JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
4-1BB Ligand Signaling to T Cells Limits T Cell Activation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) and its receptor, 4-1BB, are both induced on T cells after activation, but little is known about the role of 4-1BBL. In this study we show that 4-1BBL can transmit signals that limit T cell effector activity under tolerogenic conditions. Cross-linking 4-1BBL inhibited IL-2 production in vitro, primarily with suboptimal TCR stimulation. Furthermore, naive 4-1BBL-deficient OT-II transgenic T cells displayed a greater conversion to effector T cells in vivo when responding to soluble OVA peptide in wild-type hosts, whereas development of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells was not altered. A greater number of effector T cells also differentiated from naive wild-type OT-II T cells when transferred into 4-1BB-deficient hosts, suggesting that APC-derived 4-1BB is likely to trigger 4-1BBL. Indeed, effector T cells that could not express 4-1BBL accumulated in larger numbers in vitro when stimulated with 4-1BB-expressing mesenteric lymph node dendritic cells. 4-1BBL was expressed on T cells when Ag presentation was limiting, and 4-1BBL was aberrantly expressed at very high levels on T cells that could not express 4-1BB. Trans-ligation, Ab capture, and endocytosis experiments additionally showed that T cell-intrinsic 4-1BB regulated internalization of membrane 4-1BBL, implying that the strong induction of 4-1BB on T cells may counteract the suppressive function of 4-1BBL by limiting its availability. These data suggest that 4-1BBL expressed on T cells can restrain effector T cell development, creating a more favorable regulatory T cell to effector cell balance under tolerogenic conditions, and this may be particularly active in mucosal barrier tissues where 4-1BB-expressing regulatory dendritic cells present Ag.
Related JoVE Video
[Association of health literacy with health management among diabetics].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand status of health literacy among diabetics and their health management behaviors, and analyze the relationship of health literacy and health management.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Application of Pharmacogenomics: The Example of HLA-Based Drug-Induced Toxicity.
Public Health Genomics
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pharmacogenomics is gradually becoming more and more indispensable in modern medicine. In several cases, a pharmacogenomics test may alleviate serious drug-induced adverse reactions, if it precedes drug prescription. In this article, we provide an overview of the well-established HLA-based carbamazepine- and allopurinol-induced adverse reactions, as one of the most characteristic examples of the clinical application of pharmacogenomics, highlighting its regional impact in Southeast Asian populations in preventing adverse reactions of certain drug/allele pairs. This example provides useful insights towards evidence generation for policy implementation, including economic evaluation analysis, the implementation of pharmacogenomics testing procedures and monitoring of policy effectiveness, hence serving, per se or in the context of international collaborative efforts, as a model for similar cases in several national healthcare systems worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
[Causes and affecting factors of unplanned reoperations in cancer patients].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the causes and affecting factors of unplanned reoperations in cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Plasmon waveguide resonance sensor using an Au-MgF2 structure.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report an Au-MgF2 plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) sensor in this work. The characteristics of this sensing structure are compared with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) structure theoretically and experimentally. The transverse-magnetic-polarized PWR sensor has a refractive index resolution of 9.3×10-7 RIU, which is 6 times smaller than that of SPR at the incident light wavelength of 633 nm, and the transverse-electric-polarized PWR sensor has a refractive index resolution of 3.0×10-6 RIU. This high-resolution sensor is easy to build and is less sensitive to film coating deviations.
Related JoVE Video
Orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength Nd:YAlO3 laser at 1341 and 1339??nm and sum-frequency mixing for an emission at 670??nm.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report a diode-pumped continuous wave (cw) orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength laser at 1339 and 1341 nm with a single b-cut Nd:YAlO3 (Nd:YAP) crystal. By adjusting the tilt angle of the uncoated glass plate inserted in the laser cavity, we can control the cavity losses of two polarized directions. The output wavelengths are 1339 nm in a-axis polarization and 1341 nm in c-axis polarization, respectively, which are orthogonal to each other. At an incident pump power of 17.3 W, the cw output power obtained at 1339 and 1341 nm is 1.6 and 2.3 W, respectively. Furthermore, intracavity sum-frequency mixing at 1339 and 1341 nm was then realized in a KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal to reach the red range. To our knowledge, this is the first work realizing an orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength Nd:YAP laser based on the F43/2-4I13/2 transition. Such a dual-wavelength laser would be especially valuable as a compact laser source to generate terahertz emission because the frequency difference between 1339 and 1341 nm is about 0.9 THz.
Related JoVE Video
Tissue Depletion of Quinocetone and Its Five Major Metabolites in Pigs, Broilers, and Carp Fed Quinocetone Premix.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A residue depletion study was performed to investigate the tissue kinetics of quinocetone (1) and its major metabolites. Quinocetone and its major metabolites were simultaneously quantitated with a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method. A total of 25 pigs, 30 broilers, and 50 carp were fed 100 mg/kg quinocetone for 90, 42, and 60 days, respectively. Liver, kidney, muscle, and fat (skin) tissues were collected at five different withdrawal times for analysis. Results revealed that quinocetone, 1-desoxyquinocetone (2), carbonyl-reduced 4-desoxyquinocetone (4), 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (5), and carbonyl-reduced dideoxyquinocetone (6) could be depleted quickly in tissues; by contrast, dideoxyquinocetone, 3, persisted for a long time in the liver. Therefore, the liver is possibly the target tissue of quinocetone, and 3 is the residual marker; the recommended withdrawal times (WDTs) are 0 days in pigs and carp and 3 days in broilers. These results provided clear monitoring tools and technical standards to evaluate the food safety of quinocetone.
Related JoVE Video
Risk Factors and Management of Gestational Diabetes.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considered to be a typical condition of glucose intolerance in which a woman previously undiagnosed with diabetes exhibits high levels of blood glucose during the third trimester of pregnancy. It can hence be defined as any degree of intolerance to glucose with its first recognition only during the pregnancy. Approximately 7 % of all cases of pregnancy are found to be variedly complicated with GDM and this result in more than 200,000 cases annually. In US only, GDM has been found to complicate about 7-14 % cases annually, and the trend seems to have increased by 35-100 % in the recent years. A history of GDM can be considered to be one of the sturdiest risk factors concerning the development of type 2 diabetes. Among women who have a history of GDM, the risk of developing classical type 2 diabetes usually ranges from 20 to 50 %. Evidences collected from various efficacy trials suggest that lifestyle interventions like weight management can modulate and prevent type 2 diabetes in at-risk individuals. The cornerstone of GDM management is glycemic control, and hence, it is attributed to be the main focus of attention for the therapy. In this review, we have tried to highlight the various risk factors associated with GDM along with the available therapeutic options in the treatment and management of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Extruded Soluplus/SIM as an oral delivery system: characterization, interactions, in vitro and in vivo evaluations.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The aim of this study was to obtain a stable, amorphous solid dispersion (SD) with Soluplus, prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) as an effective and stable oral delivery system to improve the physical stability and bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble simvastatin (SIM), a drug with relatively low Tg. The drug was proved to be miscible with Soluplus by calculation and measurements. The solubility, dissolution, thermal characteristics, interactions and physical stability of the SIM/Soluplus SDs were investigated. The crystal state of simvastatin in the SD was found to change from crystalline to amorphous form during the HME process and also hydrogen bonds were observed between SIM and the extruded Soluplus. The phase solubility showed the solubilization effect of Soluplus was strong and spontaneous. The equilibrium solubility illustrated that Soluplus/SIM SDs gained much higher solubility than its corresponding physical mixtures (PMs). Both of the dissolution profiles and in-vivo performance showed that the SIM/Soluplus SD obtained a marked enhancement, compared with the PM. There was a little change in the SIM/Soluplus SD during a 3-month storage period (40?°C, 75%), indicating the good physicochemical stability. The extruded Soluplus system prepared by HME is a good alternative for the water-insoluble SIM to improve the stability and bioavailability.
Related JoVE Video
Fluorinated microporous organic polymers: design and applications in CO2 adsorption and conversion.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorinated microporous organic polymers (F-MOPs) were designed, showing twice higher CO2 adsorption capacity than corresponding non-fluorous MOPs. The incorporation of phenanthroline moieties into F-MOPs afforded them the ability to coordinate with Ag(i), and the resultant F-MOP-Ag(i) displayed high efficiency for the reaction of CO2 with propargyl alcohols to form ?-alkylidene cyclic carbonates at 25 °C.
Related JoVE Video
[Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential elicited by different types of stimulus among normal young Chinese people].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe waveform differences among ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (ACS-oVEMP) elicited by different types of air conducted sound in normal young Chinese subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Functional gene arrays-based analysis of fecal microbiomes in patients with liver cirrhosis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human gut microbiota plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis complications. Although the phylogenetic diversity of intestinal microbiota in patients with liver cirrhosis has been examined in several studies, little is known about their functional composition and structure.
Related JoVE Video
Aluminum Chloride- and Norepinephrine-Induced Immunotoxicity on Splenic Lymphocytes by Activating ?2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-?B Signal Pathway in Rats.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We found in our previous research that aluminum (Al) exposure induced immunotoxicity on spleen and increased norepinephrine (NE) content in serum from rats. However, it is unclear how NE is involved in the AlCl3 immunotoxicity on rats. Therefore, this experiment was designed to explore the mechanism of AlCl3 and NE-induced immunotoxicity on the splenic lymphocytes. Eighty male Wistar rats were orally exposed to AlCl3 (0, 64, 128, and 256 mg/kg BW) through drinking water for 120 days. Al contents in brain and spleen; NE contents in serum and in the hypothalamus; ?2-AR density; cAMP content; ?2-AR, PKA, and NF-?B mRNA expression levels; and protein expressions of PKA and nuclear NF-?B in splenic lymphocytes of AlCl3-treated rats were examined. The results showed that AlCl3 increased NE content in serum, the ?2-AR density, the ?2-AR and PKA (C-subunits) mRNA expression levels, cAMP content and the PKA (C-subunits) protein expression levels in lymphocytes, whereas, decreased NE content in the hypothalamus, the NF-?B (p65) mRNA expression level and nuclear NF-?B (p65) protein expression level in lymphocytes. These results indicated that the accumulated AlCl3 in spleen and the increased NE in serum induced the immunotoxicity on splenic lymphocytes by activating ?2-AR/cAMP/PKA/NF-?B signal pathway in rats.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of aging on the frequency, phenotype and cytokine production of human blood CD4?+?CXCR5?+?T follicular helper cells: comparison of aged and young subjects.
Immun Ageing
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
T cell-dependent B-cell responses decline with age, indicating declined cognate helper activity of aged CD4?+?T cells for B cells. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, a novel T helper subset, play an essential role in helping B cells differentiation into long-lived plasma cells in germinal center (GC) or short-lived plasma cells. In the present study, we proposed that there might existe changes of proportion, phenotype or cytokine production of blood Tfh cells in healthy elderly individuals compared with healthy young individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Single Motherhood, Living Arrangements, and Time With Children in Japan.
J Marriage Fam
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors examined relationships between single parenthood and mothers' time with children in Japan. Using data from the 2011 National Survey of Households with Children (N = 1,926), they first demonstrate that time spent with children and the frequency of shared dinners are significantly lower for single mothers than for their married counterparts. For single mothers living alone, less time with children reflects long work hours and work-related stress. Single mothers coresiding with parents spend less time with children and eat dinner together less frequently than either married mothers or their unmarried counterparts not living with parents, net of (grand)parental support, work hours, income, and stress. The findings suggest that rising divorce rates and associated growth in single-mother families may have a detrimental impact on parents' time with children in Japan and that the relatively high prevalence of intergenerational coresidence among single mothers may do little to temper this impact.
Related JoVE Video
Phylogeny reconstruction and hybrid analysis of populus (Salicaceae) based on nucleotide sequences of multiple single-copy nuclear genes and plastid fragments.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Populus (Salicaceae) is one of the most economically and ecologically important genera of forest trees. The complex reticulate evolution and lack of highly variable orthologous single-copy DNA markers have posed difficulties in resolving the phylogeny of this genus. Based on a large data set of nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, we reconstructed robust phylogeny of Populus using parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The resulting phylogenetic trees showed better resolution at both inter- and intra-sectional level than previous studies. The results revealed that (1) the plastid-based phylogenetic tree resulted in two main clades, suggesting an early divergence of the maternal progenitors of Populus; (2) three advanced sections (Populus, Aigeiros and Tacamahaca) are of hybrid origin; (3) species of the section Tacamahaca could be divided into two major groups based on plastid and nuclear DNA data, suggesting a polyphyletic nature of the section; and (4) many species proved to be of hybrid origin based on the incongruence between plastid and nuclear DNA trees. Reticulate evolution may have played a significant role in the evolution history of Populus by facilitating rapid adaptive radiations into different environments.
Related JoVE Video
High temperature superconducting FeSe films on SrTiO3 substrates.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interface enhanced superconductivity at two dimensional limit has become one of most intriguing research directions in condensed matter physics. Here, we report the superconducting properties of ultra-thin FeSe films with the thickness of one unit cell (1-UC) grown on conductive and insulating SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. For the 1-UC FeSe on conductive STO substrate (Nb-STO), the magnetization versus temperature (M-T) measurement shows a drop crossover around 85 K. For the FeSe films on insulating STO substrate, systematic transport measurements were carried out and the sheet resistance of FeSe films exhibits Arrhenius TAFF behavior with a crossover from a single-vortex pinning region to a collective creep region. More intriguing, sign reversal of Hall resistance with temperature is observed, demonstrating a crossover from hole conduction to electron conduction above TC in 1-UC FeSe films.
Related JoVE Video
Crossover from 3D to 2D quantum transport in Bi2Se3/In2Se3 superlattices.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The topological insulator/normal insulator (TI/NI) superlattices (SLs) with multiple Dirac channels are predicted to offer great opportunity to design novel materials and investigate new quantum phenomena. Here, we report first transport studies on the SLs composed of TI Bi2Se3 layers sandwiched by NI In2Se3 layers artificially grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transport properties of two kinds of SL samples show convincing evidence that the transport dimensionality changes from three-dimensional (3D) to two-dimensional (2D) when decreasing the thickness of building block Bi2Se3 layers, corresponding to the crossover from coherent TI transport to separated TI channels. Our findings provide the possibility to realizing "3D surface states" in TI/NI SLs.
Related JoVE Video
Thermo-responsive release of curcumin from micelles prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm)-b-PLLA-b-P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm) triblock copolymers.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thermo-responsive micelles are prepared by self-assembly of amphiphilic triblock copolymers composed of a poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) central block and two poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm)) lateral blocks, using solvent evaporation/film hydration method. The resulting micelles exhibit very low critical micelle concentration (CMC) which slightly increases from 0.0113 to 0.0144mgmL(-1) while the DMAAm content increases from 31.8 to 39.4% in the hydrophilic P(NIPAAm-co-DMAAm) blocks. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of copolymers varies from 44.7°C to 49.4°C in water as determined by UV spectroscopy, and decreases by ca. 3.5°C in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Curcumin was encapsulated in the core of micelles. High drug loading up to 20% is obtained with high loading efficiency (>94%). The LCST of drug loaded micelles ranges from 37.5 to 38.0°C with drug loading increasing from 6.0 to 20%. The micelles with diameters ranging from 47.5 to 88.2nm remain stable over one month due to the negative surface charge as determined by zeta potential (-12.4 to -18.7mV). Drug release studies were performed under in vitro conditions at 37°C and 40°C, i.e. below and above the LCST, respectively. Initial burst release is observed in all cases, followed by a slower release. The release rate is higher at 40°C than that at 37°C due to thermo-responsive release across the LCST. On the other hand, micelles with lower drug loading exhibit higher release rate than those with higher drug loading, which is assigned to the solubility effect. Peppas' theory was applied to describe the release behaviors. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity of copolymers was evaluated using MTT assay. The results show that the copolymers present good cytocompatibility. Therefore, the nano-scale size, low CMC, high drug loading and stability, as well as good biocompatibility indicate that these thermo-responsive triblock copolymer micelles present a good potential as carrier for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Vitiligo nonsurgical treatment: a review of latest treatment researches.
Dermatol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitiligo is a common depigmenting acquired disorder affecting about 1-2% of the world population, regardless of race, ethnic background, or gender. It is characterized by the appearance of milky white maculae because of a loss of melanocytes. The disfiguring nature of vitiligo causes high psychosocial morbidity. This is especially pronounced in populations with darker skin tone, likely because of the marked contrast. A variety of nonsurgical treatment regimens are currently employed in vitiligo. We reviewed the latest studies carried out on different nonsurgical treatment modalities used in vitiligo. All nonsurgical treatment aid to repigment or depigmentation the skin, however, many of them require a prolonged treatment course and may yield minimal results as well as carry unwanted side effects. There is a need for further research into the causes of vitiligo and into discovering better treatments.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of acoustic stimulus intensity on air-conducted sound elicited ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of acoustic stimulus intensity on air-conducted sound elicited ocular vestibular- evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) in normal young Chinese subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and characterization of poly(1,2-propanediol-co-1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) biodegradable elastomers for tissue engineering.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, citric acid, 1,8-octanediol and 1,2-propanediol were used as reactive monomers to synthesize poly(1,2-propanediol-co-1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) (PPOC) elastomers by melt polycondensation. The PPOC elastomers were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hydrophilic test and mechanical test. The results indicated that citric acid had reacted with 1,8-octanediol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. The sol content, swelling degree and hydrophilicity of PPOC elastomers increased with the higher content of 1,2-propanediol, while the tensile strength and the thermal degradation temperature decreased. The results indicate the addition of 1,2-propanediol reduces the crosslinking density and the flexibility of PPOC elastomers.
Related JoVE Video
Chromosome instability underlies hematopoietic stem cell dysfunction and lymphoid neoplasia associated with impaired Fbw7-mediated cyclin E regulation.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase critically regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function, though the precise contribution of individual substrate ubiquitination pathways to HSC homeostasis is unknown. In the work reported here, we used a mouse model in which we introduced two knock-in mutations (T74A and T393A [changes of T to A at positions 74 and 393]) to disrupt Fbw7-dependent regulation of cyclin E, its prototypic substrate, and to examine the consequences of cyclin E dysregulation for HSC function. Serial transplantation revealed that cyclin E(T74A T393A) HSCs self-renewed normally; however, we identified defects in their multilineage reconstituting capacity. By inducing hematologic stress, we exposed an impaired self-renewal phenotype in cyclin E knock-in HSCs that was associated with defective cell cycle exit and the emergence of chromosome instability (CIN). Importantly, p53 deletion induced both defects in self-renewal and multilineage reconstitution in cyclin E knock-in HSCs with serial transplantation and CIN in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, CIN was a feature of fatal T-cell malignancies that ultimately developed in recipients of cyclin E(T74A T393A); p53-null HSCs. Together, our findings demonstrate the importance of Fbw7-dependent cyclin E control to the hematopoietic system and highlight CIN as a characteristic feature of HSC dysfunction and malignancy induced by deregulated cyclin E.
Related JoVE Video
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts ameliorate podocyte injury by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? in low-dose streptozotocin-and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats.
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Podocytes are part of the glomerular filtration membrane in kidney and serve to prevent the filtration of protein from the blood. Several evidences suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and it is an early event in podocyte injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction promotes oxidative stress that can favor the development of podocyte injury. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?) was considered to be a major regulator of metabolic homeostasis and mitochondrial function. Some studies indicated that polyphenols may improve mitochondrial dysfunction, maintain the podocyte integrity and have therapeutic effects on glomerular diseases by promoting PGC-1? expression. Our study investigated whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extracts (GSPE), a strong antioxidant, ameliorate podocyte injury by activating PGC-1? in low-dose streptozotocin-and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats. After 16 weeks of GSPE treatment, GSPE slightly increased the body weight and decreased plasma glucose, food intake, water intake and urine volume in diabetic rats. Further, GSPE significantly decreased 24 h albumin levels and increased the expression of nephrin and podocalyxin. The antioxidant levels were improved and the cellular damage of kidney in diabetic rats was also relieved effectively after the treatment. Moreover, GSPE increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial biogenesis factors and mitochondrial DNA content. Finally, GSPE activated the expression of PGC-1?, silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). These results suggest that GSPE ameliorate podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy by the activation of AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1? signalling, which appears to inhibit oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney.
Related JoVE Video
Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals 75,245 genes that differ in abundance between the patients and healthy individuals (false discovery rate < 0.0001) and can be grouped into 66 clusters representing cognate bacterial species; 28 are enriched in patients and 38 in control individuals. Most (54%) of the patient-enriched, taxonomically assigned species are of buccal origin, suggesting an invasion of the gut from the mouth in liver cirrhosis. Biomarkers specific to liver cirrhosis at gene and function levels are revealed by a comparison with those for type 2 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. On the basis of only 15 biomarkers, a highly accurate patient discrimination index is created and validated on an independent cohort. Thus microbiota-targeted biomarkers may be a powerful tool for diagnosis of different diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of the kinetics and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic properties of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR).
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) catalyzes the oxidation of sulfide to polysulfide chains or elemental sulfur coupled to quinone reduction via a non-covalent FAD cofactor. We investigated the role of the FAD using kinetics and EPR spectroscopy. The properties of the enzyme were compared with alanine and/or serine variants of conserved cysteine residues (Cys128, Cys160, Cys356) structurally close to the FAD cofactor and histidine residues (His132, His198) implicated in function. When the pre-steady state reduction of FAD was monitored, variants of Cys128 and His132 had similar rates to wild-type enzyme confirming they do not participate in the reductive half reaction whereas variants of Cys160, Cys356 and His198 had greatly reduced activity. Using steady state kinetics of Na2S-dependent decylubiquinone (DUQ) reduction we measured a kcat of 6.5s(-1) and a Km (Na2S) of 3.0?M and a Km (DUQ) of 3.4?M. Variants of Cys160, Cys356 and His198 had greatly diminished DUQ reduction activity whereas variants of Cys128 and His132 were less affected. A neutral flavin semiquinone was observed in the EPR spectrum of SQR reduced with Na2S which was enhanced in the Cys160Ala variant suggesting the presence of a Cys356-S(?)-S-C(4A)-FAD adduct. Potentiometric titrations of the FAD semiquinone revealed an Em of -139±4mV at pH 7.0.
Related JoVE Video
[Development and analysis of a kinetic model for Escherichia coli threonine biosynthesis].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kinetic model analysis is a useful tool for understanding the regulation and control of cellular metabolism and thus offering a guideline for rational design of high efficiency cell factory. Based on previously published models and experimental measurement of enzyme kinetics data, we developed a kinetic model for the threonine biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli. This model integrates the central pathways that produce precursors, ATP and reducing power with the threonine biosynthesis pathway from aspartate. In contrast to the previous models, we considered the energy and reducing power balance rather than artificially set their concentrations. Metabolic control analysis of the model showed that enzymes PTS, G6PDH, HDH etc. have great flux control coefficients on the threonine biosynthesis flux. This indicates higher threonine synthesis flux could be achieved by overexpressing these enzymes.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma exosomal ?-synuclein is likely CNS-derived and increased in Parkinson's disease.
Acta Neuropathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracellular ?-synuclein is important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and also as a potential biomarker when tested in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of blood plasma or serum ?-synuclein as a biomarker has been found to be inconsistent and generally ineffective, largely due to the contribution of peripherally derived ?-synuclein. In this study, we discovered, via an intracerebroventricular injection of radiolabeled ?-synuclein into mouse brain, that CSF ?-synuclein was readily transported to blood, with a small portion being contained in exosomes that are relatively specific to the central nervous system (CNS). Consequently, we developed a technique to evaluate the levels of ?-synuclein in these exosomes in individual plasma samples. When applied to a large cohort of clinical samples (267 PD, 215 controls), we found that in contrast to CSF ?-synuclein concentrations, which are consistently reported to be lower in PD patients compared to controls, the levels of plasma exosomal ?-synuclein were substantially higher in PD patients, suggesting an increased efflux of the protein to the peripheral blood of these patients. Furthermore, although no association was observed between plasma exosomal and CSF ?-synuclein, a significant correlation between plasma exosomal ?-synuclein and disease severity (r = 0.176, p = 0.004) was observed, and the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity achieved by plasma exosomal ?-synuclein were comparable to those determined by CSF ?-synuclein. Further studies are clearly needed to elucidate the mechanism involved in the transport of CNS ?-synuclein to the periphery, which may lead to a more convenient and robust assessment of PD clinically.
Related JoVE Video
TRAF6 inhibition rescues dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase and adaptor protein, is involved in activation of various signaling cascades. Recent studies identify TRAF6 as one of the novel regulators of skeletal muscle atrophy. The role of TRAF6 in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy, however, remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that TRAF6 and its downstream signaling molecules, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFBx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1), were all upregulated in dexamethasone-induced atrophy of mouse C2C12 myotubes or mouse tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. To further investigate the role of TRAF6 in dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy, TRAF6-siRNA was used to transfect cultured C2C12 myotubes or was injected into the TA muscle of mice respectively, and we note that TRAF6 knockdown attenuated dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in vitro and in vivo, and concomitantly decreased the expression of MuRF1 and MAFBx. Our findings suggest that a decreased expression of TRAF6 could rescue dexamethasone-induced skeletal muscle atrophy through, at least in part, regulation of the expression of MAFBx and MuRF1.
Related JoVE Video
Direct growth of high-quality graphene on high-? dielectric SrTiO? substrates.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-quality monolayer graphene was synthesized on high-? dielectric single crystal SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by a facile metal-catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition process. The as-grown graphene sample was suitable for fabricating a high performance field-effect transistor (FET), followed by a far lower operation voltage compared to that of a SiO2-gated FET and carrier motilities of approximately 870-1050 cm(2)·V(-1)·s(-1) in air at rt. The directly grown high-quality graphene on STO makes it a perfect candidate for designing transfer-free, energy-saving, and batch production of FET arrays.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed electroluminescence of doped fluorescent aingle layer organic light-emitting devices.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Doped single-layer polymer OLEDs consisting of PVK: (TPB, C545T, Rubrene or DCJTB) were prepared. By applying high-frequency electric pulse of 0.5 micros pulse width to each device, we observed various delayed electroluminescence after withdrawing the forward bias. The order of magnitude of fitting life time ranges from hundreds of nanoseconds to several milliseconds. Current density-voltage and brightness-voltage characteristics reveals charge trapped on guest sites initially before released. Subsequently, the recombination of these trapped charges is strongly involved in the origin of delayed electroluminescence.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for 11 ?-agonists in swine feed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A sensitive liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 11 ?-agonists (clenbuterol, salbutamol, ractopamine, terbutaline, fenoterol, cimaterol, isoxsuprine, mabuterol, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol) in swine feed. This rapid, simple, and effective extraction method was based on matrix solid-phase dispersion. The limit of quantification of clenbuterol, cimaterol, mabuterol, salbutamol, terbutaline, mapenterol, clenproperol, and tulobuterol was 1 ?g/kg and that of ractopamine, fenoterol, and isoxsuprine was 2 ?g/kg. The recoveries of ?-agonists spiked in swine feeds at a concentration range of 1-8 ?g/kg were >83.1% with relative standard deviations <9.3%. This rapid and reliable method can be used to efficiently separate, characterize, and quantify the residues of 11 ?-agonists in swine feeds with advantages of simple pretreatment and environmental friendliness.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in denervated skeletal muscle.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to improve our understanding and the current treatment of denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. We used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) to identify the differentially expressed proteins in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats at 1 and 4 weeks following sciatic nerve transection. A total of 110 proteins was differentially expressed and was further classified using terms from the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases to unravel their molecular functions. Among the differentially expressed metabolic enzymes involved in glycolysis, Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, ?- and ?-enolase displayed an increased and decreased expression, respectively, which was further validated by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. These findings suggest that the enolase isozymic switch during denervation-induced muscle atrophy is the reverse of that occurring during muscle maturation. Notably, protein?protein interaction analysis using the STRING database indicated that the protein expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), muscle ring-finger protein 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFBx) was also upregulated during denervation?induced skeletal muscle atrophy, which was confirmed by western blot analysis. TRAF6 knockdown experiments in L6 myotubes suggested that the decreased expression of TRAF6 attenuated glucocorticoid?induced myotube atrophy. Therefore, we hypothesized that the upregulation of TRAF6 may be involved in the development of denervation?induced muscle atrophy, at least in part, by regulating the expression of MAFBx and MuRF1 proteins. The data from the present study provide valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms regulating denervation-induced muscle atrophy.
Related JoVE Video
A study of carotid endarterectomy in a Chinese population: Initial experience at a single center.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate our initial experience with carotid endarterectomy in a Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
[Feasibility of monitoring clopidogrel resistance with flow cytometric analysis of platelet vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the feasibility of monitoring clopidogrel resistance with flow cytometric analysis of platelet vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is known to be an effective natural polyphenol capable of removing free radicals in vivo. It has been reported that GSPE has biological functions including antioxidant, anti?cancer, anti?hyperglycemic, anti?radiation, and prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study aims to investigate the effects of GSPE on renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats induced with low?dose streptozotocin and a high?carbohydrate/high?fat diet. Rats (n=12 per group) were administered GSPE at either a low (125 mg/kg·bw), medium (250 mg/kg·bw) or high (500 mg/kg·bw) dose, while control rats and diabetes mellitus group rats received no specific treatment. After 16 weeks, GSPE slightly increased body weight and decreased food consumption, water intake and urine volume in rats. Diabetic rats treated with GSPE demonstrated decreased fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). GSPE significantly improved renal function parameters, reduced the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase?1 and also increased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase?9. Moreover, GSPE (particularly at a dose of 500 mg/kg·bw) increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the levels of c?reactive proteins (P<0.01) in serum and the expression of tumor necrosis factor??, monocyte chemoattractant protein?1 and intercellular adhesion molecule?1 (P<0.05) in the kidney. These findings suggest that GSPE ameliorates renal injury in type 2 diabetic rats through its antioxidative activity and anti?inflammatory effects.
Related JoVE Video
Predictive factors for adverse dermatological events during pegylated/interferon alpha and ribavirin treatment for hepatitis C.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with pegylated interferon-alpha/ribavirin is associated with well-characterized dermatological adverse events (AEs), which can lead to premature discontinuation of treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization of bulk states in ultrathin Bi?Se? films.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report transport studies on the 5 nm thick Bi?Se? topological insulator films which are grown via molecular beam epitaxy technique. The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data show that the Fermi level of the system lies in the bulk conduction band above the Dirac point, suggesting important contribution of bulk states to the transport results. In particular, the crossover from weak antilocalization to weak localization in the bulk states is observed in the parallel magnetic field measurements up to 50 Tesla. The measured magneto-resistance exhibits interesting anisotropy with respect to the orientation of parallel magnetic field B// and the current I, signifying intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the Bi?Se? films. Our work directly shows the crossover of quantum interference effect in the bulk states from weak antilocalization to weak localization. It presents an important step toward a better understanding of the existing three-dimensional topological insulators and the potential applications of nano-scale topological insulator devices.
Related JoVE Video
Biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biodegradable nanoparticles have emerged as a promising strategy for ferrying antimicrobial agents into specific cells due to their unique properties. This review discusses the current progress and challenges of biodegradable nanoparticles for intracellular antimicrobial delivery to understand design principles for the development of ideal nanocarriers. The intracellular delivery performances of biodegradable nanoparticles for diverse antimicrobial agents are first summarized. Second, the cellular internalization and intracellular trafficking, degradation and release kinetics of nanoparticles as well as their relation with intracellular delivery of encapsulated antimicrobial agents are provided. Third, the influences of nanoparticle properties on the cellular internalization and intracellular fate of nanoparticles and their payload antimicrobial agents are discussed. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents are addressed. The review will be helpful to the scientists who are interested in searching for more efficient nanosystem strategies for intracellular delivery of antimicrobial agents.
Related JoVE Video
Concomitant asymptomatic internal carotid artery and persistent primitive hypoglossal artery stenosis treated by endovascular stenting with proximal embolic protection.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) is a rare fetal variant of carotid-basilar anastomosis that increases the risk of ischemia and embolic infarction within the posterior cerebral circulation in patients with carotid stenosis proximal to the origin of the PPHA. A man presented with severe stenosis of the right internal carotid artery with extension to the origin of a PPHA. The area of stenosis was at a high position, which contraindicated carotid endarterectomy. Therefore, stenting was performed with proximal reversal of flow embolic protection. The unique anatomic and technical challenges associated with this case are reviewed in detail.
Related JoVE Video
IL-37 inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: its correlation with disease activity.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a new member of IL-1 family cytokine, is recently identified as a natural inhibitor of innate immunity. This study aimed to measure the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum levels of IL-37 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to investigate its role in SLE, including its correlation with disease activity, organ disorder and the regulation of inflammatory cytokines.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA-9 regulates neural apoptosis in methylmalonic acidemia via targeting BCL2L11.
Int. J. Dev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an autosomal-recessive inborn metabolic disorder that results from a deficiency in methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase or its cofactor, adenosylcobalamin. Currently, neurological manifestations in MMA are thought to be associated with neural apoptosis. BCL2L11, which is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is resident in the outer mitochondrial membrane, where this protein acts as a central regulator of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade and mediates excitotoxic apoptosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that function as endogenous triggers of the RNA interference pathway. Currently, little is known regarding the role of miRNA in MMA. In our previous study, we preliminarily found that the expression of miR-9 was significantly down-regulated in MMA patient plasma and sensitively changed after VitB12 treatment, which may act as a potential "competitor" of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the diagnosis of MMA. In the present study, we first confirmed that miR-9 inhibited BCL2L11 expression by directly targeting its 3'-untranslated region, and the up-regulation of miR-9 reduced neural apoptosis induced by methylmalonate via targeting BCL2L11. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-9 might act as a monitor of changes in MMA and might provide new insights into a therapeutic entry point for treating MMA.
Related JoVE Video
Hailey-Hailey disease: investigation of a possible compensatory SERCA2 up-regulation and analysis of SPCA1, p63, and IRF6 expression.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD) is caused by heterozygous mutations in the ATP2C1 gene, encoding the secretory pathway Ca(2+) ATPase1 (SPCA1). SPCA1 and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase2 (SERCA2) encoded by ATP2A2 are two essential calcium pumps needed for Ca(2+) homeostasis maintenance in keratinocytes. ATP2A2 mutations cause another hereditary skin disorder, Darier's disease (DD). Previously, the compensatory expression of SPCA1 for SERCA2 insufficiency in DD was demonstrated, but it is not known whether a similar compensatory mechanism exists in HHD. Additionally, little is known about the role of p63 and interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6), two important regulatory factors involved in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, in HHD. Here, we used the skin biopsy samples from patients with HHD and human primary keratinocytes transfected with ATP2C1 siRNA to search for potential pathogenic mechanisms in HHD. We observed normal SERCA2 levels, but reduced p63, and increased IRF6 levels in HHD epidermal tissues and SPCA1-deficient keratinocytes. This suggests that there is no compensatory mechanism by SERCA2 for the SPCA1 deficiency in HHD. Moreover, the abnormal expression of p63 and IRF6 appears to be related to SPCA1 haploinsufficiency, with down-regulation of p63 probably resulting from IRF6 overexpression in HHD. We speculate that a novel pathogenic mechanism involving SPCA1, p63, and IRF6 may play a role in the skin lesions occurring in HHD.
Related JoVE Video
Highly efficient production of a dengue pseudoinfectious virus.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dengue is a major infectious disease that affects people living in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The causative agents are dengue virus serotype 1, 2, 3, and 4 (DENV1, 2, 3, and 4). Developing a vaccine for dengue is a high priority for public health, but traditional methods have faced numerous obstacles due to the unique immunopathogenesis of dengue virus infection. Here, we report a novel dengue vaccine candidate based on dengue pseudoinfectious virus (PIV) produced by the incorporation of a dengue subgenomic replicon into viral particles in highly efficient packaging cells. The subgenomic replicon was constructed by deleting the capsid protein (C) gene from the dengue viral genome and optimizing the signal peptide sequence of pre-membrane protein (prM) to facilitate the formation of viral particles. Packaging cells were developed for inducible expression of a bi-protein Cpr, where the protein pr is the "pr" segment of viral protein prM that holds the protein C on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When the replicon was introduced into the packaging cells, protein C was released from the bi-protein Cpr by a replicon-encoded viral protease. Coordinate expression of viral structural proteins by the replicon and packaging cells led to the incorporation of the replicon into viral particle to produce PIVs. Animal tests showed that the dengue PIV vaccine was highly immunogenic and the immune response protected mice challenged with a hundred-fold LD50 inoculation of dengue virus. The method described here has the potential to be applied to vaccine development for other flaviviruses.
Related JoVE Video
Polyurea-supported metal nanocatalysts: synthesis, characterization and application in selective hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polyurea (PU) spheres with size of 2-10 ?m were derived through the polymerization of CO2 with 1,4-butanediamine, and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and TG analysis. It was demonstrated that the PU spheres displayed flower-like morphology with the betel thickness around 30 nm, and they had high thermal stability. The resultant PU spheres were used to immobilize metal particles, and a series of PU-supported metal nanocatalysts including Pt/PU, Au/PU, Pd/PU were prepared via just mixing the metal precursors with the PU spheres in water, followed by the reduction of metal ions by NaBH4. Transmission electron microscopy examination indicated that the metal nanoparticles were distributed uniformly on the surface of the PU spheres with mean particle size less than 3.0 nm, and the Pt particles existed mainly in the form of metallic state as confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The performance of the Pt/PU catalyst was tested in the catalytic hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene, and a high selectivity of 99.5% toward o-chloroaniline at complete conversion of o-chloronitrobenzene was obtained at room temperature.
Related JoVE Video
Chlorogenic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat myocytes.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and its subsequent progression to heart failure represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. CGA is an important component of Chinese herbal medicine, acting as an antioxidant, scavenging free radicals and preventing inflammation. This study found that with the pre-treatment of chlorogenic acid in Iso-induced neonatal rat myocytes, the levels of the hypertrophic markers, ANP, BNP and ?-MHC decreased. The nuclear translocation of NF-?B was blocked, whereas NF-?BIA, an inhibitor of NF-?B, was upregulated accordingly. And the level of the intracellular ROS was also reduced. These data reveal that chlorogenic acid may inhibit Iso-induced cardiac hypertrophy by attenuating NF-?B signaling pathway and suppressing ROS.
Related JoVE Video
Density functional theory study of small X-doped Mg(n) (X = Fe, Co, Ni, n?=?1-9) bimetallic clusters: equilibrium structures, stabilities, electronic and magnetic properties.
J Mol Model
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The geometries, stabilities, and electronic and magnetic properties of Mg(n) X (X = Fe, Co, Ni, n?=?1-9) clusters were investigated systematically within the framework of the gradient-corrected density functional theory. The results show that the Mg(n)Fe, Mg(n)Co, and Mg(n)Ni clusters have similar geometric structures and that the X atom in Mg(n)X clusters prefers to be endohedrally doped. The average atomic binding energies, fragmentation energies, second-order differences in energy, and HOMO-LUMO gaps show that Mg?X (X = Fe, Co, Ni) clusters possess relatively high stability. Natural population analysis was performed and the results showed that the 3s and 4s electrons always transfer to the 3d and 4p orbitals in the bonding atoms, and that electrons also transfer from the Mg atoms to the doped atoms (Fe, Co, Ni). In addition, the spin magnetic moments were analyzed and compared. Several clusters, such as Mg?,?,?,?,?,?,?,?Fe, Mg?,?,?,?,?,?,?Co, and Mg?,?,?,?,?,?Ni, present high magnetic moments (4 ?(B), 3 ?(B), and 2 ?(B), respectively).
Related JoVE Video
Proanthocyanidins protect against early diabetic peripheral neuropathy by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common and troublesome complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recent findings reveal an important role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of DPN and identify a potential new therapeutic target. Schwann cells (SC), the myelinating cells in peripheral nervous system, are highly susceptible to ER homeostasis. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) have been reported to improve DPN of type 1 diabetic rats and relieve ER stress in skeletal muscles and pancreas of T2DM. We investigated the potential role of ER stress in SC in regulating DPN of T2DM and assessed whether early intervention of GSPs would prevent DPN by modulating ER stress. The present study was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats made T2DM with low-dose streptozotocin and a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet and in rat SC cultured in serum from type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed a typical characteristic of T2DM and slowing of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in sciatic/tibial nerves. The lesions of SC, Ca(2+) overload and ER stress were present in sciatic nerves of diabetic rats, as well as in cell culture models. GSPs administration significantly decreased the low-density lipoprotein level and increased NCV in diabetic rats. GSPs or their metabolites also partially prevented cell injury, Ca(2+) overload and ER stress in animal and cell culture models. Therefore, ER stress is implicated in peripheral neuropathy in animal and cell culture models of T2DM. Prophylactic GSPs treatment might have auxiliary preventive potential for DPN partially by alleviating ER stress.
Related JoVE Video
Study on the digitized and quantified evaluating method for super information characteristics of herbal preparation by infrared spectrum fingerprints.
Ann Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper aims to establish the infrared spectrum fingerprint (IRFP) in the absorbing region of 4,000-400 cm(-1) and its first derivative infrared spectrum fingerprints (d-IRFP) of ginkgo tablet (GT). And set up theories of the digitized and quantified evaluating method for super information characteristics by IRFPs of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which consists of the IRFP index, information index, fluctuation index, information fluctuation index and the quantified infrared fingerprint method (QIFM). Direct tabletting method was applied during the data collection of the IRFPs of 14 batches of GTs by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. In terms of the digitized features, QIFM and similarity analysis of d-IRFP, sample S4 and S7 were evaluated as suspected outliers while the qualities of S1, S2, S6 and S12 were less well and the rests were relatively good. The assessing approach makes the expression and processing of superposed information in IRFP of TCM digitized simple and effective. What's more, an approach which can test total chemical contents in the complex system of TCM rapidly, simply and accurately was achieved by the application of QIFM based on IR technique. Finally, the quantitative and digitized infrared fingerprinting method was established as a novel approach to evaluate the quality of TCM.
Related JoVE Video
Pd/C-catalyzed direct formylation of aromatic iodides to aryl aldehydes using carbon dioxide as a C1 resource.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pd/C-catalyzed direct formylation of aromatic iodides to aryl aldehydes using CO2 as a C1 resource was realized for the first time in the presence of hydrosilanes and base DBU under mild conditions, giving a series of aldehydes in good yields.
Related JoVE Video
Role of autophagy and mTOR signaling in neural differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is involved in cell differentiation. We present evidence that autophagy is activated during ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME)-induced neuronal differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), in which mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is important. mTOR activity declined after being transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Using 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and rapamycin to regulate the activity of mTOR, it was found that the efficiency of neuronal differentiation was affected.
Related JoVE Video
A protic ionic liquid catalyzes CO? conversion at atmospheric pressure and room temperature: synthesis of quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chemical fixation of CO2 under mild reaction conditions is of significance from a sustainable chemistry viewpoint. Herein a CO2-reactive protic ionic liquid (PIL), [HDBU(+)][TFE(-)], was designed by neutralization of the superbase 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) with a weak proton donor trifluoroethanol (TFE). As a bifunctional catalyst for simultaneously activating CO2 and the substrate, this PIL displayed excellent performance in catalyzing the reactions of CO2 with 2-aminobenzonitriles at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, thus producing a series of quinazoline-2,4(1H,3H)-diones in excellent yields.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolic disposition and excretion of quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Excretion, disposition, and metabolism of [(3)H]-quinocetone in rats, pigs, broilers, and carp following oral administration were investigated. After a single p.o. dose, total radioactivity was rapidly excreted, with ?94% in all species within 14 days. Fecal excretion of radioactivity was 68% and 65% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively, with the remainder excreted in the urine. Six hours after the last of seven daily oral administrations of (3)H-labeled QCT, radioactivity was found to be distributed throughout all tissues, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 7 days, and elimination was the slowest from the liver and kidney. QCT was extensively metabolized in all of the species, and the primary changes included N-O group reduction, carbonyl group reduction, double bond reduction, and hydroxylation. The major tissue metabolites of QCT were Q2, Q4, Q5, Q8, and Q9 in rats; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 in pigs; Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q7 in broilers; and Q1, Q2 in carp. This confirmed the potential link between QCT metabolism through N-O group reduction and its organ toxicity. The results of the present study provide important data that could help understand the relationship between the toxicities and metabolic disposition of QCT.
Related JoVE Video
Detection and quantification of three distinct Neotyphodium lolii endophytes in Lolium perenne by real time PCR of secondary metabolite genes.
Fungal Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a widely used pasture grass, which is frequently infected by Neotyphodium lolii endophytes that enhance grass performance but can produce alkaloids inducing toxicosis in livestock. Several selected endophyte strains with reduced livestock toxicity, but that confer insect resistance, are now in common use. Little is known regarding the survival and persistence of these endophytes when in competition with common toxic endophytes. This is mainly because there are currently no assays available to easily and reliably quantify different endophytes in pastures or in batches of seeds infected with multiple strains. We developed real time PCR assays, based on secondary metabolite genes known to differ between N. lolii endophyte strains, to quantify two selected endophytes, AR1 and AR37, and a common toxic ecotype used in New Zealand. A duplex PCR allowed assessment of endophyte:grass DNA ratios with high sensitivity, specificity and precision. Endophyte specific primers/probes could detect contamination of AR37 seeds with other endophytes down to a level of 3-25%. We demonstrated that it is possible to quantify different endophyte strains simultaneously using multiplex PCR. This method has potential applications in management of endophytes in pastures and in fundamental research into this important plant-microbe symbiosis.
Related JoVE Video
A Primary Study on Down-Regulated miR-9-1 and Its Biological Significances in Methylmalonic Acidemia.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a metabolic disorder, which is caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. MMA diagnosis is dependent on the method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, which is expensive, complicated, and time consuming. Currently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have gained considerable interest for its function as a novel class of non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases. However, there has been no related report regarding its role in MMA. Our study first detected differentially expressed microRNAs in MMA and found that the expression of miR-9-1 was significantly down-regulated and changed sensitively after VitB12 treatment. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-9-1 was able to suppress neuronal apoptosis induced by methylmalonate. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-9-1 may act as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and monitoring of changes in MMA and provide new insights into the pathogenesis of MMA.
Related JoVE Video
A simple semi-quantitative in vivo method using H2S detection to monitor sulfide metabolizing enzymes.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Here we present a simple in vivo microtiter plate assay using lead acetate [Pb(OAc)2]-soaked filter paper to detect H2S released by Escherichia coli metabolizing cysteine. The released H2S precipitates as brown lead sulfide (PbS) on Pb(OAc)2 soaked filter paper. The PbS stain quantitated by ImageJ software is proportional to the amount of H2S released from the culture. Expression of recombinant Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) converts the H2S to sulfur, resulting in less PbS formation. The in vivo H2S oxidation activity of SQR was calculated based on the density of the PbS stain formed by E. coli expressing SQR compared with cells harboring the empty vector pLM1. The results are consistent with the in vitro activity of SQR measured by decylubiquinone (DUQ) reduction. This assay can be applied to sulfide metabolizing enzymatic studies, mutant screening and high-throughput inhibitor screens.
Related JoVE Video
De novo transcriptome and small RNA analysis of two Chinese willow cultivars reveals stress response genes in Salix matsudana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Salix matsudana Koidz. is a deciduous, rapidly growing, and drought resistant tree and is one of the most widely distributed and commonly cultivated willow species in China. Currently little transcriptomic and small RNAomic data are available to reveal the genes involve in the stress resistant in S. matsudana. Here, we report the RNA-seq analysis results of both transcriptome and small RNAome data using Illumina deep sequencing of shoot tips from two willow variants(Salix. matsudana and Salix matsudana Koidz. cultivar 'Tortuosa'). De novo gene assembly was used to generate the consensus transcriptome and small RNAome, which contained 106,403 unique transcripts with an average length of 944 bp and a total length of 100.45 MB, and 166 known miRNAs representing 35 miRNA families. Comparison of transcriptomes and small RNAomes combined with quantitative real-time PCR from the two Salix libraries revealed a total of 292 different expressed genes(DEGs) and 36 different expressed miRNAs (DEMs). Among the DEGs and DEMs, 196 genes and 24 miRNAs were up regulated, 96 genes and 12 miRNA were down regulated in S. matsudana. Functional analysis of DEGs and miRNA targets showed that many genes were involved in stress resistance in S. matsudana. Our global gene expression profiling presents a comprehensive view of the transcriptome and small RNAome which provide valuable information and sequence resources for uncovering the stress response genes in S. matsudana. Moreover the transcriptome and small RNAome data provide a basis for future study of genetic resistance in Salix.
Related JoVE Video
Association between MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and neural tube defects susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) gene, as one of the key genes involved in the folate pathway, has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the results of published studies are contradictory and inconclusive. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the common polymorphism in the MTHFD1 gene, the G1958A (R653Q, dbSNP ID: rs2236225) variant, on the risk of NTDs in all eligible studies.
Related JoVE Video
Development of HuMiChip for functional profiling of human microbiomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the diversity, composition, structure, function, and dynamics of human microbiomes in individual human hosts is crucial to reveal human-microbial interactions, especially for patients with microbially mediated disorders, but challenging due to the high diversity of the human microbiome. Here we have developed a functional gene-based microarray for profiling human microbiomes (HuMiChip) with 36,802 probes targeting 50,007 protein coding sequences for 139 key functional gene families. Computational evaluation suggested all probes included are highly specific to their target sequences. HuMiChip was used to analyze human oral and gut microbiomes, showing significantly different functional gene profiles between oral and gut microbiome. Obvious shifts of microbial functional structure and composition were observed for both patients with dental caries and periodontitis from moderate to advanced stages, suggesting a progressive change of microbial communities in response to the diseases. Consistent gene family profiles were observed by both HuMiChip and next generation sequencing technologies. Additionally, HuMiChip was able to detect gene families at as low as 0.001% relative abundance. The results indicate that the developed HuMiChip is a useful and effective tool for functional profiling of human microbiomes.
Related JoVE Video
The association of HMGB1 gene with the prognosis of HCC.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily ancient and critical regulator of cell death and survival. HMGB1 is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein molecule that triggers extracellular damage. The expression of HMGB1 has been reported in many types of cancers, but the role of HMGB1 in hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown.The aim of this study was to analyze the roles of HMGB1 in HCC progression using HCC clinical samples. We also investigated the clinical outcomes of HCC samples with a special focus on HMBG1 expression. In an immunohistochemical study conducted on 208 cases of HCC, HMGB1 had high expression in 134 cases(64.4%).The HMGB1 expression level did not correlate with any clinicopathological parameters, except alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (p?=?0.041) and CLIP stage (p?=?0.007). However, survival analysis showed that the group with HMBG1 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than the group with a down-regulated expression of HMBG1 (HR?=?0.568, CI (0.398, 0.811), p?=?0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that HMGB1 expression was a significant and independent prognostic parameter (HR?=?0.562, CI (0.388, 0.815), p?=?0.002) for HCC patients. The ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells was suppressed with the disruption of endogenous HMGB1 using small interfering RNAs. On the other hand, the ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells was strengthened when the expression endogenous HMGB1 was enhanced using HMGB1 DNA. HMGB1 expression may be a novel and independent predictor for the prognosis of HCC patients. The overexpression of HMGB1 in HCC could be a novel, effective, and supplementary biomarker for HCC, since it plays a vital role in the progression of HCC.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolism, Distribution, and Excretion of Deoxynivalenol with Combined Techniques of Radiotracing, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, and Online Radiometric Detection.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dispositions of deoxynivalenol (DON) in rats and chickens were investigated, using a radiotracer method coupled with a novel ?-accurate radioisotope counting (?-ARC) radio-high-performance liquid chromatography ion trap time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (radio-HPLC-IT-TOF-MS/MS) system. 3?-(3)H-DON was chemically synthesized and orally administrated to both sexes of rats and chickens as single or multiple doses. The results showed that DON was widely distributed and quickly eliminated in all tissues. The highest concentration was found in the gastrointestinal tract at 6 h post-administration. Substantially lower levels were detected in the kidney, liver, heart, lung, spleen, and brain. Three new metabolites were identified tentatively as 10-deoxynivalenol-sulfonate, 10-deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1)-sulfonate, and deoxynivalenol-3?-sulfate. Deoxynivalenol-3?-sulfate was a major metabolite in chickens, while the major forms in rats were DOM-1 and DON. Additionally, a higher excretion rate in urine was observed in female rats than in male rats. The differences in metabolite profiles and excretion rates, which suggested diverse ways to detoxify, may relate to the different tolerances in different genders or species.
Related JoVE Video
High Risk of Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Placental Transfer of T-2 Toxin and Its Major Metabolite HT-2 Toxin in BeWo Cells.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Though T-2 toxin is the most harmful mycotoxin to the fetuses, it remains unclear whether T-2 toxin and its major metabolite, HT-2 toxin, could pass the placenta into the fetus and which kind of placental transport is involved in the passage. To illustrate their placenta transfer mechanism, the uptake and efflux of T-2 and HT-2 toxins across apical membranes of placenta with BeWo cells as a model were studied at different temperatures, pHs, and in the presence of transporter inhibitors with a developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to determine the amount of toxins in both fetal and maternal sites. Higher unidirectional transport of T-2 toxin was observed in the apical-to-basolateral direction than basolateral-to-apical one, whereas HT-2 toxin exhibited similar transport rate from the 2 directions. The main ATP-binding cassette transporters had no effect on the efflux of 2 toxins. Initial uptake of T-2 toxin was sodium dependent and saturable, and the apical uptake was temperature dependent and enhanced under acidic condition. The apical uptake of T-2 toxin was inhibited by metabolic inhibitors and the organic anion and organic cation transporter inhibitors. These results suggested that an active transport mechanism was responsible for the uptake of T-2 toxin, whereas passive diffusion was the principal mechanism for HT-2 toxin transport in the placenta. Taken together, these data characterized the placental transfer of T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The present study offered new ways of reducing the risks of T-2 and HT-2 toxins to both mother and fetuses.
Related JoVE Video
A role for CMTM7 in BCR expression and survival in B-1a but not B-2 cells.
Int. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B-1 cells are an important cell population for the production of natural antibodies and front-line host defense. Here, we show that the MARVEL-domain-containing membrane protein CMTM7 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 7) plays a critical role in BCR expression and survival in B-1a cells. We analyzed lymphocyte development in Rag1 (-/-) mice reconstituted with Cmtm7 (flox/+) fetal liver cells because of the unexpected lethality of the Cmtm7 (flox/+) heterozygotes. We found a mild reduction of serum IgM and a significantly reduced B-1a population in the peritoneal cavity of Rag1 (-/-) mice reconstituted with Cmtm7 (flox/+) cells compared with those reconstituted with wild-type (WT) cells. The reduction of B-1a cells in Cmtm7 (flox/+) mice was associated with reduced BCR expression and increased spontaneous cell death in these cells. In addition, both B-1a and B-1b cells derived from Cmtm7 (flox/+) fetal liver cells contained a lower frequency of cells capable of spontaneously differentiating into IgM-secreting plasma cells than did those derived from WT fetal liver cells. Furthermore, Cmtm7 (flox/+) B-1a and B-1b cells responded poorly to LPS-induced proliferation. In striking contrast to the defects in B-1 cells, Cmtm7 (flox/+) B-2 cells did not show obvious abnormalities when compared with WT B-2 cells. These results demonstrate a specific role for CMTM7 in BCR expression and survival in B-1a cells.
Related JoVE Video
Demonstration of surface transport in a hybrid Bi2Se3/Bi2Te3 heterostructure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In spite of much work on topological insulators (TIs), systematic experiments for TI/TI heterostructures remain absent. We grow a high quality heterostructure containing single quintuple layer (QL) of Bi2Se3 on 19 QLs of Bi2Te3 and compare its transport properties with 20 QLs Bi2Se3 and 20 QLs Bi2Te3. All three films are grown on insulating sapphire (0001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) provides direct evidence that the surface state of 1 QL Bi2Se3/19 QLs Bi2Te3 heterostructure is similar to the surface state of the 20 QLs Bi2Se3 and different with that of the 20 QLs Bi2Te3. In ex situ transport measurements, the observed linear magnetoresistance (MR) and weak antilocalization (WAL) of the hybrid heterostructure are similar to that of the pure Bi2Se3 film and not the Bi2Te3 film. This suggests that the single Bi2Se3 layer on top of 19 QLs Bi2Te3 dominates its transport properties.
Related JoVE Video
Statistical characterization of the nonlinear noise in 2.8 Tbit/s PDM-16QAM CO-OFDM system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We show for the first time through comprehensive simulations under both uncompensated transmission (UT) and dispersion managed transmission (DMT) systems that the statistical distribution of the nonlinear interference (NLI) within the polarization multiplexed 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (PM-16QAM) Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) system deviates from Gaussian distribution in the absence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. We also observe that the dependences of the variance of the NLI noise on both the launch power and the transmission distance (logrithm) seem to be in a simple linear way.
Related JoVE Video
Integration of microarray profiles associated with cardiomyopathy and the potential role of Ube3a in apoptosis.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiomyopathy is the one of the primary causes of mortality. High?throughput genome datasets provide novel information that aids the understanding of the complex mechanisms involved in cardiomyopathy. However, the causative mechanisms underlying cardiomyopathy are yet to be elucidated. In order to improve the use of the high?throughput genome datasets, the present study employed 9 microarray datasets to mine for differentially expressed cardiomyopathy?associated genes using bioinformatic methods. Following validation using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ubiquitin?protein ligase E3a (Ube3a) was selected as a candidate gene for the disease. Substantial evidence suggests that apoptosis may be involved in the pathophysiology of cardiomyopathies. Therefore, in the present study, H2O2 was utilized to induce apoptosis in H9C2 cells in order to understand the interrelation between Ube3a and the apoptosis-related protein p53. Ube3a and p53 were observed to be significantly increased at the transcriptional and translational levels in response to H2O2 treatment. The results of this study indicate the efficiency of the data integration and the significant interrelation between Ube3a and p53 in myocardial cells during apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Functional and Morphological Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins on Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and therapeutic properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of GSPs on functional and morphological abnormalities in the peripheral nerves of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic rats were induced by two injections of 25?mg streptozotocin/kg body weight and 8?weeks of a high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet. GSPs were then administrated to the rats for 16?weeks. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity thresholds and nerve conductive velocity were measured to evaluate peripheral nerve function. Light microscopy was used with special stains to observe the morphological changes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Calcium (Ca(2+) ) homeostasis and ATPase activities in the sciatic nerves were also determined. In diabetic rats receiving GSP treatment (especially at the 500?mg/kg dose), the abnormal peripheral nerve function and impaired nervous tissues (L4 to L5 spinal cord segments, L5 dorsal root ganglion, and sciatic nerves) were improved to a significant extent. Moreover, 500?mg/kg GSP treatment significantly reduced the concentration of free Ca(2+) and elevated Ca(2+) -ATPase activity in sciatic nerves. These results suggest that GSPs may prevent early functional and morphological abnormalities in the peripheral nerves of rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Do health-promoting schools improve nutrition in China?
Health Promot Int
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To demonstrate the effectiveness of health-promoting school framework to promoting healthy eating behaviours and nutrition knowledge among Chinese middle school students, their parents and school staff. Three schools were randomly selected from 15 rural middle schools, then were randomly assigned to either (i) school using HPS framework (HPS school), (ii) school with improved health education only (HE school) or (iii) school received no intervention (control school). Nutrition knowledge and eating behaviours were measured at baseline and 3-month after interventions, using the same instrument. Students and parents in the HPS school had the largest improvement in nutrition knowledge, from 4.92 to 8.23 and 4.84 to 7.74, followed by those in the HE school, from 4.98 to 8.09 and 4.78 to 5.80. School staff in the HE school had the largest improvement in nutrition knowledge (from 4.40 to 8.45), followed by those in the HPS school (from 5.20 to 9.15). Students in the HPS school had the largest improvement in eating behaviours (from 3.16 to 4.13), followed by those in the HE school (from 2.78 to 3.54). There was a statistical difference in the improvement of nutrition knowledge of all target population and of eating behaviours of students after interventions across three schools (p < 0.05). Both HPS framework and health education can increase nutrition knowledge among Chinese middle school students, their parents and school staff. However, HPS framework was more effective than health education only. Noticeably, HPS framework had a positive impact on students eating behaviours, which should be in the subject of further research.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of exendin-4 on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells induced by tumor necrosis factor-? in vitro].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of exendin-4 on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and fibronectin (FN) in rat glomerular mesangial cells in vitro.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.