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Anion A- • HX Clusters with Reduced Electron Binding Energies: Proton vs Hydrogen Atom Relocation Upon Electron Detachment.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Clustering an anion with one or more neutral molecules is a stabilizing process that enhances the oxidation potential of the complex relative to the free ion. Several hydrogen bond clusters (i.e., A- • HX, where A- = H2PO4- and CF3CO2- and HX = MeOH, PhOH, and Me2NOH or Et2NOH) are examined by photoelectron spectroscopy and M06-2X and CCSD(T) computations. Remarkably, these species are experimentally found to have adiabatic detachment energies that are smaller than those for the free ion and reductions of 0.47 to 1.87 eV are predicted computationally. Hydrogen atom and proton transfers upon vertical photodetachment are two limiting extremes on the neutral surface in a continuum of mechanistic pathways that account for these results, and the whole gamut of possibilities are predicted to occur.
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Protective Effects of Kojic Acid on the Periphery Blood and Survival of Beagle Dogs after Exposure to a Lethal Dose of Gamma Radiation.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In previous studies, it has been shown that pretreatment with kojic acid (KA) not only increased the 30 day survival rate of mice after exposed to a lethal dose of gamma radiation but also had significant radioprotective effects on the hematopoietic system, the immune system and DNA of mice exposed to a 4 Gy sublethal dose of radiation. Furthermore, pretreatment with KA has also been shown to protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation-induced damage. In this investigation, beagle dogs were used to evaluate whether KA could also be radioprotective in a large animal model. Dogs in the group pretreated with kojic acid after whole-body exposure to a lethal dose of 3 Gy gamma radiation had a 51 day survival rate of 66.7% versus the dogs in the 3 Gy irradiation only group, which all died within 16 days of postirradiation. General vital signs (body weight or temperature) of animals in the kojic acid pretreated group reduced and increased maximally at day 14 postirradiation and then reverted to normal levels gradually. The hematopoiesis studies indicated that the white blood cells/red blood cells, hemoglobin content and hematocrit of dogs pretreated with kojic acid decreased sharply at day 23/day 21 postirradiation, and then gradually elevated. In addition, the DNA content of dogs pretreated with KA were significantly increased compared with that of dogs in the irradiation group at day 4 postirradiation and the number of micronuclei in the group pretreated with kojic acid declined sharply compared with that of the irradiation only group. KA appears to possess marked protective effects from radiation-induced damage and therefore, may be a promising novel radioprotective agent.
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Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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The direct electrophilic cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides with cyano benziodoxole.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The direct electrophilic ?-cyanation of ?-keto esters and amides has been developed using a hypervalent iodine benziodoxole-derived cyano reagent. The procedure is accomplished within 10 min and without the use of any catalyst in DMF, at room temperature. Thus, the highly functionalized quaternary carbon-centered nitriles were produced in high to excellent yields.
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Trade-offs of the opto-electrical properties of a-Si:H solar cells based on MOCVD BZO films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) films, deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), have been widely used as front electrodes in thin-film solar cells due to their native pyramidal surface structure, which results in efficient light trapping. This light trapping effect can enhance the short-circuit current density (Jsc) of solar cells. However, nanocracks or voids in the silicon active layer may form when the surface morphology of the BZO is too sharp; this usually leads to degraded electrical properties of the cells, such as open-circuit voltage (Voc) and the fill factor (FF), which in turn decreases efficiency (Eff) [Bailat et al., Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE 4th World Conference on. IEEE, 2006, vol. 2, pp. 1533-1536]. In this paper, an etching and coating method was proposed to modify the sharp "pyramids" on the surface of the BZO films. As a result, an evident enhancement was achieved for these modified, BZO-based cells' Voc, FF, and Eff, although the Jsc exhibited a small decrease. In order to increase the Jsc and maintain the improved electrical properties (Voc, FF) of the cell, a thin BZO coating, deposited by MOCVD, was introduced to coat the sputtering-treated BZO film. Finally, we optimized the trade-off among the Voc, FF, and Jsc, that is, we identified a regime with an increase of the Jsc as well as a further improvement of the other electrical properties.
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Fullerene cyanation does not always increase electron affinity: an experimental and theoretical study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The electron affinities of C70 derivatives with trifluoromethyl, methyl and cyano groups were studied experimentally and theoretically using low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy (LT PES) and density functional theory (DFT). The electronic effects of these functional groups were determined and found to be highly dependent on the addition patterns. Substitution of CF3 for CN for the same addition pattern increases the experimental electron affinity by 70 meV per substitution. The synthesis of a new fullerene derivative, C70(CF3)10(CN)2, is reported for the first time.
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Dietary fucoidan of Acaudina molpadioides and its enzymatically degraded fragments could prevent intestinal mucositis induced by chemotherapy in mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Mucositis is a common problem that results from cancer chemotherapy and is a cause of significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Its prevention and successful treatment can significantly enhance the quality of life of patients and improve their survival. Sea cucumber is a traditional aquatic food that has both nutritional and medicinal value. The polysaccharide fucoidan from the sea cucumber (SC-FUC) has various bioactivities. We examined the protective effect of different molecular weights (MWs 50 kDa-500 kDa) of fucoidan from the sea cucumber, Acaudina molpadioides, in a mouse model of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced intestinal mucositis. Results showed that the oral administration of SC-FUC markedly reversed Cy-induced damage in the mice. The sea cucumber fucoidan notably increased the ratio of the length of the intestinal villus to the crypt depth and ameliorated the IFN-?/IL-4 ratio that signifies Th1/Th2 immune balance. Moreover, all the fucoidans in this study enhanced the expression of IgA by accelerating the expression of IL-6 that is probably combined with IL-10. The differing effects of the varied molecular weights of fucoidan may be due to the difference in the efficiency of absorption. This is a novel study on the potential preventive effects of SC-FUC on intestinal mucositis that may be related to the efficiency of its absorption during digestion. Sea cucumber fucoidan (SC-FUC) may be used as a potential food supplement to prevent chemotherapeutic mucositis.
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Dietary squid ink polysaccharide could enhance SIgA secretion in chemotherapeutic mice.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is a non-inflammatory antibody that shields internal body surfaces, such as in the intestine to neutralize pathogens in the lumen of the intestine. As chemotherapy seriously damages the mucosal immune system, we herein demonstrated that polysaccharide from the squid ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) activated intestinal SIgA secretion to prevent chemotherapeutic injury. Using a mouse model of chemotherapy induced intestinal injury by intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg kg(-1) cyclophosphamide, our results showed an enhanced SIgA concentration in intestinal mucosa by OBP administration and the higher production of SIgA relied on the greater expression of IgA, J chain and pIgR. Furthermore, the higher expressions of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? increased by OBP treatment contributed to enhanced IgA and J chain synthesis in IgA(+) plasma cells, and pIgR expression in epithelial cells. It also triggered a prompt immunoglobulin secretory pathway confirmed by enhanced UPR (unfolded protein response) effectors XBP-1s and Bip expression. Our results have important implications for the mucosal immunity enhancement effects of OBP as a functional food component for chemotherapeutic patients.
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Dietary Apostichopus japonicus enhances the respiratory and intestinal mucosal immunity in immunosuppressive mice.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Although Apostichopus japonicus is recognized as a food and drug resource with significant immunomodulatory activity, its role in regulating the mucosal immunity remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effects of dietary A. japonicus on mucosal immunity with an immunosuppressive mouse model. The expression of lysozyme, secretory immunoglobulin A(sIgA), and immunoglobulin A(IgA) as well as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor(pIgR) in respiratory and intestine organs was investigated. The results showed that A. japonicus could improve both the systematic and mucosal immunity. The expression of lysozyme, sIgA, and IgA in the respiratory organ was increased more significantly. Consumption of A. japonicus with the dose of 512 mg kg(-1), which equals to (1)/2 sea cucumber per day for adults, showed better effects. This study elucidated positive effects of A. japonicus on mucosal immunity for the first time, suggesting that moderate consumption of A. japonicus is helpful in improving mucosal immunity and preventing exogenous infection.
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Polysiloxane-based luminescent elastomers prepared by thiol-ene "click" chemistry.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Side-chain vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) has been modified with mercaptopropionic acid, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinic acid. Coordinative bonding of Eu(III) to the functionalized polysiloxanes was then carried out and crosslinked silicone elastomers were prepared by thiol-ene curing reactions of these composites. All these europium complexes could be cast to form transparent, uniform, thin elastomers with good flexibility and thermal stability. The networks were characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, and luminescence spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The europium elastomer luminophores exhibited intense red light at 617?nm under UV excitation at room temperature due to the (5)D0 ?(7)F2 transition in Eu(III) ions. The newly synthesized luminescent materials offer many advantages, including the desired mechanical flexibility. They cannot be dissolved or fused, and so they have potential for use in optical and electronic applications.
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Biomass-directed synthesis of 20 g high-quality boron nitride nanosheets for thermoconductive polymeric composites.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Electrically insulating boron nitride (BN) nanosheets possess thermal conductivity similar to and thermal and chemical stabilities superior to those of electrically conductive graphenes. Currently the production and application of BN nanosheets are rather limited due to the complexity of the BN binary compound growth, as opposed to massive graphene production. Here we have developed the original strategy "biomass-directed on-site synthesis" toward mass production of high-crystal-quality BN nanosheets. The strikingly effective, reliable, and high-throughput (dozens of grams) synthesis is directed by diverse biomass sources through the carbothermal reduction of gaseous boron oxide species. The produced BN nanosheets are single crystalline, laterally large, and atomically thin. Additionally, they assemble themselves into the same macroscopic shapes peculiar to original biomasses. The nanosheets are further utilized for making thermoconductive and electrically insulating epoxy/BN composites with a 14-fold increase in thermal conductivity, which are envisaged to be particularly valuable for future high-performance electronic packaging materials.
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The negative ion photoelectron spectrum of cyclopropane-1,2,3-trione radical anion, (CO)3(•-)--a joint experimental and computational study.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Negative ion photoelectron (NIPE) spectra of the radical anion of cyclopropane-1,2,3-trione, (CO)3(•-), have been obtained at 20 K, using both 355 and 266 nm lasers for electron photodetachment. The spectra show broadened bands, due to the short lifetimes of both the singlet and triplet states of neutral (CO)3 and, to a lesser extent, to the vibrational progressions that accompany the photodetachment process. The smaller intensity of the band with the lower electron binding energy suggests that the singlet is the ground state of (CO)3. From the NIPE spectra, the electron affinity (EA) and the singlet-triplet energy gap of (CO)3 are estimated to be, respectively, EA = 3.1 ± 0.1 eV and ?EST = -14 ± 3 kcal/mol. High-level, (U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVQZ//(U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ, calculations give EA = 3.04 eV for the (1)A1' ground state of (CO)3 and ?EST = -13.8 kcal/mol for the energy gap between the (1)A1' and (3)A2 states, in excellent agreement with values from the NIPE spectra. In addition, simulations of the vibrational structures for formation of these states of (CO)3 from the (2)A2? state of (CO)3(•-) provide a good fit to the shapes of broad bands in the 266 nm NIPE spectrum. The NIPE spectrum of (CO)3(•-) and the analysis of the spectrum by high-quality electronic structure calculations demonstrate that NIPES can not only access and provide information about transition structures but NIPES can also access and provide information about hilltops on potential energy surfaces.
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Dietary squid ink polysaccharides ameliorated the intestinal microflora dysfunction in mice undergoing chemotherapy.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alteration of intestinal microflora and bacterial translocation due to the potential damage induced by anti-cancer drugs on the intestinal barrier and microbiota homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy induced intestinal microflora dysfunction. In the current contribution, with a mouse model intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) of cyclophosphamide (Cy) for 2 days, we revealed that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) altered the intestinal microflora composition. OBP retarded the excessive growth of intestinal bacteria induced by cyclophosphamide, based on 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) quantification. The clone libraries of intestinal bacteria 16S rDNA were used to decipher the difference in bacterial community structures in different groups of mice. Followed by RFLP evaluation and OTU abundance analysis, they imply that OBP changed the intestinal microflora composition, in which the quantity of probiotic Bifidobacterium got up-regulated but Bacteroidetes decreased in mice undergoing chemotherapy. Our results may have important implications for OBP as a functional food component or nutrient against chemotherapy induced intestinal injury and potential pathogenic intestinal disorders involving inflammation and infection.
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Associations between AT-rich interactive domain 5B gene polymorphisms and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AT-rich interactive domain 5B (ARID5B) gene with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, replicated studies reported some inconsistent results in different populations. Using meta-analysis, we here aimed to clarify the nature of the genetic risks contributed by the two polymorphisms (rs10994982, rs7089424) for developing childhood ALL. Through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, and manually searching relevant references, a total of 14 articles with 16 independent studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to assess the associations. Both SNPs rs10994982 and rs7089424 showed significant associations with childhood ALL risk in all genetic models after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, subtype analyses of B-lineage ALL provided strong evidence that SNP rs10994982 is highly associated with the risk of developing B-hyperdiploid ALL. These results indicate that SNPs rs10994982 and rs7089424 are indeed significantly associated with increased risk of childhood ALL.
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Identification of linear B-cell epitopes within Tarp of Chlamydia trachomatis.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted pathogens. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Chlamydial translocated actin-recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp) can induce cellular and humoral immune responses in murine models and has been regarded as a potential vaccine candidate. In this report, the amino acid sequence of Tarp was analyzed using computer-assisted techniques to scan B-cell epitopes, and six possible linear B-cell epitopes peptides (aa80-95, aa107-123, aa152-170, aa171-186, aa239-253 and aa497-513) with high predicted antigenicity and high conservation were investigated. Sera from mice immunized with these potential immunodominant peptides was analyzed by ELISA, which showed that epitope 152-170 elicited serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and epitope 171-186 elicited both serum IgG and mucosal secretory immunoglobulin A response. The response of immune sera of epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp antigen obtained from the Hela229 cells infected with C. trachomatis was confirmed by Western blot and indirect fluorescence assay. In addition, binding of the antibodies against epitope 171-186 to endogenous Tarp was further confirmed by competitive ELISA. Our results demonstrated that the putative epitope (aa171-186) was an immunodominant B-cell epitope of Tarp. If proven protective and safe, this epitope, in combination with other well-documented epitopes, might be included into a candidate epitope-based vaccine against C. trachomatis. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Genetic variation in the tissue factor gene is associated with clinical outcome in severe sepsis patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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IntroductionActivation of inflammation and coagulation was closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. Tissue factor (TF) and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was the main regulators of the initiation of coagulation process. Altered plasma levels of TF and TFPI have been related to worse outcome in sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TF and TFPI genes were associated with risk and outcome for patients with severe sepsis.MethodsSeventeen SNPs in TF and TFPI were genotyped in samples of sepsis (n =577) and severe sepsis patients (n =476), and tested for association in this case¿control collection. We then investigated correlation between the associated SNPs and the mRNA expression, and protein level of the corresponding gene. The mRNA levels of TF were determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the soluble plasma levels of TF were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.ResultsAssociation analysis revealed that three TF SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium, rs1361600, rs3917615 and rs958587, were significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis. G allele frequency of rs1361600 in survivor patients was significantly higher than that in nonsurvivor severe sepsis patients (P =4.91¿×¿10¿5, odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.69). The association remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TF-mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects carrying rs1361600 AG and GG genotypes, were significantly lower than those subjects carrying AA genotype (P =0.0012). Moreover, severe sepsis patients of GG and GA genotypes showed lower serum levels of TF than patients with AA genotype (P adj =0.02). The plasma levels of TF were also associated with outcome of severe sepsis patients (P adj =0.01). However, genotype and allele analyses did not show any significant difference between sepsis and severe sepsis patients.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that common genetic variation in TF was significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis in Chinese Han population.
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An improved sensor for precision detection of in situ stem water content using a frequency domain fringing capacitor.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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One role of stems is that of water storage. The water content of stems increases and decreases as xylem water potential increases and decreases, respectively. Hence, a nondestructive method to measure stem water content (StWC) = (volume of water) : (volume of stem), could be useful in monitoring the drought stress status of plants. We introduce a frequency domain inner fringing capacitor-sensor for measuring StWC which operates at 100 MHz frequency. The capacitor-sensor consists of two wave guides (5-mm-wide braided metal) that snugly fit around the surface of a stem with a spacing of 4-5 mm between guides. Laboratory measurements on analog stems reveals that the DC signal output responds linearly to the relative dielectric constant of the analog stem, is most sensitive to water content between the waveguides to a depth of c. 3 mm from the stem surface, and calibrations based on the gravimetric water loss of excised stems of plants revealed a resolution in StWC of < ± 0.001 v/ v. The sensor performed very well on whole plants with a 100-fold increased resolution compared with previous frequency domain and time domain reflectometry methods and, hence, may be very useful for future research requiring nondestructive measurements of whole plants.
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A preorganized hydrogen bond network and its effect on anion stability.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Rigid tricyclic locked in all axial 1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol derivatives with 0-3 trifluoromethyl groups were synthesized and photoelectron spectra of their conjugate bases and chloride anion clusters are reported along with density functional computations. The resulting vertical and adiabatic detachment energies span 4.07-5.50 eV (VDE) and 3.75-5.00 (ADE) for the former ions and 5.60-6.23 eV (VDE) and 5.36-6.00 eV (ADE) for the latter species. These results provide measures of the anion stabilization due to the hydrogen bond network and inductive effects. The latter mechanism is found to be transmitted through space via hydrogen bonds, and the presence of three ring skeleton oxygen atoms and up to three trifluoromethyl groups enhance the ADEs by 1.61-2.88 eV for the conjugate bases and 1.01-1.60 eV for the chloride anion clusters. Computations indicate that the most favorable structures of the latter complexes have two hydrogen bonds to the chloride anion and one bifurcated interaction between the remote OH substituent and the two hydroxyl groups that directly bind to Cl(-).
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Examining the amine functionalization in dicarboxylates: photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies of aspartate and glutamate.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Aspartate (Asp(2-)) and glutamate (Glu(2-)), two doubly charged conjugate bases of the corresponding amino acids, were investigated using low-temperature negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) and ab initio calculations. The effect of amine functionalization was studied by a direct comparison to the parent dicarboxylate species ((-)CO2-(CH2)n-CO2(-), DCn(2-)), succinate (DC2(2-)) and propionate (DC3(2-)). Experimentally, the addition of the amine group for the n = 2 case (DC2(2-), Asp(2-)) significantly improves the stability of the resultant Asp(2-) dianionic species, albeit that NIPES shows only a small increase in adiabatic electron detachment energy (ADE) (+0.05 eV). In contrast, for n = 3 (DC3(2-), Glu(2-)), a much larger ADE increase is observed (+0.15 eV). Similar results are obtained through ab initio calculations. The latter indicates that increased stability of Asp(2-) can be attributed to the lowering of the energy of the singlet dianion state due to hydrogen bonding effects. The effect of the amino group on the doublet monoanion state is more complicated and results in the weakening of the binding of the adjacent carboxylate group due to electronic structure resonance effects. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of NIPES results that show enhanced production of near-zero kinetic energy electrons observed experimentally for amine-functionalized species.
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Codon usage bias in human cytomegalovirus and its biological implication.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, a worldwide contagion, causes a serious disorder in infected individuals. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much molecular information about this virus. The effective number of codon (ENC) values, relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) values, codon adaptation index (CAI), and nucleotide contents was investigated in approximately 160 coding sequences (CDS) among 17 human cytomegalovirus genomes using the software CodonW. Linear regression analysis and logistic regression were performed to explore the preliminary data. The results showed that, overall, HCMV genomes had low codon usage bias (mean ENC=47.619). However, the ENC of individual CDS varied widely and was distributed unevenly between host-related genes and viral-self-function genes (P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=3.194), as did the GC content (P=0.016, OR=2.178). The ENC values correlated with CAI, GC content, and the nucleotide composing at the 3rd codon position (GC3s) (P<0.001). There was a significant variation in the codon preference that depended on the RSCU data. The predicted ENC curve suggested that mutational pressure, rather than natural selection, was one of the main factors that determined the codon usage bias in HCMV. Among 123 genes with known function, the genes related to viral self-replication and viral-host interaction showed different ENC and CAI values, and GC and GC3s contents. In conclusion, the detailed codon usage bias theoretically revealed information concerning HCMV evolution and could be a valuable additional parameter for HCMV gene function research.
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Poly(trifluoromethyl)azulenes: structures and acceptor properties.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Six new poly(trifluoromethyl)azulenes prepared in a single high-temperature reaction exhibit strong electron accepting properties in the gas phase and in solution and demonstrate the propensity to form regular ?-stacked columns in donor-acceptor crystals when mixed with pyrene as a donor.
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Thrombocytosis is a significant indictor of hypercoagulability, prognosis and recurrence in gastric cancer.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Although thrombocytosis has been reported in a variety of cancer types, the standard of thrombocytosis in gastric cancer (GC) and the association between thrombocytosis and the clinicopathological features of patients with GC remain unclear. In the present study, 1,763 GC patients were retrospectively filtered by preoperative thrombocytosis and compared with control group A (n=107) that had benign gastric lesions and control group B (n=100) that were GC patients with a normal platelet (PLT) count. Associations between clinical variables and preoperative PLT counts were assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression were used to evaluate the effect of thrombocytosis on prognosis. Sensitivities and specificities of the PLT counts in predicting recurrence were analyzed via area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The results indicated that the incidence of thrombocytosis in GC patients was higher than in benign gastric lesion patients, with 4.03% of GC patients having a PLT count >400×10(9)/l (P=0.014) and 12.08% had a PLT count >300×10(9)/l (P<0.001). For the patients with a PLT count >400×10(9)/l, the frequency of abnormal PLT counts in GC correlated with tumor size (P<0.001), tumor, node and metastasis (TNM) classification (P=0.002), invasive degree (P=0.003) and D-dimer (P=0.013) and fibrinogen concentrations (P=0.042). Tumor size (P=0.002), TNM classification (P<0.001) and depth of penetration (P=0.001) were independent factors for thrombocytosis. However, thrombocytosis functioned as an independent prognostic factor for GC patients with a PLT count >400×10(9)/l (relative risk, 1.538; 95% confidence interval, 1.041-2.271). In the majority of patients (17/24) with a high preoperative PLT count that decreased to a normal level following resection, PLT levels increased again at recurrence. Sensitivities and specificities of thrombocytosis for recurrence in those patients were 70.8 and 83.3%, respectively (AUROC, 0.847; P=0.01). Therefore, a PLT count of 400×10(9)/l is a suitable threshold for defining thrombocytosis in GC. Thrombocytosis was shown to affect the blood hypercoagulable state and also have a negative prognostic value for GC patients. PLT monitoring following surgery was useful to predict the recurrence for specific GC patients that suffered preoperative thrombocytosis but had restored PLT levels following resection.
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[Expression and regulatory mechanism of microRNA-155 in the villi of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion patients].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To study the expression and the mechanism of miR-155in the villi of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA).
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[Microwave radiation induces injury to GC-2spd cells].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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To explore the impact of microwave radiation on GC-2spd cells.
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Effects of two sulfated triterpene saponins echinoside A and holothurin A on the inhibition of dietary fat absorption and obesity reduction.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Two similarly sulfated triterpene saponins from Pearsonothuria graeffei were prepared to investigate the anti-obesity effects of echinoside A (EA) and holothurin A (HA). The in vitro inhibitory activities of EA and HA toward pancreatic lipase were investigated, and two in vivo studies were performed: (i) Male Wistar rats were orally administered the lipid emulsion with or without a saponin (HA or EA). The serum's total triglyceride concentration was measured at various times. (ii) C57BL/6 mice were assigned to four groups, high fat (HF), EA (0.03%), HA (0.04%), and orlistat (0.01%), and the weight of adipose tissue and level of fatty acids excreted in the feces were determined. Both EA and HA repressed the pancreatic lipase activity and increased fatty acid excretion in the feces. Treatment with EA and HA significantly decreased the adipose tissue accumulation in mice. EA and HA manifested different inhibitory activities in vitro, but each of them dramatically inhibited lipid absorption in vivo and showed strong anti-obesity activity.
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Inhibitory effect of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides on adipogenesis is dependent on Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The fucosylated chondroitin sulfate was isolated from the sea cucumber Acaudina molpadioides (Am-CHS) and its effect on the adipogenesis was investigated in vitro. Results showed that Am-CHS exhibited a marked anti-adipogenic effect. The TG contents of cells treated with Am-CHS from the early stage, mid stage and later stage were decreased by 31.76%, 19.76% and 13.85%, respectively. Wnt/?-catenin pathway acts as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. It is showed that Am-CHS enhanced the expression of the Wnt/?-catenin related factors, namely Wnt10b, ?-catenin, Fz and LRP, causing more cytoplasmic ?-catenin translocated into the nuclear to inhibit the expression of PPAR? and C/EBP?. SREBP-1c promotes the adipocyte differentiation by enhancing the activity of PPAR?. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and western blotting results revealed that the expressions of SREBP-1c and its transcriptional product FAS were inhibited by Am-CHS. Further study showed that Am-CHS also suppressed the PPAR? and C/EBP? expression. These results indicate that the anti-adipogenic activity of Am-CHS may exhibited by activating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway and down-regulating the SREBP-1c expression. To further verify this conclusion, in vivo experiments were performed. Results revealed that Am-CHS reduced the body adipose rate compared to high-fat-high sucrose diet (HFSD)-fed mice. Western blotting results showed that Am-CHS increased the expression of ?-catenin, a negative regulator in adipogenesis, and decreased that of SREBP-1c, PPAR? and C/EBP?, the positive regulators of adipogenesis in the adipose tissue compared to the HFSD-fed group. These results further confirmed the anti-adipogenic activity of Am-CHS.
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A multi-epitope vaccine based on Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein induces specific immunity in mice.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) multi-epitope of Chlamydia trachomatis. A short gene of multi-epitope derived from MOMP containing multiple T- and B-cell epitopes was artificially synthesized. The recombinant plasmid pET32a(+) containing codon optimized MOMP multi-epitope gene was constructed. Expression of the fusion protein Trx-His-MOMP multi-epitope in Escherichia coli was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis. Balb/c mice were inoculated with the purified fusion protein subcutaneously three times with 2-week intervals. Results showed that the MOMP multi-epitope elicited not only strong humoral immune responses to C. trachomatis by generating significantly high levels of specific antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a), but also a cellular immune response by inducing robust cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in mice. Furthermore, the MOMP multi-epitope substantially primed secretion of IFN-?, revealing that this vaccine could induce a strong Th1 response. Finally, the mice vaccinated with the MOMP multi-epitope displayed a reduction of C. trachomatis shedding upon a chlamydial challenge and an accelerated clearance of the infected C. trachomatis. In conclusion, the MOMP multi-epitope vaccine may have the potentiality for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against the C. trachomatis infection.
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Shufeng Jiedu Capsule protect against acute lung injury by suppressing the MAPK/NF-?B pathway.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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This study sought to investigate the protective effect of an alternative medicine, Shufeng Jiedu Capsule, in acute lung injury and inflammation signaling pathways related to that action. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to observe pathological changes in rat lung tissue, arterial blood was subjected to blood gas analysis and lactic acid levels were determined, immunofluorescent staining for interleukin-1? (IL-1?) was performed, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect biomarkers of the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) inflammation pathway including IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), biomarkers of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway including P-selectin, transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and C-Jun/AP-1 were measured, and real-time PCR was used to detect NF-?B mRNA. Results in rats with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury suggested that Shufeng Jiedu Capsule may increase the partial pressure of oxygen in lung tissue, decrease lactic acid levels, inhibit inflammatory factors such as IL-1? and TNF-?, and suppress the levels of P-selectin, TGF-?, KC, C-Jun/AP-1, and NF-?B mRNA. Thus, Shufeng Jiedu Capsule is a traditional medicine that may alleviate acute lung injury by suppressing the MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathway.
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RNA regulons in Hox 5' UTRs confer ribosome specificity to gene regulation.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Emerging evidence suggests that the ribosome has a regulatory function in directing how the genome is translated in time and space. However, how this regulation is encoded in the messenger RNA sequence remains largely unknown. Here we uncover unique RNA regulons embedded in homeobox (Hox) 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) that confer ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. These structured RNA elements, resembling viral internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), are found in subsets of Hox mRNAs. They facilitate ribosome recruitment and require the ribosomal protein RPL38 for their activity. Despite numerous layers of Hox gene regulation, these IRES elements are essential for converting Hox transcripts into proteins to pattern the mammalian body plan. This specialized mode of IRES-dependent translation is enabled by an additional regulatory element that we term the translation inhibitory element (TIE), which blocks cap-dependent translation of transcripts. Together, these data uncover a new paradigm for ribosome-mediated control of gene expression and organismal development.
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Sulfated modification of longan polysaccharide and its immunomodulatory and antitumor activity in vitro.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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A water-soluble polysaccharide fraction (LP1) was prepared from Dimocarpus longan Lour. by hot water extraction, DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its sulfated derivative (LP1-S) was prepared by the sulfuric acid method. Preliminary tests in vitro showed LP1 and LP1-S could stimulate murine lymphocytes proliferation, increase pinocytic activity of murine macrophages and production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1? and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in macrophages. Furthermore, LP1-S exhibited higher antiproliferative activity against human nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells in vitro than LP1, which might be caused by the sulfate group in its structures. These results indicated that the LP1-S might be useful for developing safe antitumor drugs or health food.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphisms and risk for sporadic Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Numerous studies have tested for associations between common polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene and sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD), but results have been inconclusive. Using meta-analysis, our study aimed to clarify the nature of the genetic risks contributed by the three polymorphisms (rs4291, rs4343, rs1800764) for developing SAD. Through searching of Pubmed, Embase, Alzgene and manually searching relevant references, a total of 14 articles with 26 independent studies were included. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association studies. The heterogeneity across the studies was tested, as was publication bias. We observed significant association between SNP rs4291 and SAD using allelic comparison (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI 1.03-1.14), homozygote comparison (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.04-1.30) and the recessive model (OR = 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.18). Association with SNP rs1800764 was revealed but it was not sufficiently robust to withstand the Benjamini-Hochberg method and stepdown Bonferroni correction. Significant association was not identified in the analysis for SNP rs4343. In subgroup analyses, the risk of SAD associated with SNP rs4291 appeared to be significant among Caucasians and in older cases (mean age ?75 years). Our results confirmed a significant but modest association between SNP rs4291 and SAD susceptibility. Further study of the pathogenetic characteristics of this polymorphism and independent confirmation of the association in larger studies are warranted.
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The differential expression of microRNA-143,145 in endometriosis.
Iran J Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Background: Recent studies showed that inappropriate expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is strongly associated with tumor-related processes in humans (2-9,11-17). Objective: To understand the changes of miRNAs in endometriosis. Materials and Methods: With real-time RT-PCR, we investigated the miR-143 and miR-145 expression in eutopic (EU, n=2) and ectopic endometrium (EC, n=11) (from women with endometriosis) (as well as EU+EC, n=11), along with the normal endometrium (EN, n=22) (from women without endometriosis, but with leiomyoma). Results: We did not find that the expression of miR-143 and/or miR-145 in EN or EC changed with menstrual cycle. But our results showed the miR-143 was up-regulated in EC (p=0.000) compared to EN. The miR-143 was also up-regulated in EU, but the difference did not reach statistically significance (p=0.053). Compared to EU, the expression of miR-143 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.016). MiR-145 had the similar characteristic to miR-143. The miR-145 was up-regulated in both EU (p=0.004) and EC (p=0.000) in compared to EN group. When compared with EU, the miR-145 in EC was up-regulated (p=0.008). Conclusion: In conclusion, the miR-143 and miR-145 may play a certain role in the development and progression of endometriosis.
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SMN1 duplications contribute to sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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To investigate the association between SMN1 and SMN2 copy number variations (CNVs) and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS) by a meta-analysis.
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The negative ion photoelectron spectrum of meta-benzoquinone radical anion (MBQ??): a joint experimental and computational study.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Negative ion photoelectron (NIPE) spectra of the radical anion of meta-benzoquinone (MBQ, m-OC6H4O) have been obtained at 20 K, using both 355 and 266 nm lasers for electron photodetachment. The spectra show well-resolved peaks and complex spectral patterns. The electron affinity of MBQ is determined from the first resolved peak to be 2.875 ± 0.010 eV. Single-point, CASPT2/aug-cc-pVTZ//CASPT2/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations predict accurately the positions of the 0-0 bands in the NIPE spectrum for formation of the four lowest electronic states of neutral MBQ from the (2)A2 state of MBQ(•-). In addition, the Franck-Condon factors that are computed from the CASPT2/aug-cc-pVDZ optimized geometries, vibrational frequencies, and normal mode vectors, successfully simulate the intensities and frequencies of the vibrational peaks in the NIPE spectrum that are associated with each of these electronic states. The successful simulation of the NIPE spectrum of MBQ(•-) allows the assignment of (3)B2 as the ground state of MBQ, followed by the (1)B2 and (1)A1 electronic states, respectively 9.0 ± 0.2 and 16.6 ± 0.2 kcal/mol higher in energy than the triplet. These experimental energy differences are in good agreement with the calculated values of 9.7 and 15.7 kcal/mol. The relative energies of these two singlet states in MBQ confirm the previous prediction that their relative energies would be reversed from those in meta-benzoquinodimethane (MBQDM, m-CH2C6H4CH2).
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Kojic acid protects C57BL/6 mice from gamma-irradiation induced damage.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The radioprotective effects of a single administration of kojic acid (KA) against ionizing radiation were evaluated via assessment of 30-day survival and alterations of peripheral blood parameters of adult C57BL/6 male mice. The 30-day survival rate of mice pretreated with KA (75 or 300 mg/kg body weight, KA75 or KA300) subcutaneously 27 h prior to a lethal dose (8 Gy, 153.52 cGy/min) of gamma irradiation was higher than that of mice irradiated alone (40% or 60% vs 0%). It was observed that the white blood cell (WBC) count/the red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit and platelet count of mice with or without KA pretreatment as exposed to a sub-lethal dose (4 Gy, 148.14 cGy/min) of gamma irradiation decreased maximally at day 4/day 8 post-irradiation. Although the initial WBC values were low in KA300 or WR-2721 (amifostine) groups, they significantly recovered to normal at day 19, whereas in the control group they did not. The results from the cytotoxicity and cell viability assays demonstrated that KA could highly protect Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells against ionizing radiation with low toxicity. In summary, KA provides marked radioprotective effects both in vivo and in vitro.
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Expression and effect of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Chemokines are important in the proliferation and metastasis of tumors. CXCL14 is a member of the CXCL chemokine family and exhibits various expression patterns in different types of tumor, even those tumors that occur in the same type of tissue. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in colorectal carcinoma are unclear. In the present study, the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan?Meier survival curves and the Cox regression model were applied to evaluate the clinical significance of the expression levels of CXCL14 in colorectal carcinoma compared with those in normal tissues. To investigate the effects at a cellular level, a replication?defective lentivirus overexpressing CXCL14 was constructed and transfected into HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells. The effect of CXCL14 on the proliferation of colorectal carcinoma cells and the change in cell cycle distributions were investigated using a cell counting kit?8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results of the current study indicated that the expression levels of CXCL14 mRNA and protein in colorectal carcinoma were markedly reduced compared with levels in normal tissues (P<0.05). The clinical correlation analysis suggested that downregulation of CXCL14 expression in tumors was associated with lymph metastasis, tumor location, and clinicopathological stage (P<0.05). Kaplan?Meier survival analysis revealed that downregulation of CXCL14 expression was correlated with a poor prognosis (P<0.01). Overexpression of CXCL14 by lentiviral transfection produced an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G1 stage. The data of the current study suggest that CXCL14 may be involved in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma, and may act directly as a potential cancer suppressor gene. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma and may be a potential therapeutic target.
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Latent infection of human cytomegalovirus is associated with the development of gastric cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The worldwide contagion, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), may cause a series of disorders in infected individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether HCMV infection is associated with the development of gastric cancer. In this study, the positive expression of unique long (UL)133-UL138 and immediate-early (IE)1 genes, which are associated with viral latency and replication, respectively, were detected using nested polymerase chain reaction. A ?(2) test and logistic regression analysis were performed to further investigate the preliminary data. The data indicated that the positive rate of UL133, UL135 and UL136 expression in cancer tissues was higher than that in paired normal tissues (P=0.01, 0.027 and 0.013, respectively). However, no significant differences were identified in the UL133-138 locus and IE1 gene when associated with clinicopathological features. Furthermore, seven infection patterns were identified, with the UL133 + UL138 infection pattern representing the largest proportion in the cancer (60.34%) and normal tissues (42.11%). In conclusion, it is possible that the UL133-UL138 locus is important in the occurrence of gastric cancer. The mechanism by which UL133-UL138 locus expression differs in human gastric cancer requires further investigation.
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[Expression of HPV16 E7 protein and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To prepare a prokaryotic expression vector carrying E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and a polyclonal antibody against it.
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Aging-related neurodegeneration eliminates male courtship choice in Drosophila.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Choices between 2 options, one liked and one disliked, are effortless for an animal, whereas those among 2 equally liked options are more difficult to determine and might depend on an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, both younger virgin females and older ones are "liked options" to males. However, when given the choice, males tend to be fastidious and prefer younger virgin females to older ones. Besides, aging eliminates males' preference for younger mates, which can be mimicked by ectopically expressing the human amyloid precursor protein in their central nervous system. Furthermore, we examined the effect of neurodegeneration in Drosophila courtship circuit and confirmed that male courtship preference for younger mates was abrogated by neurodegeneration. Our work, thus characterizes a novel choice behavior that can be decisions after comparison and also reveals the critical role of neurodegeneration in this behavior, which provides new insights on decision-making mechanisms.
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Structure and antitumor and immunomodulatory activities of a water-soluble polysaccharide from Dimocarpus longan pulp.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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A new water-soluble polysaccharide (longan polysaccharide 1 (LP1)) was extracted and successfully purified from Dimocarpus longan pulp via diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose anion-exchange and Sephacryl S-300 HR gel chromatography. The chemical structure was determined using Infrared (IR), gas chromatography (GC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicated that the molecular weight of the sample was 1.1 × 10(5) Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that LP1 was composed of Glc, GalA, Ara and Gal in a molar ratio of 5.39:1.04:0.74:0.21. Structural analysis indicated that LP1 consisted of a backbone of ? 4)-?-D-Glcp-(1 ? 4)-?-D-GALPA-(1 ? 4)-?-D-Glcp-(1 ? 4)-?-D-Glcp-(1 ? units with poly saccharide side chains composed of ? 2)-?-D-Fruf-(1 ? 2)-L-sorbose-(1 ? attached to the O-6 position of the ?-D-Glcp residues. In vitro experiments indicated that LP1 had significantly high antitumor activity against SKOV3 and HO8910 tumor cells, with inhibition percentages of 40% and 50%, respectively. In addition, LP1 significantly stimulated the production of the cytokine interferon-? (IFN-?), increased the activity of murine macrophages and enhanced B- and T-lymphocyte proliferation. The results of this study demonstrate that LP1 has potential applications as a natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity.
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Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber improves insulin sensitivity via activation of PI3K/PKB pathway.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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This study was to investigate the effects of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (CHS) from sea cucumber on insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic mice induced by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD). CHS supplementation for 19 wk significantly improved insulin sensitivity by 20%, and reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. Western blotting assay showed that CHS significantly increased insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation to 1.7-fold, phosphorylation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) at p85 to 5.0-fold, protein kinase B (PKB) at Ser473 to 1.5-fold, and Thr308 to 1.6-fold in skeletal muscle. However, PI3K, PKB, and GLUT4 total proteins expression were unchangeable. In addition, qRT-PCR analysis proved that the insulin signaling was activated by CHS treatment, showing the increased mRNA expressions of glucose uptake-related key genes. It indicated that CHS improved insulin sensitivity by activation of PI3K/PKB signaling in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic mice. Identification of potential mechanism by which CHS increased insulin sensitivity might provide a new functional food or pharmaceutical application of sea cucumber.
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A new surgical procedure for palmar hyperhidrosis: is it possible to perform endoscopic sympathectomy under deep sedation without intubation?
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Palmar hyperhidrosis (PH) is a common dysfunctional disorder, with endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) being the most popular treatment method. However, until now, there is little improvement to this technique. In this paper, we present a new alternative to the conventional surgical method.
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Effects of dietary sea cucumber saponin on the gene expression rhythm involved in circadian clock and lipid metabolism in mice during nighttime-feeding.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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In mammals, clock rhythms exist not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is entrained by light/dark (LD) cycles, but also in most peripheral tissues. Recent studies have revealed that most physiology and behavior are subject to well-controlled daily oscillations; similarly, metabolic state influences the diurnal rhythm too. Previous studies have indicated that dietary sea cucumber saponin (SCS) could improve glucose and lipid metabolism of rodent. However, whether SCS could affect the expression of clock genes, which is involved in lipid metabolism, is unknown at present. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of SCS on the clock and clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism. ICR male mice were divided into a control and SCS group mice (add 0.03% sea cucumber saponin to regular chow) and were fed at night (2030-0830 hours). After 2 weeks, clock genes expression in brain and liver, blood glucose, hormones, and lipid metabolic markers were analyzed. The results showed that dietary SCS caused alteration in rhythms and/or amplitudes of clock genes was more significant in brain than in liver. In addition, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?), sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), together with their target genes carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) showed marked changes in rhythm and/or amplitude in SCS group mice. These results suggested that SCS could affect the daily expression patterns of clock genes in brain and liver tissues, and alter the clock-controlled genes involved in lipid metabolism.
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Jellyfish skin polysaccharides: extraction and inhibitory activity on macrophage-derived foam cell formation.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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In this work, response surface methodology was used to determine optimum conditions for extraction of polysaccharides from jellyfish skin (JSP). The optimum parameters were found to be raw material to water ratio 1:7.5 (w/v), extraction temperature 100°C and extraction time 4h. Under these conditions, the JSP yield reached 1.007 mg/g. Papain (15 U/mL) in combination with Sevag reagent was beneficial in removing proteins from JSP. After precipitation with ethanol at final concentration of 40%, 60% and 80% in turn, three polysaccharide fractions of JSP1, JSP2 and JSP3 were obtained from JSP, respectively. The three fractions exhibited different physicochemical properties with respect to molecular weight distribution, monosaccharide composition, infrared absorption spectra, and glycosyl bond composition. In addition, JSP3 showed strong inhibitory effects on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) induced conversion of macrophages into foam cells, which possibly attributed to the down-regulation of some atherogenesis-related gene expressions.
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Interleukin-6 -634C/G polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Several studies have examined the associations of polymorphisms in interleukin-6 (IL6) with lung cancer (LC) risk. However, the results were conflicting. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between IL6 polymorphisms and LC risk. Databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Thirteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association between IL6 -634C/G polymorphism and LC susceptibility was observed for GG?+?CG vs. CC (OR?=?1.33, 95% CI 1.20-1.47, P?
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Hepatitis B virus surface antigen as delivery vector can enhance Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope immune response in mice.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. trachomatis is considered to be an ideal candidate for prophylactic vaccine. We designed a MOMP multi-epitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides and developed hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as antigen delivery vehicle. In order to study the immunogenicity and efficacy of the candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection, we engineered a recombinant plasmid expressing HBsAg and MOMP multi-epitope genes. Results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay revealed successful expression of the recombinant HBsAg/MOMP multi-epitope gene at both the transcription and translation levels. Intramuscular administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Chlamydia and HBsAg but also cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against Chlamydia. In addition, mice inoculated with the rHBsAg were highly resistant to C. trachomatis genital infection. The rHBsAg DNA with MOMP multi-epitope appended at the C terminus of the HBsAg stimulated a stronger immune response and protective response than that appended at the N terminus. Together, our results suggested that use of a recombinant HBsAg encoding the MOMP multi-epitope could be a powerful approach to developing a safe and immunogenic C. trachomatis vaccine.
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Neuromechanism Study of Insect-Machine Interface: Flight Control by Neural Electrical Stimulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The insect-machine interface (IMI) is a novel approach developed for man-made air vehicles, which directly controls insect flight by either neuromuscular or neural stimulation. In our previous study of IMI, we induced flight initiation and cessation reproducibly in restrained honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) via electrical stimulation of the bilateral optic lobes. To explore the neuromechanism underlying IMI, we applied electrical stimulation to seven subregions of the honeybee brain with the aid of a new method for localizing brain regions. Results showed that the success rate for initiating honeybee flight decreased in the order: ?-lobe (or ?-lobe), ellipsoid body, lobula, medulla and antennal lobe. Based on a comparison with other neurobiological studies in honeybees, we propose that there is a cluster of descending neurons in the honeybee brain that transmits neural excitation from stimulated brain areas to the thoracic ganglia, leading to flight behavior. This neural circuit may involve the higher-order integration center, the primary visual processing center and the suboesophageal ganglion, which is also associated with a possible learning and memory pathway. By pharmacologically manipulating the electrically stimulated honeybee brain, we have shown that octopamine, rather than dopamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, plays a part in the circuit underlying electrically elicited honeybee flight. Our study presents a new brain stimulation protocol for the honeybee-machine interface and has solved one of the questions with regard to understanding which functional divisions of the insect brain participate in flight control. It will support further studies to uncover the involved neurons inside specific brain areas and to test the hypothesized involvement of a visual learning and memory pathway in IMI flight control.
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Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice.
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Myocardial Injury after Surgery Is a Risk Factor for Weaning Failure from Mechanical Ventilation in Critical Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a newly proposed concept that is common among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and associated with substantial mortality. We analyzed whether MINS was a risk factor for weaning failure in critical patients who underwent major abdominal surgery.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a major determining factor in the development of sporadic Alzheimer disease: evidence from an updated meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism have long been linked to sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD), but the established data remained controversial. To clarify this inconsistency, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted. Through searching of Pubmed, Embase, Alzgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and manually searching relevant references, 53 independent studies from 48 articles were included, involving a total of 8153 cases and 14932 controls. The strength of association was assessed by using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Further stratified analyses and heterogeneity analyses were tested, as was publication bias. Overall, significant associations were revealed between I/D polymorphism and SAD risk using allelic comparison (OR?=?1.09, 95%CI?=?1.01-1.17, p?=?0.030), homozygote comparison (OR?=?1.17, 95%CI?=?1.01-1.34, p?=?0.030) and the dominant model (OR?=?1.16, 95%CI?=?1.04-1.29, p?=?0.008), but they were not sufficiently robust to withstand the false-positive report probability (FPRP) analyses. Otherwise, in subgroup analyses restricted to the high quality studies, the large sample size studies and studies with population-based controls, no significant association was observed in any genetic models. In summary, the current meta-analysis suggested that the ACE I/D polymorphism is unlikely to be a major determining factor in the development of SAD.
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Multiple-integrations of HPV16 genome and altered transcription of viral oncogenes and cellular genes are associated with the development of cervical cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The constitutive expression of the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 viral oncogenes is the major cause of cervical cancer. To comprehensively explore the composition of HPV16 early transcripts and their genomic annotation, cervical squamous epithelial tissues from 40 HPV16-infected patients were collected for analysis of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT). We observed different transcription patterns of HPV16 oncogenes in progression of cervical lesions to cervical cancer and identified one novel transcript. Multiple-integration events in the tissues of cervical carcinoma (CxCa) are significantly more often than those of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Moreover, most cellular genes within or near these integration sites are cancer-associated genes. Taken together, this study suggests that the multiple-integrations of HPV genome during persistent viral infection, which thereby alters the expression patterns of viral oncogenes and integration-related cellular genes, play a crucial role in progression of cervical lesions to cervix cancer.
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Effects of Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang and its modified formula on the modulation of amyloid-? precursor protein processing in Alzheimer's disease models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Huanglian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT) is a famous traditional Chinese herbal formula that has been widely used clinically to treat cerebral ischemia. Recently, we found that berberine, a major alkaloid compound in HLJDT, reduced amyloid-? (A?) accumulation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. In this study, we compared the effects of HLJDT, four single component herbs of HLJDT (Rhizoma coptidis (RC), Radix scutellariae (RS), Cortex phellodendri (CP) and Fructus gardenia (FG)) and the modified formula of HLJDT (HLJDT-M, which is free of RS) on the regulatory processing of amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) in an in vitro model of AD. Here we show that treatment with HLJDT-M and its components RC, CP, and the main compound berberine on N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human APP with the Swedish mutation (N2a-SwedAPP) significantly decreased the levels of full-length APP, phosphorylated APP at threonine 668, C-terminal fragments of APP, soluble APP (sAPP)-? and sAPP?-Swedish and reduced the generation of A? peptide in the cell lysates of N2a-SwedAPP. HLJDT-M showed more significant APP- and A?- reducing effects than berberine, RC or CP treatment alone. In contrast, HLJDT, its component RS and the main active compound of RS, baicalein, strongly increased the levels of all the metabolic products of APP in the cell lysates. The extract from FG, however, did not influence APP modulation. Interestingly, regular treatment of TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice with baicalein exacerbated the amyloid plaque burden, APP metabolism and A? production. Taken together, these data provide convincing evidence that HLJDT and baicalein treatment can increase the amyloidogenic metabolism of APP which is at least partly responsible for the baicalein-mediated A? plaque increase in the brains of TgCRND8 mice. On the other hand, HLJDT-M significantly decreased all the APP metabolic products including A?. Further study of HLJDT-M for therapeutic use in treating AD is warranted.
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Method to Detect Contaminants in Heparin Using Radical Depolymerization and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Heparin is a critically important anticoagulant drug that was contaminated with a persulfonated polysaccharide in 2008, resulting in a number of severe adverse reactions, some leading to death. Controversy remains as to the precise composition of the 2008 contaminant, and new information suggests that heparin may now be subject to adulteration with a new, difficult to detect, contaminant, N-sulfo oversulfated chondroitin sulfate. This study synthesizes this new potential contaminant and describes the use of radical depolymerization followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to detect N-sulfo oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and to confirm the structure of the 2008 contaminant as oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and not oversulfated heparan sulfate.
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Covalently Bound Tetracoordinated Organoborons as Superhalogens: A Combined Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Study.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Molecular species with electron affinities (EAs) larger than that of the chlorine atom (3.6131 eV) are superhalogens. The corresponding negative ions, namely, superhalogen anions, are intrinsically very stable with high electron binding energies (EBEs) and widely exist as building blocks of bulk materials and ionic liquids. The most common superhalogen anions proposed and experimentally confirmed to date are either ionic salts or compact inorganic species. Herein, we report a new class of superhalogen species, a series of tetracoordinated organoboron anions [BL4](-) (L = phenyl (1), 4-fluorophenyl (2), 1-imidazolyl (3), L4 = H(pyrazolyl)3 (4)) with bulky organic ligands covalently bound to the central B atom. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) reveals that all of these anions possess EBEs higher than that of Cl(-) with the adiabatic/vertical detachment energy (ADE/VDE) of 4.44/4.8 (1), 4.78/5.2 (2), 5.08/5.4 (3), and 4.59/4.9 eV (4), respectively. First-principles calculations confirmed high EBEs of [BL4](-) and predicted that these anions are thermodynamically stable against fragmentation. The unraveled superhalogen nature of these species provides a molecular basis to explain the wide-ranging applications of tetraphenylborate (TPB) (1) and trispyrazolylborate (Tp) (4) in many areas spanning from industrial waste treatment to soft material synthesis and organometallic chemistry.
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Complementary and alternative medicine is expected to make greater contribution in controlling the prevalence of influenza.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Influenza pandemics are a serious threat to public health in todays world. In the past 10 years, the outbreak of three forms of severe influenza--H5N1, H1N1, and H7N9--has caused tremendous loss of life and property. In order to better cope with pandemics, antivirals such as oseltamivir are being stockpiled in great quantities, placing a substantial burden on government budgets and potentially resulting in massive waste because of the uncertainty as to when an influenza pandemic will strike and whether emerging virus strains will be resistant to the stockpiled drugs. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is generally available, affordable, and commonly used in China and many other countries and CAM has a long track record of fighting influenza. The Chinese Government appropriated funds to intensively investigate herbal medicines in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine in order to identify effective, inexpensive, and easily stockpiled medicines. Thus far, several drugs including Shufeng Jiedu capsules, Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Maxing Shigan decoction, Yinqiao powder, and Jinhua Qinggan granules have demonstrated effectiveness in fighting influenza. In the future, CAM is expected to make greater contribution in controlling the prevalence of influenza pandemics.
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Hydrogen-bond networks: strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds and an alternative to the low barrier hydrogen-bond proposal.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen-bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.
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Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber in combination with rosiglitazone improved glucose metabolism in the liver of the insulin-resistant mice.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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This study investigated the effects of a combination of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (CHS) and rosiglitazone (RSG) on glucose metabolism in the liver of insulin-resistant C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 19 weeks. The results showed that the combination (CHS/RSG) synergistically improved body weight gain, liver weight, fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance on an oral glucose tolerance test, serum insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment indexes, and hepatic glycogen content. In liver tissue, CHS/RSG significantly normalized the activities of hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. In additionally, it increased the mRNA expression of insulin receptors, insulin receptor substrate 2, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glycogen synthase, and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase 3?(GSK-3?) mRNA expression in the liver. This suggests that CHS/RSG treatment improves glucose metabolism by modulating metabolic enzymes and strengthening the PI3K/PKB/GSK-3? signal pathway mediated by insulin at the transcriptional level.
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In vitro and in vivo characteristics of hepatic oval cells modified with human hepatocyte growth factor.
Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional growth factor that controls cell scattering. It has been suggested that it regulates the proliferation of hepatic oval cells (HOCs). Using a HOC line that stably expresses the human HGF gene (hHGF), we investigated the in vitro proliferation and differentiation characteristics of hHGF-modified HOCs and explored their potential capacity for intrahepatic transplantation. A modified 2-acetylaminofluorene and partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) model was established to activate the proliferation of oval cells in the rat liver. HOCs were transfected with the pBLAST2-hHGF plasmid and hHGF-carrying HOCs were selected based on blasticidin resistance. The level of hHGF secretion was determined via ELISA. Cell proliferation was determined using the MTT assay. Differentiation was induced by growth factor withdrawal. A two-cuff technique was used for orthotopic liver transplantation, and HOCs or hHGF-modified HOCs were transplanted into the recipients. The levels of biochemical indicators of liver function were measured after transplantation. An HOC line stably expressing hHGF was established. The transfected line showed greater hHGF secretion than normal HOCs. The hHGF gene promoted the proliferation capability of HOCs by reducing the peak time in vitro. The hHGF-modified HOCs differentiated into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells upon growth factor withdrawal in vitro. In addition, hHGF-modified HOC transplantation significantly prolonged the median survival time (MST) and improved the liver function of recipients compared to HOC transplant recipients and nontransplanted controls. Our results indicate that hHGF-modified HOCs may have valuable properties for therapeutic liver regeneration after orthotopic liver transplantation.
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The ground state of (CS)4 is different from that of (CO)4: an experimental test of a computational prediction by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Cyclobutane-1,2,3,4-tetrathione, (CS)4, has recently been calculated to have a singlet ground state, (1)A1g, in which the highest b2g ? MO is doubly occupied and the lowest a2u ? MO is empty. Thus, (CS)4 is predicted to have a different ground state than its lighter congener, (CO)4, which has a triplet ground state, (3)B1u, in which these two MOs are each singly occupied. Here, we report the results of a negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) study of the radical anion (CS)4(•-), designed to test the prediction that (CS)4 has a singlet ground state. The NIPE spectrum reveals that (CS)4 does, indeed, have a singlet ground state with electron affinity (EA) = 3.75 eV. The lowest triplet state is found to lie 0.31 eV higher in energy than the ground state, and the open-shell singlet is 0.14 eV higher in energy than the triplet state. Calculations at the (U)CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//(U)B3LYP/6-311+G(2df) level support the spectral assignments, giving EA = 3.71 eV and ?EST = 0.44 eV. These calculated values are, respectively, 0.04 eV (0.9 kcal/mol) smaller and 0.13 eV (3.0 kcal/mol) larger than the corresponding experimental values. In addition, RASPT2 calculations with various active spaces and basis sets converge on a (1)B1u-(3)B1u energy gap of 0.137 eV, in excellent agreement with the 0.14 eV energy difference obtained from the NIPE spectrum. Finally, calculations of the Franck-Condon factors for transitions from the ground state of (CS)4(•-) to the ground ((1)A1g) and two excited states ((3)B1u, (1)B1u) of (CS)4 account for all of the major spectral peaks and nicely reproduce the vibrational structure observed in each electronic transition. The close correspondence between the calculated and the observed features in the NIPE spectrum of (CS)4(•-) provides unequivocal proof that (CS)4, unlike (CO)4, has a singlet ground state.
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Physiological Effects of l-Theanine on Drosophila melanogaster.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Green tea has been consumed as the most popular drink in East Asia for centuries, and is believed to have a wide range of health benefits. l-Theanine, the major component of the free amino acids in green tea, has been reported to display neuronal protection and tumor inhibition in vitro, but its physiological effects on animal development and behavior remain elusive. In this report, we used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism to investigate the physiological effects of L-theanine. Flies were fed with three different concentrations of theanine as a dietary supplement after eclosion, and were examined for a variety of physiological parameters at different time points. We found theanine treatment results in significantly increased locomotion and courtship ability, and decreased resistance against wet and dry starvation in males, but not in females. Furthermore, theanine application diminished UV tolerance in females, but not in males. However, we did not perceive distinguishable effect of theanine on animal development, life span, weight, and tolerance of heat and anoxia. This work represents the first comprehensive physiological investigation of L-theanine at the whole animal level, and shall shed light on the mechanistic study of theanine in the future.
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Photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study of M(IO3)2(-) (M = H, Li, Na, K): structural evolution, optical isomers, and hyperhalogen behavior.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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H(IO3)2(-) and M(IO3)2(-) (M = Li, Na, K) anions were successfully produced via electrospray ionization of their corresponding bulk salt solutions, and were characterized by combining negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The experimental vertical detachment energies (VDEs) of M(IO3)2(-) (M = H, Li, Na, K) are 6.25, 6.57, 6.60, and 6.51 eV, respectively, and they are much higher than that of IO3(-) (4.77 eV). The theoretical calculations show that each of these anions has two energetically degenerate optical isomers. It is found that the structure of H(IO3)2(-) can be written as IO3(-)(HIO3), in which the H atom is tightly bound to one of the IO3(-) groups and forms an iodic acid (HIO3) molecule; while the structures of M(IO3)2(-) can be written as (IO3(-))M(+)(IO3(-)), in which the alkali metal atoms interact with the two IO3(-) groups almost equally and bridge the two IO3(-) groups via two O atoms of each IO3(-) with the two MOOI planes nearly perpendicular to each other. In addition, the high VDEs of M(IO3)2(-) (M = Li, Na, K) can be explained by the hyperhalogen behavior of their neutral counterparts.
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[Meta-analysis of risk factors for childhood cerebral palsy during pregnancy].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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To investigate major risk factors for childhood cerebral palsy (CP) during pregnancy and to provide evidence for the prevention of CP.
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Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-?, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-?, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). These findings suggested that Cucumaria-PC exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activities through up-regulating PI3K/PKB signal pathway mediated by insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus.
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Patient experiences with inpatient care in rural China.
Int J Qual Health Care
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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To describe patient experiences with hospital inpatient care among participants living in rural China and to examine their associations with sociodemographic characteristics, hospital type and province.
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A tripeptide (NSK) inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major pathogen that can cause acute viral encephalitis in both humans and animals. Domain III of the viral envelope protein (EDIII) is involved in binding to host cell receptor(s) to facilitate virus entry. Our previous study showed that the loop3 peptide of EDIII possesses antiviral activity against JEV infection. In this paper, we demonstrate that three residues (NSK) in loop3 are responsible for the antiviral activity of loop3 peptide. In vitro experiments showed that the tripeptide NSK could inhibit JEV infection in both BHK-21 and Neuro-2A cells by inhibiting attachment of JEV to the cells, with IC50 values of 8 ?M and 6.5 ?M, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that the tripeptide could increase the survival of mice challenged with JEV to 75 % when administrated intracerebrally. Therefore, this tripeptide may serve as the basis for the development of novel antiviral agents against Japanese encephalitis virus infection.
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Abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region downregulates chemokine CXC ligand 14 expression in gastric cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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CXCL14, a new member of the CXC subfamily of chemokines, is differentially expressed in several types of tumors. The expression of CXCL14 and its clinical significance in gastric cancer are unclear to date. In this study, the expression of CXCL14 was detected by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry assay. DNA methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. Students t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to evaluate the differences of the CXCL14 expression between the groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox regression model were used to evaluate the clinical significance of CXCL14 expression in gastric cancer. Data indicated that the levels of CXCL14 mRNA declined (P<0.001) in gastric carcinoma tissues compared to the paired normal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed the decrease of CXCL14 protein in the tumor tissue (P<0.001). Analysis of CpG islands methylation in CXCL14 promoter region and first exon area indicated that the abnormal hypermethylation of promoter region in tumor tissue is one of the mechanisms causing the reduction. When gastric cancer cells were demethylated with 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine, CXCL14 expression was restored. Downregulation of CXCL14 was associated with the depth of penetration (P<0.001) and positively correlated with prognosis in stage III/IV (P=0.046). In conclusion, it is possible that CXCL14 is involved in the development and progression of gastric cancer. Hypermethylation in the promoter is one of the reasons that CXCL14 has lower expression in gastric adenocarcinoma tissues. The level of CXCL14 expression may be a valuable adjuvant parameter in predicting the prognosis of gastric cancer patients and, thus, a potential therapeutic target.
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Electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups in combination with hydrogen bonds in polyols: Brønsted acids, hydrogen-bond catalysts, and anion receptors.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Electron-withdrawing trifluoromethyl groups were characterized in combination with hydrogen-bond interactions in three polyols (i.e., CF3CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CF3, 1; (CF3)2C(OH)C(OH)(CF3)2, 2; ((CF3)2C(OH)CH2)2CHOH, 3) by pKa measurements in DMSO and H2O, negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and binding constant determinations with Cl(-). Their catalytic behavior in several reactions were also examined and compared to a Brønsted acid (HOAc) and a commonly employed thiourea ((3,5-(CF3)2C6H3NH)2CS). The combination of inductive stabilization and hydrogen bonds was found to afford potent acids which are effective catalysts. It also appears that hydrogen bonds can transmit the inductive effect over distance even in an aqueous environment, and this has far reaching implications.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and decreases invasion of glioma cell.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol in green tea, has been considered a potential therapeutic and chemopreventive agent for cancer. Glioma is a malignant tumor with high mortality but effective therapy has not yet been developed. In this study, we found that EGCG induced apoptosis in U251 glioma cells via the laminin receptor (molecular weight 67kDa) in a time- and dose-dependent manner, decreased their invasiveness and inhibited their proliferation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was shown to be involved in glioma cell apoptosis and proliferation. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were reduced after EGCG treatment. These results suggest that EGCG has important therapeutic effects with low toxicity and side-effects, and could be used in cancer chemoprevention.
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Structure elucidation of fucoidan composed of a novel tetrafucose repeating unit from sea cucumber Thelenota ananas.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Thelenota ananas is one of the most popular edible sea cucumber species consumed in China and some Southeast Asian countries. In this study, the delicate structure of fucoidan from T. ananas (Ta-FUC) was clarified. Oligosaccharides and low molecular weight polysaccharides of Ta-FUC were prepared by enzymatic degradation. Their structures, which retained primary structural features of Ta-FUC, were investigated using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. As a result, Ta-FUC was found to be composed of a novel tetrafucose repeating unit [?3-?-L-Fucp-1?3-?-L-Fucp-1?3-?-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1?3-?-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1?]. Meanwhile, it was proven to possess a significant inhibitory effect on superoxide radicals with an IC50 of 17.46±0.14?g/ml. This effect was related to its sulphation pattern.
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