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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of TiO2 and Ag Nanoparticles on Polyhydroxybutyrate Biosynthesis By Activated Sludge Bacteria.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are increasingly incorporated into consumer products that are disposed into sewage. In wastewater treatment, MNMs adsorb to activated sludge biomass where they may impact biological wastewater treatment performance, including nutrient removal. Here, we studied MNM effects on bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), specifically polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), biosynthesis because of its importance to enhanced biological phosphorus (P) removal (EBPR). Activated sludge was sampled from an anoxic selector of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and PHB-containing bacteria were concentrated by density gradient centrifugation. After starvation to decrease intracellular PHB stores, bacteria were nutritionally augmented to promote PHB biosynthesis while being exposed to either MNMs (TiO2 or Ag) or to Ag salts (each at a concentration of 5 mg L-1). Cellular PHB concentration and PhyloChip community composition were analyzed. The final bacterial community composition differed from activated sludge, demonstrating that laboratory enrichment was selective. Still, PHB was synthesized to near-activated sludge levels. Ag salts altered final bacterial communities, although MNMs did not. PHB biosynthesis was diminished with Ag (salt or MNMs), indicating the potential for Ag-MNMs to physiologically impact EBPR through the effects of dissolved Ag ions on PHB producers.
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A Chemical Tuned Strategy to Develop Novel Irreversible EGFR-TK Inhibitors with Improved Safety and Pharmacokinetic Profiles.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Gatekeeper T790M mutation in EGFR is the most prevalent factor underlying acquired resistance. Acrylamide-bearing quinazoline derivatives are powerful irreversible inhibitors for overcoming resistance. Nevertheless, concerns about the risk of non-specific covalent modification have motivated the development of novel cysteine-targeting inhibitors. In this paper, we demonstrate that fluoro-substituted olefins can be tuned to alter Michael addition reactivity. Incorporation of these olefins into the quinazoline templates produced potent EGFR inhibitors with improved safety and pharmacokinetic properties. A lead compound 5a was validated against EGFRWT, EGFR T790M as well as A431 and H1975 cancer cell lines. Additionally, compound 5a displayed a weaker inhibition against the EGFR-independent cancer cell line SW620 when compared withafatinib. Oral administration of 5a at a dose of 30mg/kg induced tumor regression in a murine-EGFRL858R/T790M driven H1975 xenograft model. Also, 5a exhibited improved oral bioavailability and safety, as well as favorable tissue distribution properties and enhanced brain uptake. These findings provide the basis of a promising strategy toward the treatment of NSCLC patients with drug resistance.
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The kiss/kissr systems are dispensable for zebrafish reproduction: evidence from gene knockout studies.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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The kiss1/gpr54 signaling system is considered to be a critical regulator of reproduction in most vertebrates. However this presumption has not been tested vigorously in non-mammalian vertebrates. Distinct from mammals, multiple kiss1/gpr54 paralogous genes (kiss/kissr) have been identified in non-mammalian vertebrates, raising the possibility of functional redundancy among these genes. In this study, we have systematically generated the zebrafish kiss1(-/-), kiss2(-/-) and kiss1(-/-);kiss2(-/-) mutant lines as well as the kissr1(-/-), kissr2(-/-) and kissr1(-/-);kissr2(-/-) mutant lines using transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs). We have demonstrated that spermatogenesis and folliculogenesis as well as reproductive capability are not impaired in all of these six mutant lines. Collectively, our results indicate that kiss/kissr signaling is not absolutely required for zebrafish reproduction, suggesting that the kiss/kissr systems play non-essential roles for reproduction in certain non-mammalian vertebrates. These findings also demonstrated that fish and mammals have evolved different strategies for neuroendocrine control of reproduction.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara (Perciformes: Serranidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of the Epinephelus akaara was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743?bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of Epinephelus akaara mitochondrial genome was similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 27.31% of A, 16.20% of C, 28.68% of T and 27.81% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.
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Soybean plants modify metal oxide nanoparticle effects on soil bacterial communities.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are entering agricultural soils through land application of nanocontaining biosolids and agrochemicals. The potential adverse effects of ENPs have been studied on food crops and soil bacterial communities separately; however, how ENPs will affect the interacting plant-soil system remains unknown. To address this, we assessed ENP effects on soil microbial communities in soybean-planted, versus unplanted, mesocosms exposed to different doses of nano-CeO2 (0-1.0 g kg(-1)) or nano-ZnO (0-0.5 g kg(-1)). Nano-CeO2 did not affect soil bacterial communities in unplanted soils, but 0.1 g kg(-1) nano-CeO2 altered soil bacterial communities in planted soils, indicating that plants interactively promote nano-CeO2 effects in soil, possibly due to belowground C shifts since plant growth was impacted. Nano-ZnO at 0.5 g kg(-1) significantly altered soil bacterial communities, increasing some (e.g., Rhizobium and Sphingomonas) but decreasing other (e.g., Ensifer, Rhodospirillaceae, Clostridium, and Azotobacter) operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Fewer OTUs decreased from nano-ZnO exposure in planted (41) versus unplanted (85) soils, suggesting that plants ameliorate nano-ZnO effects. Taken together, plants-potentially through their effects on belowground biogeochemistry-could either promote (i.e., for the 0.1 g kg(-1) nano-CeO2 treatment) or limit (i.e., for the 0.5 g kg(-1) nano-ZnO treatment) ENP effects on soil bacterial communities.
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[Meta analysis of the changes of regulatory T cell number in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Objective To evaluate the change of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) using meta-analysis. Methods The PubMed and China Biomedical Literature (CBM) databases were searched for relevant studies up to August 31, 2013. After quality assessment and data extraction for included studies, a meta-analysis was performed using the software of Comprehensive-Meta Analysis (CMA) v2.2. Results Finally 22 case-control studies were recruited, including 12 studies reporting the change of Treg number and 12 studies for the change of Treg:CD4(+)T cell ratio. The quality of studies was moderate to high. It demonstrated that the Treg number in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of active SLE patients significantly decreased than ones in controls (WMD=-1.23%, %CI=-1.87% to -0.59%). Then, subgroup analysis was performed based on the different surface markers of Tregs. It showed that the Treg number in PBMCs of active SLE patients decreased by 1.56% for the CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs (WMD=-1.56%, 95% CI=-2.18% to -0.94%), and by 0.91% for the CD4(+)CD25(high) Tregs (WMD=-0.91%, 95% CI=-1.52% to -0.29%) compared with ones in controls. As for the ratio of Tregs to CD4(+) T cells, there was no significant difference between the SLE patients and the controls. Sensitivity analysis showed the results were robust, and the Funnel Plots showed there was no publication bias. Conclusion Based on the current evidences, the development of SLE may be due to the decrease of Treg number in PBMCs, not to the abnormal ratio of Tregs to CD4(+) T cells.
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Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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Relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation tensor with kinetically balanced rotational London orbitals.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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Both kinetically balanced (KB) and kinetically unbalanced (KU) rotational London orbitals (RLO) are proposed to resolve the slow basis set convergence in relativistic calculations of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) coupling tensors of molecules containing heavy elements [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. While they perform rather similarly, the KB-RLO Ansatz is clearly preferred as it ensures the correct nonrelativistic limit even with a finite basis. Moreover, it gives rise to the same "direct relativistic mapping" between nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and NSR coupling tensors as that without using the London orbitals [Y. Xiao, Y. Zhang, and W. Liu, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 10, 600 (2014)].
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[Study on packaging-induced stress in 4 mm cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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To reduce packaging-induced stress of long cavity length high-power single emitter semiconductor laser, the relationship between the stress and the wavelength shift was deduced on the basis of the theory that the stress can change the band gap. A method was developed for quantitatively calculating the stress by measuring the emission spectrum of the laser under pulse conditions. The results show that the soldering quality is a critical factor affecting thermal stress. The difference in stress can exceed 300 MPa due to the difference in soldering quality. By optimizing the reflowing soldering curve of the laser, the stress of the laser drops from 129.7 to 53.4 MPa. This method can also effectively solve the problem that the stress varies with storage time. This work demonstrates that the measurement and analysis of the emission spectrum of the laser can provide a useful method to study packaging stress of the high-power single emitter semiconductor laser. It is also an available means to evaluate and analyze soldering quality.
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Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Cell Entry is Dependent on CD163 and Uses a Clathrin-mediated Endocytosis-like Pathway.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) causes a severe and almost uniformly fatal viral hemorrhagic fever in Asian macaques, but is thought to be nonpathogenic for humans. To date, the SHFV lifecycle is almost completely uncharacterized on the molecular level. Here we describe the first steps of the SHFV lifecycle. Our experiments indicate that SHFV enters target cells by low pH-dependent endocytosis. Dynamin inhibitors, chlorpromazine, methyl-?-cyclodextrin, chloroquine, and concanamycin A dramatically reduced SHFV entry efficiency, whereas the macropinocytosis inhibitors EIPA, blebbistatin, and wortmannin, and the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors nystatin and filipin III had no effect. Furthermore, overexpression and knock-out study and electron-microscopy results indicate that SHFV entry occurs by a dynamin-dependent clathrin-mediated endocytosis-like pathway. Experiments utilizing latrunculin B, cytochalasin B, and cytochalasin D indicate that SHFV does not hijack the actin polymerization pathway. Treatment of target cells with proteases (proteinase K, papain, ?-chymotrypsin, trypsin) abrogated entry, indicating that the SHFV cell-surface receptor is a protein. Phospholipases A2 and D had no effect on SHFV entry. Finally, treatment of cells with antibodies targeting CD163, a cell surface molecule identified as an entry factor for the SHFV-related porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, diminished SHFV replication, identifying CD163 as an important SHFV entry component.
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Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.
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Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two alternative precursor rRNA (pre-rRNA) processing pathways coexist in yeast and mammals; however, how PRMT affects ribosome biogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis PRMT3 (AtPRMT3) is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting pre-rRNA processing. Disruption of AtPRMT3 results in pleiotropic developmental defects, imbalanced polyribosome profiles, and aberrant pre-rRNA processing. We further identify an alternative pre-rRNA processing pathway in Arabidopsis and demonstrate that AtPRMT3 is required for the balance of these two pathways to promote normal growth and development. Our work uncovers a previously unidentified function of PRMT in posttranscriptional regulation of rRNA, revealing an extra layer of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis.
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Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein (Gen), a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis.
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Genome Sequences of Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 Isolates (Arteriviridae: Arterivirus).
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) variant NIH LVR42-0/M6941 is the only remaining SHFV in culture, and only a single genome sequence record exists in GenBank/RefSeq. We compared the genomic sequence of NIH LVR42-0/M6941 acquired from the ATCC in 2011 to NIH LVR42-0/M6941 genomes sequenced directly from nonhuman primates experimentally infected in 1989.
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Knockdown of PSF1 expression inhibits cell proliferation in lung cancer cells in vitro.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Partner of sld five 1 (PSF1) is a member of the heterotetrameric complex termed GINS. Previous studies have shown that PSF1 is unregulated in several cancer and associated with tumor malignant characters. However, the effects of PSF1 in lung cancer are still unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of PSF1 on the proliferation capacities of lung cancer. To start with, expression of PSF1 in 22 human lung cancer samples and adjacent non-tumor samples were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Our results showed that PSF1 was overexpressed in lung cancer samples compared to adjacent non-tumor samples. To achieve better insights of PSF1 functions in lung cancer cells, we used PSF1-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully inhibit the expression of PSF1 in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In addition, we used lung cancer cell lines with different p53 gene background (p53 null and p53 wild-type). The results showed that knockdown of PSF1 inhibited cell proliferation and caused cell cycle arrest of lung cancer cells in a p53-independent manner. Our data indicated that PSF1 is functionally involved in lung cancer cell proliferation and is a potential target for lung cancer therapy.
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Efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with anti-angiogenesis therapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) and cell line mouse models.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) that was VEGF-positive and an orthotopic VEGF-positive human pancreatic cancer cell line (MiaPaCa-2-GFP) as well as a VEGF-negative cell line (Panc-1) were tested. Nude mice with these tumors were treated with gemcitabine (GEM), bevacizumab (BEV), and S. typhimurium A1-R. BEV/GEM followed by S. typhimurium A1-R significantly reduced tumor weight compared to BEV/GEM treatment alone in the PDOX and MiaPaCa-2 models. Neither treatment was as effective in the VEGF-negative model as in the VEGF-positive models. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium A1-R following anti-angiogenic therapy is effective on pancreatic cancer including the PDOX model, suggesting its clinical potential.
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A combined transgenic proteomic analysis and regulated trafficking of neuroligin-2.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Synapses, the basic units of communication in the brain, require complex molecular machinery for neurotransmitter release and reception. Whereas numerous components of excitatory postsynaptic sites have been identified, relatively few proteins are known that function at inhibitory postsynaptic sites. One such component is neuroligin-2 (NL2), an inhibitory synapse-specific cell surface protein that functions in cell adhesion and synaptic organization via binding to neurexins. In this study, we used a transgenic tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry strategy to isolate and characterize NL2-associated complexes. Complexes purified from brains of transgenic His6-FLAG-YFP-NL2 mice showed enrichment in the Gene Ontology terms cell-cell signaling and synaptic transmission relative to complexes purified from wild type mice as a negative control. In addition to expected components including GABA receptor subunits and gephyrin, several novel proteins were isolated in association with NL2. Based on the presence of multiple components involved in trafficking and endocytosis, we showed that NL2 undergoes dynamin-dependent endocytosis in response to soluble ligand and colocalizes with VPS35 retromer in endosomes. Inhibitory synapses in brain also present a particular challenge for imaging. Whereas excitatory synapses on spines can be imaged with a fluorescent cell fill, inhibitory synapses require a molecular tag. We find the His6-FLAG-YFP-NL2 to be a suitable tag, with the unamplified YFP signal localizing appropriately to inhibitory synapses in multiple brain regions including cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Altogether, we characterize NL2-associated complexes, demonstrate regulated trafficking of NL2, and provide tools for further proteomic and imaging studies of inhibitory synapses.
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Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system.
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Nemo-like kinase (NLK) inhibits the progression of NSCLC via negatively modulating WNT signaling pathway.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Nemo-like kinase (NLK), an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, is a critical regulator of various cancers. NLK expression was evaluated by Western blot in 8 paired fresh non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and immunohistochemistry (IHC) on 83 paraffin-embedded slices. NLK was lowly expressed in NSCLC and significantly associated with NSCLC histological differentiation, clinical stage, lymph node status, and Ki-67. Multivariate analysis indicated that low NLK expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients' low survival rate. In vitro, after the release of NSCLC cell line A549 from serum starvation, the expression of NLK was downregulated, whereas the cell-cycle-related proteins were upregulated. In addition, we used RNA interference to knock down NLK expression, then observed its effects on NSCLC's growth in vitro. Western blot analyses indicated that deletion of NLK was positively correlated with cell-cycle-related proteins. The present investigation demonstrated that suppression of NLK expression resulted in significant promotion of proliferation in NSCLC cells. And flow cytometry further indicated that loss of NLK promoted cell proliferation by facilitating S-phase and mitotic entry. Besides, the transcription activity of ?-catenin/TCF in A549 cells was remarkably enhanced when NLK was knocked down, which suggested that NLK participated in NSCLC cell proliferation via medulating Wnt signaling pathway. Based on these findings, we can provide a potential strategy for NSCLC therapy.
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Influenza A Virus Polymerase Is a Site for Adaptive Changes during Experimental Evolution in Bat Cells.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The recent identification of highly divergent influenza A viruses in bats revealed a new, geographically dispersed viral reservoir. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of host-restricted viral tropism and the potential for transmission of viruses between humans and bats, we exposed a panel of cell lines from bats of diverse species to a prototypical human-origin influenza A virus. All of the tested bat cell lines were susceptible to influenza A virus infection. Experimental evolution of human and avian-like viruses in bat cells resulted in efficient replication and created highly cytopathic variants. Deep sequencing of adapted human influenza A virus revealed a mutation in the PA polymerase subunit not previously described, M285K. Recombinant virus with the PA M285K mutation completely phenocopied the adapted virus. Adaptation of an avian virus-like virus resulted in the canonical PB2 E627K mutation that is required for efficient replication in other mammals. None of the adaptive mutations occurred in the gene for viral hemagglutinin, a gene that frequently acquires changes to recognize host-specific variations in sialic acid receptors. We showed that human influenza A virus uses canonical sialic acid receptors to infect bat cells, even though bat influenza A viruses do not appear to use these receptors for virus entry. Our results demonstrate that bats are unique hosts that select for both a novel mutation and a well-known adaptive mutation in the viral polymerase to support replication.
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Determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in milk and honey by monolithic fiber-based solid-phase microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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A porous poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic fiber (MEMF) for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of five benzimidazole anthelmintics was prepared by in-situ polymerization. The effect of polymerization conditions on SPME of the target analytes was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the monolith were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Several conditions affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and, under the optimized conditions, a simple and sensitive method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in milk and honey was established by coupling MEMF-SPME with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (MEMF-SPME-HPLC-DAD). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) of the method were 0.11-0.30 ?g L(-1) for milk and 0.086-0.28 ?g L(-1) for honey. Evaluation of intra-day and inter-day precision showed reproducibility was satisfactory-relative standard deviations (RSD) for both were <10 %. Finally, the method was successfully used for determination of benzimidazole residues in milk and honey. Recoveries obtained for determination of benzimidazole anthelmintics in spiked samples ranged from 72.3 to 121 %, with RSD always <11 %.
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Community violence and pregnancy health behaviors and outcomes.
South. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Community violence is associated with health-compromising behaviors (HCBs) and adverse general health and pregnancy outcomes. It is unknown whether these effects persist after adjusting for health behaviors.
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Does body mass index impact the early outcome of surgical revascularization? A comparison between off-pump and on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To investigate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on early outcomes after revascularization using either on-pump or off-pump surgery.
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Using native chromatin immunoprecipitation to interrogate histone variant protein deposition in embryonic stem cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a powerful epigenetics technique for interrogating the genome-wide localization of histone modifications, histone variants, and other chromatin-associating factors. In brief, chromatin pellets are fractionated from the nuclei, and then fragmented by enzymatic digestion or sonication. Chromatin regions associated with proteins of interest are enriched by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. After the immunoprecipitation, DNA fragments are extracted, amplified during sequencing library construction, and sequenced by high-throughput sequencing. Here, we describe the native chromatin immunoprecipitation of a rare histone variant, H2A.X, followed by high-throughput sequencing, in mouse embryonic stem cells.
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Diarylethene-containing carbon-rich ruthenium organometallics: tuning of electrochromism.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The association of a dithienylethene (DTE) system with ruthenium carbon-rich systems allows reaching sophisticated and efficient light- and electro-triggered multifunctional switches R-[Ru]-C?C-DTE-C?C-[Ru]-R, featuring multicolor electrochromism and electrochemical cyclization at remarkably low voltage. The spin density on the DTE ligand and the energetic stabilization of the system upon oxidation could be manipulated to influence the closing event, owing to the noninnocent behavior of carbon-rich ligands in the redox processes. A combination of spectroscopic (UV-vis-NIR-IR and EPR) and electrochemical studies, with the help of quantum chemical calculations, demonstrates that one can control and get a deeper understanding of the electrochemical ring closure with a slight modification of ligands remote from the DTE unit. This electrochemical cyclization was established to occur in the second oxidized state (EEC mechanism), and the kinetic rate constant in solution was measured. Importantly, these complexes provide an unprecedented experimental means to directly probe the remarkable efficiency of electronic (spin) delocalization between two trans carbon-rich ligands through a metal atom, in full agreement with the theoretical predictions. In addition, when no cyclization occurs upon oxidation, we could achieve a redox-triggered magnetic switch.
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Cell entry by a novel European filovirus requires host endosomal cysteine proteases and Niemann-Pick C1.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2014
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Lloviu virus (LLOV), a phylogenetically divergent filovirus, is the proposed etiologic agent of die-offs of Schreibers?s long-fingered bats (Miniopterus schreibersii) in western Europe. Studies of LLOV remain limited because the infectious agent has not yet been isolated. Here, we generated a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the LLOV spike glycoprotein (GP) and used it to show that LLOV GP resembles other filovirus GP proteins in structure and function. LLOV GP must be cleaved by endosomal cysteine proteases during entry, but is much more protease-sensitive than EBOV GP. The EBOV/MARV receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), is also required for LLOV entry, and its second luminal domain is recognized with high affinity by a cleaved form of LLOV GP, suggesting that receptor binding would not impose a barrier to LLOV infection of humans and non-human primates. The use of NPC1 as an intracellular entry receptor may be a universal property of filoviruses.
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Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro for genetically modified rice that expresses pharmaceutical protein (human serum albumin).
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Genetically modified (GM) crops that express pharmaceutical proteins have become an important focus of recent genetic engineering research. Food safety assessment is necessary for the commercial development of these crops. Subchronic toxicity study in vivo and allergenicity study in vitro were designed to evaluate the food safety of the rice variety expressing human serum albumin (HSA). Animals were fed rodent diets containing 12.5%, 25.0% and 50.0% GM or non-GM rice for 90 days. The composition analysis of the GM rice demonstrated several significant differences. However, most of the differences remained within the ranges reported in the literature. In the animal study, a range of indexes including clinical observation, feed efficiency, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology were examined. Random changes unrelated to the GM rice exposure, within the range of historical control values and not associated with any signs of illness were observed. The results of heat stability and in vitro digestion of HSA indicated no evidence of potential allergenicity of the protein. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that the GM rice appears to be safe as a dietary ingredient when it is used at up to 50% in the diet on a subchronic basis.
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Effectiveness evaluation of a pharmacist-driven monitoring database for tardive dyskinesia.
Hosp Pharm
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a potentially irreversible, chronic syndrome related to antipsychotic medication use characterized by hyperkinetic abnormal involuntary movements. Various studies have shown that development of TD is possible with both first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Regular monitoring for emergence of TD symptoms is recommended in clinical practice for early recognition and intervention.
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Economic analysis of a herpes zoster vaccination program in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003)
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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To examine the economic impact of providing herpes zoster vaccine (ZOS) in 19 affiliated supermarket pharmacies in a midwestern metropolitan area from the perspective of the pharmacy and to identify factors associated with greater rates of vaccine delivery and profitability.
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Module modified acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II: predicting the mortality of neuro-critical disease.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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This study aimed to conduct and assess a module modified acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (MM-APACHE) II model, based on disease categories modified-acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (DCM-APACHE) II model, in predicting mortality more accurately in neuro-intensive care units (N-ICUs).
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Whole-brain 320-detector row dynamic volume CT perfusion detected crossed cerebellar diaschisis after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of 320-detector row CT used to detect crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in patients with unilateral supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH).
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Mouse dead end 1-? interacts with c-Jun and stimulates activator protein 1 transactivation.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Dead end 1 (Dnd1), important for maintaining the viability of primordial germ cells, is the first protein containing an RNA recognition motif that has been directly implicated as a heritable cause of spontaneous tumorigenesis. In the present study, c-Jun was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening of a 10.5-day old mouse embryo cDNA library as one of the proteins which interact with dnd1-?. The interaction between Dnd1-? and c-Jun was demonstrated to occur by glutathione S?transferase pull?down and co-immunoprecipitation. Using confocal microscopy, Dnd1-? was found to be specifically expressed in GC-1 spermatogonia cells, mainly in the nuclei. When transfected into GC-1 cells, Dnd1-? and c-Jun were demonstrated to be co-localized principally in the nuclei. Furthermore, in a dual luciferase reporter assay, the transcriptional activity of activator protein 1 was demonstrated to be significantly increased by co-transfection with Dnd1-? and c-Jun plasmids in GC-1 cells. The identification and confirmation of an additional protein interacting with dnd1-? facilitates the investigation of the functions and molecular mechanisms of Dnd1.
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Directed colloidal self-assembly in toggled magnetic fields.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Suspensions of paramagnetic colloids are driven to phase separate and self-assemble by a toggled magnetic field. Initially, all suspensions form network structures that span the sample cell. When the magnetic field is toggled, this network structure coarsens diffusively for a time that scales exponentially with frequency. Beyond this break through time, suspensions cease diffusive coarsening and undergo an apparent instability. The magnetic field drives suspensions to condense into dispersed, domains of bodycentered tetragonal crystals. Within these domains the crystalline order depends on the pulse frequency. Because the scaling of the break through time with respect to frequency is exponential, the steady state limit corresponding to an infinite pulse frequency is kinetically arrested and the equilibrium state is unreachable. These experiments show that there is an out-of-equilibrium pathway that can be used to escape a kinetically arrested state as well as a diverging time scale for phase separation as the critical frequency for condensation is approached. Rather than fine tuning the strength of the interactions among particles, a simple annealing scheme - toggling of the magnetic field - is used to create a broad envelope for assembly of ordered particle structures.
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Transformer 2? (Tra2?/SFRS10) positively regulates the progression of NSCLC via promoting cell proliferation.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Transformer 2? (Tra2?), a member of the serine/arginine-rich-like protein family, is an important RNA-binding protein involved in alternative splice. Deregulation of Tra2? has been observed in several cancers. However, the detailed role of Tra2? in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been elucidated. In this study, the contribution of Tra2? to NSCLC development was investigated. On histological level, the expression of Tra2? was determined by Western and immunohistochemistry assays. It demonstrated that Tra2? was expressed higher in NSCLC tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. In addition to confirm the association of Tra2? expression with histological differentiation and clinical stage (p < 0.05), we also confirmed significant positive correlation between the expression level of Tra2? and that of Ki67 (p < 0.05, r = 0.446) by Spearman rank correlation test. Moreover, high expression of Tra2? predicted poor prognosis by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. And Tra2? among with other clinicopathologic variables was an independent prognostic indicator for patients' overall survival by multivariate analysis. On cellular level, Tra2? expression was demonstrated to promote proliferation of NSCLC cells through a series of assays, including serum starvation and release assay, Western blot assay and flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, knockdown of Tra2? was confirmed to inhibit proliferation and to induce apoptosis of NSCLC cells through flow cytometry analysis, western analysis, cell counting kit-8 assay and Tunnel assay. Our results indicated that Tra2? was involved in the tumorigenesis of NSCLC and might be a potential therapeutic target of NSCLC.
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The expression levels and prognostic value of high temperature required A2 (HtrA2) in NSCLC.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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High temperature required A2 (HtrA2) is a serine kinase that is released from mitochondria into the cytosol upon apoptotic stimuli, inducing apoptosis in various cancers. Thus, analysis of the expression of HtrA2 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues is needed for the understanding of this malignancy. In this study we firstly analyzed the apoptosis effect of HtrA2 in A549 cells by RNA interference and cisplatin with Western blot and flow cytometry. Then HtrA2 expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry in NSCLC tissues. Western blot and flow cytometry analyses indicated that deletion of HtrA2 was negatively correlated with apoptosis-induced protein in A549 cells. HtrA2 was lowly expressed in NSCLC and significantly associated with histological differentiation and clinical stage. Besides, low expression of HtrA2 was a prognostic factor for NSCLC patients' inferior survival. In conclusion, HtrA2 might promote the apoptosis of NSCLC cells, and serve as a target for NSCLC's treatment.
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Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.
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Dose dependent cytotoxicity of pranoprofen in cultured human corneal endothelial cells by inducing apoptosis.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Abstract Pranoprofen (PPF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is often used in keratitis treatment in clinic. Several studies have assessed in vitro the cytotoxicity of topical NSAIDs to corneal epithelial cells due to its importance for predicting human corneal toxicity. Damage by cytotoxic drugs can result in excessive loss of human corneal endothelial (HCE) cells which lead to decompensation of the endothelium and eventual loss of visual acuity. However, the endothelial cytotoxicity of PPF has not yet been reported using an in vitro model of HCE cells. This study assessed the cytotoxicity of PPF to HCE cells and its underlying mechanism. Cellular viability was determined using inverted phase contrast light microscopy, and plasma membrane permeability, genomic DNA fragmentation, and ultrastructure were detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The results on cellular viability showed that PPF at concentrations ranging from 0.0625 to 1.0?g/l had poignant cytotoxicity to HCE cells, and the extent of its cytotoxicity was dose- and time-dependent. Further characterization indicated that PPF induced plasma membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation, proving its apoptosis inducing effect on HCE cells. In conclusion, PPF above 0.0625?g/l has poignant cytotoxicity on HCE cells in vitro by inducing cell apoptosis, and should be carefully employed in eye clinic.
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Rif1 maintains telomere length homeostasis of ESCs by mediating heterochromatin silencing.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Telomere length homeostasis is essential for genomic stability and unlimited self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We show that telomere-associated protein Rif1 is required to maintain telomere length homeostasis by negatively regulating Zscan4 expression, a critical factor for telomere elongation by recombination. Depletion of Rif1 results in terminal hyperrecombination, telomere length heterogeneity, and chromosomal fusions. Reduction of Zscan4 by shRNA significantly rescues telomere recombination defects of Rif1-depleted ESCs and associated embryonic lethality. Further, Rif1 negatively modulates Zscan4 expression by maintaining H3K9me3 levels at subtelomeric regions. Mechanistically, Rif1 interacts and stabilizes H3K9 methylation complex. Thus, Rif1 regulates telomere length homeostasis of ESCs by mediating heterochromatic silencing.
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C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.
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Functional and evolutionary analysis of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of MADS-box genes in the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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MADS-box transcriptional regulators play important roles during plant development. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction, the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of floral MADS-box genes underwent one or two duplication events in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. However, the functional evolution of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade in basal eudicots remains uncharacterized. Epimedium sagittatum is a basal eudicot species valued for its medicinal properties and showing unique floral morphology. In this study, structural and functional variation of FUL-like (AP1 subfamily), SEP-like and AGL6-like genes in this species was investigated to further our understanding of flower evolution in angiosperms. Detailed investigations into the microsynteny and evolutionary history of the floral A and E class MADS-box genes in eudicots were undertaken and used to trace their genomic rearrangements.
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Finite-size effects on current correlation functions.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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We study why the calculation of current correlation functions (CCFs) still suffers from finite-size effects even when the periodic boundary condition is taken. Two important one-dimensional, momentum-conserving systems are investigated as examples. Intriguingly, it is found that the state of a system recurs in the sense of microcanonical ensemble average, and such recurrence may result in oscillations in CCFs. Meanwhile, we find that the sound mode collisions induce an extra time decay in a current so that its correlation function decays faster (slower) in a smaller (larger) system. Based on these two unveiled mechanisms, a procedure for correctly evaluating the decay rate of a CCF is proposed, with which our analysis suggests that the global energy CCF decays as ?t^{-2/3} in the diatomic hard-core gas model and in a manner close to ?t^{-1/2} in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-? model.
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Frailty is a predictor of short- and mid-term mortality after elective cardiac surgery independently of age.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Assessment of perioperative risk of elderly patients in cardiac surgery is difficult, and most of the common risk scores show over- or underestimation. Two frailty scores, the comprehensive assessment of frailty (CAF) score and the Frailty predicts death One yeaR after CArdiac Surgery Test (FORECAST), were developed as additional tools to estimate the preoperative mortality risk, taking into consideration the frailty status of elderly patients.
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Histone variant H2A.X deposition pattern serves as a functional epigenetic mark for distinguishing the developmental potentials of iPSCs.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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For future application of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology, the ability to assess the overall quality of iPSC clones will be an important issue. Here we show that the histone variant H2A.X is a functional marker that can distinguish the developmental potentials of mouse iPSC lines. We found that H2A.X is specifically targeted to and negatively regulates extraembryonic lineage gene expression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and prevents trophectoderm lineage differentiation. ESC-specific H2A.X deposition patterns are faithfully recapitulated in iPSCs that support the development of "all-iPS" animals via tetraploid complementation, the most stringent test available of iPSC quality. In contrast, iPSCs that fail to support all-iPS embryonic development show aberrant H2A.X deposition, upregulation of extraembryonic lineage genes, and a predisposition to extraembryonic differentiation. Thus, our work has highlighted an epigenetic mechanism for maintaining cell lineage commitment in ESCs and iPSCs that can be used to distinguish the quality of iPSC lines.
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Cerium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles alter the nutritional value of soil cultivated soybean plants.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine nutrient elements in soybean (Glycine max) plants cultivated in farm soil amended with nCeO2 at 0-1000 mg kg(-1) and nZnO at 0-500 mg kg(-1). Digested samples were analyzed by ICP-OES/MS. Compared to control, pods from nCeO2 at 1000 mg kg(-1) had significantly less Ca but more P and Cu, while pods from 100 mg kg(-1)nZnO had more Zn, Mn, and Cu. Plants treated with nZnO showed significant correlations among Zn, P, and S in pods with Zn in roots. Correlations among pod Zn/root Zn was r = 0.808 (p ? 0.01) and pod P/root P was r = 0.541 (p ? 0.05). The correlation among pod S/root S was r = -0.65 (p ? 0.01). While nCeO2 treatments exhibited significant correlations between pod Ca/root Ca (r = 0.645, p ? 0.05). The data suggest that nCeO2 and nZnO alter the nutritional value of soybean, which could affect the health of plants, humans, and animals.
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Polycomb group oncogene RING1 is over-expressed in non-small cell lung cancer.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Ring finger protein 1 (RING1) have recently been reported to be related to aggressive tumor features in Prostate Cancer and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. However, the role of RING1 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis has never been elucidated. So we aimed at investigating the potential role of RING1 in NSCLC. RING1 expression was evaluated by Immunoblot in 8 paired fresh lung cancer tissues and immunohistochemistry on 69 paraffin-embedded sections from 2006 to 2009. Furthermore, flow-cytometry and RNA interference were performed to analyse the role of RING1 in A549 cells. We showed that the expression level of RING1 was significant increased in lung cancer as compared with the adjacent normal tissue. High expression level of RING1 was associated with TNM stage (P?=?0.013), and RING1 was positively related with proliferation marker Ki67 (P?
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Methodological issues of retrospective studies assessing health outcomes of potential clopidogrel-statin interaction.
Int J Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Clopidogrel and statins have been commonly coprescribed to patients with atherosclerotic diseases. Clopidogrel-statin interaction was initially described by ex vivo studies, but was not well supported by studies examining health outcomes. This personal view article aims to discuss methodological issues of these studies, especially the retrospective studies assessing health outcomes.
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High expression of Cullin1 indicates poor prognosis for NSCLC patients.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Cullin1 is a scaffold protein of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Skp1/Cullin1/Rbx1/F-box protein complex which ubiquitinates a broad range of proteins participating in biochemical events like cell-cycle progression, signal transduction, and transcription. Cullin1 is involved in the progression of several cancers, such as melanoma, breast cancer, and gastric cancer.
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Comparison of NOGA Endocardial Mapping and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Determining Infarct Size and Infarct Transmurality for Intramyocardial Injection Therapy Using Experimental Data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We compared the accuracy of NOGA endocardial mapping for delineating transmural and non-transmural infarction to the results of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) with late gadolinium enhancement (LE) for guiding intramyocardial reparative substance delivery using data from experimental myocardial infarction studies.
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Genome-Wide Investigation and Expression Profiling of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Superfamily in Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) family is one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in plants that includes four major sub-families, namely AP2, DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and RAV (Related to ABI3/VP). AP2/ERFs are known to play significant roles in various plant processes including growth and development and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Considering this, a comprehensive genome-wide study was conducted in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.). A total of 171 AP2/ERF genes were identified by systematic sequence analysis and were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis grouped AP2/ERF genes into six classes (I to VI). Duplication analysis revealed that 12 (?7%) SiAP2/ERF genes were tandem repeated and 22 (?13%) were segmentally duplicated. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet AP2/ERF genes and its orthologs of sorghum (18 genes), maize (14 genes), rice (9 genes) and Brachypodium (6 genes) showed the evolutionary insights of AP2/ERF gene family and also the decrease in orthology with increase in phylogenetic distance. The evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence was analyzed by estimating synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates. Expression profiling of candidate AP2/ERF genes against drought, salt and phytohormones revealed insights into their precise and/or overlapping expression patterns which could be responsible for their functional divergence in foxtail millet. The study showed that the genes SiAP2/ERF-069, SiAP2/ERF-103 and SiAP2/ERF-120 may be considered as potential candidate genes for further functional validation as well for utilization in crop improvement programs for stress resistance since these genes were up-regulated under drought and salinity stresses in ABA dependent manner. Altogether the present study provides new insights into evolution, divergence and systematic functional analysis of AP2/ERF gene family at genome level in foxtail millet which may be utilized for improving stress adaptation and tolerance in millets, cereals and bioenergy grasses.
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CD26/DPP4 Cell-Surface Expression in Bat Cells Correlates with Bat Cell Susceptibility to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection and Evolution of Persistent Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently isolated betacoronavirus identified as the etiologic agent of a frequently fatal disease in Western Asia, Middle East respiratory syndrome. Attempts to identify the natural reservoirs of MERS-CoV have focused in part on dromedaries. Bats are also suspected to be reservoirs based on frequent detection of other betacoronaviruses in these mammals. For this study, ten distinct cell lines derived from bats of divergent species were exposed to MERS-CoV. Plaque assays, immunofluorescence assays, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that six bat cell lines can be productively infected. We found that the susceptibility or resistance of these bat cell lines directly correlates with the presence or absence of cell surface-expressed CD26/DPP4, the functional human receptor for MERS-CoV. Human anti-CD26/DPP4 antibodies inhibited infection of susceptible bat cells in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of human CD26/DPP4 receptor conferred MERS-CoV susceptibility to resistant bat cell lines. Finally, sequential passage of MERS-CoV in permissive bat cells established persistent infection with concomitant downregulation of CD26/DPP4 surface expression. Together, these results imply that bats indeed could be among the MERS-CoV host spectrum, and that cellular restriction of MERS-CoV is determined by CD26/DPP4 expression rather than by downstream restriction factors.
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CD137 Expression Is Induced by Epstein-Barr Virus Infection through LMP1 in T or NK Cells and Mediates Survival Promoting Signals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To clarify the mechanism for development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T- or NK-cell neoplasms, we focused on the costimulatory receptor CD137. We detected high expression of CD137 gene and its protein on EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lines as compared with EBV-negative cell lines. EBV-positive cells from EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (EBV-T/NK-LPDs) patients also had significantly higher CD137 gene expression than control cells from healthy donors. In the presence of IL-2, whose concentration in the serum of EBV-T/NK-LPDs was higher than that of healthy donors, CD137 protein expression was upregulated in the patients' cells whereas not in control cells from healthy donors. In vitro EBV infection of MOLT4 cells resulted in induction of endogenous CD137 expression. Transient expression of LMP1, which was enhanced by IL-2 in EBV-T/NK-LPDs cells, induced endogenous CD137 gene expression in T and NK-cell lines. In order to examine in vivo CD137 expression, we used EBV-T/NK-LPDs xenograft models generated by intravenous injection of patients' cells. We identified EBV-positive and CD8-positive T cells, as well as CD137 ligand-positive cells, in their tissue lesions. In addition, we detected CD137 expression on the EBV infected cells from the lesions of the models by immune-fluorescent staining. Finally, CD137 stimulation suppressed etoposide-induced cell death not only in the EBV-positive T- or NK-cell lines, but also in the patients' cells. These results indicate that upregulation of CD137 expression through LMP1 by EBV promotes cell survival in T or NK cells leading to development of EBV-positive T/NK-cell neoplasms.
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Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of ?-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10-3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.
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Promoter Methylation-Mediated Silencing of ?-Catenin Enhances Invasiveness of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Predicts Adverse Prognosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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?-Catenin plays dual role in adhesion complex formation and the Wnt signaling pathway. Although ?-catenin expression appears to be upregulated and Wnt signaling pathway is activated in the majority of cancers, its expression level seems to be lost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We previously reported that the promoter of ?-catenin was hypermethylated in two NSCLC cell lines. In the current study, we expanded our analysis for the methylation status of ?-catenin promoter region and its protein expression in seven NSCLC cell lines and a series of 143 cases of primary human lung cancer with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) analysis showed methylation of ?-catenin promoter region in five NSCLC cell lines, with increased ?-catenin protein levels upon 5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. The methylation status in SPC (methylated) and A549 (unmethylated) was confirmed by bisulfite sequencing PCR. 5-Aza-dC treatment inhibited invasiveness of SPC but not A549. Immunofluorescence analysis showed membranous ?-catenin expression was lost in SPC and could be re-established by 5-aza-dC, while Wnt3a treatment led to nuclear translocation of ?-catenin in both SPC and A549. Dual-luciferase assays indicated that 5-aza-dC treatment caused no significant increase in Wnt signaling activity compared with Wnt3a treatment. The effect of demethylation agent in SPC can be reversed by ?-catenin depletion but not E-cadherin depletion which indicated that the methylation mediated ?-catenin silencing might enhance NSCLC invasion and metastasis in an E-cadherin independent manner. Subsequent immunohistochemistry results further confirmed that ?-catenin promoter hypermethylation correlated with loss of immunoreactive protein expression, positive lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and poor prognosis. The present study implicates ?-catenin promoter hypermethylation in the mechanism of epigenetic changes underlying NSCLC metastasis and progression, thus indicating the potential of ?-catenin as a novel epigenetic target for the treatment of NSCLC patients.
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Epidemiology of hepatitis e virus in china: results from the third national viral hepatitis prevalence survey, 2005-2006.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In China, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is prevalent and causes disease, but its epidemiological profile is not well understood. We used a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect total antibodies to hepatitis E virus in 15,862 serum samples collected during the Third National Viral Hepatitis Prevalence Survey. The results were analyzed to calculate estimates of HEV seroprevalence and to examine the effects of some putative risk factors. The seroprevalence of HEV in the general Chinese population during the period from 2005 through 2006 was 23.46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.41%-28.50%). The farming population, the age group of 15-60 year olds, and those living in the Midwest or Mideast region and in Xinjiang province had the highest seroprevalence estimates. The prevalence of HEV is high in China. The seroprevalence rate of HEV shows an unbalanced distribution among areas with different geographic location and economic development levels. The characteristics of the distribution associated may be due to the route of HEV transmission (via contaminated water or animal reservoirs). Within the same region, the seroprevalence of HEV is generally increased with age.
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Study of the formation and solution properties of worm-like micelles formed using both N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide-based cationic surfactant and anionic surfactant.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The viscoelastic properties of worm-like micelles formed by mixing the cationic surfactant N-hexadecyl-N-methylpiperidinium bromide (C16MDB) with the anionic surfactant sodium laurate (SL) in aqueous solutions were investigated using rheological measurements. The effects of sodium laurate and temperature on the worm-like micelles and the mechanism of the observed shear thinning phenomenon and pseudoplastic behavior were systematically investigated. Additionally, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images further ascertained existence of entangled worm-like micelles.
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Identification and molecular characterization of MYB Transcription Factor Superfamily in C4 model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MYB proteins represent one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, playing important roles in diverse developmental and stress-responsive processes. Considering its significance, several genome-wide analyses have been conducted in almost all land plants except foxtail millet. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is a model crop for investigating systems biology of millets and bioenergy grasses. Further, the crop is also known for its potential abiotic stress-tolerance. In this context, a comprehensive genome-wide survey was conducted and 209 MYB protein-encoding genes were identified in foxtail millet. All 209 S. italica MYB (SiMYB) genes were physically mapped onto nine chromosomes of foxtail millet. Gene duplication study showed that segmental- and tandem-duplication have occurred in genome resulting in expansion of this gene family. The protein domain investigation classified SiMYB proteins into three classes according to number of MYB repeats present. The phylogenetic analysis categorized SiMYBs into ten groups (I-X). SiMYB-based comparative mapping revealed a maximum orthology between foxtail millet and sorghum, followed by maize, rice and Brachypodium. Heat map analysis showed tissue-specific expression pattern of predominant SiMYB genes. Expression profiling of candidate MYB genes against abiotic stresses and hormone treatments using qRT-PCR revealed specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiMYBs. Taken together, the present study provides a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MYB TFs in foxtail millet to dissect their functions in response to environmental stimuli.
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Laser-supported CD133+ cell therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: initial results from a prospective phase I multicenter trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study evaluates the safety, principal feasibility and restoration potential of laser-supported CD133+ intramyocardial cell transplantation in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.
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Analysis of run-to-run variation of bar-coded pyrosequencing for evaluating bacterial community shifts and individual taxa dynamics.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bar-coded pyrosequencing has been increasingly used due to its fine taxonomic resolution and high throughput. Yet, concerns arise regarding the reproducibility of bar-coded pyrosequencing. We evaluated the run-to-run variation of bar-coded pyrosequencing in detecting bacterial community shifts and taxa dynamics. Our results demonstrate that pyrosequencing is reproducible in evaluating community shifts within a run, but not between runs. Also, the reproducibility of pyrosequencing in detecting individual taxa increased as a function of taxa abundance. Based on our findings: (1) for studies with modest sequencing depth, it is doubtful that data from different pyrosequencing runs can be considered comparable; (2) if multiple pyrosequencing runs are needed to increase the sequencing depth, additional sequencing efforts should be applied to all samples, rather than to selected samples; (3) if pyrosequencing is used for estimating bacterial population dynamics, only the abundant taxa should be considered; (4) for less-abundant taxa, the sequencing depth should be increased to ensure an accurate evaluation of taxon variation trends across samples.
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Dendritic cell-associated miRNAs are modulated via chromatin remodeling in response to different environments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epigenetic modification plays a critical role in regulating gene expression. To understand how epigenetic modification alters miRNA expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) in different environments, we analyzed the connections between H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modification and the expression of miRNAs in LPS- and TGF-?-conditioned moDCs.
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Facilitation drives the positive effects of plant richness on trace metal removal in a biodiversity experiment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phytoextraction is an environmentally acceptable and inexpensive technique for mine tailing rehabilitation that uses metallophyte plants. These plants reduce the soil trace metal contents to environmentally acceptable levels by accumulating trace metals. Recently, whether more trace metals can be removed by species-rich communities of these plants received great attention, as species richness has been reported having positive effects on ecosystem functions. However, how the species richness affects trace metals removal of plant communities of mine tailing is rarely known.
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Cytotoxic effects of betaxolol on healthy corneal endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To demonstrate the cytotoxic effect of betaxolol and its underlying mechanism on human corneal endothelial cells (HCE cells) in vitro and cat corneal endothelial cells (CCE cells) in vivo, providing experimental basis for safety anti-glaucoma drug usage in clinic of ophthalmology.
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NF-?B inducing kinase, a central signaling component of the non-canonical pathway of NF-?B, contributes to ovarian cancer progression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of female death and the development of novel therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is constitutively activated in several types of cancer including ovarian cancer and is known to support the survival of cancer cells. However, molecular mechanisms of persistent activation of NF-?B in ovarian cancer remain largely unknown. We report here that, in addition to the previously reported canonical activation, NF-?B is activated through the noncanonical pathway in ovarian cancer cells. RNA interference-mediated silencing of NF-?B inducing kinase (NIK), a central regulator of the noncanonical pathway, reduced the NF-?B2/p52 DNA binding activity and NF-?B-dependent reporter gene expression as well as NF-?B target gene expression. Notably, anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth was impaired in NIK-depleted cells. Depletion of NIK also suppressed tumor formation in the nude mouse xenograft assay. These results indicate that NIK plays a key role in constitutive NF-?B activation and the progression of ovarian cancer cells and suggest that NIK represents an attractive therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
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Genome-wide investigation and expression analyses of WD40 protein family in the model plant foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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WD40 proteins play a crucial role in diverse protein-protein interactions by acting as scaffolding molecules and thus assisting in the proper activity of proteins. Hence, systematic characterization and expression profiling of these WD40 genes in foxtail millet would enable us to understand the networks of WD40 proteins and their biological processes and gene functions. In the present study, a genome-wide survey was conducted and 225 potential WD40 genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis categorized the WD40 proteins into 5 distinct sub-families (I-V). Gene Ontology annotation revealed the biological roles of the WD40 proteins along with its cellular components and molecular functions. In silico comparative mapping with sorghum, maize and rice demonstrated the orthologous relationships and chromosomal rearrangements including duplication, inversion and deletion of WD40 genes. Estimation of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates revealed its evolutionary significance in terms of gene-duplication and divergence. Expression profiling against abiotic stresses provided novel insights into specific and/or overlapping expression patterns of SiWD40 genes. Homology modeling enabled three-dimensional structure prediction was performed to understand the molecular functions of WD40 proteins. Although, recent findings had shown the importance of WD40 domains in acting as hubs for cellular networks during many biological processes, it has invited a lesser research attention unlike other common domains. Being a most promiscuous interactors, WD40 domains are versatile in mediating critical cellular functions and hence this genome-wide study especially in the model crop foxtail millet would serve as a blue-print for functional characterization of WD40s in millets and bioenergy grass species. In addition, the present analyses would also assist the research community in choosing the candidate WD40s for comprehensive studies towards crop improvement of millets and biofuel grasses.
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Potential Mechanisms and Environmental Controls of TiO2 Nanoparticle Effects on Soil Bacterial Communities.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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It has been reported that engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) alter soil bacterial communities, but the underlying mechanisms and environmental controls of such effects remain unknown. Besides direct toxicity, ENPs may indirectly affect soil bacteria by changing soil water availability or other properties. Alternatively, soil water or other environmental factors may mediate ENP effects on soil bacterial communities. To test, we incubated nano-TiO2-amended soils across a range of water potentials for 288 days. Following incubation, the soil water characteristics, organic matter, total carbon, total nitrogen, and respiration upon rewetting (an indicator of bioavailable organic carbon) were measured. Bacterial community shifts were characterized by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). The endpoint soil water holding had been reported previously as not changing with this nano-TiO2 amendment; herein, we also found that some selected soil properties were unaffected by the treatments. However, we found that nano-TiO2 altered the bacterial community composition and reduced diversity. Nano-TiO2-induced community dissimilarities increased but tended to approach a plateau when soils became drier. Taken together, nano-TiO2 effects on soil bacteria appear to be a result of direct toxicity rather than indirectly through nano-TiO2 affecting soil water and organic matter pools. However, such directs effects of nano-TiO2 on soil bacterial communities are mediated by soil water.
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Transcatheter tissue engineered heart valves.
Expert Rev Med Devices
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Valvular heart disease represents a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Transcatheter heart valve replacement techniques have been recently introduced into the clinical routine expanding the treatment options for affected patients. However, despite this technical progress toward minimally invasive, transcatheter strategies, the available heart valve prostheses for these techniques are bioprosthetic and associated with progressive degeneration. To overcome such limitations, the concept of heart valve tissue engineering has been repeatedly suggested for future therapy concepts. Ideally, a clinically relevant heart valve tissue engineering concept would combine minimally invasive strategies for both, living autologous valve generation as well as valve implantation. Therefore, merging transcatheter techniques with living tissue engineered heart valves into a trascatheter tissue engineered heart valve concept could significantly improve current treatment options for patients suffering from valvular heart disease. This report provides an overview on transcatheter tissue engineered heart valves and summarizes available pre-clinical data.
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Complementary and alternative medicine is expected to make greater contribution in controlling the prevalence of influenza.
Biosci Trends
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Influenza pandemics are a serious threat to public health in todays world. In the past 10 years, the outbreak of three forms of severe influenza--H5N1, H1N1, and H7N9--has caused tremendous loss of life and property. In order to better cope with pandemics, antivirals such as oseltamivir are being stockpiled in great quantities, placing a substantial burden on government budgets and potentially resulting in massive waste because of the uncertainty as to when an influenza pandemic will strike and whether emerging virus strains will be resistant to the stockpiled drugs. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is generally available, affordable, and commonly used in China and many other countries and CAM has a long track record of fighting influenza. The Chinese Government appropriated funds to intensively investigate herbal medicines in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine in order to identify effective, inexpensive, and easily stockpiled medicines. Thus far, several drugs including Shufeng Jiedu capsules, Lianhua Qingwen capsules, Maxing Shigan decoction, Yinqiao powder, and Jinhua Qinggan granules have demonstrated effectiveness in fighting influenza. In the future, CAM is expected to make greater contribution in controlling the prevalence of influenza pandemics.
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What happens to functional mitral regurgitation after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis?
Heart Surg Forum
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Patients with aortic stenosis (AS) treated with aortic valve replacement (AVR) may also present with associated functional mitral valve regurgitation (FMR). Whether to also address the mitral valve at the time of AVR remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the influence of MR on survival and its evolution over time.
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The Survey on Cellular and Engineered Tissue Therapies in Europe in 2011.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Following the coordinated efforts of five established scientific organizations, this report describes the "novel cellular therapy" activity (i.e., cellular treatments excluding hematopoietic stem cells [HSC] for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis) in Europe for the year 2011. Two hundred forty-six teams from 35 countries responded to the cellular therapy survey, 126 teams from 24 countries provided data on 1759 patients using a dedicated survey and 120 teams reported no activity. Indications were musculoskeletal/rheumatological disorders (46%; 99% autologous), cardiovascular disorders (22%; 100% autologous), hematology/oncology, predominantly including the prevention or treatment of graft-versus-host disease (18%; 2% autologous), neurological disorders (2%; 83% autologous), gastrointestinal (1%; 68% autologous), and other indications (12%; 77% autologous). Autologous cells were used predominantly for musculoskeletal/rheumatological (58%) and cardiovascular (27%) disorders, whereas allogeneic cells were used mainly for hematology/oncology (84%). The reported cell types were mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (56%), HSC (23%), chondrocytes (12%), dermal fibroblasts (3%), keratinocytes (2%), and others (4%). In 40% of the grafts, cells were delivered following ex vivo expansion, whereas cells were transduced or sorted, respectively, in 3% and 10% of the reported cases. Cells were delivered intraorgan (42%), intravenously (26%), on a membrane or gel (16%), or using 3D scaffolds (16%). Compared to last year, the number of teams participating in the dedicated survey doubled and, for the first time, all European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation teams reporting information on cellular therapies completed the extended questionnaire. The data are compared with those collected since 2008 to identify trends in the field. This years edition specifically focuses on cardiac cell therapy.
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Subclavian artery cannulation provides superior outcomes in patients with acute type-A dissection: long-term results of 290 consecutive patients.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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The short-term results of subclavian artery cannulation (SC) for acute type-A dissection repair have been reported to be superior in regard to mortality and neurological outcomes when compared to femoral cannulation (FC). This study evaluates the long-term results of subclavian artery cannulation versus femoral cannulation for repair of acute type-A dissection with particular regard to neurological deficits, mortality and the need for re-operations.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.