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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relationship of Serum Mannose-Binding Lectin Levels with the Development of Sepsis: a Meta-analysis.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Many studies have evaluated the association between serum levels of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and sepsis; however, the findings are inconclusive and conflicting. For a better understanding of MBL in sepsis, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis. Potential relevant studies were identified covering Science Citation Index, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Current Contents Index databases. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed studies independently. Statistical analyses were conducted with the version 12.0 STATA statistical software. Ten papers were collected for meta-analysis. Results identified that sepsis patients had considerably lower MBL level than those in the controls (standardized mean difference (SMD)?=?1.59, 95 % confidence interval (95%CI)?=?0.86?2.31, P?
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Reversible transformation between chiral and achiral Dy6Mo4 clusters through a symmetric operation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Three polynuclear lanthanide clusters: (NH4)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·4CH3OH·6H2O (), (Et3NH)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·18H2O (), and (Me4N)2[Dy6Mo4O12(rac-L(3-))4(OOCCH3)8]·CH3OH·14H2O () (H3L = (E)-2-((2,3-dihydroxypropylimino)methyl)-phenol) were synthesized. Single-crystal analysis reveals that cluster crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group (P42/n), while clusters and crystallized in the chiral space group (P3121 or P3221), and cluster can be transformed into clusters and , when Et3NH(+) and Me4N(+), respectively, are used to replace NH4(+). Investigation on the solid-state vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra shows that the clusters and are homochiral crystallization. Powder X-ray diffraction study demonstrates that the transformation between chiral and achiral clusters is reversible.
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Menstrual and reproductive factors in the risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in young women in france: a population-based case-control study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased in eastern Europe since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Although the radioactive fallout was much less severe and the thyroid radiation dose was much lower in France, a case-control study was initiated in eastern France. The present study included 633 young women who were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer before 35 years of age between 2002 and 2006 and matched with 677 controls. Face-to-face interviews were conducted from 2005 to 2010. Odds ratios were calculated using conditional logistic regressions and were reported in the total group and by histopathological type of cancer ("only papillary" and "excluding microcarcinomas"). The risk of thyroid cancer was higher in women who had a higher number of pregnancies, used a lactation suppressant, or had early menarche. Conversely, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and late age at first pregnancy were associated with a lower risk of thyroid cancer. No association was observed between thyroid cancer and having irregular menstrual cycle, undergoing treatment for menstrual cycle regularity shortly after menarche, having a cessation of menstruation, use of another contraceptive, history of miscarriage or abortion for the first pregnancy, or having had gestational diabetes. This study confirms the role of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid cancer, and our results support the fact that exposure to estrogens increases thyroid cancer risk.
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Aberrant CD200/CD200R1 expression and its potential role in Th17 cell differentiation, chemotaxis and osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2014
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CD200/CD200R1 signalling has an immunoregulatory effect on the activation threshold of the inflammatory immune response and maintains immune homeostasis. In this study we evaluated the status of CD200/CD200R1 interaction in patients with RA.
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[Characteristics of water-soluble organic nitrogen of PM2.5 in Xi'an during wintertime non-haze and haze periods].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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High-volume PM2.5 samples were collected hourly from 4 December to 13 December 2012 at an urban site in Xi'an and analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN), water-soluble organic nitrogen (WSON) and inorganic ions to investigate the sources and formation mechanism of WSON. The results showed that during the sampling period the averaged hourly concentration of WSON was (12 +/- 9.4) microg x m(-3) and maximized at 31 microg x m(-3), accounting for 47% +/- 9.8% of WSTN with NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N being 29% +/- 8.5% and 23% +/- 8.1%, respectively. WSON: WSOC (N: C) mass ratios ranged from 0.04 to 0.65 with an average of 0.31 +/- 0.13 during the observation period. WSON was (1.6 +/- 0.9) microg x m(-3), (6.5 +/- 3.9) microg x m(-3) and (23 +/- 4.7) microg x m(-3) in non-haze days (visibility > 10 km), light haze days (5 km < visibility < 10 km) and heavy haze days (visibility < 5 km), respectively. WSOC/OC mass ratio throughout the observation period showed no significant change, but WSON/WSOC(N: C) mass ratio increased significantly from a lower value of 0.2 +/- 0.1 in non-haze days to 0.3 +/- 0.1 on light haze days and 0.4 +/- 0.1 on heavy haze days, in consistence with the enhanced acidity of the fine particles. In addition, during the whole sampling period, WSON was strongly correlated with NH4(+), SO4(2-) and NO3(-) (R2 > 0.80), and negatively correlated with cation-anion equivalent ratio (R2 = 0.53). These phenomena can be mainly ascribed to a gas-particle conversion of gaseous water-soluble nitrogen-containing organic compounds like amines via acid-base reactions, which was sharply increased under the favorable meteorological conditions (e.g., low temperature and high humidity) during the heavy haze days.
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Lentivirus-mediated bta-miR-29b overexpression interferes with bovine viral diarrhea virus replication and viral infection-related autophagy by directly targeting ATG14 and ATG9A in MDBK cells.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous RNA molecules with the ability to control development, autophagy, apoptosis and the stress response in eukaryotes by pairing with partially complementary sites in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of targeted genes. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs serve as critical effectors in intricate networks of host-pathogen interactions. Notably, we found that Bos taurus bta-miR-29b (referred to as miR-29b herein) was significantly upregulated more than 2.3-fold in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) NADL-infected Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells 6 h post-infection (pi) compared to normal MDBK cells. However, the roles of miR-29b in BVDV infection and pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we discover the inhibitory effects of miR-29b on BVDV NADL replication and viral infection-related autophagy. miR-29b overexpression mediated by miRNA precursor-expressing lentivirus resulted in the attenuation of BVDV NADL infection-related autophagy by directly downregulating the intracellular expression levels of two key autophagy-associated proteins, ATG14 and ATG9A. Moreover, ATG14 and ATG9A overexpression rescue not only reversed miR-29b-inhibited autophagy but also increased BVDV NADL replication. In previous studies, we found that the early stages of autophagy contribute to BVDV NADL replication in MDBK cells and that the inhibition of autophagy represses BVDV NADL replication, which was also proved in the present study. Collectively, our results establish a novel link between miR-29b and viral replication and they provide a new avenue for the intimate interaction between host cells and pathogens.
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De-SUMOylation of FOXC2 by SENP3 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The impact of cellular oxidative stress in promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been noticed. Our previous study shows that SENP3, a redox-sensitive SUMO2/3-specific protease, accumulates in a variety of cancers, but whether SENP3 and SUMOylation involve in the regulation of EMT is unclear. The present study uncovers a novel role of SENP3 in promoting the EMT process in gastric cancer via regulating an EMT-inducing transcription factor, forkhead box C2 (FOXC2). We demonstrate that the expression of mesenchymal marker genes and cell migration ability are enhanced in SENP3-overexpressing gastric cancer cells and attenuated in SENP3-knockdown cells. A nude mouse model and a set of patient's specimens suggest the correlation between SENP3 and gastric cancer metastasis. Biochemical assays identify FOXC2 as a substrate of SENP3. Meanwhile N-cadherin is verified as a target gene of FOXC2, which is transcriptionally activated by a SUMO-less FOXC2. Additionally, reactive oxygen species-induced de-SUMOylation of FOXC2 can be blocked by silencing endogenous SENP3. In conclusion, SENP3, which is increased in gastric cancer cells, potentiates the transcriptional activity of FOXC2 through de-SUMOylation, in favor of the induction of specific mesenchymal gene expression in gastric cancer metastasis.
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The influence of long-term cadmium exposure on phonotaxis in male Pelophylax nigromaculata.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Cadmium (Cd) is a common industrial and agricultural heavy metal found in the natural environment that disrupts the endocrine systems of vertebrates. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruptors because of their aquatic habitats and permeable skin. Endocrine disruptors are known to negatively affect amphibian acoustic behavior, but whether and how the ubiquitous pollutant Cd impacts this crucial amphibian signaling system remains unknown. Male black-spotted frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculata) show phonotactic responses to female receptive calls by emitting advertisement calls and moving towards females during the mating season, essential for reproductive success. To study whether long-term (60d) exposure to low Cd concentrations (10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6)M) affects male phonotaxis, we recorded male responses to female calls following Cd exposure during the breeding season. We found that Cd adversely affected advertisement call characteristics (call latency, call duration and call rate), the proportion of individuals that responded and the time to first movement of the male. These results indicate that long-term exposure to Cd at environmentally relevant concentrations alters phonotaxis in male P. nigromaculata.
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Phototandem Catalysis: Efficient Synthesis of 3-Ester-3-hydroxy-2-oxindoles by a Visible Light-Induced Cyclization of Diazoamides through an Aerobic Oxidation Sequence.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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An unprecedented phototandem catalysis based on a single iridium photocatalyst has been successfully developed. This powerful strategy consists of two mechanistically distinct catalytic cycles, namely, photocatalytic energy transfer (ET) and single electron transfer (SET). The novel protocol allows a rapid and efficient construction of biologically and synthetically important 3-ester-3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives from readily available diazoamides through a cyclization/aerobic oxidation sequence under very mild conditions.
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Quantitative profiling of chromatome dynamics reveals a novel role for HP1BP3 in hypoxia-induced oncogenesis.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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In contrast to the intensely studied genetic and epigenetic changes that induce host cell transformation to initiate tumor development, those that promote malignant progression of cancer remain poorly defined. As emerging evidence suggests that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could re-model chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) to induce epigenetic changes and alter gene expression in cancer cells, we hypothesized that hypoxia-driven evolution of the chromatome promotes malignant changes and development of therapy resistance in tumor cells. To test this hypothesis, chromatins were isolated from tumor cells treated with varying conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and re-oxygenation, partially digested with DNase I and analyzed for changes in euchromatin- and heterochromatin-associated proteins using quantitative iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach. We identified a total of 1446 proteins at a high level of confidence, including 819 proteins that were observed to change their chromatin association topology under hypoxic conditions. These hypoxia-sensitive proteins included key mediators of chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. Furthermore, our proteomic and functional experiments revealed a novel role for the chromatin organizer protein HP1BP3 in mediating chromatin condensation during hypoxia, leading to increased tumor cell viability, radio-resistance, chemo-resistance and self-renewal. Taking together, our findings indicate that HP1BP3 is a key mediator of tumor progression and cancer cell acquisition of therapy-resistant traits, and may thus represent a novel therapeutic target in a range of human malignancies.
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Hypoxia-induced Changes to Integrin ? 3 Glycosylation Facilitate Invasion in Epidermoid Carcinoma Cell Line A431.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Hypoxia is a critical microenvironmental factor that drives cancer progression through angiogenesis and metastasis. Glycoproteins, especially those on the plasma membrane, orchestrate this process; however, questions remain regarding hypoxia-perturbed protein glycosylation in cancer cells. We focused on the effects of hypoxia on the integrin family of glycoproteins, which are central to the cellular processes of attachment and migration and have been linked with cancer in humans. We employed electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS to identify and quantify glycoproteins expressed in A431. The results revealed that independent of the protein-level change, N-glycosylation modifications of integrin ? 3 (ITGA3) were inhibited by hypoxia, unlike in other integrin subunits. A combination of Western blot, flow cytometry, and cell staining assays showed that hypoxia-induced alterations to the glycosylation of ITGA3 prevented its efficient translocation to the plasma membrane. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that simultaneous mutation of glycosites 6 and 7 of ITGA3 prevented its accumulation at the K562 cell surface, which blocked integrin ? 3 and ? 1 heterodimer formation and thus abolished ITGA3's interaction with extracellular ligands. By generating A431 cells stably expressing ITGA3 mutated at glycosites 6 and 7, we showed that lower levels of ITGA3 on the cell surface, as induced by hypoxia, conferred an increased invasive ability to cancer cells in vitro under hypoxic conditions. Taken together, these results revealed that ITGA3 translocation to the plasma membrane suppressed by hypoxia through inhibition of glycosylation facilitated cell invasion in A431.
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Structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Gas vesicles are gas-filled proteinaceous organelles that provide buoyancy for bacteria and archaea. A gene cluster that is highly conserved in various species encodes about 8-14 proteins (Gvp proteins) that are involved in the formation of gas vesicles. Here, the first crystal structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 is reported at 2.7?Å resolution. GvpF is composed of two structurally distinct domains (the N-domain and C-domain), both of which display an ?+? class overall structure. The N-domain adopts a novel fold, whereas the C-domain has a modified ferredoxin fold with an apparent variation owing to an extension region consisting of three sequential helices. The two domains pack against each other via interactions with a C-terminal tail that is conserved among cyanobacteria. Taken together, it is concluded that the overall architecture of GvpF presents a novel fold. Moreover, it is shown that GvpF is most likely to be a structural protein that is localized at the gas-facing surface of the gas vesicle by immunoblotting and immunogold labelling-based tomography.
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Lack of association between fingernail selenium and thyroid cancer risk: a case-control study in French Polynesia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Numerous studies have suggested that selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for several types of cancer, but few have focused on thyroid cancer.
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Endogenous tau aggregates in oligodendrocytes of rTg4510 mice induced by human P301L tau.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Tau belongs to the microtubule-associated family of proteins that maintain cytoskeletal structure by regulating microtubule dynamics. In certain neurodegenerative diseases termed tauopathies, tau is abnormally phosphorylated and accumulates as filamentous inclusions. Transgenic mouse models that overexpress human tau have been widely used to investigate tau pathogenesis. Although many studies have attempted to elucidate the pathological function of transgenic human tau, it remains unknown whether endogenous mouse tau is involved in disease progression. Here we generated an mTau antibody that selectively recognizes mouse and rat tau, but not human tau. In rTg4510 tau transgenic mice, we identified a higher molecular weight mouse tau (~60-kDa) in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions. mTau antibody started to recognize intracellular aggregates and thread-like structures in 4- to 6-month-old rTg4510 mice. Tau inclusions appeared earlier, being detected in 2.5-month-old rTg4510 mice with MC1 antibody. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of filamentous aggregates of mouse tau, which were abundant in oligodendrocytes but rare in neurons. Mouse tau inclusions in oligodendrocytes were confirmed by double-labeling with an oligodendrocyte marker. Our data indicate that mouse tau has potential aggregation properties in neurons and non-neurons. The mTau antibody will be useful for investigating the role of mouse tau in mouse models of tauopathy.
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[Characteristics of newly diagnosed diabetes patients with young onset in the west china hospital of Sichuan University].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To investigate the clinical characteristics, metabolic status, insulin resistance and insulin secretory function of diabetic patients with early onset.
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A highly selective colorimetric chemosensor for cobalt(II) ions based on a tripodal amide ligand.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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A tripodal amide based ligand, tris-{(2-carbamoyl-5-carbomethoxy-pyridine)-2-ethyl}amine (H3L, 1), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigation of the cation recognition behavior showed that the ligand has selective colorimetric sensing properties for cobalt(II) ions by an obvious color change from colorless to yellow. To investigate the sensing mechanism of H3L for Co(2+) ions, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and single-crystal structural analysis were performed. The mixture of the ligand and cobalt(II) ions displayed selective colorimetric sensing properties for weak acid anions, such as CO3(2-), Ac(-), HCO3(-), SO3(2-), and PO4(3-). Detailed (1)H NMR experiments revealed that the basicity of the anions played an important role in the intensity of the interaction between the ligand and anions. The structures of compounds CoL (2), Co-Ac-HL (3), H4L-NO3 (4), and H4L-ClO4 (5) were also determined by single crystal diffraction studies.
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bta-miR-29b attenuates apoptosis by directly targeting caspase-7 and NAIF1 and suppresses bovine viral diarrhea virus replication in MDBK cells.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules that serve as powerful regulators of multiple cellular processes, including apoptosis, differentiation, growth, and proliferation. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) contributes significantly to health-related economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. Although BVDV-induced apoptosis correlates with increased intracellular viral RNA accumulation and with bta-miR-29b (miR-29b) expression upregulation in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV strain NADL, the role of miR-29b in regulating BVDV-infection-related apoptosis remains unexplored. Here, we report that miR-29b serves as a new miRNA regulating apoptosis. We showed that miR-29b target sequences were present in the 3' untranslated regions of 2 key apoptosis regulators mRNAs, cysteine aspartases-7 (caspase-7) and nuclear apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (NAIF1). Indeed, upon miRNA overexpression, both mRNA and protein levels of caspase-7 and NAIF1 were decreased. We further found that miR-29b attenuated apoptosis by directly regulating intracellular levels of caspase-7 and NAIF1. Moreover, apoptosis blockage by miR-29b was rescued upon co-infection of MDBK cells with lentiviruses expressing caspase-7 and NAIF1. Importantly, miR-29b decreased BVDV NADL envelope glycoprotein E1 mRNA levels and suppressed viral replication. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms of miRNAs in mediating the cells combating viral infections.
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The efficacy and safety of pramipexole ER versus IR in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study.
Transl Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To evaluate the non-inferiority of pramipexole extended-release (ER) versus immediate-release (IR) in Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study.
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Degradation of phenazone in aqueous solution with ozone: Influencing factors and degradation pathways.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Oxidation kinetics and degradation pathways of phenazone (an analgesic and antipyretic drug) upon reaction with O3 were investigated. Kinetic studies on degradation of phenazone were carried out under different operating conditions such as temperature, pH, anions and H2O2 addition. Results showed that the degradation followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The reaction rate constant (kobs) of phenazone reached the maximum at 20°C (9.653×10(-3)s(-1)). The presence of NO3(-) could enhance the degradation rate, while the addition of HCO3(-), SO4(2)(-), Cl(-) and the rise of pH showed negative effects on the ozonation of phenazone. H2O2 addition increased the phenazone degradation efficiency by 45.9% with the optimal concentration of 0.135mM. Reaction by-products were evaluated by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, which allowed the identification of a total of 10 by-products. The transformation pathways of phenazone ozonation consisted mainly of electrophilic addition and substitution, pyrazole ring opening, hydroxylation, dephenylization and coupling. The toxicity of these intermediate products showed that they are expected not to be more toxic than phenazone, with the exception of P7 (aniline) and P10 (1,5-dimethyl-4-((1-methyl-2-phenylhydrazinyl)methoxy)-2-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3(2H)-one).
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Profiling of the Chromatin-Associated Proteome Identifies HP1BP3 as a Novel Regulator of Cell Cycle Progression.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) regulates cellular gene expression by restricting access of transcriptional machinery to template DNA, and dynamic re-modeling of chromatin structure is required to regulate critical cell functions including growth and replication, DNA repair and recombination, and oncogenic transformation in progression to cancer. Central to the control of these processes is efficient regulation of the host cell cycle, which is maintained by rapid changes in chromatin conformation during normal cycle progression. A global overview of chromatin protein organization is therefore essential to fully understand cell cycle regulation, but the influence of the chromatome and chromatin binding topology on host cell cycle progression remains poorly defined. Here we used partial MNase digestion together with iTRAQ-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics to quantify chromatin-associated proteins during interphase progression. We identified a total of 481 proteins with high confidence that were involved in chromatin-dependent events including transcriptional regulation, chromatin re-organization, and DNA replication and repair, while the quantitative data revealed the temporal interactions of these proteins with chromatin during interphase progression. When combined with biochemical and functional assays, these data revealed a strikingly dynamic association of protein HP1BP3 with the chromatin complex during different stages of interphase, and uncovered a novel regulatory role for this molecule in transcriptional regulation. We report that HP1BP3 protein maintains heterochromatin integrity during G1-S progression and regulates the duration of G1 phase to critically influence cell proliferative capacity.
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Roles of bovine viral diarrhea virus envelope glycoproteins in inducing autophagy in MDBK cells.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved control process that maintains cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy principally serves an adaptive role to degrade dysfunctional proteins and to clean damaged organelles in response to pathogenic, viral, or microbial infection, nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In previous study, we showed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) NADL infection induced autophagy and significantly elevated the expression levels of autophagy-related genes, Beclin1 and ATG14, at 12 h post-infection in MDBK cells. However, the specific mechanisms involved in controlling autophagic activity remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of BVDV NADL envelope glycoproteins overexpression on inducing autophagy. The results show that viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 overexpression mediated by lentivirus increase the formation of autophagosome, the percentage of GFP-LC3 puncta-positive cells and the expression levels of Beclin1 and ATG14. Whereas E1 overexpression doesn't affect autophagic activity. Collectively, these findings suggest that the viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 are involved in inducing autophagy, and provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of autophagy in viral infected cells.
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Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz Seed Extract Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines via Inducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Akebia Fructus has long been used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in China, while the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Our recent work found that Akebia trifoliate (Thunb.) Koidz seed extract (ATSE) suppressed proliferation and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in SMMC-7721. The present study aimed to throw more light on the mechanism. ER stress occurred after ATSE treatment in HepG2, HuH7, and SMMC-7721 cells, manifested as ER expansion, and SMMC-7721 was the most sensitive kind in terms of morphology. Cell viability assay showed that ATSE significantly inhibited cells proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that ATSE leads to an upward tendency of G0/G1 phase and a reduced trend of the continuous peak after G2/M phase in HepG2; ATSE promoted apoptosis in HuH7 and a notable reduction in G0/G1 phase; ATSE does not quite influence cell cycles of SMMC-7721. Western blot analysis showed an increased trend of the chosen ER stress-related proteins after different treatments but nonsignificantly; only HYOU1 and GRP78 were decreased notably by ATSE in HuH7. Affymetrix array indicated that lots of ER stress-related genes' expressions were significantly altered, and downward is the main trend. These results suggest that ATSE have anticancer potency in HCC cells via partly inducing ER stress.
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[Diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Based on the measurements of eddy flux and micrometeorological factors, this paper analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow. The results showed that annual energy balance ratio (EBR) of the eddy covariance system was 0.77, and EBR was biggest in growing season, middle in bare soil period and smallest in snow-covered period. Diurnal variations of energy components all presented bell-shaped curves. The peak of net radiation appeared around 12:00 and peaks of other components slightly lagged. Seasonal variation of net radiation presented a single-peak curve, and the annual average was 5.71 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of latent heat flux was similar to that of net radiation, and the annual average was 2.84 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of sensible heat flux presented a double-peak curve, and the peaks appeared in April and September, respectively. Annual averaged sensible heat flux was 1.87 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Maximum soil heat flux (3.47 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1)) appeared in April, and the soil heat flux became negative after September. Annual budget ratios of energy components presented a decreasing order of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, which accounted for 49.8%, 35.8% and 3.1% of net radiation, respectively. Seasonal variation of Bowen ratio (beta) presented a 'U' shape, and the annual average was 1.61. beta was small (0.18) and relatively stable in growing season, while it was large (2.39) and fluctuated severely in non-growing season.
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QTL mapping of adult-plant resistance to leaf rust in a RIL population derived from a cross of wheat cultivars Shanghai 3/Catbird and Naxos.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Six QTL for adult plant resistance to leaf rust, including two QTL effective against additional diseases, were identified in a RIL population derived from a cross between Shanghai 3/Catbird and Naxos. Leaf rust is an important wheat disease and utilization of adult-plant resistance (APR) may be the best approach to achieve long-term protection from the disease. The CIMMYT spring wheat line Shanghai 3/Catbird (SHA3/CBRD) showed a high level of APR to Chinese Puccinia triticina pathotypes in the field. To identify APR genes in this line, a mapping population of 164 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross of this line and Naxos, a moderately susceptible German cultivar. The RILs were evaluated for final disease severity (FDS) at Baoding, Hebei province, and Zhoukou, Henan province, in the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 cropping seasons. QTL analysis detected one major QTL derived from SHA3/CBRD on chromosome 2BS explaining from 15 to 37 % of the phenotypic variance across environments. In addition one minor resistance QTL on chromosome 1AL from SHA3/CBRD and four minor QTL from Naxos on chromosomes 2DL, 5B, 7BS, and 7DS were also detected. SHA3/CBRD also possessed seedling resistance gene Lr26, and Naxos contained Lr1 based on gene postulation following tests with an array of P. triticina pathotypes and molecular marker assays. These seedling resistance and APR genes and their closely linked molecular markers are potentially useful for improving leaf rust resistance in wheat breeding programs.
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Differentiated thyroid carcinoma risk factors in French Polynesia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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To investigate differentiated thyroid cancer risk factors in natives of French Polynesia is of interest because of the very high incidence of this cancer in the archipelago.
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces autophagy in MDBK cells.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae). The signaling pathways and levels of signaling molecules are altered in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV. Autophagy is a conservative biological degradation pathway that mainly eliminates and degrades damaged or superfluous organelles and macromolecular complexes for intracellular recycling in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy can also be induced as an effective response to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to different stresses, such as nutrient or growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species exposure and pathogen infection. However, the effects of BVDV infection on autophagy in MDBK cells remain unclear. Therefore, we performed an analysis of autophagic activity after BVDV NADL infection using real-time PCR, electron microscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and Western blotting analysis. The results demonstrated that BVDV NADL infection increased autophagic activity and significantly elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1 and ATG14 in MDBK cells. However, the knockdown of Beclin1 and ATG14 by RNA interference (RNAi) did not affect BVDV NADL infection-related autophagic activity. These findings provided a novel perspective to elaborate the effects of viral infection on the host cells.
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Chronic effects of environmentally-relevant concentrations of lead in Pelophylax nigromaculata tadpoles: Threshold dose and adverse effects.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Lead (Pb) is a common heavy metal in the natural environment, but its concentration has been increasing alongside widespread industrial and agricultural development in China. The dark-spotted frog Pelophylax (formerly Rana) nigromaculata (Anura: Ranidae) is distributed across East Asia and inhabits anthropogenic habitats such as farmland. Here, P. nigromaculata tadpoles (Gosner stage 19-46) were exposed to Pb at different concentrations (0, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640 and 1280µg/L) and Pb-induced survival, metamorphosis time, development, malformations, mobility and gonad structure were monitored. The results showed that above the threshold concentration of Pb, adverse effects were obvious. As the concentration of Pb increased, the adverse effects on different traits followed different patterns: the effects on hindlimb length, survival rate, metamorphosis rate, total malformation rate, swimming speed and jumping speed largely exhibited a linear pattern; the effects on snout-vent length, body mass and forelimb length largely exhibited a bimodal pattern. Sex ratio and gonadal histology were not affected by Pb, suggesting that Pb is not strongly estrogenic in P. nigromaculata.
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Design, synthesis and molecular docking of amide and urea derivatives as Escherichia coli PDHc-E1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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By targeting the ThDP binding site of Escherichia coli PDHc-E1, two new 'open-chain' classes of E. coli PDHc-E1 inhibitors, amide and urea derivatives, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. The amide derivatives of compound 6d, with 4-NO2 in the benzene ring, showed the most potent inhibition of E. coli PDHc-E1. The urea derivatives displayed more potent inhibitory activity than the corresponding amide derivatives with the same substituent. Molecular docking studies confirmed that the urea derivatives have more potency due to the two hydrogen bonds formed by two NH of urea with Glu522. The docking results also indicate it might help us to design more efficient PDHc-E1 inhibitors that could interact with Glu522.
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Tau oligomers as potential targets for early diagnosis of tauopathy.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The discovery of tau mutations in frontotemporal dementia has been a key event in neurodegenerative disease research. The rTg4510 mouse line expressing human tau with P301L FTDP-17-tau mutation has been established to understand the role of tau in neurodegeneration. Our histological analyses with tau antibodies and fluorescent tau ligands on rTg4510 mice revealed that tau oligomer formation was distinct from tangle formation. While in vivo imaging of mature tangles is now available, imaging biomarkers for tau oligomers would be useful for clarifying their roles in neurotoxicity and for diagnosing early-stage tau pathology.
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[Prevalence and factors associated with the prevention and control of hypertension in Chinese Yi populations].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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To estimate the prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors associated with the prevention and control of hypertension in Chinese Yi populations.
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Assessment of early renal damage in diabetic rhesus monkeys.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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The objectives of the study were to improve the model system of diabetic nephropathy in nonhuman primates and assess the early renal damage. Diabetes was induced in monkeys by streptozotocin, and the animals were administered exogenous insulin to control blood glucose (BG). Animals were divided into four groups, including the normal group (N = 3), group A (streptozotocin diabetic model with control of BG < 10 mmol/L, N = 3), group B (streptozotocin diabetic model with control of BG between 15 and 20 mmol/L, N = 4), and group C (streptozotocin diabetic model with control of BG between 15 and 20 mmol/L and high-sodium and high-fat diet, N = 4). The following parameters were evaluated: (1) blood biochemistry and routine urinalysis, (2) color Doppler ultrasound, (3) angiography, (4) renal biopsy, and (5) renal fibrosis-related gene expression levels. Animals in group C developed progressive histologic changes with typical diabetic nephropathy resembling diabetic nephropathy in human patients and exhibited accelerated development of diabetic nephropathy compared with other nonhuman primate models. Significant changes in the expression of the Smad2/3 gene and eNOS in renal tissue were also observed in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. In conclusion, our model is an excellent model of diabetic nephropathy for understanding the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
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TOC1: a valuable tool in assessing disease progression in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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All tauopathies result in various forms of cognitive decline and neuronal loss. Although in some diseases, tau mutations appear to cause neurodegeneration, the toxic "form" of tau remains elusive. Tau is the major protein found within neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and therefore it seemed rational to assume that aggregation of tau monomers into NFTs was causal to the disease process. However, the appearance of oligomers rather than NFTs coincides much better with the voluminous neuronal loss in many of these diseases. In this study, we utilized the bigenic mouse line (rTg4510) which conditionally expresses P301L human tau. A novel tau antibody, termed Tau Oligomer Complex 1 (TOC1) was employed to probe mouse brains and assess disease progression. TOC1 selectively recognizes dimers/oligomers and appears to constitute an early stage marker of tau pathology. Its peak reactivity is coincident with other well-known early stage pathological markers such as MC1 and the early-stage phospho-marker CP13. TOC1's reactivity depends on the conformation of the tau species since it does not react with monomer under native conditions, although it does react with monomers under SDS-denaturation. This indicates a conformational change must occur within the tau aggregate to expose its epitope. Tau oligomers preferentially form under oxidizing conditions and within this mouse model, we observe tau oligomers forming at an increased rate and persisting much longer, most likely due to the aggressive P301L mutation. With the help of other novel antibodies, the use of this antibody will aid in providing a better understanding of tau toxicity within Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.
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Deep proteomic profiling of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques using multidimensional LC-MS/MS.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To increase the proteome coverage of human atherosclerotic plaques and identify low-abundance proteins that may have important functions during the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
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Age-related decline in white matter integrity in a mouse model of tauopathy: an in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Elevated expression of human hyperphosphorylated tau is associated with neuronal loss and white matter (WM) pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. Using in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) at 11.1 Tesla we measured age-related alterations in WM diffusion anisotropy indices in a mouse model of human tauopathy (rTg4510) and nontransgenic (nonTg) control mice at the age of 2.5, 4.5, and 8 months. Similar to previous DT-MRI studies in AD subjects, 8-month-old rTg4510 mice showed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in WM structures than nonTg. The low WM FA in rTg4510 mice was observed in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior commissure, fimbria, and internal capsule and was associated with a higher radial diffusivity than nonTg. Interestingly, rTg4510 mice showed lower estimates for the mode of anisotropy than controls at 2.5 months suggesting that changes in this diffusivity metric are detectable at an early stage preceding severe tauopathy. Immunogold electron microscopy partly supports our diffusion tensor imaging findings. At the age of 4 months, rTg4510 mice show axonal tau inclusions and unmyelinated processes. At later ages (12 months and 14 months) we observed inclusions in myelin sheath, axons, and unmyelinated processes, and a "disorganized" pattern of myelinated fiber arrangement with enlarged inter-axonal spaces in rTg4510 but not in nonTg mice. Our data support a role for the progression of tau pathology in reduced WM integrity measured by DT-MRI. Further in vivo DT-MRI studies in the rTg4510 mouse should help better discern the detailed mechanisms of reduced FA and anisotropy mode, and the specific role of tau during neurodegeneration.
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Quantitative profiling of the rat heart myoblast secretome reveals differential responses to hypoxia and re-oxygenation stress.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Secretion of bioactive mediators regulates cell interactions with the microenvironment in tissue homeostasis and wound healing processes. We assessed the cardiomyocyte secretory response to hypoxia with the aim of identifying key mediators of tissue pathology and repair after ischemic heart attack. We profiled the secretome of rat H9C2 cardiomyoblast cells subjected to 16h hypoxia followed by 24h re-oxygenation using iTRAQ and label-free quantitative proteomics. A total of 860 and 2007 proteins were identified in the iTRAQ and label-free experiments respectively. Among these proteins, 1363 were identified as being secreted proteins, including mediators of critical cellular functions that were modulated by hypoxia/re-oxygenation stress (SerpinH1, Ppia, Attractin, EMC1, Postn, Thbs1, Timp1, Stip1, Robo2, Fat1). Further analysis indicated that hypoxia is associated with angiogenesis, inflammation, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas subsequent re-oxygenation was instead associated with modified secretion of proteins involved in suppression of inflammation, ECM modification, and decreased output of anti-apoptosis proteins. These data indicate that hypoxia and subsequent re-oxygenation modify the cardiomyocyte secretome in order to mitigate cellular injury and promote healing. The identified changes in cardiomyocyte secretome advance our current understanding of cardiac biology in ischemia/reperfusion injury and may lead to the identification of novel prognostic biomarker.
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Solvothermal synthesis of four polyoxometalate-based coordination polymers including diverse Ag(I)···? interactions.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Four 3D POM-based silver coordination polymers, namely, [Ag17(ptz)11(PW12O40)2]n (1), [Ag17(ptz)11(PMo12O40)2]n (2), [Ag12(ptz)6(CN)2(SiW12O40)]n (3), and [Ag19(ptz)8(H2ptz)(H3ptz)(AgP5W30O110)·7H2O]n (4), have been obtained by solvothermal reaction of AgNO3 and 5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole (Hptz) ligand in the presence of four types of polyoxometalates. Structural analysis shows that four types of Ag(I)···? interactions, m-?(1), m/p-?(2), o/m-?(2), and o/m/p-?(3), were observed in compounds 1-4, depending on the polyoxometalates used. The in situ generated CN(-) ion in compound 3 shows unprecedented mixed ? and ? bonding modes, similar to the C2(2-) ion in well-studied silver acetylides. For 4, the Na(+) ion in the Preyssler heteropolyoxoanion, [NaP5W30O110](14-), was exchanged by Ag(I) under solvothermal conditions, generating a novel [AgP5W30O110](14-) anion. In addition, the photoluminescence behavior of 1-4 was also investigated.
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The predictive performance and stability of six species distribution models.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Predicting species' potential geographical range by species distribution models (SDMs) is central to understand their ecological requirements. However, the effects of using different modeling techniques need further investigation. In order to improve the prediction effect, we need to assess the predictive performance and stability of different SDMs.
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Absence of 19 known hotspot oncogenic mutations in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma: two cases report with review of the literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) of the tendons and aponeuroses is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that morphologically resembles cutaneous malignant melanoma but exhibits a distinct molecular profile. Gastrointestinal (GI) CCS is extremely rare. In this study, two cases of CCS were presented: (1) left thumb and (2) jejunum. Case 1 manifested the characteristic CCS morphology. Case 2 was morphologically unusual and difficult to diagnose. Immunohistochemically, the two cases of tumor cells were diffusely positive for S100, vimentin, NSE protein, focal expression of CgA, and CAM2.5 protein. In case 1, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for HMB45, focal expression of CD56, and melan A antigen. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results confirmed the presence of the EWS/ATF1 translocation (type 1) in the two cases. Then, we detected 19 hotspot oncogenes in the two cases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to apply a high-throughput OncoCarta panel 1.0 and MassARRAY system to detect 238 known mutations in 19 hotspot oncogenes in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma. In this study, no mutations were observed in these hotspot oncogenes in the two cases.
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Dual effects of ouabain on the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: involvement of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ?-subunits and NF-?B.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To elucidate the effect of ouabain on the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis of HUVECs and involvement of different Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase ?-subunits and NF-?B.
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Anti-cyclic citrullinated Peptide antibody is associated with interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at risk to develop RA-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). This retrospective study aimed to investigate the potential association of the positivity of serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP2) and rheumatoid factor (RF) with RA-ILD in RA patients.
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[The changes of gastrointestinal hormones GLP-1, PYY and ghrelin in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To study the changes of plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum peptide-YY (PYY) and Ghrelin and their secretion functions in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Association of five SNPs at the PARK16 locus as a susceptibility locus with Parkinsons disease for forensic application.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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To investigate the association of five SNPs (rs823083, rs708723, rs4951261, rs823076 and rs16856110) at the PARK16 locus with Parkinsons disease (PD), and to potentiate its forensic application. The genomic DNAs of 215 PD patients and 212 matched controls from the northern Han Chinese population were amplified in two independent PCR systems and subsequently genotyped by digestion with the three endonucleases (Hinf I, Nco I and Msp I ). The genetic parameters and association studies were carried out with SPSS 13.0, Haploview version 4.2 and PLINK 1.07 softwares. We detected accurately all genotypes in the five SNPs with multiplex PCR-RFLP and mismatched multiplex PCR-RFLP techniques. The genotypes of four SNPs, except for rs823083, were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The four SNPs, rs16856110, rs4951261, rs708723 and rs823076, which were in linkage equilibrium, should not be associated with PD (P-values ranging from 0.077 to 0.544). The SNPs investigated at the PARK16 locus were not found to be involved in PD-associated blocks in the northern Han Chinese population. The allele distributions of rs708723, rs4951261, rs823076 and rs16856110 in the northern Han Chinese population can be highly polymorphic, which can be applied to genetic analysis and forensic practices.
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Abnormal glutamate metabolism in the retina of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) knockout mice upon light damage.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina. Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water-selective membrane transport protein, and its knockout could alter retinal neuron excitability. However, the effect of AQP4 knockout on glutamate metabolism is still unclear in the retina. Here, we reported that the retinas in AQP4 knockout mice showed higher glutamate levels than that in wild-type mice upon light damage. AQP4 knockout could result in accelerated apoptosis of retinal cells, increased reactive gliosis, and attenuated survival of RGCs in response to light damage. Moreover, AQP4 knockout could affect the expression pattern of glutamate metabolism-related proteins such as GLAST and GS. Taken together, this study revealed a novel role of AQP4 in regulating glutamate metabolism. Pharmacological manipulation of AQP4 function may represent as a potent therapeutic target in the treatment of neurological ocular disorders.
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1H NMR-based metabonomic analysis of serum and urine in a nonhuman primate model of diabetic nephropathy.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious metabolic disease, and comprehensive understanding of its complex mechanism will help in preventing the onset and progression of DN. To reveal the systemic metabolic changes associated with renal injury, we performed 1H NMR-based metabonomic and multivariate analyses to analyze serum and urine obtained from a nonhuman primate model of DN. Our results indicated that DN monkeys exhibited a distinct metabolic profile, including higher levels of VLDL/LDL, lipids, unsaturated lipids, uric acid, allantoin, fumarate and hippurate, as well as lower levels of HDL, alanine, glutamate, pyruvate, formate, tyrosine, histidine and NAD+. The disturbed metabolic pathways were further identified, including NAD+ metabolism, purine metabolism, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and renal tubular reabsorption. This study highlights that NMR-based metabonomics provides insight into the underlying pathways in the pathogenesis and progression of DN at the metabolic level.
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Correction of errors in tandem mass spectrum extraction enhances phosphopeptide identification.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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The tandem mass spectrum extraction of phosphopeptides is more difficult and error-prone than that of unmodified peptides due to their lower abundance, lower ionization efficiency, the cofragmentation with other high-abundance peptides, and the use of MS(3) on MS(2) fragments with neutral losses. However, there are still no established methods to evaluate its correctness. Here we propose to identify and correct these errors via the combinatorial use of multiple spectrum extraction tools. We evaluated five free and two commercial extraction tools using Mascot and phosphoproteomics raw data from LTQ FT Ultra, in which RawXtract 1.9.9.2 identified the highest number of unique phosphopeptides (peptide expectation value <0.05). Surprisingly, ProteoWizzard (v. 3.0.3476) extracted wrong precursor mass for most MS(3) spectra. Comparison of the top three free extraction tools showed that only 54% of the identified spectra were identified consistently from all three tools, indicating that some errors might happen during spectrum extraction. Manual check of 258 spectra not identified from all three tools revealed 405 errors of spectrum extraction with 7.4% in selecting wrong precursor charge, 50.6% in selecting wrong precursor mass, and 42.1% in exporting MS/MS fragments. We then corrected the errors by selecting the best extracted MGF file for each spectrum among the three tools for another database search. With the errors corrected, it results in the 22.4 and 12.2% increase in spectrum matches and unique peptide identification, respectively, compared with the best single method. Correction of errors in spectrum extraction improves both the sensitivity and confidence of phosphopeptide identification. Data analysis on nonphosphopeptide spectra indicates that this strategy applies to unmodified peptides as well. The identification of errors in spectrum extraction will promote the improvement of spectrum extraction tools in future.
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A novel eye localization method with rotation invariance.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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This paper presents a novel learning method for precise eye localization, a challenge to be solved in order to improve the performance of face processing algorithms. Few existing approaches can directly detect and localize eyes with arbitrary angels in predicted eye regions, face images, and original portraits at the same time. To preserve rotation invariant property throughout the entire eye localization framework, a codebook of invariant local features is proposed for the representation of eye patterns. A heat map is then generated by integrating a 2-class sparse representation classifier with a pyramid-like detecting and locating strategy to fulfill the task of discriminative classification and precise localization. Furthermore, a series of prior information is adopted to improve the localization precision and accuracy. Experimental results on three different databases show that our method is capable of effectively locating eyes in arbitrary rotation situations (360 (°) in plane).
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Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives as pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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As potential inhibitors of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 (PDHc-E1), a series of 19 1-((4-amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl)-5-methyl-N-(substituent)benzylidene-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbohydrazide 4 has been synthesized and tested for their PDHc-E1 inhibitory activity in vitro. Some of these compounds such as 4a, 4g, 4l, 4o, 4p, and 4q were demonstrated to be effective inhibitors by the bioassay of Escherichia coli PDHc-E1. SAR analysis indicated that the PDHc-E1 inhibitory activity could be further enhanced by optimizing the substituted groups in the parent compound. Molecular modeling study with compound 4o as a model was performed to evaluate docking. The results of modeling study suggested a probable inhibition mechanism.
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Usefulness of cube copying in evaluating clinical profiles of patients with Parkinson disease.
Cogn Behav Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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To clarify the relationship between the quantitatively assessed cube-copying test (CCT) and clinical profiles of cognitive and motor ability in Chinese patients with Parkinson disease (PD).
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Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in an APP/PS1 mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
Acta Neurol Belg
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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To investigate aberrant genome-wide CpG methylation patterns in cortex brain tissue of APP/PS1 mice and as compared to controls, which allows for identification of novel disease-associated genes. This study investigates the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of the cortex from APP/PS1 transgenic mice and control mice using the Roche NimbleGen chip platform. Functional analysis was then conducted by Ingenuity Pathways Analysis system. The methylated DNA fragments in the genome of each sample were enriched by MeDIP and the whole-genome interrogations were hybridized to the Roche NimbleGen Human DNA Methylation 3x720 K CpG Island Plus RefSeq Promoter Array that cover 15,980 CpG islands and 20,404 reference gene promoter regions of the entire human genome. Analysis reveals 2346 CpG sites representing 485 unique genes as potentially associated with AD disease status pending confirmation in additional study. At the same time, these hyper-methylated genes display familial aggregation. An impairment of the transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) signaling pathway has been demonstrated to be specific to the AD brain and, particularly, to the early phase of the disease, supporting a role for epigenetic change of TGF-?1 in AD pathology. In future research, we will focus on TGF-?1, as it appeared to be the most promising candidate for AD.
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Autophagy during early stages contributes to bovine viral diarrhea virus replication in MDBK cells.
J. Basic Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Autophagy (or autophagocytosis) is an essential and precise control process by which cells degrade unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components or organelles in the cytoplasm in response to nutrient depletion, exogenous pathogens, or other stimuli. This process results in the removal of damaged or surplus organelles and macromolecular complexes via a lysosome-dependent mechanism. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ssRNA virus of the Flaviviridae family (genus Pestivirus). BVDV infection results in major economic losses due to poor reproductive performance and poor calf performance in cattle herds. In our previous studies, we have shown that BVDV NADL infection significantly increases autophagy in MDBK cells. To further define the interactions between autophagy and BVDV infection, we investigated the effects of autophagy on the replication of BVDV NADL. The findings showed that autophagy was inhibited by treatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or wortmannin and that the knockdown of LC3 and Beclin1 using lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed BVDV NADL replication. In contrast, the findings showed the replication of BVDV NADL was significantly increased by treatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin within 18?h post-infection (pi). However, the mRNA levels of BVDV NADL 5UTRs showed a downward trend after 18?h pi, and this effect was reversed by chloroquine treatment. Therefore, we inferred that infection with BVDV NADL increases autophagy, which in turn favors BVDV NADL replication at early stages.
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[Preliminary study on correlation between diversity of soluble proteins and producing area of Cordyceps sinensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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To analyze the content and type of soluble proteins in Cordyceps sinensis from different producing areas and processed with different methods with bradford method and 2-DE technology, in order to discover significant differences in soluble proteins in C. sinensis processed with different methods and from different producing areas. The preliminary study indicated that the content and diversity of soluble proteins were related to producing areas and processing methods to some extent.
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Vitamin D in liver diseases: from mechanisms to clinical trials.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Traditionally regarded as a typical vitamin regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, vitamin D is now discovered as a highly versatile molecule with emerging roles in immunity, cancer, infectious diseases, fibrosis, fatty liver diseases, and alcoholic liver diseases. A large body of clinical evidence has demonstrated the prevalence and risks of vitamin D deficiency in various chronic diseases. Biologically active vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxylvitamin D3, is synthesized in two distinct systems. In addition to the classic two-step hydroxylation in the liver and kidneys, 1,25-dihydroxylvitamin D3 can also be produced locally by immune cells in response to infection. The bioactive vitamin D generated in these two pools apparently functions differently: while the former facilitates calcium adsorption and homeostasis, the latter confers immune regulation. The immune regulatory functions of vitamin D are demonstrated by induction of antimicrobial peptides, suppression of innate immune response, induction of Th2 cytokines, and stimulation of T-regulatory T cells. Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is overwhelmingly associated with viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and fatty liver diseases. Recent clinical trials have shown that vitamin D supplements significantly enhance the efficacy of interferon plus ribavirin therapy through sustained virological response. A recent study showed that 25-dihydroxyvitamin D rather than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D could directly suppress hepatitis C virus assembly. Moreover, clinical evidence has shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. In this review, we highlight some recent advances in vitamin D researches and clinical trails.
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LRRK2 G2385R variant carriers of female Parkinsons disease are more susceptible to motor fluctuation.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The relation between the LRRK2 mutation and its effect on Parkinsons disease (PD) has always caught a lot attention. Recent studies found that the G2385R polymorphism of LRRK2 may increase the risk of PD in Asian populations. Here we tried to clarify the relationship between the LRRK2 G2385R variant and the clinical profiles including motor complication in Chinese PD patients. We identified the LRRK2 variant in the Chinese Han population in northern China and evaluated the relationship between the G2385R variant and clinical profiles through comparison between 36 carriers and 139 non-carriers. We found that G2385R carriers scored significantly higher in motor fluctuation and dyskinesia than non-carriers. Logistic regression analysis showed that the G2385R variant was an independent risk factor for motor fluctuation in females (odds ratio = 12.538, 95 % CI 2.216-70.942, P = 0.004), and a Chi-squared test showed that the frequency of dyskinesia tended to be higher in the carrier group compared to the non-carrier group (16 vs. 4.4 %, P = 0.050, OR = 4.127, 95 % CI 1.074-15.864). These findings indicate that the variant was closely related to the occurrence of motor complication. Additionally, the G2385R variant was significantly related to the early-onset of PD in female carriers (20.0 vs. 1.5 %, odds ratio = 16.25, 95 % CI 1.557-169.618, P = 0.020). Our study found that the G2385R variant was significantly associated with motor complications and that this variant was an independent risk factor for motor fluctuation in females. These findings provide the necessary preliminary data to better understand the unique profile of PD G2385R variant carriers.
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[Market survey and identification of hippocampus (Haima)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To clarify the commercial original species of hippocampus in the market.
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[Corresponding relationship between Mantis and Mantidis Oötheca (Sangpiaoxiao)].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Mantidis Oötheca is commonly used Chinese medicine. Because of the used medicinal part is oötheca and many mantis species can yield ootheca, it is not possible to identify its original animal accurately. There is no unanimous conclusion about the corresponding relationship between Mantis and Mantidis Oötheca (Sangpiaoxiao). This relationship is the basis of the Mantidis Oötheca research. Our study combined the methods of artificial incubation oötheca and capture the living mantis to identify the species of Mantis and Mantidis Oötheca. The results showed that the origin insects of Mantidis Oötheca was Tenodera, Hierodula and Statilia genus insects. This has laid a foundation for further study of Mantidis Oötheca.
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Increasing glucagon secretion could antagonize the action of exogenous insulin for glycemic control in streptozocin-induced diabetic rhesus monkeys.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Although intraislet insulin signaling is known to play a critical role in regulating glucagon secretion, it is unknown whether abnormal glucagon secretion influences the hypoglycemic effect of exogenous insulin with intraislet insulin deletion. We performed a longitudinal study using 16 streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rhesus monkeys to explore ?-cell function under the absence ?-cells and to assess whether increasing glucagon secretion antagonizes the action of exogenous insulin for glycemic control. We found that although the ?-cells were impaired and the basal secretion levels of glucagon decreased rapidly after STZ (80-90 mg/kg) administration, as based on long-term observation post-STZ injection, glucagon secretion and the number of ?-cells were increased. Glycemic control was increasingly difficult, the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was significantly higher, and the triglycerides (TG) levels were gradually decreased. Moreover, a significant correlation between the levels of glucagon and HOMA-IR was found. Under the long-term absence of ?-cells, the inhibitory effect on ?-cell activity is profoundly attenuated, leading to an increase in glucagon secretion and the amount of ?-cells and even ?-cell dysfunction. Increased glucagon levels have a serious impact on the insulin sensitivity in vivo and result in an antagonization of the hypoglycemic effect of exogenous insulin.
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Measuring cereblon as a biomarker of response or resistance to lenalidomide and pomalidomide requires use of standardized reagents and understanding of gene complexity.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Cereblon, a member of the cullin 4 ring ligase complex (CRL4), is the molecular target of the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and pomalidomide and is required for the antiproliferative activity of these agents in multiple myeloma (MM) and immunomodulatory activity in T cells. Cereblons central role as a target of lenalidomide and pomalidomide suggests potential utility as a predictive biomarker of response or resistance to IMiD therapy. Our studies characterized a cereblon monoclonal antibody CRBN65, with high sensitivity and specificity in Western analysis and immunohistochemistry that is superior to commercially available antibodies. We identified multiple cereblon splice variants in both MM cell lines and primary cells, highlighting challenges with conventional gene expression assays given this gene complexity. Using CRBN65 antibody and TaqMan quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays, we showed lack of correlation between cereblon protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, lack of correlation between cereblon expression in MM cell lines and sensitivity to lenalidomide was shown. In cell lines made resistant to lenalidomide and pomalidomide, cereblon protein is greatly reduced. These studies show limitations to the current approaches of cereblon measurement that rely on commercial reagents and assays. Standardized reagents and validated assays are needed to accurately assess the role of cereblon as a predictive biomarker.
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Genome Sequence of a Freshwater Low-Nucleic-Acid-Content Bacterium, Betaproteobacterium Strain CB.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Betaproteobacterium strain CB is a typical minute freshwater bacterium, representing the small-cell bacteria that are numerically dominant in most freshwater environments. The genome of betaproteobacterium CB consists of a circular 2,045,720-bp chromosome, and the information we report will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying its survival and ecological function.
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Outcomes of neuropsychological interventions of stroke.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The reported prevalence of cognitive deficits within the first month of stroke ranges widely from 10% to 82%, depending primarily on the criteria used to define cognitive impairment and on the selected patient population. These cognitive defects progress toward impairment over a course of time if left untreated. Among the most common cognitive deficits are the attentional, the visuoperceptual, the memory and executive function deficits. As these impairments are being increasingly recognized in the scientific communities, more and more studies are being devoted to the outcomes of various therapies for these disorders. In this review, we focus on the outcomes of various therapies for these cognitive disorders over time. We reviewed all the possible medical databases using key words for individual cognitive deficit treatment outcomes. All the possible studies including randomized controlled trials, pre-post design studies, case series and single case reports were included in this study. On the basis of present literature review, we conclude that the evidence is definitively positive only for outcomes of attentional and visuoperceptive skill deficits. On the other hand, there have been very few studies to conclude for effectiveness of various therapies for memory and executive function outcomes.
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A correlation between brachial artery flow mediated-dilation and endothelial microparticles for identifying endothelial dysfunction in children with Kawasaki disease.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Background:To investigate vascular endothelial dysfunction by sonographic features of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) in Kawasaki disease (KD).Methods:Twenty-eight patients with KD were prospectively grouped according to stage of disease: acute, subacute, and convalescent. In addition, 28 healthy children and 28 febrile children were selected as controls. And those cases in the convalescent phase were divided into two subgroups: coronary-artery-lesion (CAL) and no-coronary-lesion (NCAL). CD144+/CD42b-, CD62E+, and CD105+ EMPs were measured by flow cytometry; FMD was obtained by sonography.Results:There were significant differences in FMD among the five groups. When compared with healthy controls, there were significantly greater numbers of CD144+/CD42b-, CD62E+ and CD105+ EMPs and a higher proportion of CD62E+ EMPs in KD patients. The proportions and numbers of CD144+/CD42b-, CD62E+, and CD105+ EMPs in KD patients were not statistically different than in febrile controls. There were no significant differences in FMD and EMPs between CAL and NCAL.There were significantly negative correlations between the values of FMD and EMPs in three phases of KD.Conclusions:The increased levels of EMPs have significant correlation with decreased values of FMD, both of which may reflect endothelial dysfunction in child KD.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.240.
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[Non-real-time endobronchial bronchoscopy ultrasound assisted transbronchial lung biopsy in diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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To evaluate the role of non-real-time endobronchial bronchoscopy ultrasound(EBUS) assisted transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) in diagnosing peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPL).
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Aberrant CD200/CD200R1 expression contributes to painful synovium hyperplasia in a patient with primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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We present a case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO), with painful synovium hyperplasia involving both knees that was refractory to corticosteroid treatment. His rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibody was negative, and his serum ESR and CRP level was within normal range. Histological examination of the synovium obtained from his right knee revealed endothelial hyperplasia and vascular thickening without inflammation that was in association with aberrant expression of CD200/CD200R1, which highlighted the importance of aberrant CD200/CD200R1 in the regulation of the endothelial activation that contributed to the development of synovium hyperplasia in this PHO patient.
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Design and syntheses of novel N-((4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide as inhibitors of cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphoshatase (Cy-FBP/SBPase) is an important target enzyme for finding inhibitors to solve harmful algal bloom (HAB). In this study, as potential inhibitors of Cy-FBP/SBPase, a series of novel chromone-connecting benzohydrazone compounds (Novel N-((4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide) were designed and synthesized. Their inhibitory activities against Cy-FBP/SBPase were further examined in vitro. Some of these compounds, such as f6-f8, f11, f12 and f16, exhibit higher inhibitory activities (IC50=11.2-16.1 ?M), especially, the compound f7 was identified as the most potent inhibitor with IC50 value of 11.2 ?M. The probable binding-mode of compound f7 was further analyzed carefully by molecular docking methods. These results indicate that compound f7 could be used as a lead compound for further optimization and might have potential to be developed as a new algicide.
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Comparative evaluation of electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) and high-pH reversed phase (Hp-RP) chromatography in profiling of rat kidney proteome.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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ERLIC and high-pH RP (Hp-RP) have been reported to be promising alternatives to strong cation exchange (SCX) in proteome fractionation. Here we compared the performance of ERLIC, concatenated ERLIC and concatenated Hp-RP in proteome profiling. The protein identification is comparable in these three strategies, but significantly more unique peptides are identified by the two concatenation methods, resulting in a significant increase of the average protein sequence coverage. The pooling of fractions from spaced intervals results in more uniform distribution of peptides in each fraction compared with the chromatogram-based pooling of adjacent fractions. ERLIC fractionates peptides according to their pI and GRAVY values. These properties remains but becomes less remarkable in concatenated ERLIC. In contrast, the average pI and GRAVY values of the peptides are comparable in each fraction in concatenated Hp-RP. ERLIC performs the best in identifying peptides with pI>9 among the three strategies, while concatenated Hp-RP is good at identifying peptides with pI<4. These advantages are useful when either basic or acidic peptides/proteins are analytical targets. The power of ERLIC in identification of basic peptides seems to be due to their efficient separation from acidic peptides. This study facilitates the choice of proper fractionation strategies based on specific objectives.
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In vivo functional brain mapping in a conditional mouse model of human tauopathy (tau(P301L)) reveals reduced neural activity in memory formation structures.
Mol Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Tauopathies are characterized by intracellular deposition of the microtubule-associated protein tau as filamentous aggregates. The rTg4510 mouse conditionally expresses mutant human tau protein in various forebrain areas under the Tet-off expression system. Mice develop neurofibrillary tangles, with significant neuronal loss and cognitive deficits by 6 months of age. Previous behavioral and biochemical work has linked the expression and aggregates of mutant tau to functional impairments. The present work used manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) to investigate basal levels of brain activity in the rTg4510 and control mice.
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A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies.
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Enhancement of arsenic adsorption during mineral transformation from siderite to goethite: mechanism and application.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Synthesized siderite was used to remove As(III) and As(V) from water solutions under anoxic conditions and oxic conditions. Results showed that As adsorption on synthetic siderite under anoxic conditions was around 10 mg/g calculated with Langmuir isotherm. However, the calculated As adsorption on synthetic siderite under oxic conditions ranged between 115 and 121 mg/g, which was around 11 times higher than that under anoxic conditions. It was found that 75% siderite was transformed into goethite during oxic adsorption. However, synthetic goethite had lower As adsorption capacity than siderite under oxic conditions, although its adsorption capacity was a little higher than siderite under anoxic conditions. It suggested that the coexistence of goethite and siderite bimineral during mineral transformation probably contributed to the robust adsorption capacity of siderite under oxic conditions. Results of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAF) spectroscopy indicated both As(III) and As(V) formed inner-sphere complexes on the surface of As-treated solid regardless of substrates, including the bidentate binuclear corner-sharing ((2)C) complexes and the monodentate mononuclear corner-sharing ((1)V) complexes. Monodenate ((1)V) and bidentate ((2)C) complexes would be related to high As adsorption capacity of siderite under oxic conditions. It showed that more Fe atoms were coordinated with As atom in the monodentate complexes and the bidentate complexes of As(V)/As(III)-treated siderite under oxic conditions, in comparison with As(V)/As(III)-treated siderite under anoxic conditions and As(V)/As(III)-treated goethite. Calcinations of natural siderite resulting in the coexistence of goethite and siderite greatly increased As adsorption on the solid, which confirmed that the coexistence of bimineral during mineral transformation from siderite to goethite greatly enhanced As adsorption capacity of siderite adsorbent. The observation can be applied for modification of natural siderite for As removal from high As waters.
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Isolation and characterization of carbendazim-degrading Rhodococcus erythropolis djl-11.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazol-2-yl carbamate) is one of the most widely used fungicides in agriculture worldwide, but has been reported to have adverse effects on animal health and ecosystem function. A highly efficient carbendazim-degrading bacterium (strain dj1-11) was isolated from carbendazim-contaminated soil samples via enrichment culture. Strain dj1-11 was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characters, including sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. In vitro degradation of carbendazim (1000 mg·L(-1)) by dj1-11 in minimal salts medium (MSM) was highly efficient, and with an average degradation rate of 333.33 mg·L(-1)·d(-1) at 28°C. The optimal temperature range for carbendazim degradation by dj1-11 in MSM was 25-30°C. Whilst strain dj1-11 was capable of metabolizing cabendazim as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, degradation was significantly (P<0.05) increased by addition of 12.5 mM NH4NO3. Changes in MSM pH (4-9), substitution of NH4NO3 with organic substrates as N and C sources or replacing Mg(2+) with Mn(2+), Zn(2+) or Fe(2+) did not significantly affect carbendazim degradation by dj1-11. During the degradation process, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) detected the metabolites 2-aminobenzimidazole and 2-hydroxybenzimidazole. A putative carbendazim-hydrolyzing esterase gene was cloned from chromosomal DNA of djl-11 and showed 99% sequence homology to the mheI carbendazim-hydrolyzing esterase gene from Nocardioides sp. SG-4G.
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Characteristics of tau oligomers.
Front Neurol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies, microtubule-associated protein tau becomes hyperphosphorylated, undergoes conformational changes, aggregates, eventually becoming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). As accumulating evidence suggests that NFTs themselves may not be toxic, attention is now turning toward the role of intermediate tau oligomers in AD pathophysiology. Sarkosyl extraction is a standard protocol for investigating insoluble tau aggregates in brains. There is a growing consensus that sarkosyl-insoluble tau correlates with the pathological features of tauopathy. While sarkosyl-insoluble tau from tauopathy brains has been well characterized as a pool of filamentous tau, other dimers, multimers, and granules of tau are much less well understood. There are protocols for identifying these tau oligomers. In this mini review, we discuss the characteristics of tau oligomers isolated via different methods and materials.
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