Moreover, AfAFPR9 exhibits a certain extent of thermostability, metal ion and denaturant tolerance. The iodoacetamide assay showed that the disulfide bridge in AfAFPR9 was indispensable for its antifungal action. The cDNA encoding for AfAFPR9 was then cloned from A. fumigatus R9 by RT-PCR and heterologously expressed in E. coli. The recombinant AfAFPR9 protein exhibited obvious antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides, T. viride, and A. longipes. These results reveal the antifungal properties of a RIP member (AfAFPR9) from marine derived Aspergillus fumigatus and facilitate its potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungi.
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Response of uptake and translocation of phenanthrene to nitrogen form in lettuce and wheat seedlings.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread chemicals that are potentially carcinogenic and toxic to human due to dietary intake of food crops contaminated by PAHs. To date, the mechanisms underlying root uptake and acropetal translocation of PAHs in crops are poorly understood. Here we describe uptake and translocation of phenanthrene (a model PAH) in relation to nitrogen form and concentration in wheat and lettuce seedlings. At concentrations of 0-15 mM, phenanthrene uptake by roots is enhanced with an increase in ammonium and inhibited with an increment of nitrate. Phenanthrene concentration in shoots is much lower than in roots, suggesting that the direction of phenanthrene transport is acropetal. Ammonium reduces both phenanthrene accumulation and bioconcentration factor in shoots, as well as translocation factor, but nitrate elevates them. Phenanthrene uptake increases nutrient solution pH in the treatments with either nitrate or ammonium. Thus, it is concluded that the root uptake and acropetal translocation of phenanthrene in crops are associated with nitrogen form. Our results provide both a novel insight into the mechanism on PAH transport in higher plants and a promising agronomic strategy to minimize PAH contamination in crops or to improve phytoremediation of PAH-contaminated soils or water via nitrogen management.
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The multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258, alone or in combination with RAD001, is effective for treatment of human leukemia with BCR-ABL translocation in vitro.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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BCR-ABL-positive (BCR-ABL(+)) leukemia is very difficult to treat although much improvement has been achieved due to the clinical application of imatinib and the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study aimed to evaluate for the first time the treatment value of the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258 in BCR-ABL(+) leukemia.
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TKI258, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor is efficacious against human infant/childhood lymphoblastic leukemia in vitro.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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The goal of the present study was to evaluate if the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) TKI258 has any treatment value for infant/childhood acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL), especially those ALLs bearing the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) genes.
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A study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios for CT scanning without table translation.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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For CT scanning in the stationary-table modes, AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the midpoint dose on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long phantoms. Currently, a long cylindrical phantom is usually not available in many clinical facilities. The use of a long phantom is also challenging because of the heavy weight. In order to shed light on assessing the midpoint dose in CT scanning without table movement, the authors present a study of the short- to long-phantom dose ratios, and perform a cross-comparison of CT dose ratios on different scanner models.
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In vitro dose measurements in a human cadaver with abdomen/pelvis CT scans.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To present a study of radiation dose measurements with a human cadaver scanned on a clinical CT scanner.
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[Efficacy of 48-week tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy in patients who were unresponsive to nucleoside-analogue treatments].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) after failure of nucleoside-analogues (NAs).
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Clinical outcome and immune follow-up of different surgical approaches for human cyst hydatid disease in liver.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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A new surgical approach (subadventitial cystectomy) has been developed for liver hydatid disease. We retrospectively compared clinical outcomes and immune status 24 months after a subadventitial cystectomy with traditional surgical approaches. Patients with liver hydatid cysts were treated with a subadventitial cystectomy (N = 11), pericystectomy (N = 16), partial pericystectomy (N = 18), or hepatic resection (N = 12). By the end of the follow-up period, the subadventitial cystectomy group had the fewest post-operative complications and shortest hospital stays. Two recurrences occurred: one recurrence after partial pericystectomy and one recurrence after pericystectomy. The total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level decreased significantly in the subadventitial cystectomy group. The post-surgery IgG level was lower in the subadventitial cystectomy than the pericystectomy and partial pericystectomy groups. In conclusion, subadventitial cystectomy completely removes the parasite, causing lower complication rates and lower immune reactions.
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Predicting the effects of environment and management on cotton fibre growth and quality: a functional-structural plant modelling approach.
AoB Plants
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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In general, the quality of fruits depends on local conditions experienced by the fruit during its development. In cotton, fruit quality, and more specifically the quality of the fibre in the fruit, depends on interactions between fruit position in the plant architecture, temperature and agronomic practices, such as sowing time, mulching with plastic film and topping of the plant's main stem and branches. To quantify this response of cotton fibre quality to environment and management, we developed a simulation model of cotton growth and development, CottonXL. Simulation of cotton fibre quality (strength, length and micronaire) was implemented at the level of each individual fruit, in relation to thermal time (represented by physiological age of the fruit) and prevailing temperature during development of each fruit. Field experiments were conducted in China in 2007 to determine model parameters, and independent data on cotton fibre quality in three cotton producing regions in China were used for model validation. Simulated values for fibre quality closely corresponded to experimental data. Scenario studies simulating a range of management practices predicted that delaying topping times can significantly decrease fibre quality, while sowing date and film mulching had no significant effect. We conclude that CottonXL may be used to explore options for optimizing cotton fibre quality by matching cotton management to the environment, taking into account responses at the level of individual fruits. The model may be used at plant, crop and regional levels to address climate and land-use change scenarios.
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[Changes of expression of miR-155 in colitis-associated colonic carcinogenesis].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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To investigate the changes of miR-155 and its target genes in colitis-associated carcinogenesis.
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Purification and Identification of a Novel Antifungal Protein Secreted by Penicillium citrinum from the Southwest Indian Ocean.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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A novel antifungal protein produced by the fungal strain Penicillium citrinum W1, which was isolated from a Southwest Indian Ocean sediment sample, was purified and characterized. The culture supernatant of P. citrinum W1 inhibited the mycelial growth of some plant pathogenic fungi. After saturation of P. citrinum W1 culture supernatants with ammonium sulfate and ion-exchange chromatography, an antifungal protein (PcPAF) was purified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis showed that PcPAF might be an unknown antifungal protein. PcPAF displayed antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride, Fusarium oxysporum, Paecilomyces variotii, and Alternaria longipes at minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.52, 6.08, 3.04, and 6.08 µg/disc, respectively. PcPAF possessed high thermostability and had a certain extent of protease and metal ion resistance. The results suggested that PcPAF may represent a novel antifungal protein with potential application in controlling plant pathogenic fungal infection.
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Fructose transporters GLUT5 and GLUT2 expression in adult patients with fructose intolerance.
United European Gastroenterol J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption following fructose ingestion (fructose intolerance) are common in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). The underlying mechanism is unclear, but is hypothesized to be related an abnormality of intestinal fructose transporter proteins.
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Fidaxomicin inhibits Clostridium difficile toxin A-mediated enteritis in the mouse ileum.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common, debilitating infection with high morbidity and mortality. C. difficile causes diarrhea and intestinal inflammation by releasing two toxins, toxin A and toxin B. The macrolide antibiotic fidaxomicin was recently shown to be effective in treating CDI, and its beneficial effect was associated with fewer recurrent infections in CDI patients. Since other macrolides possess anti-inflammatory properties, we examined the possibility that fidaxomicin alters C. difficile toxin A-induced ileal inflammation in mice. The ileal loops of anesthetized mice were injected with fidaxomicin (5, 10, or 20 ?M), and after 30 min, the loops were injected with purified C. difficile toxin A or phosphate-buffered saline alone. Four hours after toxin A administration, ileal tissues were processed for histological evaluation (epithelial cell damage, neutrophil infiltration, congestion, and edema) and cytokine measurements. C. difficile toxin A caused histologic damage, evidenced by increased mean histologic score and ileal interleukin-1? (IL-1?) protein and mRNA expression. Treatment with fidaxomicin (20 ?M) or its primary metabolite, OP-1118 (120 ?M), significantly inhibited toxin A-mediated histologic damage and reduced the mean histology score and ileal IL-1? protein and mRNA expression. Both fidaxomicin and OP-1118 reduced toxin A-induced cell rounding in human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts. Treatment of ileal loops with vancomycin (20 ?M) and metronidazole (20 ?M) did not alter toxin A-induced histologic damage and IL-1? protein expression. In addition to its well known antibacterial effects against C. difficile, fidaxomicin may possess anti-inflammatory activity directed against the intestinal effects of C. difficile toxins.
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Biological characteristics and gene expression pattern of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in patients with psoriasis.
Exp. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have immunoregulatory and proangiogenic effects and are suggested to be involved in the pathological processes of immune-related diseases, including psoriasis. Biological characteristics of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) from patients with autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis, but not psoriasis, have been characterized. We compared the gene expression profile and biological characteristics of BMSCs from patients with psoriasis and healthy controls. Although the phenotype, differentiation potential and ability to support CD34(+) cell proliferation were similar to those of normal BMSCs, psoriatic BMSCs showed aberrant proliferative activity, increased apoptosis rate and a characteristic gene expression profile. These aberrations may develop after the abnormal immune response in psoriasis and result in BMSC dysfunction. The functionally deficient BMSCs may then fail to suppress overactive immune cells, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
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The optical property of core-shell nanosensors and detection of atrazine based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensing.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Three different nanosensors with core-shell structures were fabricated by molecular self-assembly and evaporation techniques. Such closely packed nanoparticles exhibit fine optical properties which are useful for biochemical sensing. The refractive index sensitivity (RIS) of nanosensors was detected by varying the refractive index of the surrounding medium and the decay length of nanosensors was investigated using a layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayer assembly. The results showed that the thickness of the Au shell plays an important role in determining the RIS and the decay length. A system based on localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) sensing was constructed in our study. The core-shell nanosensors can detect 10 ng/mL atrazine solutions and are suitable for pesticide residue detection.
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Dual channel sensitive detection of hsa-miR-21 based on rolling circle amplification and quantum dots tagging.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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An isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of hsa-miR-21 with the integration of QDs tagging and rolling circle amplification was offered. In addition, a dual channel strategy for miRNA detection was proposed: anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and fluorescent method were both performed for the final Cd2+ signal readout. The designed strategy exhibited good specificity to hsa-miR-21 and presented comparable detection results by detection methods.
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Inhibition of SRC family kinases protects hippocampal neurons and improves cognitive function after traumatic brain injury.
J. Neurotrauma
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Thrombin is a neurotoxin generated at bleeding sites fater TBI and can lead to cell death and subsequent cognitive dysfunction via activation of Src family kinases (SFKs). We hypothesize that inhibiting SFKs can protect hippocampal neurons and improve cognitive memory function after TBI. To test these hypotheses, we show that moderate lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI in adult rats produces bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in both lateral ventricles, which elevates oxyhemoglobin and thrombin levels in the CSF, activates the SFK family member Fyn, and increases Rho-kinase 1(ROCK1) expression. Systemic administration of the SFK inhibitor, PP2, immediately after moderate TBI blocks ROCK1 expression, protects hippocampal CA2/3 neurons, and improves spatial memory function. These data suggest the possibility that inhibiting SFKs after TBI might improve clinical outcomes.
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Distinctive RNA expression profiles in blood associated with Alzheimer disease after accounting for white matter hyperintensities.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Defining the RNA transcriptome in Alzheimer Disease (AD) will help understand the disease mechanisms and provide biomarkers. Though the AD blood transcriptome has been studied, effects of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were not considered. This study investigated the AD blood transcriptome and accounted for WMH.
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A novel multivalent, single-domain antibody targeting TcdA and TcdB prevents fulminant Clostridium difficile infection in mice.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and associated mortality have increased rapidly worldwide in recent years. Therefore, it is critical to develop new therapies for CDI. In this study, we generated a novel, potently neutralizing, tetravalent, and bispecific antibody composed of 2 heavy-chain-only VH (VHH) binding domains against both TcdA and TcdB (designated "ABA") that reverses fulminant CDI in mice infected with an epidemic 027 strain after a single injection of the antibody. We demonstrated that ABA bound to both toxins simultaneously and displayed a significantly enhanced neutralizing activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, ABA was able to broadly neutralize toxins from clinical C. difficile isolates that express both TcdA and TcdB but failed to neutralize the toxin from TcdA(-)TcdB(+) C. difficile strains. This study thus provides a rationale for the development of multivalent VHHs that target both toxins and are broadly neutralizing for treating severe CDI.
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Combat-training stress in soldiers increases S100B, a marker of increased blood-brain-barrier permeability, and induces immune activation.
Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Experimental data suggest stress-related cognitive dysfunction may be associated with increased blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability secondary to immune activation.
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Occurrence, seasonal variation and risk assessment of antibiotics in the reservoirs in North China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The occurrence and seasonal variability of five groups (tetracycline, quinolone, chloramphenicol, macrolide and sulfonamide) of antibiotics were investigated in the surface water of four reservoirs. The dissolved concentrations of 29 antibiotics were in the ngL(-1) level. Trace levels of all target antibiotics were analyzed using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. All of the antibiotics were detected at all sampling sites, indicating widespread occurrence of antibiotics in the study area. The detection of florfenicol, josamycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin and sulfameter is the first report of these compounds in reservoir samples. The results showed an association between the presence of some antibiotics at Panjiakou reservoir and cage culture of fish. Twenty-three types of antibiotics showed significant seasonal variations (p<0.001) due to human activities and flow conditions. A risk assessment showed that all antibiotics detected could cause very low risk to algae, daphnid and fish. Further health risk need to be investigated because these reservoirs are drinking water sources.
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Identification of cathepsin B from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and its role in the processing of MHC class II-associated invariant chain.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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In teleost, cathepsin B has been identified from several species and shown to play roles in the host immune response during pathogen challenge. However, the mechanism of how cathepsin B modulates the immune response in teleosts remains poorly understood. In this study, we identified and characterized cathepsin B (LycCatB) and invariant chain (LycIi) from the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea). Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that LycCatB and LycIi are highly conserved within teleosts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that LycCatB mRNA was widely expressed in all examined tissues. We then recombinantly expressed LycCatB and Lyc-TR-Ii (transmembrane domain removed Ii chain) in Pichia pastoris and Escherichiacoli, respectively. The recombinant LycCatB (rLycCatB) can hydrolyze the substrate Z-FR-AMC with a Km value of 40.68?M. Furthermore, co-incubation of rLycCatB with rLyc-TR-Ii led to an efficient cleavage of rLyc-TR-Ii in a time-dependant manner. These results indicated that cathepsin B may be involved in MHC class II-associated Ii processing in large yellow croaker, and provide new information helping to elucidate the immunological functions of teleost cathepsin B.
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Maternal calcium metabolic stress and fetal growth.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Suboptimal maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status may or may not adversely influence fetal growth.
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Myelin injury and degraded myelin vesicles in Alzheimer's disease.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Myelin disruption is an important feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that contributes to impairment of neuronal circuitry and cognition. In this study we characterize myelin degradation in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with normal aged controls.
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A novel ATP7B gene mutation in a liver failure patient with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare disorder of copper metabolism resulting in accumulation of copper in liver and other organs. We present a liver failure patient, who was misdiagnosed for two years, with normal ceruloplasmin and low serum alkaline phosphatase. Molecular testing revealed a novel p.Ala982Thr mutation within ATP7B gene. The pathology of liver sample showed a large amount of copper deposition in the hepatocytes and confirmed the diagnosis of WD. Our data highlighted the importance of molecular testing in the early diagnosis of atypical WD.
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Gold binary-structured arrays based on monolayer colloidal crystals and their optical properties.
Small
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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A simple and flexible route is presented to fabricate a gold binary-structured ordered array by one step based on non-shadow deposition on a plasma etching-induced dualistic monolayer colloidal crystal. Such a Au binary-structure array is built of hexagonally arranged nanoshells and nanorings which stand between two adjacent nanoshells. Six gold nanorings surround each nanoshell. The obtained arrays exhibit both the controllable surface-plasmon-resonance (SPR) properties of Au nanoshells and the strong electromagnetic-field-enhancement effects of Au nanorings, with the high structural stability of ordered arrays, and show promising potential as the substrate of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based devices. The method could also be suitable for fabrication of other material binary-structured arrays. This study is important in designing and fabricating basal materials for the next generation of multifunctional nanostructured devices.
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Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma: a novel locoregional ablation decreasing lung metastasis.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive malignancy. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new technology destroying tumor cells with a non-thermal high voltage electric field using ultra-short pulses. The study's aim was to evaluate the ablation efficacy of nsPEFs with human HCC cell lines and a highly metastatic potential HCC xenograft model on BALB/c nude mice. The in vivo study showed nsPEFs induced HCC cell death in a dose dependent manner. On the high metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HCCLM3) xenograft mice model, tumor growth was inhibited significantly in nsPEF-treated- groups (single dose and multi-fractionated dose). Besides a local effect, the nsPEF treatment reduced pulmonary metastases. The nsPEFs also enhanced HCC cell phagocytosis by human macrophage cell (THP1) in vitro. The nsPEF is efficient in controlling HCC progression and reducing its metastasis. NsPEF treatment may elicit a host immune response against tumor cells. This study suggests nsPEF therapy could be used as a potential locoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.
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An air-supported liquid crystal system for real-time reporting of host-guest inclusion events.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A new method for reporting host-guest inclusion phenomena using an air-supported liquid crystal (LC) system based on cyclodextrins (CDs) was developed. In this work inclusion complexation of ?-CD with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or with methylene blue (MB) using SDS as the probe was visualized using the LC, according to the principle that the orientation of LCs was coupled to the organization of SDS molecules.
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Application of 3-dimensional printing technology to construct an eye model for fundus viewing study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To construct a life-sized eye model using the three-dimensional (3D) printing technology for fundus viewing study of the viewing system.
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Morphological and Physiological Responses of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Plants to Salinity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Salinization usually plays a primary role in soil degradation, which consequently reduces agricultural productivity. In this study, the effects of salinity on growth parameters, ion, chlorophyll, and proline content, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities, and lipid peroxidation of two cotton cultivars, [CCRI-79 (salt tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt sensitive)], were evaluated. Salinity was investigated at 0 mM, 80 mM, 160 mM, and 240 mM NaCl for 7 days. Salinity induced morphological and physiological changes, including a reduction in the dry weight of leaves and roots, root length, root volume, average root diameter, chlorophyll and proline contents, net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. In addition, salinity caused ion imbalance in plants as shown by higher Na+ and Cl- contents and lower K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations. Ion imbalance was more pronounced in CCRI-79 than in Simian3. In the leaves and roots of the salt-tolerant cultivar CCRI-79, increasing levels of salinity increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR), but reduced catalase (CAT) activity. The activities of SOD, CAT, APX, and GR in the leaves and roots of CCRI-79 were higher than those in Simian 3. CAT and APX showed the greatest H2O2 scavenging activity in both leaves and roots. Moreover, CAT and APX activities in conjunction with SOD seem to play an essential protective role in the scavenging process. These results indicate that CCRI-79 has a more effective protection mechanism and mitigated oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by maintaining higher antioxidant activities than those in Simian 3. Overall, the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and Chl (a+b) contents, net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, SOD, CAT, APX, and GR activities showed the most significant variation between the two cotton cultivars.
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Gene expression in peripheral immune cells following cardioembolic stroke is sexually dimorphic.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epidemiological studies suggest that sex has a role in the pathogenesis of cardioembolic stroke. Since stroke is a vascular disease, identifying sexually dimorphic gene expression changes in blood leukocytes can inform on sex-specific risk factors, response and outcome biology. We aimed to examine the sexually dimorphic immune response following cardioembolic stroke by studying the differential gene expression in peripheral white blood cells.
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Optical simulations of P3HT/Si nanowire array hybrid solar cells.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An optical simulation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/Si nanowire array (NWA) hybrid solar cells was investigated to evaluate the optical design requirements of the system by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Steady improvement of light absorption was obtained with increased P3HT coating shell thickness from 0 to 80 nm on Si NWA. Further increasing the thickness caused dramatic decrease of the light absorption. Combined with the analysis of ultimate photocurrents, an optimum geometric structure with a coating P3HT thickness of 80 nm was proposed. At this structure, the hybrid solar cells show the most efficient light absorption. The optimization of the geometric structure and further understanding of the optical characteristics may contribute to the development for the practical experiment of the promising hybrid solar cells.
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microRNA expression in peripheral blood cells following acute ischemic stroke and their predicted gene targets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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microRNA (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression. In patients with ischemic stroke we have previously shown that differences in immune cell gene expression are present. In this study we sought to determine the miRNA that are differentially expressed in peripheral blood cells of patients with acute ischemic stroke and thus may regulate immune cell gene expression.
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De novo characterization of the spleen transcriptome of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) and analysis of the immune relevant genes and pathways involved in the antiviral response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) is an economically important marine fish in China. To understand the molecular basis for antiviral defense in this species, we used Illumia paired-end sequencing to characterize the spleen transcriptome of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]-induced large yellow croakers. The library produced 56,355,728 reads and assembled into 108,237 contigs. As a result, 15,192 unigenes were found from this transcriptome. Gene ontology analysis showed that 4,759 genes were involved in three major functional categories: biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. We further ascertained that numerous consensus sequences were homologous to known immune-relevant genes. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology mapping annotated 5,389 unigenes and identified numerous immune-relevant pathways. These immune-relevant genes and pathways revealed major antiviral immunity effectors, including but not limited to: pattern recognition receptors, adaptors and signal transducers, the interferons and interferon-stimulated genes, inflammatory cytokines and receptors, complement components, and B-cell and T-cell antigen activation molecules. Moreover, the partial genes of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptors signaling pathway, Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway were found to be changed after poly(I:C) induction by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, suggesting that these signaling pathways may be regulated by poly(I:C), a viral mimic. Overall, the antivirus-related genes and signaling pathways that were identified in response to poly(I:C) challenge provide valuable leads for further investigation of the antiviral defense mechanism in the large yellow croaker.
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Effects of different tillage and straw return on soil organic carbon in a rice-wheat rotation system.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Soil management practices, such as tillage method or straw return, could alter soil organic carbon (C) contents. However, the effects of tillage method or straw return on soil organic C (SOC) have showed inconsistent results in different soil/climate/cropping systems. The Yangtze River Delta of China is the main production region of rice and wheat, and rice-wheat rotation is the most important cropping system in this region. However, few studies in this region have been conducted to assess the effects of different tillage methods combined with straw return on soil labile C fractions in the rice-wheat rotation system. In this study, a field experiment was used to evaluate the effects of different tillage methods, straw return and their interaction on soil total organic C (TOC) and labile organic C fractions at three soil depths (0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm) for a rice-wheat rotation in Yangzhong of the Yangtze River Delta of China. Soil TOC, easily oxidizable C (EOC), dissolved organic C (DOC) and microbial biomass C (MBC) contents were measured in this study. Soil TOC and labile organic C fractions contents were significantly affected by straw returns, and were higher under straw return treatments than non-straw return at three depths. At 0-7 cm depth, soil MBC was significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage, but EOC was just opposite. Rotary tillage had significantly higher soil TOC than plowing tillage at 7-14 cm depth. However, at 14-21 cm depth, TOC, DOC and MBC were significantly higher under plowing tillage than rotary tillage except for EOC. Consequently, under short-term condition, rice and wheat straw both return in rice-wheat rotation system could increase SOC content and improve soil quality in the Yangtze River Delta.
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Comparative study of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma indicate macrophage infiltration contribute to tumor ablation in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recurrence and metastasis are associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma even in the patients who have undergone radical resection. Therefore, effective treatment is urgently needed for improvement of patients' survival. Previously, we reported that nanosecond pulse electric fields (nsPEFs) can ablate melanoma by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. This study aims to investigate the in vivo ablation strategy by comparing the dose effect of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Maternal biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and preterm delivery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction is key to the development of atherosclerosis. Preterm delivery foreshadows later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not known if endothelial dysfunction also occurs. We prospectively measured circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in pregnant women with preterm or term delivery.
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A field study to evaluate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of different factors on the nutrient pollutant concentrations in green roof runoff and to provide reference data for the engineering design of dual substrate layer green roofs. The data were collected from eight different trays under three kinds of artificial rains. The results showed that except for total phosphorus, dual substrate layer green roofs behaved as a sink for most of the nutrient pollutants (significant at p < 0.05), and the first-flush effect did not occur during the 27 simulated rain events. The results also revealed that the concentration of these nutrient pollutants in the runoff strongly depended on the features of the nutrient substrates used in the green roof and the depth of the adsorption substrates. Compared with the influence of the substrates, the influence of the plant density and drainage systems was small.
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FDA warning and removal of rosiglitazone from VA national formulary.
Am J Manag Care
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Objectives: To describe changes in rosiglitazone prescribing following the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning of potentially increased risk of myocardial infarction and removal from the Department of Veterans Affairs National Formulary (VANF), assess patient-level factors associated with rosiglitazone discontinuation, and evaluate changes in glucose control. Study Design: Historical cohort. Methods: Veterans with an active outpatient prescription for rosiglitazone on April 1, 2007, were followed until June 30, 2008. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of rosiglitazone discontinuation were compared over time using Poisson methods. We identified patient-level factors associated with stopping rosiglitazone using multivariable Poisson regression and compared glycated hemoglobin (A1C) values across time among patients who discontinued/continued rosiglitazone using linear mixed models. Results: Of 95,539 veterans with an active outpatient rosiglitazone prescription, 86.7% discontinued rosiglitazone. Discontinuation rates increased significantly after the FDA warning, with IRRs from 1.6 to 1.8. After removal from the VANF, rosiglitazone discontinuation rates again increased significantly. Discontinuing rosiglitazone was associated with the FDA warning, removal from the VANF, female sex, black race, Hispanic ethnicity, comorbidity, A1C greater than 9%, and use of rosiglitazone as first- or second-line therapy. Among patients who did and did not receive a replacement medication, the mean changes in A1C from baseline were 0.12% and 0.46%, respectively. For those who continued rosiglitazone, the mean change in A1C was -0.02%. Conclusion: The rosiglitazone discontinuation rate increased following the FDA warning and increased further following removal of rosiglitazone from the VANF. Glucose control may have declined among those who discontinued rosiglitazone.
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Cadazolid, a New Antibiotic for the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infections: In Vitro and in Vivo Antibacterial Evaluation.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health-care associated diarrhea with significant morbidity and mortality and new options for the treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) are needed. Cadazolid is a new oxazolidinone-type antibiotic that is currently in clinical development for treatment of CDAD. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial evaluation of cadazolid against C. difficile. Cadazolid showed potent in vitro activity against C. difficile with a MIC range of 0.125-0.5 ?g/mL, including strains resistant to linezolid and fluoroquinolones. In time-kill kinetics experiments cadazolid showed a bactericidal effect against C. difficile isolates, with >99.9% killing in 24 h and was more bactericidal than vancomycin. In contrast to metronidazole and vancomycin, cadazolid strongly inhibited de novo toxin A and B formation in stationary phase cultures of toxigenic C. difficile. Cadazolid also inhibited C. difficile spore formation substantially at sub-growth inhibitory concentrations. In the hamster and mouse models for CDAD, cadazolid was active conferring full protection from diarrhea and death with a potency similar to vancomycin. These findings support further investigations of cadazolid for the treatment of CDAD.
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A moderately thermophilic mixed microbial culture for bioleaching of chalcopyrite concentrate at high pulp density.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Three kinds of samples (acid mine drainage, coal mine wastewater, and thermal spring) derived from different sites were collected in China. Thereafter, these samples were combined and then inoculated into a basal salts solution in which different substrates (ferrous sulfate, elemental sulfur, and chalcopyrite) served as energy sources. After that, the mixed cultures growing on different substrates were pooled equally, resulting in a final mixed culture. After being adapted to gradually increasing pulp densities of chalcopyrite concentrate by serial subculturing for more than 2 years, the final culture was able to efficiently leach the chalcopyrite at a pulp density of 20% (wt/vol). At that pulp density, the culture extracted 60.4% of copper from the chalcopyrite in 25 days. The bacterial and archaeal diversities during adaptation were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and constructing clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. The results show that the culture consisted mainly of four species, including Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Acidithiobacillus caldus, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Ferroplasma thermophilum, before adapting to a pulp density of 4%. However, L. ferriphilum could not be detected when the pulp density was greater than 4%. Real-time quantitative PCR was employed to monitor the microbial dynamics during bioleaching at a pulp density of 20%. The results show that A. caldus was the predominant species in the initial stage, while S. acidophilus rather than A. caldus became the predominant species in the middle stage. F. thermophilum accounted for the greatest proportion in the final stage.
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Incremental cost effectiveness of pharmacist-managed erythropoiesis-stimulating agent clinics for non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease patients.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Pharmacists successfully manage patients with anemia and chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the cost effectiveness of these programs is unknown.
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A parameterization method and application in breast tomosynthesis dosimetry.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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To present a parameterization method based on singular value decomposition (SVD), and to provide analytical parameterization of the mean glandular dose (MGD) conversion factors from eight references for evaluating breast tomosynthesis dose in the Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) protocol and in the UK, European, and IAEA dosimetry protocols.
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Molecular characterization and expression analysis of Toll-like receptor 1 from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of innate immune receptors that recognize molecular patterns associated with microbial pathogens (PAMP) and induce antimicrobial immune responses. Here we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a TLR1 homologue from the large yellow croaker (LycTLR1). The complete cDNA of LycTLR1 is 3487 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 802 amino acids. The deduced LycTLR1 has a typical TLR domain architecture including 4 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) (residues 42-491), one C-terminal LRR domain (residues 527-583) at the extracellular region and a TIR domain (residues 646-791) in the cytoplasmic region. Homology comparison shows that LycTLR1 has 76.8%-47.6% amino acid identity to known fish TLR1. Genomic analysis revealed that LycTLR1 consisted of only one exon in the coding region, which is conserved among other TLR1 from different mammalian species and fish analyzed to date, except the zebrafish. The mRNA of LycTLR1 was constitutively expressed in spleen, head kidney, blood, liver, heart, gills, intestine, brains and muscle, with the highest levels in spleen and blood. Upon stimulation with LPS, the LycTLR1 expression obviously increased in the anterior kidney cells of large yellow croaker, suggesting a role for LycTLR1 in the immune response to LPS.
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A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters "nanoDots" and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method--a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future.
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Calculations of two new dose metrics proposed by AAPM Task Group 111 using the measurements with standard CT dosimetry phantoms.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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AAPM Task Group 111 proposed to measure the equilibrium dose-pitch product Deq for scan modes involving table translation and the midpoint dose DL(0) for stationary-table modes on the central and peripheral axes of sufficiently long (e.g., at least 40 cm) phantoms. This paper presents an alternative approach to calculate both metrics using the measurements of scanning the standard computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry phantoms on CT scanners.
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Hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in animals and humans.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke that is exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy. Methods to better prevent, predict, and treat HT are needed. In this review, we summarize studies of HT in both animals and humans. We propose that early HT (<18 to 24?hours after stroke onset) relates to leukocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and brain-derived MMP-2 that damage the neurovascular unit and promote blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. This contrasts to delayed HT (>18 to 24?hours after stroke) that relates to ischemia activation of brain proteases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator), neuroinflammation, and factors that promote vascular remodeling (vascular endothelial growth factor and high-moblity-group-box-1). Processes that mediate BBB repair and reduce HT risk are discussed, including transforming growth factor beta signaling in monocytes, Src kinase signaling, MMP inhibitors, and inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, clinical features associated with HT in patients with stroke are reviewed, including approaches to predict HT by clinical factors, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers. Though remarkable advances in our understanding of HT have been made, additional efforts are needed to translate these discoveries to the clinic and reduce the impact of HT on patients with ischemic stroke.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2013.203.
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Vitamin D, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and preeclampsia.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Secondary hyperparathyroidism, which is defined by a high concentration of intact parathyroid hormone when circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is low, is a functional indicator of vitamin D insufficiency and a sign of impaired calcium metabolism. Two large randomized controlled trials examined effects of calcium supplementation on preeclampsia but did not consider the vitamin D status of mothers.
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miR-29 mediates TGF?1-induced extracellular matrix synthesis through activation of PI3K-AKT pathway in human lung fibroblasts.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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TGF?1 is very important in the synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, and also in the mediation of human lung fibroblasts proliferation, and miR-29 plays an important role in this process. To explore the interactions of miR-29 family members and TGF?1, the effects of transforming growth factor TGF?1 on the expression of miR-29 and whether miR-29 is involved in pro-survival signaling pathways mediated by TGF?1 were examined in human lung fibroblasts. Treatment of the human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line IMR90 with TGF?1 caused a decrease in expression of miR-29a/b/c by real-time PCR analysis. TGF?1 stimulation increased cell proliferation, colony formation and up-regulated expression of COL1A1; transfecting with miR-29a/b/c mimics reverse TGF?1-induced phenotype changes in IMR90 cells. Western blot analyses showed that TGF?1 treatment unchanged total protein expression levels of PI3K or AKT, but the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-AKT, and COL1A1 were increased; and miR-19a/b/c mimics interfering blocked phosphorylation of PI3K or AKT and decreased expression of COL1A1 after TGF?1 treatment. The results indicate that TGF?1 beta uses the PI3k-Akt pathway in these embryonic fibroblasts and miR29 blocks this activation pathway. It indicates a novel biological function of the PI3K-Akt pathway in IMR90. Elevated expression of miR-29 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases related to fibrogenic reactions in human lung fibroblasts.
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Workload and transmission data for the installation of a digital breast tomosynthesis system.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) differs from conventional mammography in target/filter, kVp range, and imaging geometry. The aim of this study was to assess the breast input exposure of a DBT system by completing a workload survey of DBT installations, and to determine the parameters ?, ?, and ? in the Archer equation for the primary radiation generated by the clinical workload distributions.
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Mortality in patients with Clostridium difficile infection correlates with host pro-inflammatory and humoral immune responses.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Host anti-toxin immune responses play important roles in Clostridium difficile disease and outcome. The relationship between host immune and inflammatory responses during severe C. difficile infection (CDI) and the risk of mortality has yet to be defined. We aimed to investigate the host systemic IgG anti-toxin immune responses, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the infecting C. difficile ribotyped strain, and the host inflammatory markers and their relationship to CDI disease severity and risk of mortality. Inflammatory markers, co-morbidities and CDI outcomes were recorded in a prospective cohort of 150 CDI cases. Serum anti-cytotoxin A (TcdA) and anti-TcdB IgG titres were measured by ELISA and the infecting C. difficile isolate was ribotyped and the in vitro cytotoxin titre assessed. A low median anti-TcdA IgG titre was significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (P<0.05). Ribotype 027 isolates were significantly more toxinogenic than other ribotypes (P<0.00001). High cytotoxin titres correlated with increased inflammatory markers but also higher anti-TcdA and -TcdB (P<0.05) IgG responses resulting in a lower risk of mortality. On multivariate analysis, predictors of mortality were peak white cell count >20 × 10(9) l(-1) [odds ratio (OR) 11.53; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.38-55.92], creatinine concentration >133 µmol l(-1) (OR 6.54; 95 % CI 1.47-29.07), Horns index >3 (OR 4.09; 95 % CI 0.76-22.18) and low anti-TcdA IgG (OR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99), but not ribotype, cytotoxin titre or anti-TcdB IgG. Thus, host pro-inflammatory and humoral responses correlate with the cytotoxin titre of the infecting strain and effective anti-toxin immune responses reduce the risk of mortality.
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Production of transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A under ovarian?specific promoter 1 control using testis?mediated gene transfer.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The aim of the present study was to produce transgenic mice expressing tumor virus A (TVA) in the ovary under ovarian specific promoter 1 (OSP1) control. A transgenic mouse model was established in which TVA, an avian retroviral receptor gene driven by OSP1, was selectively expressed in the ovary. A recombinant plasmid containing TVA cDNA and an OSP1 promoter was constructed. The DNA fragment was repeatedly injected into male mouse testes at multiple sites. At 4?7, 7?10 and 10?13 weeks following the final injection, two DNA?injected male mice were mated with four wild?type female mice to produce transgenic mice. The transgenic positive rate in mouse F1 offspring was 39.69%. When the positive F1 individuals were mated with wild?type Imprinting Control Region mice (PxW) or with positive F1 individuals (PxP), the F2 individuals had a transgenic rate of 12.44%. The transgenic rates in the F1 offspring, produced following mating at the three time intervals, were 55.71 (39/70), 30.77 (4/13) and 18.75% (9/48), respectively. The transgenic rates of the F2 offspring decreased with the age of the F1 offspring, from 26.67% when PxP were mated at 6?8 weeks of age to 6.52% when PxW were mated at 5?6 months of age. The results indicate a high efficiency of gene transfer to F1 offspring using testis?mediated gene transfer (TMGT). The transgenic rate in the F2 offspring was lower than that in the F1 offspring. The results reveal that TMGT is suitable for creating transgenic animals among F1 offspring. Semi?quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction results showed that TVA was expressed in the mice ovaries. The results demonstrate the importance of using the replication?competent avian sarcoma?leukosis virus long terminal repeat with a splice acceptor?TVA system in ovarian tumorigenesis research.
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Heat Shock Proteins in the Brain: Role of Hsp70, Hsp 27, and HO-1 (Hsp32) and Their Therapeutic Potential.
Transl Stroke Res
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced by heat shock via heat shock factor proteins binding to heat shock elements in their promoters. Hsp70 is massively induced in response to misfolded proteins following cerebral ischemia in all cell types but is induced mainly in neurons in the ischemic penumbra. Overexpression of Hsp70 via transgenes and viruses or systemic administration of Hsp70 fusion proteins that allow it to cross the blood brain barrier protects the brain against ischemia in most reported studies. Hsp27 can exist as unphosphorylated large oligomers that prevent misfolded protein aggregates and improve cell survival. P-Hsp27 small oligomers bind specific protein targets to improve survival. In the brain, protein kinase D phosphorylates Hsp27 following ischemia which then binds apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 to prevent MKK4/7, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and Jun-induced apoptosis, and decrease infarct volumes following focal cerebral ischemia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous ion, and biliverdin. CO activates cGMP to promote vasodilation, and biliverdin is converted to bilirubin which can serve as an anti-oxidant, both of which may contribute to the reported protective role of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, ferrous ion can react with hydrogen peroxide to produce pro-oxidant hydroxyl radicals which may explain the harmful role of HO-1 in intracerebral hemorrhage. Heat shock proteins as a class have great potential as treatments for cerebrovascular disease and have yet to be tested in the clinic.
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Human monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins A and B inhibit inflammatory and histologic responses to the toxins in human colon and peripheral blood monocytes.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common and debilitating nosocomial infection with high morbidity and mortality. C. difficile mediates diarrhea and colitis by releasing two toxins, toxin A and toxin B. Since both toxins stimulate proinflammatory signaling pathways in human colonocytes and both are involved in the pathophysiology of CDI, neutralization of toxin A and B activities may represent an important therapeutic approach against CDI. Recent studies indicated that human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against toxins A and B reduce their cytotoxic and secretory activities and prevent CDI in hamsters. Moreover, anti-toxin A and anti-toxin B MAbs together with antibiotics also effectively reduced recurrent CDI in humans. However, whether these MAbs neutralize toxin A- and toxin B-associated immune responses in human colonic mucosa or human peripheral blood monocyte cells (PBMCs) has never been examined. We used fresh human colonic biopsy specimens and peripheral blood monocytes to evaluate the effects of these antibodies against toxin A- and B-associated cytokine release, proinflammatory signaling, and histologic damage. Incubation of anti-toxin A (MK3415) or anti-toxin B (MK6072) MAbs with human PBMCs significantly inhibited toxin A- and toxin B-mediated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) expression. MK3415 and MK6072 also diminished toxin A- and toxin B-mediated NF-?B p65 phosphorylation in human monocytes, respectively, and significantly reduced toxin A- and B-induced TNF-? and IL-1? expression as well as histologic damage in human colonic explants. Our results underline the effectiveness of MK3415 and MK6072 in blocking C. difficile toxin A- and toxin B-mediated inflammatory responses and histologic damage.
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Narrowband ultraviolet B interferes with gene expression in the peripheral blood T cells of patients with psoriasis.
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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Psoriasis pathogenesis and development are closely related to abnormal T cell activity. Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) treatment markedly improves skin lesions in psoriasis.
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High incidence of tuberculosis infection in rheumatic diseases and impact for chemoprophylactic prevention of tuberculosis activation during biologics therapy.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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We conducted a long-term follow-up study in patients with rheumatic diseases who were candidates for biologics treatment to evaluate the effects of biologic agents on the risk of tuberculosis infection and the effect of prophylactic treatment on tuberculosis activation. One hundred one patients with rheumatic diseases who were candidates for biologics treatment were recruited, and 57 healthy subjects were recruited as controls. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and the T-SPOT.TB test were performed for all subjects at baseline. Follow-up testing by the T-SPOT.TB assay was performed every 6 months in patients with rheumatic diseases and at 2 years of recruitment in the healthy controls. In patients with rheumatic diseases and healthy controls, the TST-positive (induration, ?10 mm) rates were 37.6% (38/101) and 34.0% (18/53), respectively (P > 0.05), while the T-SPOT.TB-positive rates were 46.5% (47/101) and 21.1 (12/57), respectively (P = 0.0019). Fifty-two patients were followed up at month 6 with a T-SPOT.TB-positive rate of 40.4%, and 49 were followed up for ?12 months with a T-SPOT.TB-positive rate of 36.7%, with no significant difference in the positive rate at different time points including baseline (P > 0.05). Long-term follow-up revealed that conversion to T-SPOT.TB positivity occurred only in the biologics treatment group, with a positive conversion rate of 11.2% (4/38). Most importantly, no latent tuberculosis developed into active tuberculosis during follow-up with T-SPOT.TB screening and preemptive treatment with isoniazid. Biologics treatment appears to increase the risk of tuberculosis infection. However, tuberculosis activation could be prevented by preemptive isoniazid treatment in patients with latent tuberculosis infection while receiving biologics therapy.
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Molecular characterization and expression analysis of TLR 7 and TLR 8 homologs in large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The two toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, LycTLR7 and LycTLR8, were cloned from large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), an economically important marine fish in China. The full-length cDNAs of LycTLR7 and LycTLR8 are 3544 and 3593 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 3165 and 3093 bp, encoding 1053 and 1030 amino acids, respectively. The TLR family motifs, such as leucine rich repeat (LRR) and Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 receptor (TIR) domain, are conserved in the LycTLR7 and LycTLR8, with 17 and 14 LRRs, and with a TIR domain, respectively. It is also noted that an LRR N-terminal domain (LRR-NT, residues 24-60) is present in the LycTLR7 but not in the LycTLR8. Both LycTLR7 and LycTLR8 contain a conserved extracellular CxRCxxxxxPCxxC motif, which was found in TLR7/TLR8 of other species and required for stimulus-induced signal transduction. Homology comparison shows that LycTLR7 has 79%, 71.9%, 65.9% and 65.8% identity to fugu, rainbow trout, carp and catfish TLR7, while LycTLR8 has 67.1%, 60.7%, 60.6%, 52.4%, and 51.5% identity to fugu TLR8, rainbow trout TLR8a1, rainbow trout TLR8a2, catfish TLR8-2, and catfish TLR8-1, respectively. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that both LycTLR7 and LycTLR8 are located in the endoplasmic reticulum of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells, which is similar to TLR7/TLR8 in mammals. The two TLRs were constitutively expressed in all tissues tested, especially in immune-related tissues such as spleen, head kidney and gills. An increased expression of LycTLR7 and LycTLR8 was observed in head kidney and spleen of large yellow croakers stimulated by poly (I:C), a viral mimic. In head kidney, their mRNA expression was up-regulated more than 10 times compared to the controls at 12 h after poly (I:C) stimulation. These results suggested that LycTLR7 and LycTLR8 may play a role in the defense against viral infection like their mammalian homologs.
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Toll-like receptor 5-dependent immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine containing the nontoxic domains of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium flagellin in a mouse model of
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacillus that produces toxin-mediated enteric disease. C. difficile expresses two major virulence factors, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB). Human and animal studies demonstrate a clear association between humoral immunity to these toxins and protection against C. difficile infection (CDI). The receptor binding-domains (RBDs) of TcdA and TcdB are known to be immunogenic. Here, we tested the immunoadjuvant properties of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium flagellin (FliC) subunit D1 as an innate immune agonist expressed as a recombinant fusion vaccine targeting the RBDs of TcdA and TcdB in mice. Intraperitoneally immunized mice developed prominent anti-TcdA and anti-TcdB immunoglobulin G in serum. The protective efficacy of the recombinant vaccines, with or without an adjuvant, was tested in a mouse model of CDI that closely represents the human disease. Following intraperitoneal immunization equivalent to two doses of toxoid A and toxoid B vaccine adjuvanted with alum and oral challenge with C. difficile VPI 10463, C57BL/6 mice were able to mount a protective immune response that prevented diarrhea and death compared to mice immunzed with alum alone. These results are significantly different from those for control mice (P < 0.001). These results provide evidence that a recombinant protein-based vaccine targeting the RBDs of the C. difficile toxins adjuvanted with S. Typhimurium flagellin can induce rapid, high-level protection in a mouse model of CDI when challenged with the homologous strain from which the vaccine antigens were derived and warrant further preclinical testing against clinically relevant C. difficile strains in the mouse and hamster models of CDI.
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Entrance skin dosimetry and size-specific dose estimate from pediatric chest CTA.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Size-specific dose estimate (SSDE), which corrects CT dose index (CTDI) for body diameter and is a better measure of organ dose than is CTDI, has not yet been validated in vivo.
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Monte Carlo assessment of CT dose equilibration in PMMA and water cylinders with diameters from 6 to 55 cm.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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In multidetector CT, the dose integral DIL of single scan dose profile over the integration interval (-L/2, L/2) can predict the accumulated dose DL(0) at the center of the scan range (-L/2, L/2) for a helical scan of pitch = 1. Both DIL and DL(0) increase with L until the limiting levels (DI? and Deq) are reached. The DL(0) equilibration is related to the DIL equilibration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the DIL?DI? growth curve, and its variations with factors such as phantom diameter, phantom axis (center or periphery), material (PMMA or water), tube voltage, and bowtie filter (head or body).
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Liver proteomic analysis of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) following polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid induction.
Fish Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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In the present study, we examined the liver protein profiles of the large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) exposed to polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], a viral mimic, using the differential proteomic approach. Sixteen altered protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry, including eight upregulated proteins and eight downregulated proteins. These altered host proteins were classified into six categories based on their biological function: cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, binding, and catabolic process, highlighting the fact that response to poly(I:C) induction in fish seems to be complex and diverse. Moreover, four corresponding genes of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by relative quantitative real-time PCR. Western blot analysis further demonstrated the changes in protein abundance of natural killer enhancing factor and peroxiredoxin 6. These results will be helpful in furthering our understanding of the changes of physiological processes in liver of fish during virus infection.
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Influence of plant root morphology and tissue composition on phenanthrene uptake: stepwise multiple linear regression analysis.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that reside mainly in surface soils. Dietary intake of plant-based foods can make a major contribution to total PAH exposure. Little information is available on the relationship between root morphology and plant uptake of PAHs. An understanding of plant root morphologic and compositional factors that affect root uptake of contaminants is important and can inform both agricultural (chemical contamination of crops) and engineering (phytoremediation) applications. Five crop plant species are grown hydroponically in solutions containing the PAH phenanthrene. Measurements are taken for 1) phenanthrene uptake, 2) root morphology--specific surface area, volume, surface area, tip number and total root length and 3) root tissue composition--water, lipid, protein and carbohydrate content. These factors are compared through Pearsons correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The major factors which promote phenanthrene uptake are specific surface area and lipid content.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.