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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[A standard protocol for detection of EGFR mutations in cytologic specimens].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to establish a standard protocol for detection of EGFR mutations in cytologic specimens.
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Novel NTRK1 Frameshift Mutation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain With Anhidrosis.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. It has been reported that the defect in the NTRK1 gene encoding tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) can cause congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis. Nerve growth factor (NGF), the product of NGFB, mediates biological effects by binding to and activating tropomyosin-related kinase A. In addition, necdin (encoded by NDN) is also essential in nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway. We performed mutation analysis in NTRK1, NGFB, and NDN genes in a Chinese Han 17-year-old female patient with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis and her healthy family members. As a result, the patient was found to have a novel insertion in exon 7 (c.727insT) of NTRK1, which causes premature termination, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2192206 G>A) in NDN. Our findings imply that the genetic variations of the nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-related kinase A pathway play an important role in congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis.
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Pre- and Posttreatment With Edaravone Protects CA1 Hippocampus and Enhances Neurogenesis in the Subgranular Zone of Dentate Gyrus After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
ASN Neuro
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Edaravone is clinically used for treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, the effect of double application of edaravone on neurogenesis in the hippocampus following ischemia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored whether pre- and posttreatment of edaravone had any effect on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subgranular zone of hippocampus in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia and elucidated the potential mechanism of its effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (n?=?15), control (n?=?15), and edaravone-treated (n?=?15) groups. Newly generated cells were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect neurogenesis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling was used to detect cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescien diacetate assay in NSPCs in vitro. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were quantified by western blot analysis. Treatment with edaravone significantly increased the number of NSPCs and newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (p?
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Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is involved in the vasculogenic mimicry of glioma via hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial regulator in malignant gliomas. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) describes functional channels established by highly malignant tumor cells that is different from endothelium-lined blood vessels. Our previous studies confirmed the existence and clinical significance of VM in medulloblastoma and glioblastoma. In the present study, by immunohistochemical and CD34/PAS histochemical double-staining, 34 cases (26.8%) with VM structures were identified among a total of 127 glioma cases, and these VM structures were associated with mTOR expression in the glioma specimens. In vitro, U87 malignant glioblastoma cells formed tube structures similar to HUVECs on Matrigel in 3D culture, and mTOR-specific inhibitor rapamycin inhibited VM formation in the U87 malignant glioblastoma cells under both normoxia and hypoxia. In addition, rapamycin and mTOR siRNA inhibited molecules in the signaling cascade of VM formation, particularly HIF-1?. Taken together, our results demonstrated that mTOR signaling is involved in VM formation, and may be a potential therapeutic target for gliomas.
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The effect of pump-2 laser on Autler-Townes splitting in photoelectron spectra of K2 molecule.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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We theoretically investigated Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in the photoelectron spectra of a four-level ladder K2 molecule driven by pump1-pump2-probe pulses by employing the time-dependent wave packet approach. The effect of pump-2 laser intensity and wavelength on AT splitting was studied for the first time. Triple splitting with asymmetric profiles arises because of the non-resonant excitation. The triple splitting transforms to double splitting when pump-2 detuning approaches ±1/2 times of pump-1 Rabi frequency. The splitting between two side band peaks in the triplet or doublet does not change with the pump-2 laser wavelength. The three peaks shift to a lower energy with a different shift as pump-2 wavelength increases. The magnitude of AT splitting increases with increasing pump-2 laser intensity. The asymptotic behavior of AT splitting with the pump-2 laser intensity are interesting at the threshold point of the near resonant region and far-off resonant region.
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Copy number variations of GATA4 and NKX2-5 in Chinese fetuses with congenital heart disease.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in newborns. The etiology of CHD has remained largely unknown, but it is assumed to result from the combined effects of genetic and environmental factors. Recent investigations have detected potentially pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) in a proportion of patients with CHD. The present case-control study aimed at evaluating whether CNVs in the GATA4 and NKX2-5 genes contribute to the pathogenesis of CHD in Chinese fetuses (n = 117), by comparing the results to non-CHD control subjects (n = 100).
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[Selective Laser Sintering-produced porous titanium alloy scaffold for bone tissue engineering].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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To evaluate the biocompatibility of SLS-produced titanium alloy scaffold in vitro and investigate the therapeutic effects in repairing segmental bone defects.
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Antioxidative fullerol promotes osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Antioxidants were implicated as potential reagents to enhance osteogenesis, and nano-fullerenes have been demonstrated to have a great antioxidative capacity by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In this study, we assessed the impact of a polyhydroxylated fullerene, fullerol, on the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Fullerol was not toxic against human ADSCs at concentrations up to 10 ?M. At a concentration of 1 ?M, fullerol reduced cellular reactive oxygen species after a 5-day incubation either in the presence or in the absence of osteogenic media. Pretreatment of fullerol for 7 days increased the osteogenic potential of human ADSCs. Furthermore, when incubated together with osteogenic medium, fullerol promoted osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, fullerol proved to promote expression of FoxO1, a major functional isoform of forkhead box O transcription factors that defend against reactive oxygen species in bone. Although further clarification of related mechanisms is required, the findings may help further development of a novel approach for bone repair, using combined treatment of nano-fullerol with ADSCs.
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Functionalized carbon nanotube via distillation precipitation polymerization and its application in nafion-based composite membranes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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The objective of this study is to develop a novel approach to in situ functionalizing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and exploring their application in Nafion-based composite membranes for efficient proton conduction. Covalent grafting of acrylate-modified MWCNTs with poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), poly(vinylphosphonic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) was achieved via surface-initiated distillation precipitation polymerization. The formation of core-shell structure was verified by TEM images, and polymer layers with thickness around 30 nm were uniformly covered on the MWCNTs. The graft yield reached up to 93.3 wt % after 80 min of polymerization. The functionalized CNTs (FCNTs) were incorporated into the Nafion matrix to prepare composite membranes. The influence of various functional groups (-COOH, -PO3H2, and -SO3H) in FCNTs on proton transport of the composite membranes was studied. The incorporation of FCNTs afforded the composite membranes significantly enhanced proton conductivities under reduced relative humidity. The composite membrane containing 5 wt % phosphorylated MWCNTs (PCNTs) showed the highest proton conductivity, which was attributed to the construction of lower-energy-barrier proton transport pathways by PCNTs, and excellent water-retention and proton-conduction properties of the cross-linked polymer in PCNTs. Moreover, the composite membranes exhibited an enhanced mechanical stability.
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Correlation between Congenital Heart Defects and maternal copper and zinc concentrations.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between maternal concentrations of copper and zinc and the risk of having an infant with a congenital heart defect (CHD).
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Phosphoproteomic analysis of gossypol-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell line, HOC1a.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Ovarian cancer is a major cause for death of gynecological cancer patients. The efficacy of traditional surgery and chemotherapy is rather compromised and platinum-resistant cancer recurs. Finding new therapeutic targets is urgently needed to increase the survival rate and to improve life quality of patients with ovarian cancer. In the present work, phosphoproteomic analysis was carried out on untreated and gossypol-treated ovarian cancer cell line, HOC1a. We identified approximately 9750 phosphopeptides from 3030 phosphoproteins, which are involved in diverse cellular processes including cytoskeletal organization, RNA and nucleotide binding, and cell cycle regulation. Upon gossypol treatment, changes in phosphorylation of twenty-nine proteins including YAP1 and AKAP12 were characterized. Western blotting and qPCR analysis were used to determine expression levels of proteins in YAP1-related Hippo pathway showing that gossypol induced upregulation of LATS1, which phosphorylates YAP1 at Ser 61. Furthermore, our data showed that gossypol targets the actin cytoskeletal organization through mediating phosphorylation states of actin-binding proteins. Taken together, our data provide valuable information to understand effects of gossypol on protein phosphorylation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.
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Liraglutide Exerts Antidiabetic Effect via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle of KKAy Mice.
Int J Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Background. Liraglutide (a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog) was used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) which could produce glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Aim. The aim was to investigate whether liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle and the mechanisms in diabetic KKAy mice. Method. We divided the male KKAy mice into 2 groups: liraglutide group (250??g/kg/day liraglutide subcutaneous injection) and model group; meanwhile, the male C57BL/6J mice were considered as the control. After 6 weeks, the ultrastructure of skeletal muscle was observed by electron microscope. The gene expressions of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) were determined by real-time PCR. The protein levels of the above molecules and phospho-Akt2 (p-Akt2) were measured by Western blot. Results. Liraglutide significantly ameliorated the injury of mitochondria by increasing the number (+441%) and the area (+113%) of mitochondria and mitochondrial area/100?µm(2) (+396%) in skeletal muscle of KKAy mice. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that liraglutide downregulated PTP1B while it upregulated PI3K and GLUT4 (P < 0.01). The protein level of p-Akt2/Akt2 was also increased (P < 0.01). Conclusion. These results revealed that liraglutide could improve myofibril and mitochondria injury in skeletal muscle against T2DM via PTP1B and PI3K/Akt2 signaling pathway.
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Association of LMX1A genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to congenital scoliosis in Chinese Han population.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the LMX1A gene with congenital scoliosis (CS) in the Chinese Han population.
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Krüppel-like factor 9 inhibits glioma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity via downregulation of miR-21.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are zinc finger-containing transcription factors that play key roles in the regulation of differentiation and development as well as biological processes central to development of malignancies. Increasing evidence indicates that Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) play a critical role in regulating tumorigenesis. However, the biological role and molecular mechanism of KLF9 in glioma progression remain unclear. Herein, we found that KLF9 expression was strongly reduced in gliomas. Reduced KLF9 expression promoted glioma cell proliferation. Importantly, re-constitution of KLF9 expression inhibited glioma cell proliferation and tumor growth in vivo. Furthermore, we determined that KLF9 interacted with the miR-21 promoter, leading to suppression of miR-21 expression and cell cycle arrest. Taken together, our findings indicate a novel mechanism for KLF function in tumorigenesis and may also suggest new targets for clinical intervention in human cancer.
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Lactotransferrin could be a novel independent molecular prognosticator of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Lactotransferrin (LTF), also known as lactoferrin, is a key component of innate immune defense. We previously reported that LTF was downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and could suppress NPC cell proliferation. However, the relevance of the relationship between LTF expression and NPC clinical outcome has not been reported. This study aims to assess the possible correlations between LTF expression and clinical parameters and its potential prognostic predictive ability in the outcomes of patients with NPC. Complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results suggested that LTF expression was significantly downregulated in NPC tissues compared to non-NPC tissues. LTF was negatively correlated with lymph node metastasis (P?=?0.042), T stage (P?
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Building Knowledge Structures by Testing Helps Children With Mathematical Learning Difficulty.
J Learn Disabil
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Mathematical learning difficulty (MLD) is prevalent in the development of mathematical abilities. Previous interventions for children with MLD have focused on number sense or basic mathematical skills. This study investigated whether mathematical performance of fifth grade children with MLD could be improved by developing knowledge structures by testing using a web-based curriculum learning system. A total of 142 children with MLD were recruited; half of the children were in the experimental group (using the system), and the other half were in the control group (not using the system). The children were encouraged to use the web-based learning system at home for at least a 15-min session, at least once a week, for one and a half months. The mean accumulated time of testing on the system for children in the experimental group was 56.2 min. Children in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on their final mathematical examination compared to the control group. The results suggest that web-based curriculum learning through testing that promotes the building of knowledge structures for a mathematical course was helpful for children with MLD.
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Acceleration of aneurysm healing by P(DLLA-co-TMC)-coated coils enabling the controlled release of vascular endothelial growth factor.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Since the introduction of the detachable coil in endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms, the in-hospital mortality rate has been significantly decreased. Recurrence of the aneurysm remains the major drawback of using detachable coils. We prepared a bioactive coil coated with poly(d,l-lactide)-7co-(1,3-trimethylene carbonate) (P(DLLA-co-TMC)), a novel copolymer for controlling the release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Platinum coils were prepared by successive coating with cationic P(DLLA-co-TMC) and anionic heparin. Then, recombinant human VEGF-165 (rhVEGF) was immobilized by affinity binding to heparin. The morphological characteristics and sustained in vitro release of rhVEGF were examined using scanning electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The efficacy of these novel coils modified by P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF was tested using a common carotid artery aneurysm model in rats. Experimental aneurysms were embolized with unmodified, P(DLLA-co-TMC)/heparin-coated or P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils (n = 18). The coils were removed on days 15, 30 and 90 after insertion, and the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of factor VIII was performed to confirm the presence of endothelial cells in the organized area. In addition, the controlled in vivo release of VEGF was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. The release of VEGF tended to increase during the whole period and no burst release was observed. In the group treated with P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils, clot organization and endothelial cell proliferation were accelerated. The immunohistochemistry study showed that the expression of factor VIII was found in the P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated coil group but not in the other two groups. Furthermore, Western blotting analysis confirmed that the major released VEGF in the aneurysm sac was from the P(DLLA-co-TMC)/VEGF-coated coil. P(DLLA-co-TMC)/rhVEGF-coated platinum coils can promote clot organization and endothelial cell proliferation in a rat aneurysm model.
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Selection and characterization of DNA aptamers against Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Enterotoxins from pathogenic bacteria are known as the main reason that can cause the bacterial foodborne diseases. In this study, aptamers that bound to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) with high affinity and selectivity were generated in vitro by twelve rounds of selection based on magnetic separation technology, with a low-level dissociation constant (Kd) value of 65.14 ± 11.64 nmol/L of aptamer C10. Aptamer-based quantification of SEC1 in the food sample by a graphene oxide (GO)-based method was implemented to investigate the potential of the aptamer against SEC1 with a limit of detection of 6 ng/mL. On the basis of this work, biosensors using the selected SEC1 aptamers as new molecular recognition elements could be applied for innovative determinations of SEC1.
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[Outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention for intermediate coronary artery disease guided by intravascular ultrasound or fractional flow reserve].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided versus intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for intermediate coronary lesions.
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Assessment of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient of Normal Fetal Brain Development from Gestational Age Week 24 Up to Term Age: A Preliminary Study.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in evaluating normal fetal brain development from gestational week 24 up to term age. Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed on 40 normal fetuses (with normal results on sonography and normal fetal MRI results), with two b-values of 0 and 600 s/mm(2) in the three (x, y, z) orthogonal axes. Ten regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed symmetrically in the bilateral frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM), thalamus (THAL), basal ganglia (BG), and cerebellar hemispheres (CH). ADC values of the ten ROIs in all subjects were measured by two radiologists independently. One-way ANOVA was used to calculate the differences among the five regions in the fetal brain and linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between ADC values and gestational age (GA). p < 0.05 was considered significantly different. Results: Mean GA was 31.3 ± 3.9 (range 24-41) weeks. The overall mean ADC values (×10(-6) mm(2)/s) of the fetuses were 1,800 ± 214 (FWM), 1,400 ± 100 (BG), 1,300 ± 126 (THAL), 1,700 ± 133 (OWM) and 1,400 ± 155 (CH), respectively. The ADC value of BG was not significantly different from those of THAL and CH, while the other four ROIs had significant differences with each other. The ADC values of BG, THAL, OWM and CH had strong negative correlations with increasing GA (R were -0.568, -0.716, -0.830 and -0.700, respectively, all p < 0.01), OWM declined fastest with GA, followed by CH and THAL, the slowest being BG. The ADC value of FWM had no significant change with GA (p = 0.366). Conclusions: The measurement of ADC values is feasible to evaluate fetal brain development with high reliability and reproducibility. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Cross-cultural investigation into cognitive underpinnings of individual differences in early arithmetic.
Dev Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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The present study evaluated 626 5-7-year-old children in the UK, China, Russia, and Kyrgyzstan on a cognitive test battery measuring: (1) general skills; (2) non-symbolic number sense; (3) symbolic number understanding; (4) simple arithmetic - operating with numbers; and (5) familiarity with numbers. Although most inter-population differences were small, 13% of the variance in arithmetic skills could be explained by the sample, replicating the pattern, previously found with older children in PISA. Furthermore, the same cognitive skills were related to early arithmetic in these diverse populations. Only understanding of symbolic number explained variation in mathematical performance in all samples. We discuss the results in terms of potential influences of socio-demographic, linguistic and genetic factors on individual differences in mathematics.
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Zwitterionic microcapsules as water reservoirs and proton carriers within a Nafion membrane to confer high proton conductivity under low humidity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Zwitterionic microcapsules (ZMCs) based on sulfobetaine with tunable hierarchical structures, superior water retention properties, and high proton conduction capacities are synthesized via precipitation polymerization. The incorporation of ZMCs into a Nafion matrix renders the composite membranes with significantly enhanced proton conductivity especially under low humidity. The composite membrane with 15 wt % ZMC-I displayed the highest proton conductivity of 5.8 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 40 °C and 20% relative humidity after 90 min of testing, about 21 times higher than that of the Nafion control membrane. The increased proton conductivity is primarily attributed to the versatile roles of ZMCs as water reservoirs and proton conductors for rendering a stable water environment and an additional proton conduction pathway within the membranes. This study may contribute to the rational design of water-retaining and proton-conducting materials.
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Folic acid-conjugated pH/temperature/redox multi-stimuli responsive polymer microspheres for delivery of anti-cancer drug.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The folic acid (FA)-conjugated pH/temperature/redox multi-stimuli responsive poly(methacrylic acid-co-N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-N,N-bis(acryloyl)cystamine) microspheres were prepared by a two-stage distillation-precipitation polymerization with subsequent surface modification with FA. The microspheres were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamical light scattering, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, UV-vis spectra and elemental analysis. The degradation of the functional microspheres could be triggered by a reductive reagent, such as glutathione, due to presence of BAC crosslinker. The drug-loaded microspheres exhibited a pH/temperature/redox multi-stimuli responsive drug release character for doxorubicin hydrochloride as a model anti-cancer drug, which was efficiently loaded into the microspheres with a high loading capacity of 208.0% and an encapsulation efficiency of 85.4%. In vitro drug delivery study indicated that the FA-conjugated microspheres could deliver Dox into MCF-7 cells more efficiently than the microspheres without functionalization of FA. Furthermore, WST-1 assay showed that the microspheres had no obvious toxicity to MCF-7 cells even at a high concentration of 2000 ?g mL(-1). The resultant microsphere may be a promising vector for delivery of anti-cancer drugs as it exhibits a low cytotoxicity and degradability, precise molecular targeting property and multi-stimuli responsively controlled drug release.
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mGluR5 promotes the differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells into cholinergic neurons and activation of extracellular signal-related protein kinases.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate neurogenesis in the mammalian central nervous system during development and throughout adulthood. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of mGluR5 on the differentiation of rat neural progenitor cells (NPCs) into neurons as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. NPCs were treated with mGluR5 agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG), mGluR5 siRNA, and antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl) pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP), respectively. Three different subtypes of neurons (cholinergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic neurons) were evaluated, and the activation of signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinases was determined. Results showed that CHPG caused rat NPCs to differentiate into neurons, whereas mGluR5 siRNA and MPEP inhibited the cell differentiation. The proportion of cholinergic neurons increased with CHPG treatment and decreased after siRNA or MPEP treatment, whereas there were no significant changes in the proportions of GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons after treatment. The phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels increased after CHPG treatment and decreased after siRNA or MPEP treatment. In conclusion, our findings showed that mGluR5 caused rat NPCs to differentiate into cholinergic neurons by activating ERKs, suggesting that mGluR5 may play a significant role in the mechanism and treatment of degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
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CD146 as a new marker for an increased chondroprogenitor cell sub-population in the later stages of osteoarthritis.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Cartilage-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated with different methods. In this study lateral and medial femoral condyles were respectively collected from patients with late-stage osteoarthritis during the total knee arthroplasty. After digestion of the cartilage tissues with type II collagenase and analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) with CD146, a chondroprogenitor cell sub-population were isolated and purified. The expression of other MSC-associated markers in the CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was analyzed by flow cytometry. Multi-lineage differentiation capacity of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors was compared with that of unsorted chondrocytes and adipose-derived MSCs (ADMSCs). Higher percentage of CD146(+) chondroprogenitors isolated from the medial femoral condyles was observed than that from the lateral. CD146(+) chondroprogenitors expressed high levels of MSC-specific surface antigens, and showed higher chondrogenesis capacity than ADMSCs and unsorted chondrocytes in a 3D cell pellet culture model. Thus CD146 might be a new cell surface marker for cartilage progenitor cell population in the late-stage osteoarthritis. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
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Development of fraction concepts and procedures in U.S. and Chinese children.
J Exp Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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We compared knowledge of fraction concepts and procedures among sixth and eighth graders in China and the United States. As anticipated, Chinese middle school children had higher knowledge of fraction concepts and procedures than U.S. children in the same grades, and the difference in procedural knowledge was much larger than the difference in conceptual knowledge. Of particular interest, national differences in knowledge of fraction concepts were fully mediated by differences in knowledge of fraction procedures, and differences between the knowledge of Chinese and U.S. children were most pronounced among the lowest achieving children within each country. Based on these and previous results, a theoretical model of the mutually facilitative interaction between conceptual and procedural knowledge of fractions is proposed and discussed.
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A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase for phenol determination.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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A new nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was developed for phenol determination. The laminated samarium borate was synthesized by a mild solid-state-hydrothermal (S-S-H) method without any surfactant or Template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the samples. The morphology of the as-prepared materials was characterized by SEM, which shows that laminated samarium borate are uniform nanosheets with a layer-by-layer self-assembled single-crystal structure. These laminated samarium borate have typical diameters of 3?~?5 ?m and the thickness of each layer is in the range of 10?~?80 nm. And then, these SmBO3 multilayers were used to immobilize the laccase. The proposed nanosensor composed of laminated samarium borate and immobilized laccase was successfully developed for phenol determination. Cyclic voltammetry were used to study the nanosensor. The proposed nanosensor displayed high sensitivity toward phenolic compounds. The linearity of the nanosensor for the detection of hydroquinone was obtained from 1 to 50 ?M with a detection limit of 3?×?10-7 M (based on the S/N?=?3).
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Glutathione protects human nucleus pulposus cells from cell apoptosis and inhibition of matrix synthesis.
Connect. Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Abstract Cell death (apoptosis and necrosis) and extracellular matrix destruction induced by oxidative stress have been suggested to be closely involved in the process of disc degeneration. Glutathione, a natural peptide as a powerful antioxidant in human cytoplasm, plays an important role in protecting living cells. This study is to investigate whether glutathione could retard degenerated phenotypes in cultured disc cells. Human nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and cultured in alginate beads and subsequently treated with a pro-oxidant H2O2 alone or a pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? alone or either of them together with glutathione. It was shown that H2O2 dose-dependently promoted nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and decreased mRNA levels of matrix proteins aggrecan and type II collagen determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). IL-1? could induce production of nitric oxide and decrease of proteoglycan, detected by the Griess reagent and the dimethyl methylene blue, respectively. The deleterious effects of either H2O2 or IL-1? could be efficiently prevented by glutathione. These results indicated that glutathione might be considered as an option for intervention of disc degeneration.
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Curcumin inhibits vasculogenic mimicry through the downregulation of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors found in humans. In high-grade gliomas, vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is often detected. VM is the formation of de novo vascular networks by highly invasive tumor cells, instead of endothelial cells. An understanding of the mechanisms of VM formation will contribute to the targeted therapy of GBMs. In the present study, the efficacy of curcumin (CCM) on VM formation and its mechanisms were investigated. It was found that CCM inhibits the VM formation, proliferation, migration and invasion of human glioma U251 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CCM downregulated the protein and mRNA expression of erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma-A2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase and matrix metalloproteinase-2, indicating that CCM may function through these factors for the inhibition of VM formation. These data provide novel insights into the use of CCM to antagonize VM, and may contribute to the angiogenesis-targeted therapy of malignant glioma.
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miR-494 acts as an anti-oncogene in gastric carcinoma by targeting c-myc.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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We recently showed that miR-494 was downregulated in gastric carcinoma (GC). The objectives of this study were to determine the role of miR-494 in GC malignancy and to identify its target genes.
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The involvement of ADAMTS-5 genetic polymorphisms in predisposition and diffusion tensor imaging alterations of lumbar disc degeneration.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Low back pain is a global health problem in which more than 40% is caused by lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration (LDD). ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5) was shown to be involved in LDD by functional analyses. To identify whether there is an association between ADAMTS-5 and LDD, and what is the contribution of ADAMTS-5 genetic polymorphisms to MD (Mean diffusivity) changes in lumbar IVD (Intervertebral disc). We firstly genotyped selected ADAMTS-5 SNPs (Single nucleotide polymorphisms) in a Chinese Han population. After the primary analyses of allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic association, we performed SNP-SNP interaction analysis. We subsequently genotyped another 50 participants and acquired the corresponding MD values from individual lumbar IVDs. The association analysis between the genotypic groups divided by the above positive SNPs and the corresponding MD values were also performed. Significant associations were identified in rs151058, rs229052, and rs162502. None of the 2-SNP haplotypic analysis survived the 10,000 permutation test. The following interaction analysis demonstrated that rs151058 was strong associated with LDD when conditioning on rs162502. Significant difference of MD values between AA and G+ carriers was identified in rs162502. This is the first study indicating that the SNPs of ADAMTS-5 may contribute to predisposition of LDD. An interaction between rs151058 and rs229052 may exist in ADAMTS-5 with LDD. The rs162502 might be associated with altered MD values.
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Prenatal diagnosis of a de novo interstitial deletion of 11q (11q22.3???q23.3) associated with abnormal ultrasound findings by array comparative genomic hybridization.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Conventional G-band karyotyping offers low-resolution detection of chromosome abnormalities and cannot provide information about the involved genomic content. On the other hand, array comparative genomic hybridization can offer a rapid and comprehensive detection of genomewide gains and losses with higher resolution, thus providing the genetic basis for prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities.
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Antioxidative nanofullerol prevents intervertebral disk degeneration.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Compelling evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in disk degeneration. Fullerol nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solution have been demonstrated to have outstanding ability to scavenge ROS. In this report, in vitro and in vivo models were used to study the efficacy of fullerol in preventing disk degeneration. For in vitro experiments, a pro-oxidant H2O2 or an inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? was employed to induce degenerated phenotypes in human nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in alginate beads, and fullerol was added in the culture medium. For the animal study, an annulus-puncture model with rabbit was created, and fullerol was injected into disks. It was shown that cytotoxicity and cellular ROS level induced by H2O2 were significantly diminished by fullerol. IL-1?-induced nitric oxide generation in culture medium was suppressed by fullerol as well. Gene-profile and biochemical assays showed that fullerol effectively reversed the matrix degradation caused by either H2O2 or IL-1?. The animal study delineated that intradiskal injection of fullerol prevented disk degeneration, increasing water and proteoglycan content and inhibiting ectopic bone formation. These results suggest that antioxidative fullerol may have a potential therapeutic application for disk degeneration.
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Head-to-head comparison of sirolimus-eluting stents versus paclitaxel-eluting stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of 76 studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The relative short-, long- and overall-term efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES, Cypher) compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES, Taxus) in large head-to-head comparisons still remain to be defined.
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Research on bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The rationality of a fuzzy choice function is a hot research topic in the study of fuzzy choice functions. In this paper, two common fuzzy sets are studied and analyzed in the framework of the Banerjee choice function. The complete rationality and bounded rationality of fuzzy choice functions are defined based on the two fuzzy sets. An assumption is presented to study the fuzzy choice function, and especially the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality is studied combined with some rationality conditions. Results show that the fuzzy choice function with bounded rationality also satisfies some important rationality conditions, but not vice versa. The research gives supplements to the investigation in the framework of the Banerjee choice function.
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A comparison of four methods for the analysis of N-of-1 trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To provide a practical guidance for the analysis of N-of-1 trials by comparing four commonly used models.
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Fullerene-biomolecule conjugates and their biomedicinal applications.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Fullerenes are among the strongest antioxidants and are characterized as "radical sponges." The research on biomedicinal applications of fullerenes has achieved significant progress since the landmark publication by Friedman et al in 1993. Fullerene-biomolecule conjugates have become an important area of research during the past 2 decades. By a thorough literature search, we attempt to update the information about the synthesis of different types of fullerene-biomolecule conjugates, including fullerene-containing amino acids and peptides, oligonucleotides, sugars, and esters. Moreover, we also discuss in this review recently reported data on the biological and pharmaceutical utilities of these compounds and some other fullerene derivatives of biomedical importance. While within the fullerene-biomolecule conjugates, in which fullerene may act as both an antioxidant and a carrier, specific targeting biomolecules conjugated to fullerene will undoubtedly strengthen the delivery of functional fullerenes to sites of clinical interest.
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[Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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To investigate whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can promote neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rat hippocampus.
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Maternal influenza-like illness, medication use during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects in offspring.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between maternal influenza and congenital heart defects (CHDs), and whether the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) or Western medicine (antibiotics, antipyretic-analgesic drugs) modified this association. Method: We analysed 294 fetuses with CHDs and 416 control fetuses without any abnormalities identified from February 2010 through October 2011 in this hospital-based case-control study. Participating mothers were interviewed to determine whether they had been infected with "influenza" during the early pregnancy period or had used any medicine (TCM, Western medicine) to treat influenza. A logistic regression model was used to calculate ORs and 95% CIs while controlling for potential confounders. Results: There were significant associations between maternal influenza and CHDs in the aggregate (AOR, 1.60; 95%CI, 1.12 to 2.28) and specific subtypes, namely septal defects (AOR, 2.12; 95%CI, 1.38 to 3.26) and conotruncal defects (AOR, 1.60; 95%CI, 1.01 to 2.51). Maternal medication use (i.e. TCM or Western medicine) in the setting of influenza tended to decrease these associations. Conclusions: Maternal influenza during second-third months of pregnancy increased the risk for CHDs, with septal defects and conotruncal defects in particular being observed. The use of medication for influenza might attenuate such associations.
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In Situ Facile Synthesis of Ru-Based Core-Shell Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Black and Their High Catalytic Activity in the Dehydrogenation of Amine-Boranes.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Well-dispersed core-shell Ru@M (M=Co, Ni, Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on carbon black have been synthesized via a facile in situ one-step procedure under ambient condition. Core-shell Ru@Co NPs were synthesized and characterized for the first time. The as-synthesized Ru@Co and Ru@Ni NPs exhibit superior catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane compared with their monometallic and alloy counterparts. The Ru@Co/C NPs are the most reactive, with a turnover frequency (TOF) value of 320?(mol?H?2?min(-1) )?molRu (-1) and activation energy (Ea ) of 21.16?kJ?mol(-1) . Ru@Ni/C NPs are the next most active, whereas Ru@Fe/C NPs are almost inactive. Additionally, the as-synthesized NPs supported on carbon black exhibit higher catalytic activity than catalysts on other conventional supports, such as SiO2 and ?-Al2 O3 .
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Development of spatial representation of numbers: a study of the SNARC effect in Chinese children.
J Exp Child Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Using the standard parity judgment task, this study investigated the development of numerical-spatial representation. Participants were 314 healthy right-handed Chinese children (from kindergarteners to sixth graders) and adults. The results revealed that all age groups showed a significant (or marginally significant in the case of first graders) SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, indicating that Chinese children as young as kindergarteners already had developed automatic spatial representations of numbers (or the mental number line). Surprisingly, however, the size of the SNARC effect did not show much developmental change. These results are discussed in the context of the literature on spatial representations of numbers and on cross-cultural differences in early development of number cognition.
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Dehydroepiandrosterone induces ovarian and uterine hyperfibrosis in female rats.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Do dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated rats with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) demonstrate a high level of fibrosis in ovarian and uterine tissues?
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[The effect of hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal in protection of mastoid segment of facial nerve in middle ear surgery].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To investigate the effect of hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal in mastoid segment to landmark facial nerve in middle ear surgery by means of observing the location relationship between hyalinized chorda tympani nerve canal and facial nerve.
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Neural correlates of quantity processing of numeral classifiers.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Classifiers play an important role in describing the quantity information of objects. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the brain organization for quantity processing of classifiers. In the current study, we investigated whether activation of numeral classifiers was specific to the bilateral inferior parietal areas, which are believed to process numerical magnitude.
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A modified aggregate culture for chondrogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells genetically modified with growth and differentiation factor 5.
Biores Open Access
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering, and recently a modified aggregate culture of human ADSCs (hADSCs) was established based on preparation of three-dimensional (3D) cell aggregates in growth factor-enriched low serum medium using the hanging droplet method. Growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) plays a critical role in chondrogenesis and cartilage development. In the present study, we examine (1) whether the modified aggregate culture is feasible for chondrogenic induction of hADSCs, (2) whether overexpressed GDF5 can promote chondrogenesis, and (3) the gene expression profile during chondrogenesis in this aggregate culture. hADSCs were infected with an adenovirus carrying the GDF5 gene (Ad-GDF5). Cells were cultured with chondrogenic media either in a modified aggregate culture or in an attached micromass culture that served as a control. The chondrogenic phenotype was assessed by morphology (n=8), biochemistry (n=3), and histology (n=2). Expression of 12 genes was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n=3). We found that ADSCs cultured in the modified aggregates exhibited denser pellets and higher content of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) compared with those cultured in the micromass. Infection of cells with Ad-GDF5 increased the aggregate size and sGAG content. It also up-regulated expression of GDF5, aggrecan, and leptin and down-regulated expression of COL I, while expression of COL II and COL 10 remained unchanged. We concluded that the modified aggregate culture is feasible for chondrogenic induction of human ADSCs. Infection with Ad-GDF5 appears to promote the chondrogenesis. These findings suggest that genetic modification of ADSCs with GDF5 in the modified aggregate culture could be useful for treating diseases with cartilage defects.
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Purification, characterization and biological activities in vitro of polysaccharides extracted from tea seeds.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Three polysaccharide fractions (NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2) were isolated and purified from the water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) seeds with yields of 32.74%, 25.22%, and 11.09%, respectively. The average molecular weight of NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 was determined by HPGPC system, with an Mw of 4.588, 500 and 100kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide analysis by ion chromatography revealed they differed from each other in monosaccharide kinds and molar ratio. Furthermore, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 were heteropolysaccharide bounded with protein (2.83% and 2.12%) and 17 general amino acids were detected in them on an ion-chromatographic analyzer. The IR spectrum of ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 revealed the typical characteristics of polysaccharides and protein. In addition, the antitumor and immunological activity of the three polysaccharide fractions in vitro were also evaluated. It was found inhibition activity of NTSPS, ATSPS1-1 and ATSPS2 on K562 cells increased with increasing sample concentration and the inhibition ratios of them at 400?g/mL were beyond 30.13±3.54%, 36.61±2.75% and 32.33±2.53%, respectively. They also exhibited strong ability in promoting proliferation of mice splenic lymphocyte. Results of these studies indicated the three purified polysaccharides had a potential application as natural antitumor drugs.
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[Salidroside protects cultured rat subventricular zone neural stem cells against hypoxia injury by inhibiting Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 expressions].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To explore the effects of salidroside (sal) on the expressions of Bcl-2, Bax and caspases-3 proteins in cultured rat subventricular zone (SVZ) neural stem cells (NSCs) exposed to hypoxia injury.
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Effect of different drying methods on chemical composition and bioactivity of tea polysaccharides.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Four polysaccharides (TPS-F, TPS-V, TPS-S and TPS-M) were obtained from tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves by freeze-drying, vacuum-drying, spray-drying and microwave-vacuum drying, respectively. Their chemical composition and biological properties were comparatively studied. The results showed these TPS were similar in IR, UV absorption and distribution of molecular weight. However, they showed significant differences (P<0.05) in yields of crude polysaccharides and contents of protein and total polyphenols. Furthermore, morphological analysis showed their surface differed from each other in size and shape when viewed by SEM, from which surface of TPS-F was rough and porous, surface of TPS-S was evenly particles, and surfaces of the other two were similar to anomalistic bricks. In addition, the bioactivity of them was also evaluated. It was found TPS-F exhibited relatively better ability on metal chelating and superoxide radicals scavenging assays than others, and TPS-V exhibited higher ability on ?-glycosidase and ?-amylase inhibition assays than others with inhibitory percentages of 82.75% and 92.8%.
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Double-positive expression of high-mobility group box 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor C indicates a poorer prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Although many studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is associated with oncogenesis and a worse prognosis, the prognostic value of HMGB1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the role of HMGB1 in GC and examined whether aberrant expression of both HMGB1 and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) increased the malignant potential of GC.
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Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres and the corresponding mesoporous silica nanoparticles.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Poly(methacrylic acid-co-3-(methacryloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane) (P(MAA-co-MPS)) organic-inorganic hybrid microspheres were prepared by distillation-precipitation copolymerization of MAA and MPS in acetonitrile in absence of any surfactant and additive. The resultant hybrids had a spherical shape when the MPS inorganic precursor was varied from 0% to 60% in the comonomers during the polymerization. The hybrid microspheres can be facilely cross-linked via the hydrolysis of methoxy groups of polyMPS network and further self-condensation of the hydroxyl groups of silanols. As a result, the hybrid microspheres were facilely converted to mesoporous silica particles via the removal of the organic component through calcination. The narrow dispersed mesoporous silica had a high surface area of 554.2 m(2)/g as well as the average pore size of 8 nm and pore volume of 0.24 cm(3)/g. The corresponding microspheres were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and nitrogen sorption-desorption.
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Transplantation with retinal progenitor cells repairs visual function in rats with retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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The retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIR) is a common pathological process that leads to progressive visual loss and blindness in many retinal diseases such as retinal vascular occlusion disease, diabetic retinopathy, and acute glaucoma. Currently, there has been no effective therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of transplantation of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) into the subretinal space (SRS) and the superior colliculus (SC) in a rat model of RIR injury. We used cultured postnatal day 1 rat RPCs transfected with adeno-associated virus containing the cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) for transplantation. RIR injury was induced by increases in the intraocular pressure to 110mmHg for 60min. The effects of transplantation were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, electroretinography (ERG), and visual evoked potentials (VEP). We found that in rats with RIR injury, RPCs transplanted into the SRS and the SC survived for at least 8 weeks, migrated into surrounding tissues, and improved the ERG and VEP responses. Cells transplanted into the SC improved the VEP response more than those transplanted into the SRS. Our data suggest that transplantation of RPCs into the SRS and the SC may be a possible method for cell replacement therapy for retinal diseases.
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Identification of DNMT1 selective antagonists using a novel scintillation proximity assay.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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A novel scintillation proximity high throughput assay (SPA) to identify inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases was developed and used to screen over 180,000 compounds. The majority of the validated hits shared a quinone core and several were found to generate the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. Inhibition of the production of H2O2 by the addition of catalase blocked the ability of this group of compounds to inhibit DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity. However, a related compound, SW155246, was identified that existed in an already reduced form of the quinone. This compound did not generate H2O2, and catalase did not block its ability to inhibit DNA methyltransferase. SW155246 showed a 30-fold preference for inhibition of human DNMT1 versus human or murine DNMT3A or -3B, inhibited global methylation in HeLa cells, and reactivated expression of the tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A in A549 cells. To our knowledge, this work represents the first description of selective chemical inhibitors of the DNMT1 enzyme.
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Low percolation threshold carbon-black/ nitrile-butadiene-rubber composites and their electromagnetic shielding effects.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Nitrile-butadiene-rubber composites, filled with super conducting carbon black, are successfully prepared with low percolation threshold, high conductivity and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness. Percolation theory is used to represent the systems conductivity, and the corresponding result is close to the experimental value. The fitting curve also gives the weight fraction threshold and conductivity exponent of the conducting polymer. The percolation threshold of the composite is 9.2 phr, which is much smaller than previous homologous findings and lower than the value of short carbon fiber counterparts reported. The volume resistivity becomes 3.17 omega x cm for the 20 phr sample and decreases to 0.66 omega x cm for the 40 phr sample. At 1.8 GHz for 40 phr sample, the shielding effectiveness is -43 dB.
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Modeling nonlinearities of ultrasonic waves for fatigue damage characterization: Theory, simulation, and experimental validation.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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A dedicated modeling technique for comprehending nonlinear characteristics of ultrasonic waves traversing in a fatigued medium was developed, based on a retrofitted constitutive relation of the medium by considering the nonlinearities originated from material, fatigue damage, as well as the "breathing" motion of fatigue cracks. Piezoelectric wafers, for exciting and acquiring ultrasonic waves, were integrated in the model. The extracted nonlinearities were calibrated by virtue of an acoustic nonlinearity parameter. The modeling technique was validated experimentally, and the results showed satisfactory consistency in between, both revealing: the developed modeling approach is able to faithfully simulate fatigue crack-incurred nonlinearities manifested in ultrasonic waves; a cumulative growth of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter with increasing wave propagation distance exists; such a parameter acquired via a sensing path is nonlinearly related to the offset distance from the fatigue crack to that sensing path; and neither the incidence angle of the probing wave nor the length of the sensing path impacts on the parameter significantly. This study has yielded a quantitative characterization strategy for fatigue cracks using embeddable piezoelectric sensor networks, facilitating deployment of structural health monitoring which is capable of identifying small-scale damage at an embryo stage and surveilling its growth continuously.
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Brucine, an alkaloid from seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn., represses hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and metastasis: the role of hypoxia inducible factor 1 pathway.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Brucine is an alkaloid derived from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. which have long been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China. HCC prognosis can be greatly influenced by metastasis. There has thus far been little research into brucine as a source of anti-metastasis activity against HCC. In this study, we revealed that brucine dramatically repressed HepG2 and SMMC-7721 HCC cell migration with few cytotoxic effects. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor mediating cell migration and invasion. Brucine suppressed HIF-1-dependent luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. The transcriptions of four known HIF-1 target genes involved in HCC metastasis, i.e., fibronectin, matrix metallopeptidase 2, lysyl oxidase, and cathepsin D, were also attenuated after brucine treatment. Experiments in vivo showed that an intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 15 mg/kg of brucine resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the lung metastasis of H22 ascitic hepatoma cells. Moreover, a dosage of brucine at 15 mg/kg exhibited very low toxic effects to tumor-bearing mice. Consistently, brucine downregulated expression levels of HIF-1 responsive genes in vivo. Our current study demonstrated the capacity of brucine in suppressing HCC cell migration in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. The inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway is implicated in the anti-metastasis activity of brucine.
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Preparation of a bifunctional pyrazosulfuron-ethyl imprinted polymer with hydrophilic external layers by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization and its application in the sulfonylurea residue analysis.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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A new bifunctional pyrazosulfuron-ethyl imprinted polymer was synthesized by the combination of molecular imprinting technology and living radical polymerization. In the synthesis, the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl imprinted polymer was obtained by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization followed by grafting poly(glyceryl monomethacrylate) (pGMMA) by the post-RAFT polymerization. In this research, we used polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the polymeric porogen in order to increase the porosity of the material which is a new porogen application in the precipitation polymerization. The imprinted polymer has selectivity for the template and ability of humic acids exclusion which has shown the merits of molecularly imprinted polymers and restricted access materials. An online solid-phase extraction/HPLC method for the analysis of three sulfonylurea residues in soil samples has been developed and validated. The recovery of 81-99% in the spiked levels of 40-200 ?g kg(-1) was obtained and the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were less than 4.8 and 15.9 ?g kg(-1) respectively. The results demonstrated that this bifunctional material can be used for the efficient pyrazosulfuron-ethyl extraction in the sulfonylurea residue analysis from environmental samples.
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Association between maternal exposure to housing renovation and offspring with congenital heart disease: a multi-hospital case--control study.
Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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BACKGROUND: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most prevalent birth defects. Housing renovations are a newly recognized source of indoor environmental pollution that is detrimental to health. A growing body of research suggests that maternal occupational exposure to renovation materials may be associated with an increased risk of giving birth to fetuses with CHD. However, the effect of indoor housing renovation exposure on CHD occurrence has not been reported. METHODS: A multi-hospital case--control study was designed to investigate the association between maternal periconceptional housing renovation exposure and the risk of CHD for offspring. In total, 346 cases and 408 controls were enrolled in this study from four hospitals in China. Exposure information was based on a questionnaire given to women during pregnancy. The association between housing renovation exposure and CHD occurrence was assessed by estimating odds ratios (OR) with logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The risk for CHD in offspring was significantly associated with maternal exposure to housing renovations (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.29-2.77). There were similar risks for cardiac defects with or without extra-cardiac malformation (AOR of 2.65 and 1.76, respectively). Maternal housing renovation exposure may increase the fetus risk of suffering from conotruncal defect or anomalous venous return. There were significant risks for cardiac defects if the pregnant woman moved into a new house within one month after decoration at either 3 months before pregnancy (AOR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.03 to 5.48) or during first trimester (AOR: 4.00, 95% CI: 1.62 to 9.86). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal exposure to housing renovations may have an increased risk of giving birth to fetuses with some selected types of CHD. This relationship was stronger for women who moved into a newly decorated house. However, considering the limited number of subjects and the problem of multiple exposures, more research is needed to clarify the effects seen here.
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Quantifier processing can be dissociated from numerical processing: evidence from semantic dementia patients.
Neuropsychologia
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Quantifiers such as frequency adverbs (e.g., "always", "never") and quantity pronouns (e.g., "many", "none") convey quantity information. Whether quantifiers are processed as numbers or as general semantics has been a matter of much debate. Some neuropsychological and fMRI studies have found that the processing of quantifiers depends on the numerical magnitude comprehension system, but others have found that quantifier processing is associated with semantic representation. The selective impairment of language in semantic dementia patients provides a way to examine the above controversy. We administered a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., language processing, numerical processing and semantic distance judgment) to two patients with different levels of severity in semantic dementia (mild vs. severe). The results showed that the two patients had intact numerical knowledge, but impairments in semantic processing. Moreover, the patient with severe/late semantic dementia showed more impairment in quantifier and semantic processing than the patient with mild/early semantic dementia. We concluded that quantifier processing is associated with general semantic processing, not with numerical processing.
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The mental retardation-associated protein srGAP3 regulates survival, proliferation, and differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem/progenitor cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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The mental retardation-associated protein, srGAP3 is highly expressed in neurogenic sites. It is thought to regulate the key aspects of neuronal development and functions. Little is known about the interaction between srGAP3 and immature neural stem cells/neural progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs). In the current study, the expression of srGAP3 in NSCs/NPCs was detected. Then, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphological alteration of NSCs/NPCs were assessed after a lentivirus-mediated knockdown of srGAP3. The results showed that srGAP3 is highly expressed in NSCs/NPCs both in vitro and in vivo. After knockdown of srGAP3 (LV3-srGAP3 infection), viability and proliferation of NSCs/NPCs dramatically decreased, approximately 85% displayed a similar morphology with type I cells that have no or only few indistinguishable processes. After 7 days culture in a differentiation medium, 62.5%±8.3% of cells in the srGAP3 knockdown group were nestin-positive and 24.8%±5.8% of them were ?-tubulin III-positive, which are significantly higher (30.2%±9.9% and 14.6%±2.7%) than in the control group (LV3-NC infection). In addition, cells in the knockdown group had significantly fewer, but longer processes. Our results demonstrate that srGAP3 knockdown negatively regulates NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation, differentiation, and morphological alteration, particularly, process formation. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence that srGAP3 is involved in the regulation of biological behavior and the morphological features in rat NSCs/NPCs in vitro.
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Rapid detection of aneuploidy and unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements by subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in fetuses with congenital heart disease.
Fetal. Diagn. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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To validate multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) with subtelomeric probe mixes as a tool for diagnosis of aneuploidy and unbalanced terminal chromosomal rearrangements in fetuses with congenital heart disease.
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The association between periconceptional folic acid supplementation and congenital heart defects: a case-control study in China.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2013
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This study aims to evaluate the association between folic acid (FA) supplementation and congenital heart defects (CHDs).
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Primary pulmonary primitive neuroectodermal tumor metastasis to the pancreas: a rare case with seven-year follow-up.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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There are only nine primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) cases that have arisen in lung parenchyma without pleural or chest wall involvement in the literature. Here, we present a long-term survival case of pulmonary PNET. A pulmonary mass was detected in a 19-year-old man on a chest radiograph and computed tomography image. At the three-year follow-up, the mass had enlarged in diameter by two-fold. The lesion was resected via lower left lobectomy. Histologically, the tumor was composed of uniform cells with round nuclei and scanty cytoplasm arranged in lobules with rosettes and pseudorosettes formation. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for CD99, vimentin, neuron specific enolase and chromogranin A, and negative for cytokeratins, CD3, desmin, and leukocyte common antigen. Pancreatic metastasis occurred sixteen months after the first surgery, which was managed by pancreatectomy. The patient has survived seven years after the mass was initially detected, and four years after the first lobectomy.
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Influence of Sn-substitution on the thermoelectric properties of the clathrate type-I, Ba8Zn(x)Ge(46-x-y)Sn(y).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A systematic investigation is presented on the influence of Sn-substitution in the clathrate-I compound Ba(8)Zn(x)Ge(46-x-y)Sn(y), particularly for the crystal structure and thermoelectric properties including electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity. Two series of samples were prepared to explore the changes for different Sn-contents, (y), and to define the optimum Zn-content, (x), for Ba(8)Zn(x)Ge(46-x-y)Sn(y). Sn-incorporation leads to a linear expansion of the unit cell parameters. Sn-atoms occupy the 6d and 24k positions of the clathrate type-I structure (SG Pm3n, standardized setting). Whereas the electrical resistivity and the Seebeck coefficient modify only slightly compared to Ba(8)Zn(x)Ge(46-x), the thermal conductivity is significantly decreased by the Sn-atoms incorporated into the clathrate-I framework. Furthermore the charge carrier mobility is larger and the effective mass (m* = 1.7 m(e)) is much smaller than those of the ternary compound Ba(8)Zn(x)Ge(46-x). The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit is improved by 80% and reaches ZT = 0.82 at 850 K for Ba(8)Zn(7.66)Ge(36.55)Sn(1.79).
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Periconceptional paternal smoking and the risk of congenital heart defects: a case-control study.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been consistently associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). However, few studies have reported the association between paternal smoking during pregnancy and CHDs among offspring. This report presents the first case-control study to investigate the possible association between periconceptional paternal smoking and CHDs in China.
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Shape selective plate-form Ga(2)O(3) with strong metal-support interaction to overlying Pd for hydrogenation of CO(2) to CH(3)OH.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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A stronger metal-support interaction between Pd and plate-form Ga(2)O(3) nanocrystals covered with the predominant 002 surface than other Ga(2)O(3) surfaces is found, which gives higher methanol yield in catalytic CO(2) hydrogenation.
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Microwave-assisted in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts and their enhanced photocatalytic performance for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To improve the photodegradation efficiency for ciprofloxacin (CIP), a new-type microwave-assisted in situ growth method is developed for the preparation of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) -BiVO4 composite photocatalysts. The as-produced RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalysts show extremely high enhancement of CIP degradation ratio over the pure BiVO4 photocatalyst under visible light. Specially, the 2 wt% RGO-BiVO4 composite photocatalyst exhibits the highest CIP degradation ratio (68.2%) in 60 min, which is over 3 times than that (22.7%) of the pure BiVO4 particles. The enhancement of photocatalytic activities of RGO-BiVO4 photocatalysts can be attributed to the effective separation of electron-hole pairs rather than the improvement of light absorption.
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The prognostic value of amplitude-integrated EEG in full-term neonates with seizures.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Neonatal seizures pose a high risk for adverse outcome in survived infants. While the prognostic value of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) is well established in neonates with encephalopathy and asphyxia, neonatal seizure studies focusing on the direct correlation between early aEEG measurement and subsequent neurologic outcome are scarce. In this study, the prognostic value of aEEG features was systematically analyzed in 143 full-term neonates to identify prognostic indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Neonatal aEEG features of background pattern, cyclicity, and seizure activity, as well as the etiology of neonatal seizures, were significantly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome at one year of age. aEEG background pattern was highly associated with neurologic outcomes (?(2)?=?116.9), followed by aEEG cyclicity (?(2)?=?87.2) and seizure etiology (?(2)?=?79.3). Multiple linear regression showed that the four predictors explained 71.2% of the variation in neurological outcome, with standardized ? coefficients of 0.44, 0.24, 0.22, and 0.14 for the predictors of aEEG background pattern, cyclicity, etiology, and aEEG seizure activity, respectively. This clinically applicable scoring system based on etiology and three aEEG indices would allow pediatricians to assess the risk for neurodevelopmental impairment and facilitate an early intervention in newborns developing seizures.
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Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 relaxation time variation patterns in assessment of age and disc level related intervertebral disc changes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To compare the variation patterns of ADC and T2 values in different age and intervertebral disc (IVD) levels, thus to identify their sensitivities in assessing age and disc level related IVDs changes.
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An ERP study of the processing of common and decimal fractions: how different they are.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study explored event-related potential (ERP) correlates of common fractions (1/5) and decimal fractions (0.2). Thirteen subjects performed a numerical magnitude matching task under two conditions. In the common fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be judged whether its magnitude matched the magnitude of a common fraction; in the decimal fraction condition, a nonsymbolic fraction was asked to be matched with a decimal fraction. Behavioral results showed significant main effects of condition and numerical distance, but no significant interaction of condition and numerical distance. Electrophysiological data showed that when nonsymbolic fractions were compared to common fractions, they displayed larger N1 and P3 amplitudes than when they were compared to decimal fractions. This finding suggested that the visual identification for nonsymbolic fractions was different under the two conditions, which was not due to perceptual differences but to task demands. For symbolic fractions, the condition effect was observed in the N1 and P3 components, revealing stimulus-specific visual identification processing. The effect of numerical distance as an index of numerical magnitude representation was observed in the P2, N3 and P3 components under the two conditions. However, the topography of the distance effect was different under the two conditions, suggesting stimulus specific semantic processing of common fractions and decimal fractions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.