Curcumin, a pigment isolated from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, is a potent cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent and is now evaluated in phase III human clinical trials. This report describes an efficient synthesis of [(18) O2 ]-curcumin. [(18) O2 ]-Curcumin was prepared in three steps from 1-iodo-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene in an overall yield of 53%.
Recently, high-order statistics have received more and more interest in the field of hyperspectral anomaly detection. However, most of the existing high-order statistics based anomaly detection methods require stepwise iterations since they are the direct applications of blind source separation. Moreover, these methods usually produce multiple detection maps rather than a single anomaly distribution image. In this study, we exploit the concept of coskewness tensor and propose a new anomaly detection method, which is called COSD (coskewness detector). COSD does not need iteration and can produce single detection map. The experiments based on both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets verify the effectiveness of our algorithm.
Gossypol, a yellowish polyphenolic compound originally from cotton plant, has been known to exert a potential for anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other important therapeutic activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the protection of gossypol on inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and LPS induced in vivo lung injury model. The effects of gossypol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. The results showed that gossypol significantly inhibited the production of LPS-induced TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1? both in vitro and vivo. Furthermore, gossypol blocked the phosphorylation of I?B? protein, p65, p38, c-Junterminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. From the in vivo study, it was observed that gossypol attenuated lung histopathologic changes in mouse models. The present data suggest that gossypol suppresses the inflammation in vitro and vivo, and may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
?3-Adrenoceptors (?3-ARs) mediate a negative inotropic effect in human ventricular cardiomyocytes, which is opposite to that of ?1- and ?2-ARs. It has been previously demonstrated that autoantibodies against the ?1/?2-AR exist in the sera of some patients with heart failure (HF) and these autoantibodies display agonist-like effects. Our aim in this study was to observe whether autoantibodies against the ?3-AR (?3-AR Abs) exist in the sera of patients with HF and to assess the effects of ?3-AR Abs on rat model of pressure overload cardiomyopthy. In the present study, the level of ?3-AR Abs in the sera of HF patients was screened by ELISA. ?3-AR Abs from HF patients were administrated to male adult rats with abdominal aortic banding (AAB), and the cardiac function was measured by echocardiographic examination and hemodynamic studies. The biological effects of this autoantibody on cardiomyocytes were evaluated using a motion-edge detection system, intracellular calcium transient assay, and patch clamp techniques. Compared to healthy subjects, the frequency of occurrence and titer of ?3-AR Abs in the sera of HF patients were greatly increased, and ?3-AR Abs could prevent LV dilation and improve the cardiac function of rats with AAB. ?3-AR Abs exhibited negative chronotropic and inotropic effects and were accompanied by a decreased intracellular Ca(2+) transient and membrane L-type Ca(2+) current in cardiomyocytes. Our results demonstrated the existence of ?3-AR Abs in the sera of patients with HF and found that this autoantibody could alleviate the cardiac dysfunction induced by pressure-overload in AAB rats.
Hyperlipidemia is regarded as an independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ischemic postconditioning (Postcon) has been demonstrated to attenuate the myocardial injury induced by I/R in normal conditions. But the effect of ischemic Postcon on hyperlipidemic animals is unknown. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) has been demonstrated to play a central role in the cardioprotection by preconditioning, which is one of the protective strategies except for Postcon. The aim of this study was to determine whether Postcon could reduce myocardial injury in hyperlipidemic animals and to assess whether HIF-1 was involved in Postcon mechanisms. Male Wistar rats underwent the left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 30 min followed by 180 min of reperfusion with or without Postcon after fed with high fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. The detrimental indices induced by the I/R insult included infarct size, plasma creatine kinase activity and caspase-3 activity. Results showed that hyperlipidemia remarkably enhanced the myocardial injury induced by I/R, while Postcon significantly decreased the myocardial injury in both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic rats. Moreover, both hyperlipidemia and I/R promoted the HIF-1alpha expression. Most importantly, we have for the first time demonstrated that Postcon further induced a significant increase in HIF-1alpha protein level not only in normolipidemic but also in hyperlipidemic conditions. Thus, Postcon reduces the myocardial injury induced by I/R in normal and hyperlipidemic animals, and HIF-1alpha upregulation may involve in the Postcon-mediated cardioprotective mechanisms.
Inflammation, characterized by redness, swelling, pain and a sensation of heat, is one of the bodys self-defense systems. Although the inflammation response has an important role in host survival, it also leads to chronic inflammatory diseases. Linalool is a natural compound of the essential oils in several aromatic plants species. It possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and other bioactive properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and an LPS-induced in vivo lung injury model.
Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (P-MSCs) have drawn increasing attention in the field of stem cell research due to their potential in clinical applications as well as their rich and easy to procure cell source. While studies demonstrating the potential of P-MSCs for therapeutic transplantations have been documented, a clinically compliant procedure for P-MSC expansion in vitro has yet to be established. To this end, previous studies have demonstrated that MSCs of bone marrow and cord blood origins cultured in human cord blood serum (hCBS) are comparable to those cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS), indicating that hCBS may be an alternative to FBS for the development of in vitro cell expansion procedures free of animal components. However, stem cells from origins other than bone marrow or cord blood, particularly from human placental tissues, which have demonstrated a good potential for clinical applications, have not been characterized under similar conditions. In this study, in an attempt to define a clinically compliant protocol for P-MSC expansion in vitro, we examined the effects of human hCBS as a replacement for FBS on cell proliferation capacity, differentiation potential, MSC-specific phenotypic expression and the genetic stability of P-MSCs in cultures. P-MSCs expanded in vitro in autologous hCBS maintained the capacity of self?renewal and expressed surface antigens characteristic of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Under differentiation conditions, the P-MSCs expanded in hCBS developed into adipogenic, osteogenic and neurogenic cell phenotypes. Chromosomal karyotyping and single cell gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that P-MSCs cultured in autologous hCBS were genetically stable. These results suggest that autologous hCBS may be used as an alternative to FBS for the in vitro expansion of P-MSCs for clinical applications.
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