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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Manufacturing and characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 8 reference standard material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Abstract Gene therapy approaches using recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) and serotype 8 (rAAV8) have achieved significant clinical benefits. The generation of rAAV Reference Standard Materials (RSM) is key to providing points of reference for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for gene transfer vectors. Following the example of the rAAV2RSM, here we have generated and characterized a novel RSM based on rAAV serotype 8. The rAAV8RSM was produced using transient transfection, and the purification was based on density gradient ultracentrifugation. The rAAV8RSM was distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols to 16 laboratories worldwide. Mean titers and 95% confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles (mean, 5.50×10(11) pt/ml; CI, 4.26×10(11) to 6.75×10(11) pt/ml), vector genomes (mean, 5.75×10(11) vg/ml; CI, 3.05×10(11) to 1.09×10(12) vg/ml), and infectious units (mean, 1.26×10(9) IU/ml; CI, 6.46×10(8) to 2.51×10(9) IU/ml). Notably, there was a significant degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This outcome emphasizes the need to use RSMs to calibrate the titers of rAAV vectors in preclinical and clinical studies at a time when the field is maturing rapidly. The rAAV8RSM has been deposited at the American Type Culture Collection (VR-1816) and is available to the scientific community.
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[Effect of different types of jumps on the expressions of IL-6, OPG and RANKL in rat tibia].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Objective To investigate the effect of different types of jumps on the expressions of interleukin 6 (IL-6), osteoprotegerin(OPG), ligand of receptor activator of NF-?B(RANKL) genes related to bone metabolism in rat tibia, and explore the molecular mechanism underlying bone destruction associated with over-loading jumping. Methods Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly assigned to control group (C), jump group (J) and loading jump group (JL), 8 rats in each group. J group participated in incremental load training. The rats in JL group carried loads that were 5% of their body mass. Same training plan was used in J and JL groups, while control group was not treated. The experiment was completed after 6 weeks. The serum samples were collected and assayed for the contents of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP). One-side tibia was used for paraffin section and HE staining, and the other side was used for real time quantitative PCR(qRT-PCR) to detect the expressions of IL-6, OPG and RANKL mRNA. Results Compared with control group and J group, the collagen fibers in periost was more disordered in JL group. We further observed a more serious damage of the cortical bone and increased cavities in JL group. The serum ALP levels in JL group were significantly higher than those in control and J groups (P<0.05). The serum TRACP levels in JL and J groups were significantly higher compared to control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was a significantly higher expression level of IL-6 in both jump groups (P<0.01), while the JL group had a higher IL-6 expression compared with J group (P<0.01). There was a higher expression of OPG mRNA in JL and J groups (P<0.05). The highest expression level of OPG was observed in J group. The expression level of RANKL was significantly higher in JL group compared with control and J groups (P<0.01). Conclusion After loading jump for 6 weeks, the expressions of IL-6 and RANKL were markedly elevated in rat tibia, suggesting that IL-6 and RANKL might be involved in the process of bone destruction due to increased bone turnover.
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Uncontrolled inflammation induced by AEG-1 promotes gastric cancer and poor prognosis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the development and progression of gastric cancer. The expression of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is increased in gastric cancer tissues, thereby contributing to the inflammatory response. We investigated whether and how AEG-1 regulated proinflammatory signaling in gastric cancer cells. We used human gastric cancer cell lines and athymic nude mice to investigate the role of AEG-1 in the regulation of the TLR4/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway and cancer invasion and compared the expression of AEG-1 and related proteins in 93 patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry. In human gastric cancer cells, both AEG-1 and TLR4 could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. AEG-1 was upregulated via LPS-TLR4 signaling and in turn promoted nuclear translocation of the NF-?B p65 subunit. At the same time, AEG-1 overexpression decreased the levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) protein SOCS-1, a negative regulator of the TLR4 pathway. Furthermore, nude mice engrafted with AEG-1/TLR4-expressing cells demonstrated larger tumor volumes than control animals. In patients with gastric cancer, the expression of AEG-1 correlated with that of TLR4, SOCS-1, and NF-?B and was higher in tumors compared with noncancerous adjacent tissues. Overall survival in patients with gastric cancer with simultaneous expression of AEG-1 and TLR4 was poor. Our results demonstrate that AEG-1 can promote gastric cancer progression by a positive feedback TLR4/NF-?B signaling-related mechanism, thus providing new mechanistic explanation for the role of inflammation in cancer progression.
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Variable number tandem repeats in dopamine receptor D4 in Tourette's syndrome.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We attempted to clarify the association between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism and Tourette's syndrome.
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Blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol targets for prevention of recurrent strokes and cognitive decline in the hypertensive patient: design of the European Society of Hypertension-Chinese Hypertension League Stroke in Hypertension Optimal Treatment randomized trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The SBP values to be achieved by antihypertensive therapy in order to maximize reduction of cardiovascular outcomes are unknown; neither is it clear whether in patients with a previous cardiovascular event, the optimal values are lower than in the low-to-moderate risk hypertensive patients, or a more cautious blood pressure (BP) reduction should be obtained. Because of the uncertainty whether 'the lower the better' or the 'J-curve' hypothesis is correct, the European Society of Hypertension and the Chinese Hypertension League have promoted a randomized trial comparing antihypertensive treatment strategies aiming at three different SBP targets in hypertensive patients with a recent stroke or transient ischaemic attack. As the optimal level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level is also unknown in these patients, LDL-C-lowering has been included in the design.
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Blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol lowering for prevention of strokes and cognitive decline: a review of available trial evidence.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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It is well established by a large number of randomized controlled trials that lowering blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by drugs are powerful means to reduce stroke incidence, but the optimal BP and LDL-C levels to be achieved are largely uncertain. Concerning BP targets, two hypotheses are being confronted: first, the lower the BP, the better the treatment outcome, and second, the hypothesis that too low BP values are accompanied by a lower benefit and even higher risk. It is also unknown whether BP lowering and LDL-C lowering have additive beneficial effects for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and whether these treatments can prevent cognitive decline after stroke.
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KLF1 mutations are relatively more common in a thalassemia endemic region and ameliorate the severity of ?-thalassemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Mutations in human Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) have recently been reported to be responsible for increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and hemoglobin A2 (HbA2). Because increased HbF and HbA2 levels are important features of ?-thalassemia, we examined whether there is any relationship between KLF1 mutation and ?-thalassemia in China. To do this, we first studied the incidence of KLF1 mutations in 2 Chinese populations: 3839 individuals from a thalassemia endemic region in south China and 1190 individuals from a non-thalassemia endemic region in north China. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of KLF1 mutations is significantly higher in the thalassemia endemic region than that in non-thalassemia endemic region (1.25% vs 0.08%). Furthermore, we identified 7 functional variants including 4 previously reported (p.Gly176AlafsX179, p.Ala298Pro, p.Thr334Arg, and c.913+1G>A) and 3 novel variants (p.His299Asp, p.Cys341Tyr, and p.Glu5Lys) in southern China. The 2 most common mutations, p.Gly176AlafsX179 and p.His299Asp, accounted for 90.6% of the total. We found that zinc-finger mutations in KLF1 were selectively represented in 12 ?-thalassemia intermedia patients and resulted in significantly different transfusion-free survival curves. Our findings suggest that KLF1 mutations occur selectively in the presence of ?-thalassemia to increase the production of HbF, which in turn ameliorates the clinical severity of ?-thalassemia.
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Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, blocks M2 macrophage polarization in colitis-associated tumorigenesis through downregulating PGE2 and IL-6.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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M2 macrophage polarization is implicated in colorectal cancer development. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has been reported to prevent azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Here, in a mouse model of colitis-associated tumorigenesis induced by AOM/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we investigated the chemopreventive effects of ISL and its mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either vehicle or ISL (3, 15 and 75 mg/kg). Tumor load, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expressions were determined. Intragastric administration of ISL for 12 weeks significantly decreased colon cancer incidence, multiplicity and tumor size by 60%, 55.4% and 42.6%, respectively. Moreover, ISL inhibited M2 macrophage polarization. Such changes were accompanied by downregulation of PGE2 and IL-6 signaling. Importantly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate (Clod) or zoledronic acid (ZA) reversed the effects of ISL. In parallel, in vitro studies also demonstrated that ISL limited the M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages with concomitant inactivation of PGE2/PPAR? and IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Conversely, exogenous addition of PGE2 or IL-6, or overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ISL-mediated inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization. In summary, dietary flavonoid ISL effectively inhibits colitis-associated tumorigenesis through hampering M2 macrophage polarization mediated by the interplay between PGE2 and IL-6. Thus, inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization is likely to represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.
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[Efficacy analysis of laparoscopic surgery for primary local gastric and intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumors].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To investigate the feasibility and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic resection of primary local gastric and intestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST).
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[Pathology features and management of small-size gastrointestinal stromal tumors].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) is 1-2 per 100 000. Micro GIST with a size less than 1 cm are found in 3%-35% elderly population. These small-size GIST are usually located in the middle or upper stomach, with gain-function KIT or PDGFRA mutation. In this review, the clinicopathological features and management of these small-size GISTs are discussed.
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[Liver and heart iron deposition status in patients with ? thalassemia major: a multicenter study].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To observe the status of iron deposition in patient with ? thalassemia major, and to formulate appropriate treatment strategies.
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[Aggressive B-cell lymphomas of gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic analysis of 54 cases].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To study the histological features, diagnosis, differential diagnoses of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract and to correlate clinical prognosis with pathologic parameters and immunophenotypes with an emphasis on c-myc, Tcl-1 and CD38 expression and their values in predicting the status of c-myc gene translocation.
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[Evaluation of the rationality of current T staging of gastric cancer with transverse mesocolon invasion].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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To evaluate the rationality of T staging of gastric cancer with transverse mesocolon invasion.
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Detection of hTERC and c-MYC genes in cervical epithelial exfoliated cells for cervical cancer screening.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Cervical cancer is the principal cause of mortality due to cancer in women worldwide. New predictive markers may increase survival rates by improving the treatment of patients at a high risk for cancer. This study was carried out to investigate the amplification of human telomerase RNA component (hTERC) or/and c-MYC in cervical epithelial exfoliated cells for cervical carcinoma screening. We collected 171 specimens. including speciments from normal cervix, benign lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3, or carcinoma in situ, as well as invasive cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect alterations in hTERC and c-MYC expression. We analyzed the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), as well as the sensitivity and specificity of single screening and conjoined screening. There was a trend toward an increasing amplification of 2 genes with the increasing severity of cervical lesions. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the AUC values of the hTERC gene for the screening of different cervical lesions were >0.8. Compared with the hTERC gene, the AUC of the c-MYC gene for the screening of ?CIN3 was >0.8 and the AUC for the screening of other cervical lesions was >0.7. For the screening of cervical lesions above the grade of benign lesions, cytological diagnosis was superior to the gene detection with significant differences. For the screening of cervical lesions >CIN1, there were no statistically significant differences (P>0.05) between the hTERC gene and cytological diagnosis, whereas the screening results of c-MYC detection and cytological diagnosis differed significantly (P<0.05). For the screening of cervical lesions >CIN2 or >CIN3, the detection of hTERC and c-MYC genes and cytological diagnosis had similar screening results with no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). In conclusion, using FISH to detect the amplification of hTERC or/and c-MYC on cervical epithelial exfoliated cells may be a useful and specific screening method for precancerous lesions.
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3D porous chitosan scaffolds suit survival and neural differentiation of dental pulp stem cells.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A key aspect of cell replacement therapy in brain injury treatment is construction of a suitable biomaterial scaffold that can effectively carry and transport the therapeutic cells to the target area. In the present study, we created small 3D porous chitosan scaffolds through freeze-drying, and showed that these can support and enhance the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to nerve cells in vitro. The DPSCs were collected from the dental pulp of adult human third molars. At a swelling rate of ~84.33 ± 10.92 %, the scaffold displayed high porosity and interconnectivity of pores, as revealed by SEM. Cell counting kit-8 assay established the biocompatibility of the chitosan scaffold, supporting the growth and survival of DPSCs. The successful neural differentiation of DPSCs was assayed by RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence. We found that the scaffold-attached DPSCs showed high expression of Nestin that decreased sharply following induction of differentiation. Exposure to the differentiation media also increased the expression of neural molecular markers Microtubule-associated protein 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. This study demonstrates that the granular 3D chitosan scaffolds are non-cytotoxic, biocompatible, and provide a conducive and favorable micro-environment for attachment, survival, and neural differentiation of DPSCs. These scaffolds have enormous potential to facilitate future advances in treatment of brain injury.
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Obsessions appear after the removal a brain tumor in the right frontal lobe.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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A series of case reports and neuroimaging research points to the underlying neuropathological substrate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and the underlying associations between OCD and areas of the frontal lobe. We report a patient wherein the onset of OCD occurred after resection of meningioma of the right frontal lobe and who was treated successfully with paroxetine hydrochloride. We suggest that the onset of secondary (organic) OCD is associated with the frontal lobe, and we propose that the origin of obsessions is located in the right frontal lobe.
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The prognostic value of lymph nodes dissection number on survival of patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Objective. The study was designed to explore the prognostic value of examined lymph node (LN) number on survival of gastric cancer patients without LN metastasis. Methods. Between August 1995 and January 2011, 300 patients who underwent gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy for LN-negative gastric cancer were reviewed. Patients were assigned to various groups according to LN dissection number or tumor invasion depth. Some clinical outcomes, such as overall survival, operation time, length of stay, and postoperative complications, were compared among all groups. Results. The overall survival time of LN-negative GC patients was 50.2 ± 30.5 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that LN dissection number (P < 0.001) and tumor invasion depth (P < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors of survival. The number of examined LNs was positively correlated with survival time (P < 0.05) in patients with same tumor invasion depth but not correlated with T1 stage or examined LNs >30. Besides, it was not correlated with operation time, transfusion volume, length of postoperative stay, or postoperative complication incidence (P > 0.05). Conclusions. The number of examined lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor of survival for patients with lymph node-negative gastric cancer. Sufficient dissection of lymph nodes is recommended during surgery for such population.
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The Subjective Quality of Life in Young People With Tourette Syndrome in China.
J Atten Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Objective: To explore the subjective quality of life (QoL) in children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) in China to provide a basis for more effective interference. Method: A total of 107 patients and 107 controls were enrolled. Subjective QoL was investigated by Inventory of Subjective Life Quality, Family Environment Scale of Chinese Version, and the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, and a case-control study was performed. Results: The total score of subjective QoL and family life, school life, peer relationship, cognitive component, environment, self-awareness, cognitive component and depression experience in the TS were lower than control. Patients with co-morbid exhibited significantly lower scores within the subjective QoL family life, peer relationship, school life, self-awareness, and cognitive affective domains. Conclusion: The subjective QoL is impaired and it is important to control clinical symptoms and improve family environment for the improvement of the subjective QoL in TS. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) 1-XX).
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Synergistic effect of ALOX5AP polymorphisms and cigarette smoking on the risk of atherosclerotic cerebral infarction in a Northern Han Chinese population.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The effect of activating 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5AP) gene polymorphisms on stroke risk may be influenced by the coexistence of modifiable predisposing conditions. We explored the interactions of ALOX5AP polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in a case-control study of patients with atherosclerotic cerebral infarction (ACI). Three polymorphisms of the ALOX5AP gene (rs10507391, rs4769874, and rs9551963) were analyzed in 420 ACI patients and 488 unrelated healthy controls matched for age and sex from a Northern Han Chinese population. Among the three single nucleotide polymorphisms, only rs10507391 genotype TT/TA was observed to be associated with an increased risk of ACI on multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]=1.82, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-2.92, p=0.012) compared with the AA genotype. However, after stratifying by smoking status, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that rs10507391 genotype TT/TA and rs9551963 genotype CC/CA had a 5.63-fold (OR=5.63, 95%CI=2.00-15.84, p=0.001) and a 2.71-fold (OR=2.71, 95%CI=1.28-5.73, p=0.009) increased risk for ACI patients who smoked compared with the AA genotype, respectively. Additionally, according to the haplotype analysis, the risk of haplotype TGC (OR=3.12, 95%CI=2.00-4.88, p<0.001, corrected p [pc]<0.001) increased for ACI patients who smoked compared to the data (OR=1.60, 95%CI=1.28-1.98, p<0.001, pc<0.001) in total samples. These results suggest that ALOX5AP polymorphisms are associated with ACI, and cigarette smoking along with ALOX5AP could increase the risk of ACI.
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Comparative effectiveness of oral drug therapies for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in elder men and a number of drugs alone or combined are clinically used for this disorder. But available studies investigating the comparative effects of different drug therapies are limited. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of different drug therapies for LUTS/BPH with network meta-analysis.
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Systematic review and meta-analysis of the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Prostate cancer is relatively common cancer occurring in males. Radical prostatectomy (RP) is the most effective treatment for a localized tumor but erectile dysfunction (ED) is common complication, even when bilateral nerve-sparing RP (BNSRP) is performed. Clinical trials have shown varied effectiveness of phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) for treatment of post-BNSRP ED, but there remains controversy over the application of this treatment and no formal systematic review and meta-analysis for the use of PDE5-Is for this condition has been conducted. This review was to systematically assess the efficacy and safety of oral PDE5-Is for post-BNSRP ED. A database search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The comparative efficacy of treatments was analyzed by fixed or random effect modeling. Erectile function was measured using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) question-2, 3 and the Global Assessment Question (GAQ). The rate and incidence of adverse events (AEs) were determined. The quality of included studies was appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration bias appraisal tool. Eight RCTs were included in the analyses. PDE5-Is were effective for treating post-BNSRP ED compared to placebo when erectile function was determined using the IIEF score [mean difference (MD) 5.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) (4.26-6.99)], SEP-2 [relative risk (RR) 1.63, 95% CI (1.18-2.25) ], SEP-3 [RR 2.00, 95% CI (1.27-3.15) ] and GAQ [RR 3.35, 95% CI (2.68-4.67) ]. The subgroup analysis could find a trend that longer treatment duration, higher dosage, on-demand dosing, sildenafil and mild ED are associated with more responsiveness to PDE5-Is. PDE5-Is were overall well tolerated with headache being the most commonly reported AE. Our data provides compelling evidence for the use of PDE5-Is as a primary treatment for post-BNSRP ED. However, further studies are required to optomize usage parameters (such as dosage and duration of treatment).
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Lycium barbarum polysaccharides prevent memory and neurogenesis impairments in scopolamine-treated rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lycium barbarum is used both as a food additive and as a medicinal herb in many countries, and L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), a major cell component, are reported to have a wide range of beneficial effects including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anticancer properties, and immune modulation. The effects of LBPs on neuronal function, neurogenesis, and drug-induced learning and memory deficits have not been assessed. We report the therapeutic effects of LBPs on learning and memory and neurogenesis in scopolamine (SCO)-treated rats. LBPs were administered via gastric perfusion for 2 weeks before the onset of subcutaneous SCO treatment for a further 4 weeks. As expected, SCO impaired performance in novel object and object location recognition tasks, and Morris water maze. However, dual SCO- and LBP-treated rats spent significantly more time exploring the novel object or location in the recognition tasks and had significant shorter escape latency in the water maze. SCO administration led to a decrease in Ki67- or DCX-immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus and damage of dendritic development of the new neurons; LBP prevented these SCO-induced reductions in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. LBP also protected SCO-induced loss of neuronal processes in DCX-immunoreactive neurons. Biochemical investigation indicated that LBP decreased the SCO-induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and reversed the ratio Bax/Bcl-2 that exhibited increase after SCO treatment. However, decrease of BDNF and increase of AChE induced by SCO showed no response to LBP administration. These results suggest that LBPs can prevent SCO-induced cognitive and memory deficits and reductions in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. Suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis may be involved in the above effects of LBPs that may be a promising candidate to restore memory functions and neurogenesis.
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How early can myocardial iron overload occur in beta thalassemia major?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myocardial siderosis is the most common cause of death in patients with beta thalassemia major(TM). This study aimed at investigating the occurrence, prevalence and severity of cardiac iron overload in a young Chinese population with beta TM.
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Upregulation of Lhx8 increase VAChT expression and ACh release in neuronal cell line SHSY5Y.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Lhx8 is a transcription factor for cholinergic differentiation. Our previous experiments found upregulation of Lhx8 promoted cholinergic neuronal differentiation of hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells or hippocampal newborn neurons in vitro. However, the role of Lhx8 in VAChT expression and ACh release is still less understood. In this report, we transfected Lhx8 cDNA into neuronal cell line SHSY5Y by lentiviral vectors to acquire the cells which stably expressed high level of Lhx8. Using this cell model, we provided experimental evidence that increasing Lhx8 upregulated the expression of ChAT and VAChT, and also increased the ACh release in culture medium. We suggested that Lhx8 overexpression is a useful strategy to increase the release of ACh and maybe of therapeutic value to neurodegenerative diseases.
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Therapeutic effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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The therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells has been studied in several diseases. However, the possibility that human umbilical cord Whartons jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) can be used to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) has not yet been investigated. This study focuses on the potential therapeutic effect of hUCMSC transplantation in a rat model of HIE. Dermal fibroblasts served as cell controls. HIE was induced in neonatal rats aged 7 days. hUCMSCs labeled with Dil were then transplanted into the models 24 hr or 72 hr post-HIE through the peritoneal cavity or the jugular vein. Behavioral testing revealed that hUCMSC transplantation but not the dermal fibroblast improved significantly the locomotor function vs. vehicle controls. Animals receiving cell grafts 24 hr after surgery showed a more significant improvement than at 72 hr. More hUCMSCs homed to the ischemic frontal cortex following intravenous administration than after intraperitoneal injection. Differentiation of engrafted cells into neurons was observed in and around the infarct region. Gliosis in ischemic regions was significantly reduced after hUCMSC transplantation. Administration of ganglioside (GM1) enhanced the behavioral recovery on the base of hUCMSC treatment. These results demonstrate that intravenous transplantation of hUCMSCs at an early stage after HIE can improve the behavior of hypoxic-ischemic rats and decrease gliosis. Ganglioside treatment further enhanced the recovery of neurological function following hUCMSC transplantation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Identification and active site analysis of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase catalysing the synthesis of ethylene in Agaricus bisporus.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) is a key enzyme that catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene. Recently, the first ACO homologue gene was isolated in Agaricus bisporus, whereas information concerning the nature of the ethylene-forming activity of this mushroom ACO is currently lacking.
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Association study between MAO-A gene promoter VNTR polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
J Anxiety Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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A functional variant in the mono-amine oxidase-A (MAO-A) gene has been shown to affect neural function related to several mental disorders. Therefore, we would like to ascertain if MAO-A could be a candidate gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We genotyped 414 healthy subjects and 240 OCD patients and found no significant difference not only in allele frequencies in male patients (?(2) = 0.365, DF = 1, P = 0.545, odds ratio (OR) = 1.139, confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-1.74) but also in allele frequencies (?(2) = 0.698, DF = 1, P = 0.404, OR = 0.849, CI = 0.579-1.246) or genotypic frequencies (?(2)=0.933, DF = 2, P = 0.627) in female patients between OCD patients and controls. Given that this is the first investigation of this gene in OCD in a Chinese Han population, further studies are required to obtain more definitive conclusions in a larger number of subjects.
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Study of symptom dimensions and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with OCD.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The current study explored the main symptom dimensions and clinical characteristics of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese patients.
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Hot air treatment-induced arginine catabolism is associated with elevated polyamines and proline levels and alleviates chilling injury in postharvest tomato fruit.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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To understand whether arginine catabolism might be involved in hot air (HA)-induced chilling tolerance mechanism in tomato fruit, we investigated the effect of HA treatment on endogenous arginine catabolism in relation to chilling injury.
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Protein-chemical interaction prediction via kernelized sparse learning SVM.
Pac Symp Biocomput
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Given the difficulty of experimental determination of drug-protein interactions, there is a significant motivation to develop effective in silico prediction methods that can provide both new predictions for experimental verification and supporting evidence for experimental results. Most recently, classification methods such as support vector machines (SVMs) have been applied to drug-target prediction. Unfortunately, these methods generally rely on measures of the maximum "local similarity" between two protein sequences, which could mask important drug-protein interaction information since drugs are much smaller molecules than proteins and drug-target binding regions must comprise only small local regions of the proteins. We therefore develop a novel sparse learning method that considers sets of short peptides. Our method integrates feature selection, multi-instance learning, and Gaussian kernelization into an L(1) norm support vector machine classifier. Experimental results show that it not only outperformed the previous methods but also pointed to an optimal subset of potential binding regions. Supplementary materials are available at "www.cs.ualberta.ca/~ys3/drug_target".
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Cortical endogenic neural regeneration of adult rat after traumatic brain injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Focal and diffuse neuronal loss happened after traumatic brain injury (TBI). With little in the way of effective repair, recent interest has focused on endogenic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as a potential method for regeneration. Whether endogenic neural regeneration happened in the cortex of adult rat after TBI remains to be determined. In this study, rats were divided into a sham group and a TBI group, and the rat model of medium TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact. Rats were injected with BrdU at 1 to 7 days post-injury (dpi) to allow identification of differentiated cells and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 dpi for immunofluorescence. Results showed nestin(+)/sox-2(+) NPCs and GFAP(+)/sox-2(+) radial glial (RG)-like cells emerged in peri-injured cortex at 1, 3, 7, 14 dpi and peaked at 3 dpi. The number of GFAP(+)/sox-2(+) cells was less than that of nestin(+)/sox-2(+) cells. Nestin(+)/sox-2(+) cells from posterior periventricle (pPV) immigrated into peri-injured cortex through corpus callosum (CC) were found. DCX(+)/BrdU(+) newborn immature neurons in peri-injured cortex were found only at 3, 7, 14 dpi. A few MAP-2(+)/BrdU(+) newborn neurons in peri-injured cortex were found only at 7 and 14 dpi. NeuN(+)/BrdU(+) mature neurons were not found in peri-injured cortex at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 dpi. While GFAP(+)/BrdU(+) astrocytes emerged in peri-injured cortex at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28 dpi and peaked at 7 dpi then kept in a stable state. In the corresponding time point, the percentage of GFAP(+)/BrdU(+) astrocytes in BrdU(+) cells was more than that of NPCs or newborn neurons. No CNP(+)/BrdU(+) oligodendrocytes were found in peri-injured cortex. These findings suggest that NPCs from pPV and reactive RG-like cells emerge in peri-injured cortex of adult rats after TBI. It can differentiate into immature neurons and astrocytes, but the former fail to grow up to mature neurons.
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Testosterone regulates smooth muscle contractile pathways in the rat prostate: emphasis on PDE5 signaling.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Testosterone (T) plays a permissive role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been found to be effective for BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in clinical trials. This study investigated the effect of T on smooth muscle (SM) contractile and regulatory signaling pathways, including PDE5 expression and functional activity in prostate in male rats (sham-operated, surgically castrated, and castrated with T supplementation). In vitro organ bath studies, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed. Castration heavily attenuated contractility, including sensitivity to phenylephrine with SM myosin immunostaining revealing a disrupted SM cell arrangement in the stroma. PDE5 was immunolocalized exclusively in the prostate stroma, and orchiectomy signficantly reduced PDE5 immunopositivity, mRNA, and protein expression, along with nNOS and ROK? mRNA, whereas it increased eNOS plus ?(1a) and ?(1b) adrenoreceptor expression in castrated animals. The PDE5i zaprinast significantly increased prostate strip relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in control but not castrated rats. But SNP alone was more effective on castrated rats, comparable with sham treated with SNP plus zaprinast. T supplementation prevented or restored all above changes, including SNP and zaprinast in vitro responsiveness. In conclusion, our data show that T positively regulates PDE5 expression and functional activities in prostate, and T ablation not only suppresses prostate size but also reduces prostatic SM contractility, with several potential SM contraction/relaxation pathways implicated. Zaprinast findings strongly suggest a major role for PDE5/cGMP in this signaling cascade. PDE5 inhibition may represent a novel mechanism for treatment of BPH.
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Smooth muscle myosin expression, isoform composition, and functional activities in rat corpus cavernosum altered by the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a quite common chronic disease, and the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) is three times higher in this large population. Although diabetes-related ED has been studied extensively, the actin-myosin contractile apparatus was not examined. The mRNAs encoding smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chains (MHC) and essential light chains (LC(17)) exist as several different alternatively spliced isoforms with distinct contractile properties. Recently, we provided novel data that blebbistatin (BLEB), a specific myosin II inhibitor, potently relaxed corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM). In this study, we examine whether diabetes alters SMM expression, alternative splicing, and/or functional activities, including sensitivity to BLEB. By using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced 2-mo diabetic rats, functional activities were tested in vivo by intracavernous pressure (ICP) recording during cavernous nerve stimulation and in vitro via organ bath contractility studies. SMM isoform composition was analyzed by competitive RT-PCR and total SMM, myocardin, and embryonic SMM (SMemb) expression by real-time RT-PCR. Results revealed that the blood glucose level of STZ rats was 407.0 vs. 129.5 mg/dl (control). STZ rats exhibited ED confirmed by significantly increased CCSM contractile response to phenylephrine and decreased ICP response. For STZ rats, SM-B, LC(17a) and SM2 isoforms, total SMM, and myocardin expression increased, whereas SM-A, LC(17b), and SM1 isoforms were decreased, with SMemb unchanged. BLEB was significantly more effective in relaxing STZ CCSM both in vitro and in vivo. Thus we demonstrated a novel diabetes-specific effect on alternative splicing of the SMM heavy chain and essential light chain genes to a SMM isoform composition favoring a heightened contractility and ED. A switch to a more contractile phenotype was supported further by total SMM expression increase. Moreover, the change in CCSM phenotype was associated with an increased sensitivity to BLEB, which may serve as a novel pharmacotherapy for ED.
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Characterization and identification of Sox2+ radial glia cells derived from rat embryonic cerebral cortex.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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During the central nervous system (CNS) development, radial glia cells (RGCs) play at least two essential roles, they contribute to neuronal production and the subsequent guidance of neuronal migration, whereas its precise distribution and contribution to cerebral cortex remains less understood. In this research, we used Vimentin as an astroglial marker and Sox2 as a neural progenitor marker to identify and investigate RGCs in rat cerebral cortex at embryonic day (E) 16.5. We found that the Sox2+ progenitor cells localized in the germinal zone (GZ) of E16.5 cerebral cortex, ~95% Sox2+ cells co-localized with Vimentin+ or Nestin+ radial processes which extended to the pial surface across the cortical plate (CP). In vitro, we obtained RG-like cells from E16.5 cerebral cortex on adherent conditions, these Sox2+ Radial glia (RG)-like cells shared some properties with RGCs in vivo, and these Sox2+ RG-like cells could differentiate into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and presented the radial glia-neuron lineage differentiation ability. Taken together, we identified and investigated some characterizations and properties of Sox2+ RGCs derived from E16.5 cerebral cortex, we suggested that the embryonic Sox2+ progenitor cells which located in the cortical GZ were mainly composed of Sox2+ RGCs, and the cortex-derived Sox2+ RG-like cells displayed the radial glia-neuron lineage differentiation ability as neuronal progenitors in vitro.
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Methyl salicylate-induced arginine catabolism is associated with up-regulation of polyamine and nitric oxide levels and improves chilling tolerance in cherry tomato fruit.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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The effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) on chilling injury (CI) and gene expression levels, enzyme activities, and metabolites related to arginine catabolism in cherry tomato fruit were investigated. Freshly harvested fruits were treated with 0.05 mM MeSA vapor at 20 °C for 12 h and then stored at 2 °C for up to 28 days. MeSA reduced CI and enhanced the accumulation of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, which was associated with increased gene expression levels and activities of arginase, arginine decarboxylase, and ornithine decarboxylase at most sampling times. MeSA also increased nitric oxide synthase activity, which at least partly contributed to the increased nitric oxide content. The results indicate that MeSA activates the different pathways of arginine catabolism in cold-stored fruit and that the reduction in CI by MeSA may be due to the coordinated metabolism of arginine and the increase in polyamines and nitric oxide levels.
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Reversal of diabetic vasculopathy in a rat model of type 1 diabetes by opiorphin-related peptides.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Diabetes results in a myriad of vascular complications, often referred to as diabetic vasculopathy, which encompasses both microvascular [erectile dysfunction (ED), retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy] and macrovascular complications (hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). In diabetic animals and patients with ED, there is decreased opiorphin or opiorphin-related gene expression in corporal tissue. Both opiorphin and the rat homologous peptide sialorphin are found circulating in the plasma. In the present study, we investigated if diabetes induced changes in plasma sialorphin levels and if changes in these levels could modulate the biochemistry and physiology of vascular smooth muscle. We show that circulating sialorphin levels are reduced in a rat model of type I diabetes. Intracorporal injection of plasmids expressing sialorphin into diabetic rats restores sialorphin levels to those seen in the blood of nondiabetic animals and results in both improved erectile function and blood pressure. Sialorphin modulated the ability of C-type natriuretic peptide to relax both corporal and aortic smooth muscle strips and of bradykinin to regulate intracellular calcium levels in both corporal and aortic smooth muscle cells. We have previously shown that expression of genes encoding opiorphins is increased when erectile function is improved. Our findings thus suggest that by affecting circulating levels of opiorphin-related peptides, proper erectile function is not only an indicator but also a modulator of overall vascular health of a man.
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Blebbistain, a myosin II inhibitor, as a novel strategy to regulate detrusor contractility in a rat model of partial bladder outlet obstruction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO), a common urologic pathology mostly caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia, can coexist in 40-45% of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) and is associated with detrusor overactivity (DO). PBOO that induces DO results in alteration in bladder myosin II type and isoform composition. Blebbistatin (BLEB) is a myosin II inhibitor we recently demonstrated potently relaxed normal detrusor smooth muscle (SM) and reports suggest varied BLEB efficacy for different SM myosin (SMM) isoforms and/or SMM vs nonmuscle myosin (NMM). We hypothesize BLEB inhibition of myosin II as a novel contraction protein targeted strategy to regulate DO. Using a surgically-induced male rat PBOO model, organ bath contractility, competitive and Real-Time-RT-PCR were performed. It was found that obstructed-bladder weight significantly increased 2.74-fold while in vitro contractility of detrusor to various stimuli was impaired ?50% along with decreased shortening velocity. Obstruction also altered detrusor spontaneous activities with significantly increased amplitude but depressed frequency. PBOO switched bladder from a phasic-type to a more tonic-type SM. Expression of 5 myosin heavy chain (MHC) alternatively spliced isoform SM-A (associated with tonic-type SM) increased 3-fold while 3 MHC SM1 and essential light chain isoform MLC(17b) also exhibited increased relative expression. Total SMMHC expression was decreased by 25% while the expression of NMM IIB (SMemb) was greatly increased by 4.5-fold. BLEB was found to completely relax detrusor strips from both sham-operated and PBOO rats pre-contracted with KCl, carbachol or electrical field stimulation although sensitivity was slightly decreased (20%) only at lower doses for PBOO. Thus we provide the first thorough characterization of the response of rat bladder myosin to PBOO and demonstrate complete BLEB-induced PBOO bladder SM relaxation. Furthermore, the present study provides valuable evidence that BLEB may be a novel type of potential therapeutic agent for regulation of myogenic and nerve-evoked DO in OAB.
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Generation and identification of rat fetal cerebral radial glia-like cells in vitro.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The role of radial glia cells (RGCs) as neural progenitors and as guides for migrating neurons is well established, mouse or human-derived radial glia (RG)-like cells in vitro showed some astroglia and stem/progenitor properties like RGCs in vivo, but different species-derived RG-like cells present some different properties. Here we acquired rat-derived RG-like cells on adherent conditions in vitro and then identified their astroglia and stem/progenitor properties. Similarly to the RGCs, the RG-like cells could be double-labeled by brain lipid-binding protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin with nestin and expressed some astroglia and stem/progenitor genes; these cells also presented tripotent differentiation potentialities, albeit the ability of gliogenesis far exceeded the neurogenesis in vitro. Taken together, we acquired and identified some properties of rat-derived RG-like cells from fetal cerebral cortices in vitro.
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Heavily doped ZnO nanobelts and their violet emission.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2011
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In-doped ZnO nanobelts have been synthesized by a thermal evaporation method with absence of catalysts. The morphology and microstructure of the doped ZnO nanobelts have been extensively investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results show that the belts grow along the (1010) direction with the typical lengths in the range of several tens to several hundreds of micrometers, and the typical widths of the belts are several hundreds of nanometers. According to the XRD pattern of the sample, the most of belts are ZnO with heavy doping content and ternary Zinc Indium Oxide (such as Zn5In2O8, Zn4In2O7). The X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis demonstrates that the In content in the as-examined belt is as high as 27 at%. Notably, the photoluminescence spectrum reveals a novel violet emission peak (425 nm) in the as-synthesized product.
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Extract of deafferented hippocampus promotes in vitro radial glial cell differentiation into neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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To explore the effects of deafferented hippocampal extracts on the differentiation of radial glial cells (RGCs), hippocampal RGCs of postnatal day 1 rats were isolated under adherent conditions in vitro. Protein extracts of deafferented hippocampus were prepared from adult rats following fimbria fornix lesion. RGCs were exposed to extracts of deafferented or normal hippocampus and the type and extent of proliferation and differentiation were evaluated. We report that extracts of deafferented hippocampus more effectively promoted RGC proliferation than extracts of normal hippocampus. Moreover, although RGC differentiation in vitro primarily generated cells of glial lineages, cells exposed to extracts of deafferented hippocampus, but not of normal hippocampus, showed a significantly increased trend towards the generation of cells of neuronal lineages. We conclude that extracts of deafferented hippocampus promote RGC proliferation and neurogenesis.
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Ectopic neurogenesis in the forebrain cholinergic system-related areas of a rat dementia model.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Lesions to the fimbria fornix (FiFx) plus cingulate bundle (CB), the principal routes of communication of forebrain cholinergic regions, produce lasting impairment of spatial learning and memory in mice. We report that extensive neurogenesis takes place in the FiFx, CB, and basalis magnocellularis following FiFx plus CB transection. Immunofluorescence revealed that nestin-expressing cells were present in all 3 areas following lesion; the majority of nestin-positive cells were also positive for 5-bromo-2-deoxy-uridine, a marker of DNA synthesis. Nestin-positive proliferative cells were almost entirely absent from unlesioned tissue. Neurospheres cultured in vitro from lesioned FiFx displayed the characteristics of neural stem cells--proliferation, expression of embryonic markers, and multipotential differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. At early stages after transection, a small number of immature and migrating doublecortin-immunopositive neurons were detected in lesioned FiFx, where neuronal cell bodies are normally absent. At later stages, postlesion immature neurons developed into ?-tubulin III-positive mature neurons. Lentivirus labeling assay implied that the injury-induced neurogenesis in FiFx may be from local neurogenic astrocytes but not from dentate gyrus. These results demonstrate that insult to cholinergic tracts can stimulate neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal regeneration not only in innervated regions but also in the projection pathways themselves. Ectopic neurogenesis in cholinergic system-related areas provides an additional mechanism for repair of cholinergic innervation following damage.
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A melting curve analysis--based PCR assay for one-step genotyping of ?-thalassemia mutations a multicenter validation.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The increasing number of disease-causing mutations demands a simple, direct, and cost-effective diagnostic genotyping technique capable of detecting multiple mutations. This study validated the efficacy of a novel melting curve analysis-based genotyping assay (MeltPro HBB assay) for 24 ?-thalassemia mutations in the Chinese population. The diagnostic potential of this assay was evaluated in 1022 pretyped genomic DNA samples, including 909 clinical cases of ?-thalassemia minor or major, using a double-blind analysis in a multicenter validation study. Reproducibility of the assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 10 pg per reaction. All 24 ?-thalassemia mutations were accurately genotyped, and ?-thalassemia genotypes were correctly determined in all 1022 samples, yielding overall sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The concordance rate was 99.4% between this assay and the reference method. It was concluded that the MeltPro HBB assay is useful for reliable genotyping of multiple ?-thalassemia mutations in clinical settings and may have potential as a versatile method for rapid genotyping of known mutations because of its high throughput, accuracy, ease of use, and low cost.
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Rho-kinase, a common final path of various contractile bladder and ureter stimuli.
Handb Exp Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Normal urinary bladder function is based on the proper contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle (SM), which constitutes the majority of the bladder wall. The contraction and relaxation of all SM involves a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation pathway involving the enzymes smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (SMMLCK) and smooth muscle myosin light chain phosphatase (SMMLCP), respectively. Although originally thought to function just as a passive opposition to SMMLCK-driven SM contraction, it is now clear that SMMLCP activity is under an extremely complex molecular regulation via which SMMLCP inhibition can induce "calcium sensitization." This review provides a thorough summary of the literature regarding the molecular regulation of the SMMLCP with a focus on one of its major inhibitory pathways that is RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROK) including its activation pathways, effector molecules, and its roles in various pathological conditions associated with bladder dysfunction. Newly emerging roles of ROK outside of SM contractility are also discussed. It is concluded that the RhoA/ROK pathway is critical for the maintenance of basal SM tone of the urinary bladder and serves as a common final pathway of various contractile stimuli in rabbits, rats, mice, and pigs as well as humans. In addition, this pathway is upregulated in response to a number of pathological conditions associated with bladder SM dysfunction. Similarly, RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling is essential for normal ureteral function and development and is upregulated in response to ureteral outlet obstruction. In addition to its critical role in bladder SM function, a role of ROK in the urothelium is also beginning to emerge as well as roles for ROK in bladder infection and invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer.
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Stage-dependent STAT3 activation is involved in the differentiation of rat hippocampus neural stem cells.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Extracts of deafferented hippocampus were previously found to promote neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). To gain insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms we studied the potential involvement of signal transducer and activator of transcription3 (STAT3) activation in the NSCs response to hippocampal extracts. Here we report that phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) is expressed at different stages in neurons and astrocytes differentiated from rat hippocampus-derived NSCs. Deafferented hippocampal extracts produced sustained upregulation of p-STAT3 levels and promoted NSC differentiation and neurogenesis, whereas extracts of normal hippocampus were without effect. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), an activator of JAK/STAT signaling pathways, had no effect on neurogenesis, whereas the selective STAT3 inhibitor p-ip-STAT3 decreased the number of Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2)-positive cells generated by NSC differentiation. These findings argue that STAT3-related signaling pathways are likely to play a role in neuronal survival and differentiation during NSC neurogenesis stimulated by extracts of deafferented hippocampus.
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Association of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene -287A/G polymorphism with susceptibility to obsessive-compulsive disorder in Chinese Han population.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Several studies suggested a genetic component in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). COMT involves in the degradation of dopamine and norepinephrin. As another functional SNP locus, COMT -287A/G polymorphism showed an effect on enzyme activity, suggesting that it may influence brain dopamine levels. To identify association of COMT -287A/G polymorphism with susceptibility to OCD in Chinese Han population. We evaluate the genetic contribution of the COMT -287A/G polymorphism in 200 OCD patients and 403 OCD-free control of Chinese Han population by PCR-RFLP. In addition, we investigate whether COMT -287A/G polymorphism is associated with one or more of these symptom dimensions or other characteristics such as sex, age of onset, and tic-relatedness and evaluate the association of the factorial structure of OCD symptoms from the Y-BOCS checklist with the COMT -287A/G polymorphism. A statistical difference was found in the genotypic frequencies of COMT -287A/G between the OCD and control groups (?(2) ?=?13.99, DF?=?2, P?=?0.00091) and in the genotypic frequencies of GG genotype versus AA and AG genotypes of COMT -287 (?(2) ?=?13.49, DF?=?1, P?=?0.00024, OR?=?3.43, 95% CI?=?1.78-6.62). There was a trend for an association in the genotypic distributions of COMT -287A/G polymorphism of males (?(2) ?=?27.81; DF?=?2; P?
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Bud-like silica nanowires with self-assembled long segmented stems: a novel nanostructure and its growth mechanism.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2010
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A large quantity of bud-like silica nanowires with self-assembled long segmented stems were synthesized through thermal evaporation via using a piece of Si wafer and the mixture of Ga2O3 and carbon powder as source materials. The segmented stems were assembled from the bottom part of the bud-like silica nanowires with diameter of approximately 0.5 microm and length up to more than 20 microm. The bud-like silica nanowires could have one, two or three segmented stems. Some bud-like silica nanostrutures have a bowl-shaped cavity at their tips, others have a tail growing from their tips. The aligned silica nanowires were found extending from the thin silica shell coating the Ga ball, instead of nucleating and growing from the surface of the Ga ball directly. These interesting results could help us understand the diversity and versatility of the silica nanostructures which can be fabricated, and the knowledge of their growth mechanisms.
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Self-assembled vapor-liquid-solid growth of aligned Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocable arrays on Cu substrates.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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The Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocable arrays on the Cu wafers have been synthesized via a simple thermal evaporation of the SiO powder. The morphology and structure of the as-synthesized Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocables are characterized by using scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The growth of amorphous SiO2 shell follows a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, and then molten metal Cu will be diffused into the SiO2 nanotubes, forming the Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocable arrays. It is found that the aligned Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocables prefer to grow along the grooves of the Cu substrate, and the density of the Cu-SiO2 core-shell nanocable arrays can be controlled by adjusting the growth temperature.
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ZnO nanocone arrays on self-assembled Zn2SnO4 base: synthesis, structure, growth mechanism and optical property.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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ZnO nanocone arrays on self-assembled Zn2SnO4 base were successfully synthesized via a thermal evaporation method of two-step temperature-rising. The as-prepared ZnO nanocone products had a well crystalline wurzite structure with symmetry about the growth direction along [0001]. Based on the calculation of the lattice misfit between different families of crystal planes of ZnO and Zn2SnO4, Stranski-Krastanow growth mode of ZnO nanocones was proposed in which the ZnO relaxing layer plays an important role. The orientation relationship of nanocone and base was also investigated. For the optical property of this nanocones-base system, a strong green fluorescence-emission at 523 nm was detected while the Zn2SnO4 base provides a defect peak at 486 nm which broadens the green emission band.
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Preparation and evaluation of solid lipid nanoparticles of baicalin for ocular drug delivery system in vitro and in vivo.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2010
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To prepare and evaluate the solid lipid nanoparticles of baicalin (BA-SLN) for ocular drug delivery system.
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Identification of neonatal rat hippocampal radial glia cells in vitro.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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The role of radial glia cells (RGCs) as neural progenitors and as guides for migrating neurons is well established, whereas their precise contribution to adult hippocampal neurogenesis remains less understood. To precisely study the properties of hippocampal RGCs under normal conditions in vitro, here we acquired the hippocampal RGCs of postnatal 1 d rats under adherent conditions in vitro, identified their astroglia and stem/progenitor properties. We found that the neonatal rat hippocampal RGCs had longer processes than the RGCs from fetal cerebral cortices, and these cells could be double-labeled by BLBP, GFAP, Vimentin with Nestin and expressed some stem/progenitor genes, these cells also presented multiple differentiation potentialities, albeit the ability of gliogenesis far exceeded the neurogenesis under normal culture conditions in vitro. Taken together, we acquired and identified some properties of the RGCs from neonatal rat hippocampi in vitro.
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Up-regulating arginase contributes to amelioration of chilling stress and the antioxidant system in cherry tomato fruits.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Arginase, which plays an important role in regulating the metabolism of L-arginine (Arg) in mammalian cells, has been reported to be involved in stress responses in higher plants. In view of the well-established roles of polyamines, nitric oxide and proline in plant tolerance to chilling stress, arginase may play an important role in fruit chilling tolerance by regulating the metabolism of Arg. However, the current information available on this is very limited.
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Molecularly genetic analysis of von Hippel-Lindau associated central nervous system hemangioblastoma.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer predisposition syndrome, characterized by development of a variety of neoplasms in multiple organs. Central nervous system hemangioblastoma (CHB) is the most common manifestation of VHL disease. The germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene are responsible for the inherited cancer predisposition syndrome. To expand the VHL mutation data and to investigate the tumorigenesis of VHL-associated CNS hemangioblastoma, 24 CHB tissue samples and blood samples of 14 patients from 10 Chinese VHL families were collected and subjected to molecular genetic analysis. Six distinctive germline mutations were identified, and the 601 G to C (Val130Phe) mutation is reported for the first time. Somatic mutations analysis of the VHL gene in VHL-associated CHB showed that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) occurred in more than half of the cases. In addition, expression of the ZAC1 tumor suppressor gene protein was studied using immunohistochemistry staining in CHB tissues with a specific polyclonal antibody. The ZAC1 protein was lost in all CHB. Our data exhibited high frequency of LOH of ZAC1 gene in VHL-associated CHB, indicating that ZAC1 may have a role in tumorigenesis of VHL-associated CHB.
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Plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity in an HIV-negative patient.
Ann Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare, highly aggressive lymphoma typified by immunoblast-like cells with abundant basophilic cytoplasm and paranuclear hof. It shows absent expression of CD45 and CD20. In contrast, it displays a constant reaction with CD138 and VS38c. It may be easily misinterpreted as some other lymphoma. An exhaustive integration of clinical, morphologic, phenotypic, and molecular features is important to exclude misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. We report a case of HIV-negative PBL arising on the left areas of posterior teeth mucosa of a 58-year-old man. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cell was immunoreactive for CD138, VS38c, VEGF, and vimentin; Ki-67 showed a high proliferation rate. Epstein-Barr virus (in situ hybridization) was nonreactive, and IgH gene rearrangement was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification products. A diagnosis of PBL was rendered.
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Proliferation, migration, and neuronal differentiation of the endogenous neural progenitors in hippocampus after fimbria fornix transection.
Int. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Neurogenesis in the hippocampus continues throughout adult life and can be regulated by the local microenvironment. To determine whether denervation stimulates neurogenesis in hippocampus, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of local neural stem cells (NSCs) in dentate gyrus was investigated after fimbria fornix transection. In the denervated hippocampus, NSCs proliferated markedly and migrated along the subgranular layer, and more newborn cells differentiated into neurons or astrocytes. After denervation, more newborn cells in the deafferented hippocampus expressed Brn-4 and differentiated into beta-Tubulin III positive neurons. It is concluded that the local NSCs in hippocampus may proliferate and migrate into granule cell layer, in which changes in the deafferented hippocampus provided a suitable microenvironment for hippocampal neurogenesis and the increased Brn-4 in denervated hippocampus may be involved in this process.
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A meta-analysis of highly active anti-retroviral therapy for treatment of plasmablastic lymphoma.
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Plasmablastic lymphoma is a recently described B-cell derived lymphoma. The prognosis of plasmablastic lymphoma patients is usually poor. We performed a systematic review of the literature on the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and the prognosis of plasmablastic lymphoma.
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The molecular basis of beta-thalassemia intermedia in southern China: genotypic heterogeneity and phenotypic diversity.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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The clinical syndrome of thalassemia intermedia (TI) results from the beta-globin genotypes in combination with factors to produce fetal haemoglobin (HbF) and/or co-inheritance of alpha-thalassemia. However, very little is currently known of the molecular basis of Chinese TI patients.
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Analysis of alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) gene as a genetic modifier to the phenotype of beta-thalassemia in Southern China.
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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alpha-Hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) is a molecular chaperon binding specifically to free alpha-globin. It is considered to be a potential modifier of beta-thalassemia. In order to find out if AHSP affects the phenotype of beta-thalassemia carriers in southern China, we analyzed AHSP gene in 365 beta-thalassemia subjects which was identified in 5789 consecutive blood samples from southern China. 8 SNPs were detected including two rare SNPs which were reported by us for the first time and two novel missense mutations. One missense mutation, A to T transversion at gene position 12750, substituting aspartic acid for valine at amino acid position 29 (AHSP D29V), was detected in three beta-thalassemia carriers respectively. The other AHSP missense mutation, 12831 A>T, which substitutes valine for glycine at amino acid position 56 (AHSP V56G), was identified in only one sample. Neither of the two missense mutations leads to obvious phenotypic change to the beta-thalassemia carries. A genetic association study between AHSP gene and the phenotype of beta-thalassemia subjects was conducted simultaneously. No significant association has been found between specific AHSP alleles or haplotypes and the disease severity of beta-thalassemia. Our study suggested that AHSP is not a significant genetic modifier of beta-thalassemia in southern China.
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The sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway is upregulated in response to partial urethral obstruction in male rats and activates RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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To examine the effect of partial urethral obstruction (PUO) on the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, a bioactive lipid shown to modulate smooth muscle, SM) pathway in the bladders of male rats, and to determine the effect of PUO on the RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROK) pathway, and whether there is a molecular cross-talk with the S1P pathways associated with bladder overactivity (S1P1-S1P3, where S1P1 is associated with nitric oxide-mediated SM relaxation, and S1P2 and S1P3 receptors are associated more with SM contraction via the ROK pathway).
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The role of Brn-4 in the regulation of neural stem cell differentiation into neurons.
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2010
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Brn-4, a member of the homeobox family of transcription factors, has previously been implicated in the regeneration and repair of denervated striatum. We investigated the effects of Brn-4 on the differentiation and development of neural stem cells (NSCs) from E16 rat hippocampus. Immunocytochemistry revealed that extracts of deafferented hippocampus promoted neuronal differentiation to a greater extent than extracts from normal hippocampus. Deafferented extracts also promoted maturation of newborn neurons as reflected in changes in cell areas and perimeters, and enhanced Brn-4 expression in MAP-2 positive neurons. Suppression or overexpression of Brn-4 in NSCs markedly decreased or increased neuronal differentiation and maturation of newborn neurons, respectively. These results suggest that Brn-4 expression is required both for neuronal differentiation of NSCs and maturation of newborn neurons, and that there may be some regulatory factors in deafferented hippocampus that can regulate Brn-4 expression in neuronal progenitors. Brn-4 is therefore a potential research target for the development of new therapeutics to promote brain repair.
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Effects of Labrasol on the corneal drug delivery of baicalin.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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To investigate the use of Labrasol in ocular drug delivery system.
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Activation of phosphatidylinositol-linked D1-like receptor modulates FGF-2 expression in astrocytes via IP3-dependent Ca2+ signaling.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is predominantly synthesized and secreted by astrocytes in adult brain. Our previous study showed that activation of classical dopamine receptor D(1) or D(2) elicits FGF-2 biosynthesis and secretion in astrocytes. Here, we report that astrocytic FGF-2 expression is also regulated by phosphatidylinositol (PI)-linked D(1)-like receptor. SKF83959, a selective PI-linked D(1)-like receptor agonist, upregulates the levels of FGF-2 protein in striatal astrocyte cultures in classical dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptor-independent manner. The conditional medium derived from SKF83959-activated astrocytes promoted the number of TH(+) neurons in vitro. Treatment of astrocytes with SKF83959 increased intracellular calcium in two phases. Inhibition of intracellular calcium oscillation by inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) inhibitors blocked the SKF83959-induced increase in FGF-2 expression. Moreover, intraperitoneal administration of SKF83959 reversed l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropypridine (MPTP)-induced reduction in FGF-2 expression in both the striatum and ventral midbrain and resulted in marked protection of dopaminergic neurons from MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. These results indicate that IP3/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is an uncharted intracellular signaling pathway that is crucial for the regulation of FGF-2 synthesis in astrocytes. PI-linked D(1)-like receptor plays an important role in the regulation of astrocytic FGF-2 expression and neuroprotection which may provide a potential target for the drug discovery in Parkinsons disease.
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Complement promotes the development of inflammatory T-helper 17 cells through synergistic interaction with Toll-like receptor signaling and interleukin-6 production.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and complement are 2 major components of innate immunity that provide a first-line host defense and shape the adaptive immune responses. We show here that coincidental activation of complement and several TLRs in mice led to the synergistic production of serum factors that promoted T-helper cell 17 (Th17) differentiation from anti-CD3/CD28 or antigen-stimulated T cells. Although multiple TLR-triggered cytokines were regulated by complement, Th17 cell-promoting activity in the serum was correlated with interleukin (IL)-6 induction, and antibody neutralization of IL-6 abrogated the complement effect. By using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we examined in more detail the mechanism and physiologic implication of complement/TLR4 interaction on Th17-cell differentiation. We found that the complement effect required C5a receptor, was evident at physiologically relevant levels of C5a, and could be demonstrated in cultured peritoneal macrophages as well as in the setting of antigen immunization. Importantly, despite an inhibitory effect of complement on IL-23 production, complement-promoted Th17 cells were functionally competent in causing autoimmunity in an adoptive transfer model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Collectively, these data establish a link between complement/TLR interaction and Th17-cell differentiation and provide new insight into the mechanism of action of complement in autoimmunity.
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Aging and utilization of hospital services in Hong Kong: retrospective cohort study.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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We tested the hypotheses firstly that people dying in older age groups do not use hospital services more than those dying in younger age groups in the previous 3 years before death; secondly, that there may be compression of morbidity demonstrated by a decline in the use of hospital services among people in the last 3 years before death in the older age groups.
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Regional heterogeneity in expression of the sphingosine-1-phosphate pathway in the female rat lower urinary tract.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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We investigated the existence and regional distribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate regulatory enzymes and receptors in the lower urinary tract and determined the functional role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors in the bladder.
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Brn-4 is upregulated in the deafferented hippocampus and promotes neuronal differentiation of neural progenitors in vitro.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Fimbria-fornix (FF), the septo-hippocampal pathway, was transected to model Alzheimers disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of cholinergic afferent fibers in hippocampus. Various alternations may happen in the deafferented hippocampus. In this study, we determined the expression of Brn-4 in hippocampus after FF lesion. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that mRNA transcription and protein of Brn-4 increased significantly and reached to the peak at day 14 after FF lesion. Hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that Brn-4 signals in hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) of the deafferented side were significantly stronger than the normal side. More Brn-4 positive cells were identified in the DG of deafferented hippocampus. In the pyramidal and granular cells, Brn-4 positive cells were all NeuN positive neurons, whereas in the neurogenic area, subgranular zone (SGZ), only a part of Brn-4 positive cells were NeuN positive, and these Brn-4/NeuN double positive neurons in SGZ and hilus of DG increased significantly after the trauma induced by FF lesion. In vitro Brn-4 antibody attenuated the role of extract from deafferented hippocampus in promoting differentiation of hippocampal progenitors into MAP-2 positive neurons. This study demonstrated that after FF lesion, Brn-4 in the deafferented hippocampus was upregulated and might play an important role in inducing local progenitors to differentiate into neurons, which may compensate for the loss of cholinergic afferent fibers or other dysfunctions.
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Crucial roles of MZF-1 in the transcriptional regulation of apomorphine-induced modulation of FGF-2 expression in astrocytic cultures.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Apomorphine (APO), a potent D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist, is used as an anti-parkinsonian drug. It stimulates the synthesis and release of multiple trophic factors in mesencephalic and striatal neurons, preventing the loss of dopaminergic neurons in vitro. Furthermore, APO enhances the biosynthesis and release of FGF-2 by activating dopamine receptors in striatal astrocytes, where cAMP/PKA and PKC/MAPK signalling cascades mediate this process. We investigate the effects of APO on the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) promoter and its regulation in astrocytes and identify the transcription factor and cis element underlying these effects. In screening for cis-acting elements over the entire region of the FGF-2 promoter stimulated by APO in the astrocytes, a sequence located in the -785/-745 region was found to serve as the cis element. This element was recognized by the human myeloid zinc finger protein 1 (MZF-1) transcription factor. Introducing human MZF-1 plasmid and human MZF-1-specific siRNA has different effects on the FGF-2 promoter. Furthermore, it increases FGF-2 protein expression in HeLa cells and primary astrocytes, indicating that APO stimulates the FGF-2 promoter via the MZF-1 transcription factor. These data suggest that APO can enhance the biosynthesis and release of FGF-2 through the activation of the MZF-1 transcription factor in striatal astrocytes.
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Detection of myeloperoxidase activity in primary leukemic cells by an enhanced chemiluminescent assay for differentiation between acute lymphoblastic and non-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a crucial role in the differentiation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL). In this report, we proposed the application of the enhanced chemiluminescent (ECL) technique to the determination of MPO activity in blasts of acute leukemia (AL).
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Testosterone regulates erectile function and Vcsa1 expression in the corpora of rats.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Vcsa1 plays an important role in the erectile physiology of the rat. We conducted experiments to determine if erectile function, testosterone levels and Vcsa1 expression were correlated. In orchiectomized rats, total testosterone in blood fell from an average of 4 ng/ml to <0.04 ng/ml. Erectile function was significantly lower compared to controls and Vcsa1 expression was significantly (>6-fold) decreased. Injection of orchiectomized animals with testosterone (2 mg in 100ml sesame oil every 4 days for 2 weeks) restored average levels of testosterone to 2 ng/ml, increased erectile function and significantly increased Vcsa1 expression. In isolated corporal cells there was testosterone dependent Vcsa1 expression. However, intracorporal injection of orchiectomized animals with a plasmid expressing Vcsa1 or its gene product Sialorphin (previously demonstrated to improve erectile function in old animals) gave no significant improvement in erectile function. Also, the ability of Sialorphin to reduce tension in corporal smooth muscle strips isolated from orchiectomized animals was impaired compared to controls.
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A case-control association study between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and the MCP-1 -2518G/A polymorphism in a Chinese sample.
Rev Bras Psiquiatr
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To investigate the association between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and a functional polymorphism of MCP-1 in the Chinese Han population.
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