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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protective Effects of Kojic Acid on the Periphery Blood and Survival of Beagle Dogs after Exposure to a Lethal Dose of Gamma Radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.
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Stereocontrolled O-Glycosylation with Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The Pd-?-allyl intermediate in an electron-rich glycal system with poor reactivity is employed as an efficient glycosyl donor. Starting from glucal derived carbonate, various O-glycosides were formed via a palladium-catalyzed reaction through a tandem decarboxylation, proton abstraction, and nucleophilic addition, in good yields with excellent selectivity. Iterative glycosylation with the same strategy may provide an access to complex oligosaccharides.
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[Changes in mitochondria fusion protein-2 hepatic expression in conditions of liver cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To determine the differential protein and mRNA expressions of mitochondria fusion protein-2 (Mfn2) in hepatic tissues in conditions of cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure using rat model systems,and to determine the correlative effects on production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
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Silver-promoted oxidative cyclization of 1,6-enynes: highly regioselective synthesis of phosphorated fluorene derivatives.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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A silver-promoted oxidative cyclization of 1,6-enynes with disubstituted phosphine oxides is developed for the synthesis of fluorene derivatives. The reaction proceeds with high regioselectivity by constructing one C-P bond and two C-C bonds in one step. Moreover, reduction of the pentavalent phosphine enlarges the application scope of the product.
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[Study on differentially expressed proteins of effect of kudiezi injection on cerebral cortexin rats with cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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This study is to investigate the modulation of Kudiezi (KDZ) injection on differential protein expression in cerebral cortex of rats with cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome established by intraperitoneal injection of carrageenan and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) methods. According to random number table rats were divided into three groups: drug group, model group and sham group. The tripheye tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and HE staining were used to observe brain tissue injury of rats. After therapeutic intervention with above drug for seventy-two hours, the level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The results show that there are differential protein expressions between cerebral ischemic stroke and heat toxin syndrome rats and sham rats. Furthermore, as a Chinese medicine injection with effect of clearing heat, resolving toxin and dredging collaterals, KDZ injection can decrease alleviate morphological changes of cerebral ischemia, regulate the levels of some differential proteins expression.
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High performance field-effect transistor based on multilayer tungsten disulfide.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal chalcogenide crystals have been regarded as the promising candidate for the future generation of transistor in modern electronics. However, how to fabricate those crystals into practical devices with acceptable performance still remains as a challenge. Employing tungsten disulfide multilayer thin crystals, we demonstrate that using gold as the only contact metal and choosing appropriate thickness of the crystal, high performance transistor with on/off ratio of 10(8) and mobility up to 234 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature can be realized in a simple device structure. Furthermore, low temperature study revealed that the high performance of our device is caused by the minimized Schottky barrier at the contact and the existence of a shallow impurity level around 80 meV right below the conduction band edge. From the analysis on temperature dependence of field-effect mobility, we conclude that strongly suppressed phonon scattering and relatively low charge impurity density are the key factors leading to the high mobility of our tungsten disulfide devices.
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Silver-catalyzed carbon-phosphorus functionalization of N-(p-methoxyaryl)propiolamides coupled with dearomatization: access to phosphorylated aza-decenones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Silver-catalyzed cascade difunctionalization of N-(p-methoxyaryl)propiolamides coupled with dearomatization was achieved and used to regiospecifically construct a variety of phosphorylated aza-decenones bearing adjacent quaternary stereocenters under mild conditions in moderate to excellent yields.
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A highly efficient dual catalysis approach for C-glycosylation: addition of (o-azaaryl)carboxaldehyde to glycals.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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A novel and efficient dual catalysis approach by concurrent activation of glycals and (o-azaaryl)-carboxaldehydes using palladium and N-heterocyclic carbene has been developed. The two electrophiles could react after activation through formation of the Breslow intermediate and a ?-allyl Pd complex, widening the scope of reacting glycosylation partners and opening up possibilities for future glycosylation.
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The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an endometrial cancer inbred Donryu rat model.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Abstract The Donryu rat strain is a commonly used model for endometrial cancer disease study. We sequenced this rat strain mitochondrial genome for the first time (GenBank Accession No. KM114605). Its mitogenome was 16,307?bp and coding 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes. A total of 96 SNPs were examined when compared to reference BN sequence.
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Reversing the Stereoselectivity of a Palladium-Catalyzed O-Glycosylation through an Inner-Sphere or Outer-Sphere Pathway.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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An efficient and concise method for the construction of various O-glycosidic bonds by a palladium-catalyzed reaction with a 3-O-picoloyl glucal has been developed. The stereochemistry of the anomeric center derives from either an inner-sphere or outer-sphere pathway. Harder nucleophiles, such as aliphatic alcohols and sodium phenoxides give ?-products, and ? products result from using softer nucleophiles, such as phenol.
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Protective effects of adiponectin on uncoupling of glomerular VEGF-NO axis in early streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To determine whether adiponectin could reduce microalbuminuria and provide renal protective effects by improving endothelial dysfunction and uncoupling of the glomerular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-nitric oxide (NO) axis in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.
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Interrupted imino-Nazarov cyclization of 1-aminopentadienyl cation and related cascade process.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Facile 4??conrotatory imino-Nazarov cyclization of a 1-aminopentadienyl cation generated from condensation an aldehyde and secondary aniline in the presence of a catalytic amount of a Lewis acid has been developed. Silver(I)-catalyzed intramolecular arene trapping of the resulting cyclic oxyallyl cation leads to formation of tricyclic indoline-fused cyclopentanone. The use of lanthanide salts allows transformation after the initial trapping to afford tetrahydroquinoline-fused cyclopentenone in a concise manner.
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Lewis acid mediated tandem reaction of propargylic alcohols to tetrazoles involving C-O- and C-C-bond cleavage reactions and a C-N-bond formation.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A novel and direct synthesis of 1-aryl-5-arylvinyl-tetrazoles from easily prepared propargylic alcohols and TMSN3 is developed in the presence of TMSCl under mild conditions (TMS = trimethylsilyl). The process involves an allenylazide intermediate, followed by a C-C-bond cleavage and C-N-bond formation to afford the desired products. Moreover, this method offers a good functional-group applicability and can be scaled-up to grams (yield up to 85?%).
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[Measurement of soil organic matter and available K based on SPA-LS-SVM].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Visible and short wave infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) was investigated in the present study for measurement of soil organic matter (OM) and available potassium (K). Four types of pretreatments including smoothing, SNV, MSC and SG smoothing+first derivative were adopted to eliminate the system noises and external disturbances. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models were implemented for calibration models. The LS-SVM model was built by using characteristic wavelength based on successive projections algorithm (SPA). Simultaneously, the performance of LSSVM models was compared with PLSR models. The results indicated that LS-SVM models using characteristic wavelength as inputs based on SPA outperformed PLSR models. The optimal SPA-LS-SVM models were achieved, and the correlation coefficient (r), and RMSEP were 0. 860 2 and 2. 98 for OM and 0. 730 5 and 15. 78 for K, respectively. The results indicated that visible and short wave near infrared spectroscopy (Vis/SW-NIRS) (325 approximately 1 075 nm) combined with LS-SVM based on SPA could be utilized as a precision method for the determination of soil properties.
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Detection of the phosphatase activity of carbonic anhydrase III on a nitrocellulose membrane following 2D gel electrophoresis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Carbonic anhydrase isozyme III (CAIII) is unique among the carbonic anhydrases because it exhibits phosphatase activity. CAIII is relatively specific to skeletal muscles, and may therefore be a useful diagnostic marker for muscular diseases. In the muscles of patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), CAIII is deficient and previous studies have demonstrated that changes in the phosphatase activity of CAIII is a fundamental mechanism underlying the weakness and fatigability of MG. However, there have been no effective analytical methods for investigating its phosphatase activity until now. In the present study, a new method combining two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and phosphatase staining in situ on a nitrocellulose membrane was reported to detect the phosphatase of CAIII in skeletal muscle extracts. Furthermore, a recombinant CAIII was constructed and its phosphatase activity staining was demonstrated to be positive. This method allows for the effective detection of the phosphatase activity of CAIII following 2-DE and is a promising technique for functional proteomics.
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TMSCl-mediated synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated amides via C-C bond cleavage and C-N bond formation of propargyl alcohols with trimethylsilyl azide.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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A new method with high efficiency for the synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated amides from the easily prepared propargyl alcohols and TMSN3 using TMSCl as an acid promoter is developed. A wide variety of ?,?-unsaturated amides were produced in moderate to excellent yields. Mechanistic studies indicate that this transformation involves TMSCl-mediated allenylazide intermediate formation, C-C bond cleavage, and C-N bond formation. Significantly, this reaction shows good functional group compatibility and high regioselectivity, with a relatively short reaction time and inexpensive reagents.
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Cyclic Hexapeptides from the Deep South China Sea-Derived Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46 Active Against Pathogenic Gram-Positive Bacteria.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Three new cyclohexapeptides, desotamides B-D (2-4), and the known desotamide (1) were isolated from marine microbe Streptomyces scopuliridis SCSIO ZJ46. The sequences and absolute configurations of 2-4 were elucidated on the basis of high-resolution spectroscopic data, Marfey's method, and chiral-phase HPLC data. Desotamide C (3) contains a unique N-formyl-kynurenine residue, whereas 4 lacks formylation at the same site. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed notable antibacterial activities against strains of Streptococcus pnuemoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and structure activity relationship studies revealed the indispensability of the Trp component for antibacterial activity within this new scaffold.
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Copper-catalyzed three-component cyanotrifluoromethylation/azidotrifluoromethylation and carbocyclization of 1,6-enynes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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A novel three-component strategy for the cyanotrifluoromethylation/azidotrifluoromethylation and carbocyclization of 1,6-enynes is developed. The reaction proceeds smoothly under a moderate temperature by using a copper catalyst, which provides a rapid and concise access to addition-carbocyclization products. Furthermore, the products obtained can be useful building blocks in discoveries of lead compounds and other biologically active CF3-containing heterocycles.
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Camk2b protects neurons from homocysteine-induced apoptosis with the involvement of HIF-1? signal pathway.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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In our previous study using iTRAQ technique we found that the level of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2b (Camk2b) was lower in rats with hyperhomocysteinemia. We presumed that Camk2b might be involved in homocysteine-induced apoptosis and tried to explore its role in this study through the transfection with Camk2b gene. Results showed that neurons of HHcy group had lower activity measured by MTT, higher percentage of apoptotic neurons, lower expression levels of Camk2b mRNA and protein than those in normal group. Neurons with overexpression of Camk2b (Camk2b group) had lower percentage of apoptosis and higher activity than those in control group. After exposure to 2-Methoxyestradiol, the activity of neurons with overexpression of Camk2b was suppressed with more apoptotic cells observed. The expressions of BCL2, eNOS, EP300 and EPO were all elevated at both mRNA and protein levels in neurons of CamK2b group compared with other three groups. Thus, Camk2b protects neurons from Homocysteine-induced apoptosis with the involvement of HIF-1? signal pathway.
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Transformation of inorganic P fractions of soil and plant growth promotion by phosphate-solubilizing ability of Penicillium oxalicum I1.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate is often considered as the standard for screening of most phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs). However, usually the effect of large-scale application of PSM on the promotion of crop growth varies. This study presents an efficient method for screening and testing phosphate-solubilizing fungus that enhance plant growth. A fungus Penicillium oxalicum I1 (PI1) was isolated and identified that had high ability of phosphate-solubilization and could utilize maize root exudates as sources, and propagate well in vitro and in soil. P-I1 excreted oxalic acid and reached 593.9 ?g/ml, and the pH value was decreased from 6.90 to 1.65 in 26 h. The amount of P-I1 increased by 48-fold in 28 d and was maintained for 49 d in soil. PSM showed selectivity on the transformation of the different forms of phosphorus, a wide range of insoluble phosphates, such as Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, AlPO4, FePO4, and Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, were converted to soluble CaHPO4 in soil, and CaHPO4 was also inhibited from being converted into insoluble phosphate by P-I1. The Ca2-P content reached 27.11 ?g/g soil on day 28 at 20°C, which increased by 110.32%, and plant growth promotion was tested and verified, the results showed that maize yield increased remarkably than control after inoculated P-I1, maize yield increased maximum by 14.47%. The data presented that P-I1 appear attractive for exploring their plant growth-promoting activity and potential field application.
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MiR-143 acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting N-RAS and enhances temozolomide-induced apoptosis in glioma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Therapeutic applications of microRNAs (miRNAs) in RAS-driven glioma were valuable, but their specific roles and functions have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we firstly report that miR-143 directly targets the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (N-RAS) and functions as a tumor-suppressor in glioma. Overexpression of miR-143 decreased the expression of N-RAS, inhibited PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK signaling, and attenuated the accumulation of p65 in nucleus of glioma cells. In human clinical specimens, miR-143 was downregulated where an adverse with N-RAS expression was observed. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-143 decreased glioma cell migration, invasion, tube formation and slowed tumor growth and angiogenesis in a manner associated with N-RAS downregulation in vitro and in vivo. Finally, miR-143 also sensitizes glioma cells to temozolomide (TMZ),the first-line drug for glioma treatment. Taken together, for the first time, our results demonstrate that miR-143 plays a significant role in inactivating the RAS signaling pathway through the inhibition of N-RAS, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of glioma and other RAS-driven cancers.
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A proteomics study of hyperhomocysteinemia injury of the hippocampal neurons using iTRAQ.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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High levels of homocysteine, caused by abnormal methionine metabolism, can induce degeneration of mouse hippocampal neurons. iTRAQ™ technology has been widely used in the field of proteomics research and through employing this technology, the present study identified that hyperhomocysteinemia induced the downregulation of 52 proteins and upregulation of 44 proteins in the mouse hippocampus. Through gene ontology and pathway analysis, the upregulation of components of the cytoskeleton, actin, regulators of focal adhesion, calcium signaling pathways, tight junctions, ErbB and gonadotrophin?releasing hormone signaling, leukocyte, transendothelial migration, propanoate and pyruvate metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies and benzoate degradation via CoA ligation pathway, was identified. It was additionally verified that tau protein was highly expressed in the hyperhomocysteinemic neurons. Further analysis revealed that tau network proteins played functional roles in homocysteine?induced neuronal damage.
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The intriguing dual-directing effect of 2-cyanobenzyl ether for a highly stereospecific glycosylation reaction.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The diverse presence as well as their very specific bio-responses of glycoconjugates found in all living species requires scientists to synthesize the precise structure of these complex oligosaccharides for various studies on glycoscience. Very few approaches were able to offer the sole ?- or ?-glycosylated products, even at the cost of complicating the preparative route or usage of exotic chiral auxiliaries to drive the stereoselectivity. In this report, the unification of solvent assistance and neighbouring group participation concepts have led us to the use of 2-cyanobenzyl ether as the dual-directing auxiliary for stereospecific construction of ?- and ?-glycosidic bonds from a single starting material, and both isomers can be obtained in exclusive stereoselectivity. This work demonstrates the difference in reactivities of glycosyl acceptors can be employed to completely drive the stereoselectivity, drawing the parallel comparison with the arming/disarming concept, which has been exclusively confined to glycosyl donors.
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Arterial remodeling of basilar atherosclerosis in isolated pontine infarction.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Isolated pontine infarctions are usually classified as paramedian pontine infarction (PPI) and lacunar pontine infarction (LPI). Although they have different shapes and locations, some recent studies proved that they might both be associated with basilar artery atherosclerosis in pathogenesis. This study aimed to explore the difference of basilar artery remodeling between two subtypes of pontine infarctions. Patients with PPI or LPI were scanned by High-resolution MRI (HR-MRI). The MR images of patients with basilar artery atherosclerosis were further analyzed to measure the vessel, lumen and wall areas at different segments of basilar arteries. Stenosis rate and remodeling index were calculated according to which arterial remodeling was divided into positive, intermediate and negative remodeling. Vascular risk factors and remodeling-related features were compared between PPI and LPI, and also between patients with and without positive remodeling. 34 patients with PPI and 21 patients with LPI had basilar artery atherosclerosis identified by HR-MRI. Positive remodeling was dominant in LPI group while in PPI group, three subtypes of remodeling were equal. Patients with positive remodeling had higher levels of low-density lipoprotein and homocysteine. Positive remodeling of basilar artery might reflect the low stability of basilar atherosclerotic plaques, which was more closely associated with LPI than PPI.
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MiR-124 governs glioma growth and angiogenesis and enhances chemosensitivity by targeting R-Ras and N-Ras.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2014
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Glioma is one of the most aggressive and lethal human brain tumors. Accumulating evidence shows that microRNAs play important roles in cancers, including glioma. Previous studies reported that miR-124 levels were downregulated in glioma specimens. Here, we further investigate the potential role of miR-124 in glioma.
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Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.
Waste Manag Res
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.
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Highly uniform and reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering on air-stable metallic glassy nanowire array.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Preparation of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanostructures with both high sensitivity as well as high reproducibility has always been difficult and costly for routine SERS detection. Here we demonstrate air-stable metallic glassy nanowire arrays (MGNWAs), which were prepared by a cheap and rapid die nanoimprinting technique, could exhibit high SERS enhancement factor (EF) as well as excellent reproducibility. It shows that Pd(40.5)Ni(40.5)P(19) MGNWA with nanowires of 55 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch possesses high SERS activity with an EF of 1.1 × 10(5), which is 1-3 orders of magnitudes higher than that of the reported crystal Ni-based nanostructures, and an excellent reproducibility with a relative standard deviation of 9.60% measured by 121 points over an area of 100 ?m*100 ?m. This method offers an easy, rapid, and low-cost way to prepare highly sensitive and reproducible SERS substrates and makes the SERS more practicable.
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Collective synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloids and their antiproliferation activities.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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A collective synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-pyridone alkaloids--specifically, pretenellin?B, prebassianin?B, farinosone?A, militarione?D, pyridovericin, and torrubiellone?C--has been achieved. Key steps include using a strategic convergent method to synthesize the densely substituted pyridone key intermediate by Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction, a divergent synthesis approach of target molecules by aldol condensation of pyridone intermediate with homologous aldehydes, and an iterative synthesis of homologous aldehydes with all-trans-polyene backbones. Interestingly, among the six tumor cell lines investigated, torrubiellone?C was found to induce potent and apoptotic inhibitory activities on Jurkat?T cells with IC50 values of 7.05??M. Hence, this approach could potentially contribute to the synthesis of bioactive small-molecule libraries as well as drug discovery.
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Dual-function Pd/NHC catalysis: tandem allylation-isomerization-conjugate addition that allows access to pyrroles, thiophenes and furans.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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An efficient coupling reaction of allyl acetate with (O-azaaryl)carboxaldehyde by Pd-NHC dual catalysis has been developed. This reaction proceeds via direct coordination between the ortho nitrogen atom in the heterocycle and Pd(0). This dual catalysis is achieved under mild conditions to give 1,4-diones as products with up to 90% yield.
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Nerve protective effect of Baicalin on newborn HIBD rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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To investigate the nerve protective effect and mechanism of baicalin on newborn rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage (HIBD).
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Facile synthesis of halogenated spiroketals via a tandem iodocyclization.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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A strategy for the synthesis of spiroketal compounds through a tandem iodocyclization of 1-(2-ethynylphenyl)-4-hydroxybut-2-yn-1-one derivatives is presented. This reaction could proceed under very mild conditions in a short time and avoid the use of expensive and toxic metal catalysts. Moreover, the resulting halides can be further exploited by subsequent palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions, which act as the important intermediates for building other valuable compounds.
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Structural biochemistry of a Vibrio cholerae dinucleotide cyclase reveals cyclase activity regulation by folates.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Cyclic dinucleotides are a newly expanded class of second messengers that contribute to the regulation of multiple different pathways in bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal cells. The recently identified Vibrio cholerae dinucleotide cyclase (DncV, the gene product of VC0179) can generate three different cyclic dinucleotides and preferentially synthesize a hybrid cyclic-GMP-AMP. Here, we report the crystal structural and functional studies of DncV. We unexpectedly observed a 5-methyltetrahydrofolate diglutamate (5MTHFGLU2) molecule bound in a surface pocket opposite the nucleotide substrate-binding groove of DncV. Subsequent mutagenesis and functional studies showed that the enzymatic activity of DncV is regulated by folate-like molecules, suggesting the existence of a signaling pathway that links folate-like metabolism cofactors to the regulation of cyclic dinucleotide second messenger synthesis. Sequence analysis showed that the residues involved in 5MTHFGLU2 binding are highly conserved in DncV orthologs, implying the presence of this regulation mechanism in a wide variety of bacteria.
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Downregulation of PPP2R5E expression by miR-23a suppresses apoptosis to facilitate the growth of gastric cancer cells.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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PPP2R5E belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family and acts as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. However, the role of PPP2R5E in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer is unclear. Here, we declare that PPP2R5E is downregulated by miR-23a and induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, ASO-miR-23a suppresses tumor growth derived from MGC803 cells in vivo. PPP2R5E is identified as a new target of miR-23a. Moreover, overexpression of PPP2R5E reversed the negative effects of miR-23a. We highlight the significance of miR-23a and PPP2R5E in the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells.
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Copper-catalyzed one-pot trifluoromethylation/aryl migration/carbonyl formation with homopropargylic alcohols.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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A novel copper-catalyzed one-pot functionalization of homopropargylic alcohols that involves trifluoromethylation, aryl migration, and formation of a carbonyl moiety has been developed. This reaction constitutes the first direct conversion of homopropargylic alcohols into CF3-containing 3-butenal or 3-buten-1-one derivatives in a regioselective manner. Mechanistic studies indicate that the 1,4-aryl migration proceeds through a radical pathway.
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One-pot synthesis of ?-N-glycosyl imidazole analogues via a palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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A concise and highly efficient strategy for the synthesis of N-glycosyl imidazole analogues is reported. This reaction is based on a palladium catalysed decarboxylative allylation and three steps, namely, carbamation, decarboxylation and allylation are involved. All the substrates can afford the desired products with excellent yields and selectivities.
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Palladium-catalyzed C-H activation and intermolecular annulation with allenes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A new and efficient Pd(II) -catalyzed intermolecular annulation of N-benzoylsulfonamide with allenes for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-1(2H)-ones is reported. This C?H functionalization is compatible with ambient air and moisture, and it can be applied to terminal or internal allenes with di?erent synthetically attractive functional groups. Control experiments and a kinetic isotope effect study are conducted and a plausible mechanism is proposed.
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OsMYB103L, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, influences leaf rolling and mechanical strength in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The shape of grass leaves possesses great value in both agronomy and developmental biology research. Leaf rolling is one of the important traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding. MYB transcription factors are one of the largest gene families and have important roles in plant development, metabolism and stress responses. However, little is known about their functions in rice.
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Leukoaraiosis correlates with the neurologic deterioration after small subcortical infarction.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Patients of small subcortical infarction sometimes have neurologic deterioration (ND), with the risk factors and specific pathogenesis unclear. Small subcortical infarction is often accompanied by other phenotypes of small vessel disease such as leukoaraiosis, which indicates the white matter hyperintensities in the deep or periventricular areas on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery series of magnetic resonance images and was proved to be associated with stroke in various aspects. In this study, we intended to investigate whether leukoaraiosis was associated with ND after small subcortical infarction, and explore other possible risk factors of ND.
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Adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells reverses the increase in abortion rate caused by interleukin 17 in the CBA/JxBALB/c mouse model.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Could adoptive transfer of pregnancy-induced CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) reverse the increase in abortion rate caused by interleukin 17 (IL-17) in the CBA/J × BALB/c mouse model?
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Kojic acid protects C57BL/6 mice from gamma-irradiation induced damage.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The radioprotective effects of a single administration of kojic acid (KA) against ionizing radiation were evaluated via assessment of 30-day survival and alterations of peripheral blood parameters of adult C57BL/6 male mice. The 30-day survival rate of mice pretreated with KA (75 or 300 mg/kg body weight, KA75 or KA300) subcutaneously 27 h prior to a lethal dose (8 Gy, 153.52 cGy/min) of gamma irradiation was higher than that of mice irradiated alone (40% or 60% vs 0%). It was observed that the white blood cell (WBC) count/the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit and platelet count of mice with or without KA pretreatment as exposed to a sub-lethal dose (4 Gy, 148.14 cGy/min) of gamma irradiation decreased maximally at day 4/day 8 post-irradiation. Although the initial WBC values were low in KA300 or WR-2721 (amifostine) groups, they significantly recovered to normal at day 19, whereas in the control group they did not. The results from the cytotoxicity and cell viability assays demonstrated that KA could highly protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation with low toxicity. In summary, KA provides marked radioprotective effects both in vivo and in vitro.
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Insulin regulates glucose consumption and lactate production through reactive oxygen species and pyruvate kinase M2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Although insulin is known to regulate glucose metabolism and closely associate with liver cancer, the molecular mechanisms still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we attempt to understand the mechanism of insulin in promotion of liver cancer metabolism. We found that insulin increased pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) expression through reactive oxygen species (ROS) for regulating glucose consumption and lactate production, key process of glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and Bel7402 cells. Interestingly, insulin-induced ROS was found responsible for the suppression of miR-145 and miR-128, and forced expression of either miR-145 or miR-128 was sufficient to abolish insulin-induced PKM2 expression. Furthermore, the knockdown of PKM2 expression also inhibited cancer cell growth and insulin-induced glucose consumption and lactate production, suggesting that PKM2 is a functional downstream effecter of insulin. Taken together, this study would provide a new insight into the mechanism of insulin-induced glycolysis.
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Palladium-catalyzed/norbornene-mediated C-H activation/N-tosylhydrazone insertion reaction: a route to highly functionalized vinylarenes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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A straightforward method for the synthesis of highly functionalized vinylarenes through palladium-catalyzed, norbornene-mediated C-H activation/carbene migratory insertion is described. Extension to a one-pot procedure is also developed. Furthermore, this method can also be used to generate polysubstituted bicyclic molecules. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions to give the products in satisfactory yields using readily available starting materials. This is a Catellani-Lautens reaction that incorporates different types of coupling partners. Additionally, this reaction is the first to demonstrate the possibility of combining Pd-catalyzed insertion of diazo compounds and Pd-catalyzed C-H activation.
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Amelioration of ischemic mitochondrial injury and Bax-dependent outer membrane permeabilization by Mdivi-1.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Disturbance of the balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion has been implicated in cerebral ischemia and several neurodegenerative diseases, whereas the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the role of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key mitochondrial fission protein, in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia.
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Structural elucidation of the exopolysaccharide produced by the mangrove fungus Penicillium solitum.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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A water soluble extracellular polysaccharide, designated GW-12, was obtained from the liquid culture broth of the mangrove fungus Penicillium solitum by ethanol precipitation, anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that GW-12 mainly consisted of d-mannose, and its molecular weight was estimated to be about 11.3 kDa determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses, including methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the structure of GW-12 may be represented as a mannan with branches. The main chain of GW-12 was composed of (1 ? 2)-linked ?-D-mannopyranose and (1 ? 6)-linked ?-D-mannopyranose residues, branched by single ?-d-mannopyranose units attached to the main chain at C-6 positions of (1 ? 2)-linked ?-D-mannopyranose residues. There was three branch points for every seven sugar residues in the backbone.
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Self-adaptive strain-relaxation optimization for high-energy lithium storage material through crumpling of graphene.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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High-energy lithium battery materials based on conversion/alloying reactions have tremendous potential applications in new generation energy storage devices. However, these applications are limited by inherent large volume variations and sluggish kinetics. Here we report a self-adaptive strain-relaxed electrode through crumpling of graphene to serve as high-stretchy protective shells on metal framework, to overcome these limitations. The graphene sheets are self-assembled and deeply crumpled into pinecone-like structure through a contraction-strain-driven crumpling method. The as-prepared electrode exhibits high specific capacity (2,165?mAh?g(-1)), fast charge-discharge rate (20?A?g(-1)) with no capacity fading in 1,000 cycles. This kind of crumpled graphene has self-adaptive behaviour of spontaneous unfolding-folding synchronized with cyclic expansion-contraction volumetric variation of core materials, which can release strain and maintain good electric contact simultaneously. It is expected that such findings will facilitate the applications of crumpled graphene and the self-adaptive materials.
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Microbleeds in late-life depression: comparison of early- and late-onset depression.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Late-life depression could be classified roughly as early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD). LOD was proved to be associated with cerebral lesions including white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and silent brain infarctions (SBI), differently from EOD. However, it is unclear whether similar association is present between LOD and microbleeds which are also silent lesions. In this study, 195 patients of late-life depression were evaluated and divided into EOD, presenile-onset depression (POD), and LOD groups; 85 healthy elderly controls were enrolled as controls. Subjects were scanned by MRI including susceptibility weighted images to evaluate white matter hyperintensities (WMH), silent brain infarctions (SBI), and microbleeds. The severity of depression was evaluated with 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Psychosocial factors were investigated with Scale of Life Events and Lubben Social Network Scale. Logistic regression and linear regression were performed to identify the independent risk factors for depression. Results showed that LOD patients had higher prevalence of microbleeds than EOD, POD, and control patients. The prevalence of lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere was the independent risk factor for the occurrence of LOD; a high number of microbleeds were associated with severe state of LOD, whereas life events and lack of social support were more important for EOD and POD. All these results indicated that Microbleeds especially lobar microbleeds and microbleeds in the left hemisphere were associated with LOD but not with EOD.
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Depression in silent lacunar infarction: a cross-sectional study of its association with location of silent lacunar infarction and vascular risk factors.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Most previous studies reported a close link between fresh infarcts and post-stroke depression. However, studies on the relation of depression and silent lacunar infarction (SLI) are limited. This study aims to analyze the effects of SLI and the vascular risk factors on depression. A total of 243 patients with SLI were divided into depression and non-depression groups. The presence and location of SLI were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging. Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and vascular risks factors were collected. We used t tests and ? (2) test to compare the baseline characteristics of the two groups and the multivariate logistic regression model to identify the risk factors for depression. Univariate analysis results showed that the proportion of patients with SLI in basal ganglia was significantly higher in the depression group (65.0 versus 32.8 %; P < 0.001) than in the non-depression group, and multiple prevalent factors had significant differences between the two groups. However, on multivariate logistic analysis, some of these factors were eliminated, and SLI in basal ganglia remained an independent predictor of depression with an odds ratio of 3.128 (P = 0.018). In addition, vascular risk factors, including high body mass index level, presence of inflammation markers (e.g., CRP, TNF-?, Hs-CRP, and IL-6), and lack of physical activity, were associated with depression. Our findings suggest that SLI in basal ganglia is associated with a higher risk of depression. Vascular risk factors, which are intertwined, may propose the pathological basis of depression in SLI.
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B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients.
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Metal-free cascade radical cyclization of 1,6-enynes with aldehydes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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A new and efficient metal-free cascade cyclization of 1,6-enynes with aldehydes is developed for the synthesis of tricyclic fluorene derivatives. The reaction involves a radical process and one C(sp(2))-C(sp(2)) and two C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) bonds are formed simultaneously in one pot by using PivOH and TBHP.
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Design and synthesis of multivalent neoglycoconjugates by click conjugations.
Beilstein J Org Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A highly stereoselective BF3?OEt2-promoted tandem hydroamination/glycosylation on glycal scaffolds has been developed to form propargyl 3-tosylamino-2,3-dideoxysugars in a one-pot manner. Subsequent construction of multivalent 3-tosylamino-2,3-dideoxyneoglycoconjugates with potential biochemical applications was presented herein involving click conjugations as the key reaction step. The copper-catalyzed regioselective click reaction was tremendously accelerated with assistance of microwave irradiation.
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Late-onset depression in the absence of stroke: associated with silent brain infarctions, microbleeds and lesion locations.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Late-onset depression (LOD) is a frequent mood disorder among elderly. Previous studies have proved that LOD is associated with cerebral silent lesions especially white matter lesions (WML) and yielded the "vascular depression" hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of LOD. However, there were relatively few studies about the association between silent brain infarctions (SBIs), microbleeds (MBs) and the prevalence of LOD. In this study we sought to evaluate the presence, accumulation and locations of SBIs and MBs, and explore the possible association between them and LOD.
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The neurobiological pathogenesis of poststroke depression.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Poststroke depression (PSD) is an important consequence after stroke, with negative impact on stroke outcome. The pathogenesis of PSD is complicated, with some special neurobiological mechanism, which mainly involves neuroanatomical, neuron, and biochemical factors and neurogenesis which interact in complex ways. Abundant studies suggested that large lesions in critical areas such as left frontal lobe and basal ganglia or accumulation of silent cerebral lesions might interrupt the pathways of monoamines or relevant pathways of mood control, thus leading to depression. Activation of immune system after stroke produces more cytokines which increase glutamate excitotoxicity, results in more cell deaths of critical areas and enlargement of infarctions, and, together with hypercortisolism induced by stress or inflammation after stroke which could decrease intracellular serotonin transporters, might be the key biochemical change of PSD. The interaction among cytokines, glucocorticoid, and neurotrophin results in the decrease of hippocampal neurogenesis which has been proved to be important for mood control and pharmaceutical effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and might be another promising pathway to understand the pathogenesis of PSD. In order to reduce the prevalence of PSD and improve the outcome of stroke, more relevant studies are still required to clarify the pathogenesis of PSD.
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Low-dose levodopa protects nerve cells from oxidative stress and up-regulates expression of pCREB and CD39.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the influence of low-dose levodopa (L-DOPA) on neuronal cell death under oxidative stress.
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Gold-Catalyzed Tandem [3,3]-Propargyl Ester Rearrangement Leading to (E)-1H-Inden-1-ones.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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An efficient method for the synthesis of (E)-1H-inden-1-ones using gold-catalyzed tandem [3,3]-propargyl ester rearrangement followed by Michael addition under mild reaction conditions has been developed. The resulting products are important frameworks found in numerous natural products and pharmaceutically active compounds, as well as being valuable intermediates in organic synthesis.
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Copper-Catalyzed Intermolecular Cyanotrifluoromethylation of Alkenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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A novel and highly practical reaction for the copper-catalyzed intermolecular cyanotrifluoromethylation of alkenes is presented here. This methodology provides a general and straightforward way to synthesize a variety of useful CF3-containing nitriles, which can be used for further preparation of pharmaceutically and agrochemically important compounds in synthetic organic chemistry.
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High prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the relationship between thyrotropin levels and cardiovascular risk factors in residents of the coastal area of China.
Exp Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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To investigate the prevalence of subclinical thyroid dysfunction and the relationship between thyrotropin levels and cardiovascular risk factors in residents of the coastal area of China.
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Directed Orthometalation and the Asymmetric Total Synthesis of N-Deoxymilitarinone A and Torrubiellone B.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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A diverted total synthesis (DTS) approach to the total synthesis of pyridone alkaloids N-deoxymilitarinone A (8) and torrubiellone B (10) has been developed. The common intermediate 14 was first assembled by a dual directed orthometalation process using a methoxymethyl group as directed metalation group. Other crucial steps include the assembly of polyenes under aldol condensation for DTS using general and concise strategy and diastereoselective synthesis of the syn-dimethyl array by an Evans aldol reaction.
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MicroRNAs Contribute to Promyelocyte Apoptosis in As2O3-Treated APL Cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Background: Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), an ancient drug used in traditional Chinese medicine, has substantial anticancer activities, especially in the treatment of patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL); however the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Methods: MTT assay was used to detect the cell viability. Flow Cytometry analysis and caspase-3 activity assay were used to measure apoptosis of APL cells. Caspase-3 and Bax levels were analyzed by western blot and let-7d and miR-766 levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Results: As2O3 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in APL cells. Several microRNAs, including let-7d and miR-766, were dysregulated in APL cells treated with As2O3. The expression of caspase-3 and Bax, which are targets of let-7d and miR-766, respectively, were up-regulated in As2O3 treated cells. Transfection of let-7d and miR-766 into NB4 cells decreased the expression of caspase-3 and Bax, respectively. Correspondingly, transfection of these microRNAs increased NB4 cell viability. As2O3 induced degradation of promyelocytic leukemia (PML), and then induced the down-regulation of both let-7d and miR-766 in NB4 cells. Conclusions: We construct a dysregulated microRNA network involved in As2O3-induced apoptosis in APL. Targeting this network may be a new strategy for the prevention of side effects associated with APL treatment with As2O3. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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[Analysis of postoperative recurrence reason and observation of reoperation outcome for spinal tuberculosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To analyze the reason of postoperative recurrence of spinal tuberculosis and observe the clinical outcome of these patients in reoperation.
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[Effects of plumbagin on expression of TNF-alpha and PDGF-BB in human hepatic stellate cells activated by leptin].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To investigate the effect of plumbagin on the expression of TNF-alpha and PDGF-BB in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC-LX2) activated by Leptin.
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Facile Access to cis-2,6-Disubstituted Tetrahydropyrans by Palladium-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation: Total Syntheses of (±)-Centrolobine and (+)-Decytospolides A and B.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2013
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cis-2,6-Tetrahydropyran is an important structural skeleton of bioactive natural products. A facile synthesis of cis-2,6-disubstituted-3,6-dihydropyrans as cis-2,6-tetrahydropyran precursors has been achieved in high regio- and stereoselectivity with high yields. This reaction involves a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation of various 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran substrates. Extending this reaction to 1,2-unsaturated carbohydrates allowed the achievement of challenging ?-C-glycosylation. Based on this methodology, the total syntheses of (±)-centrolobine and (+)-decytospolides?A and B were achieved in concise steps and overall high yields.
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Oxidative Heck reaction of glycals and aryl hydrazines: a palladium-catalyzed C-glycosylation.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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An efficient Heck-type C-glycosylation of glycals via the C-N bond cleavage of aryl hydrazines has been developed. The flexibility of the reaction was tested by the substrate scope, consisting of glycals from different carbohydrate origins as well as aryl hydrazines with various substituents. Pure ?-C-glycosides were obtained when (3R)-glycals were employed, whereas ?,? mixtures were observed with (3S)-glycals.
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?-Type glycosidic bond formation by palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative allylation.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Decarboxylative allylation of glycals: A ?-type glycosidic bond has been constructed in high regio- and stereoselectivity by means of a palladium-catalyzed decarboxylative O-glycosylation. Various kinds of glycals with different protecting groups have been examined for this reaction to afford a diverse set of glycosylated products, including phenolic O-glycosides, thiophenolic S-glycoside, aliphatic O-glycosides, and disaccharides with excellent ?-selectivity and reasonable to excellent yields.
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Copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation-cyclization of enynes: highly regioselective construction of trifluoromethylated carbocycles and heterocycles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Regioselective trifluoromethylation-cyclization: A method for copper-catalyzed trifluoromethylation-cyclization of simple enynes using the C?C triple bond as a nucleophile is reported for the first time. The reaction proceeds efficiently in a highly regioselective manner to give various 5- or 6-exo-dig carbocycles and heterocycles in moderate to high yields.
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In vitro and ex vivo angiogenic effects of roxarsone on rat endothelial cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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Roxarsone, a feed additive, is being used worldwide to promote animal growth. However, the potential effect of roxarsone on angiogenesis has not been extensively characterized. We examined the ability of roxarsone to promote angiogenesis of rat endothelial cells in vitro and from rat aorta rings ex vivo. Endothelial cells from rats were exposed to 0.01-10.00?M roxarsone, 5ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a positive control or phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as a negative control. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, and the content of VEGF in supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. A Matrigel-induced tube formation assay was used to evaluate the effects of roxarsone on endothelial cells. Additionally, the total number and length of microvessels sprouted from rat aortic rings were measured for ex vivo investigation of angiogenesis. Results showed that the cell viability and total number and length of capillary-like tube formations after roxarsone treatment was significantly higher than that of negative (P<0.05), with a maximum effect at 1.00?M exposure. Furthermore, the number of microvessels sprouted from aortic rings treated for 4h with 0.1-10.0?M roxarsone was significantly higher than that of PBS treatment, with a peak value of 1.0?M. These results further demonstrate the potential of roxarsone to promote angiogenesis in vitro and ex vivo.
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[Formation and differentiation of the famous coptis regions].
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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From the Tang Dynasty, Xuanzhou has been considered as the famous area of genuine regional coptis as its production of high-quality. Till the Ming Dynasty, coptis resource in Xuanzhou was exhausted, and weilian, yalian (coptis produced in two districts in Sichuan) and yunlian (coptis produced in Yunnan) became famous-region coptis, three varieties of coptis coming from three districts. During the formation of new famous regions, species variation, geographical environment, historical background, cultivation technique and social economy played a role. For example, xuanlian became famous for doctors in Xinan area loved to use it to a large extent. And cultivation technique was the key point for weilian to become the famous-region herb. Now with the shrinking of planting area, yalian could be hardly considered as famous-region copitis and yunlian has withdrawn from commodity for its high cost and low production.
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[One-stage debridement and bone grafting with internal fixation via posterior approach for treatment of children thoracic spine tuberculosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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To investigate the outcome of the children with thoracic spine tuberculosis who underwent radical debridement, reconstruction with bone autograft or allograft and internal fixation via posterior approach.
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DWARF 53 acts as a repressor of strigolactone signalling in rice.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Strigolactones (SLs) are a group of newly identified plant hormones that control plant shoot branching. SL signalling requires the hormone-dependent interaction of DWARF 14 (D14), a probable candidate SL receptor, with DWARF 3 (D3), an F-box component of the Skp-Cullin-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Here we report the characterization of a dominant SL-insensitive rice (Oryza sativa) mutant dwarf 53 (d53) and the cloning of D53, which encodes a substrate of the SCF(D3) ubiquitination complex and functions as a repressor of SL signalling. Treatments with GR24, a synthetic SL analogue, cause D53 degradation via the proteasome in a manner that requires D14 and the SCF(D3) ubiquitin ligase, whereas the dominant form of D53 is resistant to SL-mediated degradation. Moreover, D53 can interact with transcriptional co-repressors known as TOPLESS-RELATED PROTEINS. Our results suggest a model of SL signalling that involves SL-dependent degradation of the D53 repressor mediated by the D14-D3 complex.
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[Curative effect evaluation and complication analysis of Bryan artificial cervical disc replacement].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To observe the curative effects and complications of Bryan cervical disc replacement for cervical disc herniation.
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