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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A highly efficient and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindoles bearing two contiguous quaternary stereocenters via an aldol reaction in aqueous media.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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A highly efficient and environmentally benign method for the synthesis of oxindoles featuring two contiguous quaternary carbon centers via an aldol reaction starting from various 3-substituted oxindoles has been established. A wide variety of such featured multi-substituted 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindole scaffolds were obtained smoothly in good yields (up to 98%) employing the most green of solvents, namely water, as reaction medium. Furthermore, their biological activity has been preliminarily demonstrated by in vitro evaluation against human prostate cancer cells PC-3, human lung cancer cells A549 and human leukemia cells K562 by MTT-based assays, using the commercially available standard drug, cisplatin, as a positive control. Gratifyingly, compounds , , and exhibited the best levels of in vitro inhibitory activity against human leukemia cells K562, which were almost 2.0, 2.8, 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, the activity of the positive control, cisplatin. Compound had 2.7 times the activity of the positive control, cisplatin, against PC-3 cancer cells, and , and showed levels of in vitro inhibitory activity against PC-3 cancer cells that were comparable to that of cisplatin. Compounds , and had good inhibitory ability against human lung cancer cells A549. The results indicated that 1,3-indandione ring-fused 3-oxindole analogs may be useful leads for further biological screenings.
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[Analysis of chemical components of volatile oil from Paris polyphylla and their antibacterial activities].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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To analyze the chemical components of volatile oil from Paris polyphylla by GC-MS, and to investigate their antimicrobial activities.
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Highly regioselective synthesis of 3-alkenyl-oxindole ring-fused 3,3'-disubstituted oxindoles via direct gamma-substitution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins with 3-substituted oxindoles.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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The first phase transfer-catalysed direct ?-substitution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates of isatins with 3-substituted oxindoles has been developed, which affords 3-alkenyl-oxindole ring-fused 3,3'-disubstituted oxindoles in up to 83% yield under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, their biological activity has been preliminarily demonstrated by in vitro evaluation against human prostate cancer cells PC-3 and human leukemia cells K562, using MTT-based assays with the commercially available standard drug Cisplatin as a positive control. Gratifyingly, compounds 3aa, 3ba and 3ca exhibited comparable in vitro inhibitory activities against human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) to Cisplatin. What's more, 3ba also had a good inhibition ability against human leukemia cells K562. These results indicate that 3-alkenyl-oxindole ring-fused 3,3'-disubstituted oxindole analogs may be potential lead compounds for further biological screening.
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Topological spin texture in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in an experiment using a thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree of freedom of a QAH insulator and uncover the fundamental phenomenon that the edge states exhibit a topologically stable spin texture in the boundary when a chiral-like symmetry is present. This result shows that edge states are chiral in both the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, and the chiral edge spin texture corresponds to the bulk topological states of the QAH insulator. We also study the potential applications of the edge spin texture in designing topological-state-based spin devices, which might be applicable to future spintronic technologies.
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EZH2 promotes angiogenesis through inhibition of miR-1/Endothelin-1 axis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Emerging evidence clearly indicates that EZH2 plays a crucial role in tumor angiogenesis. However, the role of EZH2 in angiogenesis is still unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We here showed that the elevated EZH2 level was closely associated with an aggressive and poor prognostic phenotype, and was positively correlated with microvessel density (MVD) in NPC tissues. Functional studies showed that EZH2 upregulation promoted cell proliferation, migration and tubule formation of endothelial cells, and knockdown of EZH2 suppressed tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Mechanistic investigations revealed that EZH2 inhibited miR-1 transcription via promoter binding activity, leading to enhanced expression of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) which is suppressed by miR-1 targeting of ET-1 3'UTR. Furthermore, knockdown of EZH2 or overexpression of miR-1 exerted anti-angiogenic effect on NPC cells. More importantly, the neutralizing antibody against ET-1 significantly abrogated the pro-angiogenic effect of EZH2, and forced expression of ET-1 rescued the anti-angiogenic effect induced by EZH2 knockdown. In clinical specimens, ET-1 was widely overexpressed and associated with clinical stage and MVD. Taken together, our results identify a novel signaling pathway involved in NPC angiogenesis, and also suggest that EZH2-miR-1-ET-1 axis represents multiple potential therapeutic targets for NPC.
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Characterization of corn starch films reinforced with CaCO3 nanoparticles.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The characterization of corn starch (CS) films impregnated with CaCO3 nanoparticles was investigated. Criteria such as morphology, crystallinity, water vapor permeability (WVP), opacity, and mechanical properties were the focus of the investigation. It was found that the CaCO3 contents had significant effects on the tensile properties of the nanocomposite films. The addition of CaCO3 nanoparticles to the CS films significantly increased tensile strength from 1.40 to 2.24 MPa, elongation from 79.21 to 118.98%, and Young's modulus from 1.82 to 2.41 MPa. The incorporation of CaCO3 nanoparticles increased the opacity of films, lowered the degree of WVP and film solubility value compared to those of the CS films. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that with the increase of CaCO3 nanoparticles content in starch films, the roughness of the films increased, and pores or cavities were found on the surface of the films, while small cracks were observed in the structures of the fractured surfaces. X-ray diffraction showed that the addition of nanoparticles increased the peaks in the intensity of films.
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Ectopic expression of FaesAP3, a Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae) AP3 orthologous gene rescues stamen development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA3 (AP3) and Antirrhinum majus DEFICIENS (DEF) MADS box genes are required to specify petal and stamen identity. AP3 and DEF are members of the euAP3 lineage, which arose by gene duplication coincident with radiation of the core eudicots. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying organ development in early diverging clades of core eudicots, we isolated and identified an AP3 homolog, FaesAP3, from Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat, Polygonaceae), a multi-food-use pseudocereal with healing benefits. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that FaesAP3 grouped into the euAP3 lineage. Expression analysis showed that FaesAP3 was transcribed only in developing stamens, and differed from AP3 and DEF, which expressed in developing petals and stamens. Moreover, ectopic expression of FaesAP3 rescued stamen development without complementation of petal development in an Arabidopsis ap3 mutant. Our results suggest that FaesAP3 is involved in the development of stamens in buckwheat. These results also suggest that FaesAP3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create a male sterile line of F. esculentum.
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[Percutaneous renal puncture guide by a novel real-time needle-tracking ultrasound system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy: analysis of 16 cases].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous renal puncture in percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by novel needle-tracking ultrasound system.
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[Diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus-accompanied renal calculi complicated with renal tumor: 5 case reports].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of renal pelvic tumor combined with renal urinary calculi and hydronephrosis.
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[Laparoscopic surgical treatment for schistosomiasis liver fibrosis portal hypertension combined with calculous cholecystitis].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To evaluate the curative effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the treatment of schistosomiasis liver fibrosis portal hypertension combined with calculous cholecystitis.
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[Salvage surgery for recurrent laryngocarcinoma].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To study the curative effect and prognosis of salvage surgery performed for recurrent laryngocarcinoma.
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De novo assembly of soybean wild relatives for pan-genome analysis of diversity and agronomic traits.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Wild relatives of crops are an important source of genetic diversity for agriculture, but their gene repertoire remains largely unexplored. We report the establishment and analysis of a pan-genome of Glycine soja, the wild relative of cultivated soybean Glycine max, by sequencing and de novo assembly of seven phylogenetically and geographically representative accessions. Intergenomic comparisons identified lineage-specific genes and genes with copy number variation or large-effect mutations, some of which show evidence of positive selection and may contribute to variation of agronomic traits such as biotic resistance, seed composition, flowering and maturity time, organ size and final biomass. Approximately 80% of the pan-genome was present in all seven accessions (core), whereas the rest was dispensable and exhibited greater variation than the core genome, perhaps reflecting a role in adaptation to diverse environments. This work will facilitate the harnessing of untapped genetic diversity from wild soybean for enhancement of elite cultivars.
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[Management of moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis in children by Devine's technique via incision between the penis and scrotum].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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To search for a simple and effective surgical approach to the management of moderate to severe pediatric concealed penis in children.
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[Classification and grading of environments with Oncomelania hupensis snails inside embankment of marshland and lake areas].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To classify and grade the environments with Oncomelania hupensis snails inside embankment in marshland and lake areas, so as to improve the work efficiency and realize the systematic management.
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Biochemical and biological properties of cortexillin III, a component of Dictyostelium DGAP1-cortexillin complexes.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Cortexillins I-III are members of the ?-actinin/spectrin subfamily of Dictyostelium calponin homology proteins. Unlike recombinant cortexillins I and II, which form homodimers as well as heterodimers in vitro, we find that recombinant cortexillin III is an unstable monomer but forms more stable heterodimers when coexpressed in Escherichia coli with cortexillin I or II. Expressed cortexillin III also forms heterodimers with both cortexillin I and II in vivo, and the heterodimers complex in vivo with DGAP1, a Dictyostelium GAP protein. Binding of cortexillin III to DGAP1 requires the presence of either cortexillin I or II; that is, cortexillin III binds to DGAP1 only as a heterodimer, and the heterodimers form in vivo in the absence of DGAP1. Expressed cortexillin III colocalizes with cortexillins I and II in the cortex of vegetative amoebae, the leading edge of motile cells, and the cleavage furrow of dividing cells. Colocalization of cortexillin III and F-actin may require the heterodimer/DGAP1 complex. Functionally, cortexillin III may be a negative regulator of cell growth, cytokinesis, pinocytosis, and phagocytosis, as all are enhanced in cortexillin III-null cells.
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[Reasons of drifting floating objects aggregating rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata)].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Many pelagic species tend to aggregate under drifting floating objects. This has led to the development of drifting fish aggregation devices (FADs) to attract the tropical tunas for the tuna purse seine fishery. However, FADs can also attract other non-targeting small pelagic species such as rainbow runner Elagatis bipinnulata, although it is still unclear why those species can be attracted and aggregated under an FAD. Using the fishery biological data collected in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean by the scientific observers on board Chinese tuna purse seine fishing vessels, we evaluated the potential motivations for rainbow runner to aggregate under drifting objects. This study indicated 1) Fork length of rainbow runner ranged from 30.0 to 90.6 cm, with the dominant fork lengths of 60.0 to 80.0 cm, accounting for 76.3% of the total sampled fish, suggesting large rainbow runner dominating around the drifting objects; 2) Size (fork length) of E. bipinnulata at 50% maturity was 65.7 cm, and mature individuals were dominant under the FADs; and 3) Some commonly observed small fish species, such as Decapterus macarellus, Kyphosus cinerascens, Caranx sexfasciatus, Katsuwonus pelamis and the juveniles of Thunnus obesus and Thunnus albacares, were found in the stomach of rainbow runner, which suggested that rainbow runner under FAD preyed on other associated small pelagic species. As an oceanic predator associated with drifting objects, feeding is perhaps one of the most possible motivations for adult E. bipinnulata to aggregate under the FAD. Both the "concentration of food supply" hypothesis and the "comfortability stipulation" hypothesis can be used to explain why E. bipinnulata aggregate under drifting floating objects.
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MiR-124 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis by targeting Foxq1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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The molecular mechanisms underlying dysregulation of microRNAs have been documented in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our previous study demonstrated that plasma miR-124 was down-regulated in NPC using microarray analysis and quantitative PCR validation. Though growing studies showed that down-regulated miR-124 was closely related to tumourigenesis in various types of cancers, the role of miR-124 in NPC remains largely unknown.
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Effect of retrogradation time on preparation and characterization of proso millet starch nanoparticles.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Starch nanoparticles were prepared from proso millet starch using a green and facile method combined with enzymolysis and recrystallization. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the starch nanoparticles prepared with different retrogradation time (0.5, 4, 12, and 24h). The results showed that the sizes of the starch nanoparticles were between 20 nm and 100 nm. The crystal pattern changed from A-type (native starch) to B-type (nanoparticles), and the relative crystallinity of the nanoparticles increased obviously, as compared with the native starch. The nanoparticles prepared with the 12h retrogradation time had the highest degree of crystallinity (47.04%). Compared to conventional acid hydrolysis to make starch nanoparticles, the present approach has the advantage of being quite rapid and presenting a higher yield (about 55%).
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Purification and identification of antioxidant peptides from peanut protein isolate hydrolysates using UHR-Q-TOF mass spectrometer.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Peanut protein isolate (PPI) was hydrolysed with alcalase to obtain antioxidant peptides. To purify these peptides, the peanut protein isolate hydrolysates (PPIH) were separated by ultrafiltration (MWCO=3kDa) and the obtained PPIH-II (Mw<3kDa) with higher antioxidant activity was further separated by gel filtration chromatography (Sephadex G-15). After filtration, both peptides, P1 and P4, with stronger antioxidant capacity were fractionated using preparative high performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC). Three antioxidant peptides were finally purified from P1 and P4 using the UHR-Q-TOF mass spectrometer, and the amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified as Thr-Pro-Ala (286kDa), Ile/Leu-Pro-Ser (315kDa) and Ser-Pro (202kDa), respectively.
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Effect of microwave-assisted dry heating with xanthan on normal and waxy corn starches.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Normal corn starch (CS) and waxy corn starch (WCS) were impregnated with xanthan gum (1% based on starch) and heat-treated using a microwave in a dry state for 0, 4, or 6min (CS-X0, CS-X4, CS-X6, WCS-X0, WCS-X4, WCS-X6), respectively. Effects of the microwave-assisted dry heating (MADH) on pasting, morphological, and structural properties were evaluated. The results revealed that the viscosity of both the CS and WCS with xanthan increased compared with untreated samples after MADH, and the effect on WCS was more obvious. The syneresis values showed that the water-holding ability of CS-X6 and WCS-X6 increased, and that value of CS was lower than that of WCS after MADH with xanthan. The MADH with xanthan reduced the To, Tc, Tp, and ?H values of both the CS and WCS. After MADH, the particle morphology of the starch-xanthan connected more densely, especially WCS, and the gelatinized samples exhibited a strong and smooth laminar structure. The Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) displayed that the absorption peak width of both CS-X6 and WCS-X6 became larger. X-ray diffraction showed that the crystallinity of CS-X6 and WCS-X6 decreased slightly as a result of MADH, and the crystalline pattern remained A-type.
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Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).
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CacyBP/SIP nuclear translocation induced by gastrin promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To investigate the role of nuclear translocation of calcyclin binding protein, also called Siah-1 interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP), in gastric carcinogenesis.
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Green preparation and characterisation of waxy maize starch nanoparticles through enzymolysis and recrystallisation.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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Waxy maize starch was treated by a facile and green enzymolysis procedure to fabricate starch nanoparticles (StNPs). The yield of StNPs was raised to 85% by pullulanase treatment, and the preparation duration was two days. Morphology (SEM, TEM), crystalline structure (XRD), thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), and the group changing (FTIR) of StNPs prepared with different starch concentrations (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%,w/v) were investigated. Compared with native starch, the topography of all StNPs exhibited irregularly-shaped fragments, the particle diameters decreased from several ?m to about 60-120 nm, and the crystal pattern changed from A-type to B+V-type. The StNPs prepared with 15% starch slurry had the highest degree of crystallinity at 55.41%. The eco-friendly prepared nanoparticles could be widely used in biomedical applications and development of new materials.
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Effect of dry heat treatment on the physicochemical properties and structure of proso millet flour and starch.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) flour and starch were heated in a dry state at 130°C for 2 or 4 h. The effects of dry heat treatment (DHT) on the pasting, morphological and structural properties of the samples were evaluated. Dry heat treatment had a more significant effect on the pasting viscosity of flour than starch; it increased the pasting viscosity of the flour while it only increased the final viscosity of the starch. After dry heating, the onset of gelatinization and the peak temperatures of the samples increased significantly while the endothermic enthalpy decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the gel structure of the samples became more compact and the particles were plumper when compared with the native ones. Crystallinity of the samples decreased while the X-ray diffraction patterns remained the same after DHT.
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Free multilobed posterior interosseous artery perforator flap for multi-finger skin defect reconstruction.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The posterior interosseous artery (PIA) perforator flap can be used for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects of fingers. Based on the multiple perforators from the posterior interosseous artery, we describe a technique to reconstruct the multi-finger defect in the use of the free multilobed PIA perforator flap.
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A deformation mechanism of hard metal surrounded by soft metal during roll forming.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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It is interesting to imagine what would happen when a mixture of soft-boiled eggs and stones is deformed together. A foil made of pure Ti is stronger than that made of Cu. When a composite Cu/Ti foil deforms, the harder Ti will penetrate into the softer Cu in the convex shapes according to previously reported results. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of multilayer Cu/Ti foils by the roll bonding technique and report our observations. The experimental results lead us to propose a new deformation mechanism for a hard metal surrounded by a soft metal during rolling of a laminated foil, particularly when the thickness of hard metal foil (Ti, 25??m) is much less than that of the soft metal foil (Cu, 300??m). Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) imaging results show that the hard metal penetrates into the soft metal in the form of concave protrusions. Finite element simulations of the rolling process of a Cu/Ti/Cu composite foil are described. Finally, we focus on an analysis of the deformation mechanism of Ti foils and its effects on grain refinement, and propose a grain refinement mechanism from the inside to the outside of the laminates during rolling.
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Biparental resequencing coupled with SNP genotyping of a segregating population offers insights into the landscape of recombination and fixed genomic regions in elite soybean.
G3 (Bethesda)
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Identification of genes underlying agronomic traits is dependent on the segregation of quantitative trait loci (QTL). A popular hypothesis is that elite lines are becoming increasingly similar to each other, resulting in large genomic regions with fixed genes. Here, we resequenced two parental modern elite soybean lines [ZhongHuang13 (ZH) and ZhongPin03-5373 (ZP)] and discovered 794,876 SNPs with reference to the published Williams82 genome. SNPs were distributed unevenly across the chromosomes, with 87.1% of SNPs clustering in 4.9% of the soybean reference genome. Most of the regions with a high density of SNP polymorphisms were located in the chromosome arms. Moreover, seven large regions that were highly similar between parental lines were identified. A GoldenGate SNP genotyping array was designed using 384 SNPs and the 254 recombinant inbred lines (F8) derived from the cross of ZP × ZH were genotyped. We constructed a genetic linkage map using a total of 485 molecular markers, including 313 SNPs from the array, 167 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 4 expressed sequence tag-derived SSRs, and 1 insertion/deletion marker. The total length of the genetic map was 2594.34 cM, with an average marker spacing of 5.58 cM. Comparing physical and genetic distances, we found 20 hotspot and 14 coldspot regions of recombination. Our results suggest that the technology of resequencing of parental lines coupled with high-throughput SNP genotyping could efficiently bridge the genotyping gap and provide deep insights into the landscape of recombination and fixed genomic regions in biparental segregating populations of soybean with implications for fine mapping of QTL.
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High-intensity focused ultrasound treatment of late-stage pancreatic body carcinoma: optimal tumor depth for safe ablation.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Objective criteria are currently not available for assessing the extent of ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A retrospective review was conducted in Chinese patients with late-stage pancreatic body carcinoma treated with 1 h/d intermittent HIFU at a single center. Clinical and procedure-related characteristics were examined in relation to tumor posterior depth. Clinically, tumor ablation was negatively correlated with posterior tumor depth, with a 1-cm increase in depth decreasing ablation by 30.7%. At a computed tomography (CT)-determined 7-cm posterior tumor depth (considered the critical value for the procedure), ablation sensitivity and specificity were 77.8% and 72.7%, respectively. Tumor ablation >30% in patients with a CT-determined posterior tumor depth ?7 cm was 9.333 times better than that in patients with a CT-determined posterior tumor depth >7 cm. Adverse effects did not affect the efficacy of HIFU. Tumors with posterior depths <7 cm may effectively be treated with HIFU-induced ablation with minimal adverse events.
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Preparation and characterization of starch nanoparticles through ultrasonic-assisted oxidation methods.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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In this work, starch nanoparticles (SNPs) were prepared from waxy corn starch (WCS) through ultrasonic-assisted oxidation. Three SNPs samples were produced by one time oxidation followed by ultrasonic treatment (O1U1-SNPs), twice oxidation and twice ultrasonic treatment (O2U2-SNPs) and TEMPO-mediated oxidation with ultrasonic treatment (TEMPO-SNPs), respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the thermal properties, morphology, and structure of the ensuing nanoparticles. The results revealed that the size of the O1U1-SNPs, O2U2-SNPs, and TEMPO-SNPs particles reached 30-50 nm, 20-50 nm and 20-60 nm, respectively. Compared to WCS, the crystallinity of the O1U1-SNPs, O2U2-SNPs and TEMPO-SNPs samples decreased from 36.32% to 11.35%, 1.64% and 1.72%, respectively. The O1U1-SNPs, O2U2-SNPs and TEMPO-SNPs exhibited smaller or no endotherms. The SNPs had higher carboxyl and carbonyl content.
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Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with dermatomyositis without clinically evident cardiovascular disease.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To assess left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with dermatomyositis (DM) without clinically evident cardiovascular (CV) disease and to estimate whether there is an association between the duration of DM and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD).
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A systematic study of peripherally multiple aromatic ester-functionalized poly(benzyl ether) dendrons for the fabrication of organogels: structure-property relationships and thixotropic property.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A new class of peripherally multiple aromatic ester-functionalized poly(benzyl ether) dendrons and/or dendrimers with different focal point substituents, surface groups, interior structures, as well as different generations have been synthesized and their structure-property relationships with respect to their gelation ability have been investigated systematically. Most of these dendrons are able to gel organic solvents over a wide polarity range. Evident dendritic effects were observed not only in gelation capability but also in thermotropic, morphological, and rheological characterizations. It was disclosed that subtle changes in peripheral ester functionalities and interior dendritic structures affected the gelation behavior of the dendrons significantly. Among all the dendrons studied, the second- and third-generation dendrons G0G2-Me and G0G3-Me with dimethyl isophthalates (DMIP) as peripheral groups exhibited the best capability in gelation, and stable gels were formed in more than 22 aromatic and polar organic solvents. The lowest critical gelation concentration (CGC) reached 2.0?mg?mL(-1), indicating that approximately 1.35×10(4) solvent molecules could be entrapped by one dendritic molecule. Further study on driving forces in gel formation was carried out by using a combination of single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and concentration-dependent (CD)/temperature-dependent (TD) (1)H?NMR spectroscopy. The results obtained from these experiments revealed that the multiple ?-? stacking of extended ?-systems due to the peripheral DMIP rings, cooperatively assisted by non-conventional hydrogen-bonding, is the key contributor in the formation of the highly ordered supramolecular and fibrillar network. In addition, these dendritic organogels exhibited unexpected thixotropic-responsive properties, which make them promising candidates with potential applications in the field of intelligent soft materials.
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Correlated spin currents generated by resonant-crossed Andreev reflections in topological superconductors.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Topological superconductors, which support Majorana fermion excitations, have been the subject of intense studies due to their novel transport properties and their potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computations. Here we propose a new type of topological superconductors that can be used as a novel source of correlated spin currents. We show that inducing superconductivity on a AIII class topological insulator wire, which respects a chiral symmetry and supports protected fermionic end states, will result in a topological superconductor. This topological superconductor supports two topological phases with one or two Majorana fermion end states, respectively. In the phase with two Majorana fermions, the superconductor can split Cooper pairs efficiently into electrons in two spatially separated leads due to Majorana-induced resonant-crossed Andreev reflections. The resulting currents in the leads are correlated and spin-polarized. Importantly, the proposed topological superconductors can be realized using quantum anomalous Hall insulators in proximity to superconductors.
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MicroRNA-378 functions as an onco-miR in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by repressing TOB2 expression.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Increasing evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) has been implicated in the progression and metastasis of numerous cancers. In particular, abnormal expression of miR-378 has been observed in various cancers and is associated with cell survival, migration, invasion, angio-genesis and tumor growth. Our previous studies have shown that miR-378 was decreased in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) plasma and was negatively correlated with NPC progression. However, the tissue expression of miR-378 and its biological function remained unknown in NPC. In this study, we report for the first time that expression level of miR-378 was commonly upregulated in both NPC tissues and NPC cell lines compared to normal healthy nasopharyngeal epithelial samples and human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell lines (NP69), respectively, and was opposite to the reported results in plasma. Functional studies showed that upregulation of miR-378 dramatically promoted cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion in vitro, as well as tumor growth in vivo. Bioinformatics analyses were performed to predict the target genes of miR-378, and the following mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-378 overexpression was able to downregulate the expression of transducer of ERBB2 (TOB2), a potential tumor suppressor, and miR-378 silencing enhanced TOB2 expression. In clinical specimens, TOB2 was widely repressed in tumor tissues accompanied by miR-378 overexpression. Taken together, this study indicates that miR-378 regulates TOB2 and may function as an onco-miR in NPC progression, providing a potential target for gene therapy of NPC.
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BHBA suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells by inhibiting NF-?B activation.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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?-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has neuroprotective effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing several proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines. The current study investigates the potential mechanisms whereby BHBA affects the expression of potentially proinflammatory proteins by cultured murine microglial BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that BHBA significantly reduced LPS-induced protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Blocking of GPR109A by PTX resulted in a loss of this anti-inflammatory effect in BV-2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that BHBA reduced LPS-induced degradation of I?B-? and translocation of NF-?B, while no effect was observed on MAPKs phosphorylation. All results imply that BHBA significantly reduces levels of proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibition of the NF-?B signaling pathway but not MAPKs pathways, and GPR109A is essential to this function. Overall, these data suggest that BHBA has a potential as neuroprotective drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.
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Biomechanical comparison of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed by distal locking screws with different length.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To evaluate the postoperative stability of osteoporotic distal radius fractures fixed with distal locking screws with different length.
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The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.
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Effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of melanoma cells.
Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action.
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[Pathologic changes of the palatopharyngeal muscles in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To investigate the pathology of palatopharyngeal muscle obtained from patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).
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[Screening and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially expressed proteins of plasm between laryngocarcinoma and healthy individuals].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To compare and analyze the expression difference of proteins between laryngocarcinoma and healthy individuals to search for protein biomarkers that may be detected in plasm of laryngocarcinoma patients.
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miR-9 targets CXCR4 and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation and pathway alterations have been implicated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a highly invasive and metastatic cancer widely prevalent in southern China. In this study, we report that miR-9 is commonly downregulated in NPC specimens and NPC cell lines with important functional consequences. The reduced expression of miR-9 was inversely correlated with clinical stages and marked the progression from locoregional to metastatic tumors. The CpG island hypermethylation contributed to miR-9 silencing in NPC cell lines and tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-9 dramatically inhibited the proliferative, migratory and invasive capacities of NPC cells in vitro and in vivo. We found that miR-9 strongly reduced the expression of CXCR4 in NPC cells. Luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-9 could directly bind to the 3()-untranslated region of CXCR4. Similar to the restoring miR-9 expression, CXCR4 downregulation inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion, whereas CXCR4 overexpression rescued the suppressive effect of miR-9. Mechanistic investigations revealed that CXCR4 functionally mediated the SDF-1-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK pathway in NPC cells with miR-9 downregulation or CXCR4 overexpression. In clinical specimens, CXCR4 and phospho-p38 were widely overexpressed, and the levels increased with the progression from locoregional to metastatic tumors in NPC tissues. The levels of CXCR4 were inversely correlated with miR-9 or phospho-p38 expression. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-9 functions as a tumor suppressive miRNA in NPC, and that its suppressive effects are mediated chiefly by repressing CXCR4 expression.
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[Relationship between schistosome serum test positive rate of residents and positive rate of Oncomelania snails in a national schistosomiasis surveillance site of Jiangling County].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To explore the relationship between schistosome serum test positive rate of residents and positive rate of Oncomelania snails in a national schistosomiasis surveillance site of Jiangling County.
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[Surveillance of endemic situation of schistosomiasis in a national surveillance site in Jiangling County from 2005 to 2011].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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To understand the dynamics of schistosomiasis japonica in a national surveillance site in Jiangling County, Hubei Province, China, so as to provide the evidence for formulating the intervention strategy of schistosomiasis control in the whole county.
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[Screening of plasma tumor biomarkers for hypopharyngeal carcinoma by proteomics method].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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To screen tumor biomarkers in the plasma close related with hypopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma microRNA deregulation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is uncommon worldwide but often highly invasive in late stages. Due to its special location and lack of specific symptoms, NPC is hardly detected in regular medical examination at the beginning. Development of sensitive and specific biomarker should help to save lives against this type of disease. In the present report, we investigated the value of plasma miRNAs for diagnosis and prognosis of NPC. Using candidate approach, we selected 21 miRNAs from literature to compare their expression levels in the plasma of NPC patients and controls. As a result, five miRNAs showed diagnostic potentials (P<0.01). Among them, miR-16, -21, -24, and -155 had increased levels in NPC patients, whereas the level of miR-378 was decreased. There was a negative correlation between plasma miRNA expression and cancer progression, where miR-21 was statistically significant in T and N staging and miR-16 and 24 were significant in N staging only. Combination of miR-16, -21, -24, -155, and -378 gives 87.7% of sensitivity and 82.0% of specificity for NPC diagnosis. Without miR-16, combination of the rest 4 miRNAs gives the same sensitivity but a slightly reduced specificity. After treatment, all 5 miRNAs were somewhat back to normal levels in patients without cancer recurrence but the prognostic value was not statistically significant. In conclusion, plasma miRNA expression is a useful biomarker for NPC diagnosis but not for its prognosis. More importantly, it is simple, effective, and non-invasive. Combination of several plasma miRNAs can increase both NPC diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.
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[Tubeless 24 F tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy in treatment of renal and proximal ureteral calculi].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of tubeless 24 F (1 F=0.33 mm)tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in the treatment of renal and proximal ureteral stones in Chinese patients.
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Virus-encoded miR-155 ortholog is an important potential regulator but not essential for the development of lymphomas induced by very virulent Mareks disease virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The microRNA (miRNA) mdv1-miR-M4, a functional miR-155 ortholog encoded by oncogenic Mareks disease virus (MDV), has previously been suggested to be involved in MDV pathogenesis. Using the technique of bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis, we have presently evaluated the potential role of mdv1-miR-M4 in the oncogenesis of the very virulent (vv) MDV strain GX0101. Unexpectedly, deletions of the Meq-cluster or mdv1-miR-M4 alone from the viral genome strongly decreased rather than abolished its oncogenicity. Compared to GX0101, mortalities of mutants GX?miR-M4 and GX?Meq-miRs were reduced from 100% to 18% and 4%, coupled with the gross tumor incidence reduction from 28% to 22% and 8%, respectively. Our data suggests that the mdv1-miR-M4 is possibly an important regulator in the development of Mareks disease (MD) lymphomas but is not essential for the oncogenicity of vvMDV. In addition, some of the other Meq-clustered miRNAs may also play potentially critical roles in vvMDV induction of lymphomas.
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Short-chain fatty acids inhibit growth hormone and prolactin gene transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake.
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[Molluscicidal effect of 10% LDS in fields].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To evaluate the molluscicidal effects of 10% salt of quinoid-2, 5-dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide (LDS) on Oncomelania hupensis in the fields, so as to provide the evidence for the application of LDS in the fields.
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Functional and pasting properties of pea starch and peanut protein isolate blends.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The functional and pasting properties of pea starch (PS) and peanut protein isolate (PPI) blends mixed at different proportions were studied. With the increasing ratio of PPI in PS/PPI blends, the solubility of the blends determined at 90°C was increased from 16.38 to 31.28% whereas both of the water absorption capacity and the swelling power decreased. The pasting temperature of the blends increased from 72.5 to 77.5°C while the peak viscosity decreased from 276.33 to 39.92RVU upon the increasing level of PPI. The hardness of the PS/PPI blends gel decreased from 9.67N to 0.96N when the PPI content was increased from 0 to 50% in the blend. Scanning electron microscopy exhibited a honeycomb feature at the ratio of 90:10 and 80:20. The large fragmentary structure of the blending gels was formed at the ratio of 70:30 and became more loosed with the increased ratio of PPI in the blends.
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Kinetic characterization of the ATPase and actin-activated ATPase activities of Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-2.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Phosphorylation of Ser-639 in loop-2 of the catalytic motor domain of the heavy chain of Acanthamoeba castellanii myosin-2 and the phosphomimetic mutation S639D have been shown previously to down-regulate the actin-activated ATPase activity of both the full-length myosin and single-headed subfragment-1 (Liu, X., Lee, D. Y., Cai, S., Yu, S., Shu, S., Levine, R. L., and Korn, E. D. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, E23-E32). In the present study we determined the kinetic constants for each step in the myosin and actomyosin ATPase cycles of recombinant wild-type S1 and S1-S639D. The kinetic parameter predominantly affected by the S639D mutation is the actin-activated release of inorganic phosphate from the acto myosin·ADP·Pi complex, which is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state actomyosin ATPase cycle. As consequence of this change, the duty ratio of this conventional myosin decreases. We speculate on the effect of Ser-639 phosphorylation on the processive behavior of myosin-2 filaments.
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A New Class of Dendritic Metallogels with Multiple Stimuli-Responsiveness and as Templates for the In Situ Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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A new class of poly(aryl ether) dendritic ligands containing a pyridine functionality at the focal point and the corresponding Ag(I) complexes through metal-ligand coordination were designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. Compared with the dendritic ligands, the corresponding dendritic complexes exhibited much better gelation ability for various organic solvents at very low critical gelation concentrations. The gel-sol phase transition temperatures and morphologies could be finely tuned by binding silver ion to the ligand. A preliminary study revealed that multiple noncovalent interactions, such as Ag(I) -pyridine coordination, solvophobic interaction, and ?-? stacking, synergistically enable the formation of stable metallogels. Interestingly, these metallogels could intelligently respond to multiple external stimuli including temperature, chemicals, and shear stress, leading to gel-sol phase transitions. In addition, these dendritic metallogels were successfully applied as templates for the in situ formation and stabilization of silver nanoparticles without the use of any chemical reducing/stabilizing agents.
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Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes.
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Molecular footprints of domestication and improvement in soybean revealed by whole genome re-sequencing.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Artificial selection played an important role in the origin of modern Glycine max cultivars from the wild soybean Glycine soja. To elucidate the consequences of artificial selection accompanying the domestication and modern improvement of soybean, 25 new and 30 published whole-genome re-sequencing accessions, which represent wild, domesticated landrace, and Chinese elite soybean populations were analyzed.
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Detecting topological phases in cold atoms.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Chern insulators are band insulators which exhibit a gap in the bulk and gapless excitations in the edge. Detection of Chern insulators is a serious challenge in cold atoms since the Hall transport measurements are technically unrealistic for neutral atoms. By establishing a natural correspondence between the time-reversal invariant topological insulator and the quantum anomalous Hall system, we show for a class of Chern insulators that the topology can be determined by only measuring Bloch eigenstates at highly symmetric points of the Brillouin zone. Furthermore, we introduce two experimental schemes, including the spin-resolved Bloch oscillation, to carry out the measurement. These schemes are highly feasible under realistic experimental conditions. Our results may provide a powerful tool to detect topological phases in cold atoms.
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Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.
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Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammation.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the influence of OSA on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation, which were considered as cardiovascular risks. A total of 144 consecutive male patients who underwent standard polysomnography were enrolled. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all patients for glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and lipids measurement. A metabolic score was established as the total number of the positive diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome for each patient. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, hs-CRP and metabolic score significantly increased with the aggravation of OSA severity. Metabolic score increased from 1.74 ± 1.20 to 2.89 ± 0.99 with OSA severity (p = 0.000). hs-CRP increased from 0.68 (0.43-1.10) to 1.44 (0.62-4.02) mg/L with OSA severity (p = 0.002). After adjustment for confounders, apnea-hypopnea index and body mass index (BMI) were the major contributing factors for metabolic score (? = 0.257, p = 0.003 and ? = 0.344, p = 0.000, respectively), lowest O2 saturation and BMI were the independent predictors of hs-CRP (? = -0.255, p = 0.003 and ? = 0.295, p = 0.001, respectively). OSA is independently associated with sum of metabolic components and hs-CRP.
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Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EB nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for maintenance and transmission of the viral episome in EBV-infected cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of EBNA1 protein in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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The changes induced by cyclophosphamide in intestinal barrier and microflora in mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Infection is one of the most commonly encountered complication during chemotherapy treatment, and recent studies showed that such infections are aroused primarily from the intestinal microflora through bacterial translocation. We aimed to investigate the alterations of mucosal barrier and colonization resistance in mouse treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) to further understand the translocation mechanism. Male Balb/c mice were administered intraperitoneally with CTX at 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg for 5 days. We found that pretreatment with CTX, especially at high dose, increased the potentially pathogenic bacteria counts (Escherichia coli, enterobacteraceae, Pseudomonas and enterococci) and the intestinal permeability, which was associated with the reduction of tight junctions and adherens junctions. Our results suggested that disruption of mucosal barrier and colonization resistance may be partly responsible for the bacterial translocation during chemotherapy. Thus, modulation of mechanical mucosal barrier and colonization resistance might represent a new opportunity for applications in cancer patients to reduce infectious complications.
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Effect of heat moisture treatment on physicochemical and morphological properties of wheat starch and xylitol mixture.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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The effect of heat moisture treatment (HMT, 100°C, 10h) on the physicochemical and morphological properties of wheat starch and xylitol mixture (SX) were studied by using Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction pattern (X-ray). The research found that the peak viscosity (PV), trough viscosity (TV), final viscosity (FV) and breakdown (BD) of SX decreased markedly after HMT, whereas pasting temperature increased. Compared with SX, To, Tp and Tc of SX treated with HMT (H-SX) increased and ?H decreased. The results of SEM showed that numerous xylitol granules appeared on the surface of starch granule in SX, and a layer of similar membrane adhered on the surface of starch granules in H-SX. After gelatinization and freeze-dried, the gel network structure of H-SX was tighter than that of SX. The amorphous region of H-SX was higher than that of SX.
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Hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed diets with or without cholesterol.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The potential mechanism of the hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched and cholesterol-free diets was determined. Capsaicinoids favorably modified the lipoprotein profile of rats. Capsaicinoids consumption down-regulated the mRNA levels of hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase by 0.55-fold and hepatic cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) by 0.53-fold in the cholesterol-free diet group (P < 0.05) but up-regulated the CYP7A1 level by 1.38-fold in the cholesterol-enriched diet group (P < 0.05). It also increased the expression levels of ileal bile acid binding protein and apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter in the ileum, as well as transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 in the liver and ileum in the different groups. Capsaicinoids reduced the amount of bile acids in feces by -15.97% and contents of the small intestine by -9.64% in the cholesterol-free diet group (P < 0.05) but increased both by 13.06% and 10.20%, respectively, in the cholesterol-enriched diet group. The cholesterol-lowering action of capsaicinoids in the cholesterol-free diet group was attributed to the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, whereas that in the cholesterol-enriched diet group was attributed to the stimulation of the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and the increasing excretions of bile acids in feces.
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Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of pea starch and peanut protein isolate blend films.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of edible films based on blends of Pea starch (PS) and Peanut protein isolate (PPI) plasticized with glycerol (30%, w/w) were investigated. As PPI ratio in PS/PPI blends increased, the thickness of films decreased, the opacity slightly elevated and color intensified. The addition of PPI to the PS film significantly reduced tensile strength from 5.44 MPa to 3.06 MPa, but increased elongation from 28.56% to 98.12% with the incorporation of PPI into PS at 50% level. Film solubility value fell from 22.31% to 9.78% upon the incorporation of PPI ranged from 0 to 50% level. When PPI was added into PS film at 40% level, the WVP and WVTR of the films markedly dropped from 11.18% to 4.19% and 6.16 to 1.95%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the surface of films showed that many swollen starch granules were presented in the 100% PS film, while 100% PPI film was observed to have rougher surfaces with presence of pores or cavities. The PS/PPI blend films upon the incorporation of PPI at 20% and 50% level were not homogeneous. However, the smoother film surface was observed in PS/PPI blend films with the addition of PPI at 40% level. SEM image of the cross-sections of the films revealed that the 100% PS film showed a uniform and compact matrix without disruption, and pore formation and 100% PPI film displayed a smooth structure. Rougher and flexible network was shown in blend film with the addition of PPI reaching 40% level.
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Establishment and characterization of dairy cow growth hormone secreting anterior pituitary cell model.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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A dairy cow anterior pituitary cell (DCAPC) model was established in vitro for the study of growth hormone (GH) synthesis and secretion in the anterior pituitary gland of the dairy cow. Pituitary glands were obtained from Holstein dairy cows heads cut by electric saw, and the posterior pituitary glands were removed to obtain integrated anterior pituitary glands. Immunohistochemistry assay of GH in the anterior pituitary glands showed that most somatotrophs were located within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary. Tissues of the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary were dispersed and cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. The DCAPCs displayed a monolayer, cobblestone, epithelial-like morphology which are the typical characteristics of the anterior pituitary cells. The DCAPCs were subcultured continuously over ten passages. GH immunoreactivity was present in DCAPCs at passage 10. The transcription of the bovine GH mRNA in DCAPCs at passage 10 was decreased to below 50% compared with the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary tissues. Thus, our DCAPCs model is effective for the in vitro examination of GH synthesis and secretion in the dairy cow anterior pituitary gland. The effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?1) and interferon-? (IFN-?) on the expression of GH mRNA in DCAPCs at passage 3 were also investigated. There were no obvious changes in transcription of the GH gene after treatment with TGF-?1 for 24 h, while IFN-? increased transcription of the GH gene in a dose-dependent manner.
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The effect of heat moisture treatment on physicochemical properties of early indica rice.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Early indica rice was heat-moisture treated at different temperature (90°C, 100°C and 110°C) for 3h, 5h and 7h at a moisture content of 28%, respectively. The effects of heat-moisture treatment (HMT) on the amylose content, pasting properties, texture properties, solubility and swelling power of early indica rice were studied. After HMT at 110°C for 7h, the amylose content of early indica rice increased from 25.2% to 30.6%, and its pasting temperature increased from 80.1°C to 92.2°C; the peak viscosity, trough viscosity and final viscosity were all decreased significantly. Both the solubility and the swelling power of early indica rice starches decreased after 110°C 7h heat-moisture treatment. The gel hardness of early indica rice increased significantly, but the adhesiveness decreased after HMT.
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Molecular characteristics and evolutionary analysis of field Mareks disease virus prevalent in vaccinated chicken flocks in recent years in China.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Mareks disease is a highly contagious, oncogenic, and immunosuppressive avian viral disease. Surveillance of newly registered Mareks disease virus (MDV) isolates is meaningful for revealing the potential factors involved in increased virulence. Presently, we have focused on the molecular characteristics of all available MDVs from China, including 17 new Henan isolates. Based on Meq, gE, and gI genes, we found that most Chinese isolates contain conserved amino acid point mutations in Meq, such as E(77), A(115), A(139), R(176), and A(217), compared to USA virulent MDVs. However, the 59-aa or 60-aa insertions are only found in a few mild MDVs rather than virulent MDVs in China. Further phylogenetic analysis has demonstrated that a different genotype of MDV has been prevalent in China, and for virulent MDVs, their recent evolution has possibly been geographically restricted. Our study has provided more detailed information regarding the field MDVs circulating in China.
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[Sperm DNA integrity of infertile males with hepatitis B virus infection].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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To investigate sperm DNA integrity in male infertility patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
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The hypocholesterolemic effect of capsaicinoids in ovariectomized rats fed with a cholesterol-free diet was mediated by inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Previous studies showed that capsaicinoid supplementation favorably modifies the plasma lipoprotein profile. The present study investigated the effect of capsaicinoids on plasma lipids and gene expressions of key receptors and enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX rats were fed with a cholesterol-free diet and orally administered 0 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-CON), 5 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-LD), 10 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-MD), and 15 mg kg(-1) bw (OVX-HD) capsaicinoids daily for 28 days. As the capsaicinoids dose increased, body weight gain and concentrations of plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as total lipid accumulation were significantly decreased. In addition, the mRNA levels of hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase were down-regulated, whereas those of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1, ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, and intestinal bile acid binding protein were up-regulated. The excretion of small intestinal bile acid contents and fecal bile acid also decreased. These results suggest that capsaicinoids can prevent ovarian hormone deficiency-induced hypercholesterolemia by inhibiting the hepatic cholesterol synthesis.
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Highly efficient and stereocontrolled construction of 3,3-pyrrolidonyl spirooxindoles via organocatalytic domino Michael/cyclization reaction.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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A wide range of structurally diverse 3,3-thiopyrrolidonyl spirooxindoles bearing three contiguous stereogenic centers can be smoothly obtained via a domino Michael/cyclization reaction between 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles and 3-methyl-4-nitro-5-alkenyl-isoxazoles with commercially available quinine as the catalyst under mild conditions. The protocol is significantly characterized by high reactivity, a low catalyst loading (1 mol %), and an excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (up to >99:1 dr and 98% ee).
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The association between the disruption of motor imagery and the number of depressive episodes of major depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Mental rotation performance may be used as an index of mental slowing or bradyphrenia, and may reflect, in particular, speed of motor preparation. Previous studies suggest depressive patients present the correlates of impaired behavioural performance for mental rotation and psychomotor disturbance. The aim of this study is to compare the mental rotation abilities of patients with a first episode of depression, recurrent depression and healthy control subjects with regard to hand tasks.
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MicroRNA 375 mediates the signaling pathway of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulating pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase 8.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a common precursor of melanocortin-related peptides in the pituitary and primarily regulated by corticotropin- releasing factor (CRF). Our results show that miR-375 is highly expressed in the mouse pituitary gland and located specifically in the intermediate lobe of pituitary. The functional studies show that the forced inhibition of endogenous miR-375 in AtT-20 mouse pituitary tumor cells and in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland significantly increases POMC expression, whereas miR-375 overexpression down-regulates POMC expression and ACTH secretion stimulated by CRF. This function of miR-375 is accomplished by its binding to the 3-UTR of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-8. Our results here have demonstrated that miR-375 acts as a negative regulating molecule mediating the signaling pathway of CRF and affecting POMC expression by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase-8, which subsequently down-regulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B) transcription activity. Taken together, our results show that miR-375 is a novel negative regulator of POMC expression and related hormone secretion.
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