JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Clinical characteristics and prognosis comparison of Chinese non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients in two different time periods].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the clinical characteristics, treatment methods and outcomes in Chinese non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients from two large clinical trials in different time periods.
Related JoVE Video
Unsaturated free fatty acids: a potential biomarker panel for early detection of gastric cancer.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Changes in the levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are closely associated with physiological status. Serum levels of C16:1, C18:3, C18:2, C18:1, C20:4, and C22:6 in 164 gastric cancer (GC) patients and 111 benign gastric disease (BGD) patients were significantly decreased compared with 252 healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the biomarker panel including C16:1, C18:3, C18:2, C20:4, and C22:6 presents a high diagnostic ability to differentiate early-stage GC patients from healthy controls plus BGD patients, with a sensitivity of 80.6% and a specificity of 72.7%.
Related JoVE Video
Combined cetuximab and celecoxib treatment exhibits a synergistic anticancer effect on human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibition achieved by combining cetuximab (CET), an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, and celecoxib (CXB), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in vivo. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, was treated with CET (0-400 ?g/ml), CXB (0-40 ?M), or a combination of both at a range of concentrations. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were determined to assess the anticancer effects in vitro. The in vivo effects of CET and CXB on tumor cell growth were examined using an OSCC xenograft nude mouse model. In addition, downstream protein expression levels of EGFR, p-EGFR, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT and p-Akt were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that the combination of low concentrations of CET and CXB significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of the HSC3 tumor cells and decreased PEG2 production and VEGF expression in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in vivo compared to the action of either agent alone. The results also showed that this combination significantly induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity compared to the action of either agent alone (P<0.01). Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly reduced the expression of p-EGFR, p-PI3K and p-Akt in the HSC3 cell line, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, our findings revealed that the additive combination of CET and CXB is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Multi-order Stokes output based on intra-cavity KTiOAsO4 Raman crystal.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report efficient multi-Stokes Raman output of a KTiOAsO4 (KTA) crystal driven by a laser diode end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The Raman outputs of two x-cut KTA crystals, one with a length of 20 mm and the other one of 25-mm, were experimentally compared. Under an incident pump power of 10.9 W, a maximum output power of 1.12 W with a pulse width of 7.6 ns and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz were obtained. The conversion efficiency and slope efficiency with respect to the incident diode pump power were 10.3% and 15.2%, respectively. The laser output contains multiple Raman Stokes lines with different spectral strengths that varied with the pump power.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of ? -1,2 fucosyltransferase gene 682A> G and 547_552delAG mutations on the activity of fucosyltransferase].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effect of ? -1,2 fucosyltransferase (FUT1) gene 682A> G and 547_552delAG mutations on the expression of FUT1 mRNA and activity of ? -1,2 fucosyltransferase.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparison of mesiodistal tooth angulations determined through traditional panoramic radiographs and cone beam CT panoramic images].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the accuracy of mesiodistal tooth angulation measurements by using traditional panoramic radiographs and cone beam CT (CBCT) panoramic images.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and Accurate Size Characterization of Nanoparticles in Complex Media.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed a new method for the identification and accurate size characterization of nanoparticles (NPs) in complex media based on capillary electrokinetic (CE) separation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Through mass scanning and Gaussian fitting of electropherogram peaks, we can obtain multidimensional information on chemical compositions, size distributions, and ionic species of multiple NPs in a single run. The results are more accurate than those obtained by using conventional methods. This method provides a powerful tool for investigating polydisperse NP systems and rapid screening of NP-containing products.
Related JoVE Video
Optimal iodine staining of cardiac tissue for X-ray computed tomography.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text]), has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours throughout this process. Optimal staining was found to depend upon the thickness of the tissue; a simple empirical exponential relationship was derived to allow calculation of the required staining time for cardiac samples of an arbitrary size.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis of Composites SBA-15 Mesoporous Particles Carrying Oxytocin and Evaluation of Their Properties, Functions, and In Vitro Biological Activities.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using the organic template method, we have synthesized mesoporous SBA-15 particles and characterized them by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The bone metabolism regulating hormone oxytocin (OT) was selected as a model for preparation of drug/SBA-15 complexes. The process of drug loading was studied using X-ray diffraction and nitrogen absorption methods. Optimal drug loading parameters were experimentally investigated. The kinetics of drug release from the carrier was evaluated. Finally, the extractions of SBA-15 particles were tested for cytotoxicity, in vitro hemolysis, and the direct attachment toxicity. Our findings suggest that SBA-15 materials have good biocompatibility. Moreover, we demonstrated that OT/SBA-15 complex can stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblast cells. The study provides fundamental information for further in vivo drug-carrier testing.
Related JoVE Video
Process optimization and kinetic evaluation for biosynthesis of D-isoascorbyl stearate.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The synthesis of D-isoascorbyl stearate from D-isoascorbic acid and stearic acid with immobilized lipase (Novozym(®)435) as catalyst was studied. Response surface methodology and Box-Behnken design with six variables and three levels were employed to evaluate the effects of processing conditions on the conversion of D-isoascorbic acid. The results confirmed that the response surface method and statistical analysis were proved to be useful in developing optimal conditions for D-isoascorbyl stearate synthesis. The optimum conditions were predicted as follows: reaction temperature 48 °C, reaction time 17.7 h, immobilized lipase amount 50.0 % (w/w, of D-isoascorbic acid), substrate molar ratio 9:1 (stearic acid to D-isoascorbic acid), D-isoascorbic acid concentration 0.14 mol/L (based on solvent), 4A molecular sieve addition 200 g/L (based on solvent), and the optimal conversion was 90.6 %. Through the kinetics model fitting of the esterification, it was considered that the esterification conformed to a Ping-Pong bi-bi kinetic model with D-isoascorbic acid inhibition, and the obtained kinetic constants showed that the inhibition of D-isoascorbic acid and the enzyme affinity to substrate were abate with the increase of the reaction temperature.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on intestinal barrier function in rats with severe intraperitoneal infection].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on intestinal barrier function in severe intraperitoneal infection (SII).
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of components of mesenteric lymph in rats with severe intraperitoneal infection].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the components of mesenteric lymph of the rats with severe intraperitoneal infection, and inquire into the effect of intestinal lymphatic pathway in severe intraperitoneal infection.
Related JoVE Video
Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker demonstrates angiogenic activity and inhibits A549 cell growth by targeting the KDR signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker has been reported to have anticoagulation, antithrombotic, liver protective and antitumor effects. In the present study, the inhibitory effects on proliferation of A549 human non?small cell lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Firstly, three solvents, 70% ethanol, distilled water and 95% ethanol, were used to extract Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. The MTT assay results demonstrated that the 70% ethanol extract more potently reduced the growth of A549 cells and it was therefore adopted in the subsequent experiments. Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract significantly inhibited A549 cell migration in a time? and dose?dependent manner and inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. Furthermore, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract effectively inhibited blood vessel formation in the established tissue model for angiogenesis. In addition, Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract was demonstrated to inhibit the autophosphorylation of KDR, and downregulate the subsequent activation of AKT and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in A549 cells. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that the antitumor mechanism of Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract was through inhibiting angiogenesis. It functioned by interrupting the autophosphorylation of KDR and subsequently, AKT and ERK1/2.
Related JoVE Video
Insect adhesion on rough surfaces: analysis of adhesive contact of smooth and hairy pads on transparent microstructured substrates.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insect climbing footpads are able to adhere to rough surfaces, but the details of this capability are still unclear. To overcome experimental limitations of randomly rough, opaque surfaces, we fabricated transparent test substrates containing square arrays of 1.4 µm diameter pillars, with variable height (0.5 and 1.4 µm) and spacing (from 3 to 22 µm). Smooth pads of cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) made partial contact (limited to the tops of the structures) for the two densest arrays of tall pillars, but full contact (touching the substrate in between pillars) for larger spacings. The transition from partial to full contact was accompanied by a sharp increase in shear forces. Tests on hairy pads of dock beetles (Gastrophysa viridula) showed that setae adhered between pillars for larger spacings, but pads were equally unable to make full contact on the densest arrays. The beetles' shear forces similarly decreased for denser arrays, but also for short pillars and with a more gradual transition. These observations can be explained by simple contact models derived for soft uniform materials (smooth pads) or thin flat plates (hairy-pad spatulae). Our results show that microstructured substrates are powerful tools to reveal adaptations of natural adhesives for rough surfaces.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effects of Guanxin Shutong capsule drug-containing serum on tumor necrosis factor-?-induced endothelial dysfunction through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and the nitric oxide pathway.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin Shutong capsule (GXSTC) has been used for almost 10 years as a clinical treatment for chest pain, depression, palpitation and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GXSTC drug-containing serum on tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-stimulated endothelial cells. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and nitric oxide (NO) levels and NO synthase (NOS) activity were measured as standards of endothelial dysfunction. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated using commercial kits. In addition, the protein expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS), AKT and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits was examined to evaluate the effect of GXSTC drug-containing serum on ECV304 cells. GXSTC significantly reversed the decrease in NO production induced by TNF-? (5 ng/ml) in ECV304 cells. The expression of NADPH oxidase subunits was increased by TNF-? treatment, but markedly inhibited by treatment with GXSTC in TNF-?-stimulated cells. In summary, GXSTC increased the production of NO in ECV304 cells and exerted a protective effect on ECV304 cells stimulated with TNF-? by upregulating the mRNA and protein expression of eNOS. This was accompanied by increased SOD activity and reduced MDA levels. These results suggested that GXSTC protects the endothelium via the NO pathway and exhibits antioxidant effects.
Related JoVE Video
A Full Compositional Range for a (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) Nanostructure: High Efficiency for Overall Water Splitting and Optical Properties.
Small
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bulk (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) as a photocatalyst has received increasing attention as a potential solution for the energy shortage challenge; however, its catalytic performance is highly limited by its bulk form. To improve the photochemical potential, the nanoscale form of this multiple-metal oxynitrides is desirable. In this work, a new type of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure is obtained. Its composition can tuned to the full range (0.18 < x < 0.95). The (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity for overall water splitting, and the highest quantum efficiency of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) is as high as 17.3% under visible light irradiation. Using this new type of (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) nanostructure, the narrowing of the bandgap for (Ga1-x Zn x )(N1-x O x ) is not only due to an increase in the valence band maximum, but it is also related to a decrease in the conduction band minimum.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission systolic blood pressure after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a population-based study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prognostic value of lower admission systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction has been confirmed, but the impact of elevated admission SBP on short-term outcomes has been evaluated only by a limited number of studies and they have reported conflicting results. The aim of our study was to investigate the characteristics and short-term outcomes in patients with elevated admission SBP after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Related JoVE Video
[Development of a method for the separation of HLA-A, -B and -C haploid using biotinylated probe and streptavidin magnetic beads].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a method for separating the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B and -C haploid using biotinylated probes and streptavidin magnetic beads in order to solve ambiguous HLA genotyping results.
Related JoVE Video
Significantly increased monounsaturated lipids relative to polyunsaturated lipids in six types of cancer microenvironment are observed by mass spectrometry imaging.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Six different types of cancer (i.e., breast, lung, colorectal, esophageal, gastric, and thyroid cancer) have high rates of incidence or mortality worldwide. It has been shown that activation of de novo lipogenesis is an early and common event in the cancer microenvironment. In this study, we performed lipid imaging and profiling for 134 tissue samples from six different types of cancer using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,8-bis(dimethyl-amino)naphthalene as matrices in the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis coupled with lipid distribution images revealed that significantly increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated phosphatidylcholines relative to polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines were observed in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. The immunohistochemical assay indicated that fatty acid synthase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, and choline kinase ? were up-regulated in the cancer microenvironment compared with the adjacent normal tissue. Our findings suggest that de novo lipogenesis was activated in six types of cancer to promote a biosynthesis of lipids with monounsaturated acyl chains and to suppress a biosynthesis of polyunsaturated lipids in the cancer microenvironment.
Related JoVE Video
[An analysis of risk factors for stroke in atrial fibrillation and hypertension patients].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the independent risk factors for the 1 year stroke event in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and hypertension (HT).
Related JoVE Video
Usefulness of the Admission Shock Index for Predicting Short-Term Outcomes in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current risk scores of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) need sophisticated algorithm and were limited for bedside use. Our study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of admission shock index (SI) for predicting the short-term outcomes in patients with STEMI. Included were 7,187 consecutive patients with STEMI. The admission SI was defined as the ratio of admission heart rate and systolic blood pressure. Patients were divided into 2 groups with SI <0.7 and ?0.7, respectively, based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The major end points were 7- and 30-day all-cause mortality. Of 7,187 patients, 5,026 had admission SI <0.7 and 2,161 had admission SI ?0.7. Those who presented with SI ?0.7 had greater 7- and 30-day all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events than patients with SI <0.7. After multivariate adjustment, patients with SI ?0.7 had a 2.2-fold increased risk of 7-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71 to 2.86) and 1.9-fold increased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.44). Moreover, admission SI ?0.7 was also associated with 1.6- and 1.5-fold increased risk of 7- and 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.95 and hazard ratio 1.47, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.74, respectively). The C statistic of admission SI for predicting 7- and 30-day all-cause mortality was 0.701 and 0.686, respectively, compared with 0.744 and 0.738 from the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score. In conclusion, admission SI, an easily calculated index at first contact, may be a useful predictor for short-term outcomes especially for acute phase outcomes in patients with STEMI.
Related JoVE Video
The mitochondrial cardiolipin remodeling enzyme lysocardiolipin acyltransferase is a novel target in pulmonary fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lysocardiolipin acyltransferase (LYCAT), a cardiolipin-remodeling enzyme regulating the 18:2 linoleic acid pattern of mammalian mitochondrial cardiolipin, is necessary for maintaining normal mitochondrial function and vascular development. We hypothesized that modulation of LYCAT expression in lung epithelium regulates development of pulmonary fibrosis.
Related JoVE Video
Alcohol promotes mammary tumor growth through activation of VEGF-dependent tumor angiogenesis.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol consumption has been recognized as a risk factor for breast cancer. Experimental studies demonstrate that alcohol exposure promotes the progression of existing mammary tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. In the present study, the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in alcohol promotion of breast cancer development was investigated using a mouse xenograft model of mammary tumors and a three-dimensional (3D) tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. For the mouse xenograft model, mouse E0771 breast cancer cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of C57BL6 mice. These mice were exposed to alcohol in their drinking water. For the 3D co-culture system, E0771 cells and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells were co-cultured with SVEC4-10EE2 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that alcohol increased tumor angiogenesis and accelerated tumor growth. Furthermore, it appeared that alcohol induced VEGF expression in breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Blocking VEGF signaling by SU5416 inhibited tumor angiogenesis in the 3D tumor/endothelial cell co-culture system. Furthermore, injection of SU5416 into mice inhibited alcohol-promoted mammary tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that alcohol may promote mammary tumor growth by stimulating VEGF-dependent angiogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis and treatment of a 16-year-old Chinese patient with concurrent hereditary hemochromatosis and Gilbert's syndrome.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gilbert's syndrome and hereditary hemochromatosis predominantly affect Caucasians with a low incidence in Asians. Here we report the case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy, who was admitted with hepatalgia, jaundice, hyperpigmentation, and splenomegaly to our hospital. After excluding chronic hepatitis, autoimmune disorders, and alcohol or drug injury, genetic analyses of the patient and his parents revealed simultaneous manifestations of Gilbert's syndrome and hereditary hemochromatosis, though his parents did not develop related symptoms. The presented case indicates that diagnoses of Gilbert's syndrome and hereditary hemochromatosis should be taken into consideration when chronic hepatitis is suspected without a clear etiology.
Related JoVE Video
AMP-activated protein kinase is required for cell survival and growth in HeLa-S3 cells in vivo.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Activation of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) is linked to cancer cell survival in a variety of cancer cell lines, particularly under conditions of stress. As a potent activator of AMPK, metformin has become a hot topic of discussion for its effect on cancer cell. Here, we report that AMPK activated by metformin promotes HeLa-S3 cell survival and growth in vivo. Our results show that metformin inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cells, but not in LKB1-deficient HeLa-S3 cells. Re-expression of LKB-1 in HeLa-S3 cells restored the growth inhibitory effect of metformin, indicating a requirement for LKB-1 in metformin-induced growth inhibition. Moreover, AMPK activation exerted a protective effect in HeLa-S3 cells by relieving ER stress, modulating ER Ca(2+) storage, and finally contributing to cellular adaptation and resistance to apoptosis. Our findings identify a link between AMPK activation and cell survival in HeLa-S3 cells, which demonstrates a beneficial effect of AMPK activated by metformin in cancer cell, and suggests a discrete re-evaluation on the role of metformin/AMPK activation on tumor cell growth, proliferation, and on clinical application in cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Mkk4 is a negative regulator of the transforming growth factor beta 1 signaling associated with atrial remodeling and arrhythmogenesis with age.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF), often associated with structural, fibrotic change in cardiac tissues involving regulatory signaling mediators, becomes increasingly common with age. In the present study, we explored the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (Mkk4), a critical component of the stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase family, in age-associated AF.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoprotective effect of melatonin against hypoxia/serum deprivation-induced cell death of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown great potential for cardiac regeneratio therapeutic efficiency has become a major obstacle due to the poor survival of transplanted MSCs in ischemic cardiac tissue. Previous studies reported that melatonin could protect many different types of cells from apoptosis under various pathological conditions. In the present study, we demonstrated that melatonin, an endogenously secreted indoleamine had cytoprotection from hypoxia/serum deprivation (Hy/SD)-induced cell death in MSCs. We further investigated the possible mechanism and found out that melatonin attenuated (Hy/SD)-induced cell death could be via effectively reducing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and then activation of caspase-3 in MSCs in response to Hy/SD exposure. Furthermore, melatonin pretreatment significantly modulated the expression of phospho-P38MAPK and phospho-ERK1/2 in Hy/SD-induced MSCs and the protective effects of melatonin were partially reversed by ERK1/2 inhibitor but not p38 inhibitor, suggesting that melatonin inhibited Hy/SD-induced MSCs cell death through the MAPK signaling pathway in part. Taken together, the findings imply that melatonin could improve the survival of engrafted MSCs under hypoxia and serum deprivation condition. Our findings indicate that combination therapy with melatonin may provide therapeutic benefit for improving myocardial function after infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Measurement and interpretation of electrocardiographic QT intervals in murine hearts.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alterations in ECG QT intervals correlate with the risk of potentially fatal arrhythmias, for which transgenic murine hearts are becoming increasingly useful experimental models. However, QT intervals are poorly defined in murine ECGs. As a consequence, several different techniques have been used to measure murine QT intervals. The present work develops a consistent measure of the murine QT interval that correlates with changes in the duration of ventricular myocyte action potentials (APs). Volume-conducted ECGs were compared with simultaneously recorded APs, obtained using floating intracellular microelectrodes in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. QT intervals were measured from the onset of the QRS complex. The interval, Q-APR90, measured to the time at 90% AP recovery, was compared with two measures of the QT interval. QT1 was measured to the recovery of the ECG trace to the isoelectric baseline for entirely positive T-waves or to the trough of any negative T-wave undershoot. QT2-used extensively in previous studies-was measured to the return of any ECG trough to the isoelectric baseline. QT1, but not QT2, closely correlated with changes in Q-APR90. These findings were confirmed over a range of pacing rates, in low K(+) concentration solutions, and in Scn5a+/?KPQ hearts used to model human long QT syndrome. Application of this method in whole anesthetized mice similarly demonstrated a prolonged corrected QT (QTc) in Scn5a+/?KPQ hearts. We therefore describe a robust method for the determination of QT and QTc intervals that correlate with the duration of ventricular myocyte APs in murine hearts.
Related JoVE Video
Efficient RTP-based OPO intracavity pumped by an acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO? laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This Letter describes an intracavity pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on noncritical phase matching RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystal driven by a laser diode end-pumping acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. Simultaneous efficient signal light at 1.6 ?m and idler light at 3.1 ?m outputs were obtained. At an incident pump power of 10.5 W and a Q-switching pulse repetition frequency of 60 kHz, 1.42 W at center wavelength of about 1619 nm and 0.38 W at 3108 nm were achieved, with the diode to OPO total output conversion efficiency up to 17.1%. The pulse width is about 6.5 ns for the signal light corresponding to the fundamental light at 1064 nm of about 10 ns. The spectral widths of the signal and idler light are narrower than 0.5 and 1.0 nm. The result shows that the RTP crystal is an efficient crystal to generate eye-safe and mid-infrared lights by making full use of noncritical phase matching.
Related JoVE Video
Ultraviolet C upconversion fluorescence of trivalent erbium in BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor excited by a visible commercial light-emitting diode.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple ultraviolet (UV) emission bands have been obtained in Er3+ doped BaGd2ZnO5 phosphor under the excitation of a 532 nm solid-state laser, and the emission peaks at 217, 254, 278, 296, 314, 348, 374 and 394 nm were determined to stem from the high-energy states 4D(1/2), 4D(7/2), 2H(9/2), 2P(1/2), 2P(3/2), 4G(7/2), 4G(11/2), 4H(9/2) of trivalent erbium, respectively. Some UV emission bands in the UVC region can be observed when the sample was excited by commercial green (529 nm) and blue (460 nm) LED. In view of the small size, low-drive voltage and price of LED, UVC upconversion phosphor BaGd2ZnO5:Er3+ excited by visible LED has potential application in environmental sciences.
Related JoVE Video
Combined cetuximab and celecoxib treatment exhibits a synergistic anticancer effect on human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibition achieved by combining cetuximab (CET), an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, and celecoxib (CXB), a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in vitro and in vivo. The OSCC cell line, HSC3, was treated with CET (0-400 µg/ml), CXB (0-40 µM), or a combination of both at a range of concentrations. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were determined to assess the anticancer effects in vitro. The in vivo effects of CET and CXB on tumor cell growth were examined using an OSCC xenograft nude mouse model. In addition, downstream protein expression levels of EGFR, p-EGFR, PI3K, p-PI3K, AKT and p-Akt were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that the combination of low concentrations of CET and CXB significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of the HSC3 tumor cells and decreased PEG2 production and VEGF expression in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth in vivo compared to the action of either agent alone. The results also showed that this combination significantly induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity compared to the action of either agent alone (P<0.01). Furthermore, the combination treatment significantly reduced the expression of p-EGFR, p-PI3K and p-Akt in the HSC3 cell line, which may contribute to the inhibition of tumor growth. Taken together, our findings revealed that the additive combination of CET and CXB is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of OSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Extracts of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in A375 human melanoma cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Extracts from the centipede Scolopendra genus, have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases and have been found to exhibit anticancer activity in tumor cells. To investigate the potential and associated antitumor mechanism of alcohol extracts of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (AECS), cell viability, cell cycle and cell apoptosis were studied and the results revealed that AECS inhibits A375 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, AECS was found to arrest the cell cycle of A375 cells at the S phase, which was accompanied by a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin E and a decrease in the protein levels of cyclin D1. In a cell culture system, AECS markedly induced the apoptosis of A375 cells, which was closely associated with the effects on the Bcl-2 family, whereby decreased Bcl-2 and increased Bak, Bax and Bad expression levels were observed. The underlying mechanism of AECS inhibiting A375 cell proliferation was associated with the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, indicating that AECS may present as a potential therapeutic agent for administration in human melanoma cancer intervention.
Related JoVE Video
A SxIP motif interaction at the microtubule plus end is important for processive retrograde axonal transport.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The retrograde transport of endosomes within axons proceeds with remarkable uniformity despite having to navigate a discontinuous microtubule network. The mechanisms through which this navigation is achieved remain elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that access of SxIP motif proteins, such as BPAG1n4, to the microtubule plus end is important for the maintenance of processive and sustained retrograde transport along the axon. Disruption of this interaction at the microtubule plus end significantly increases endosome stalling. Our study thus provides strong insight into the role of plus-end-binding proteins in the processive navigation of cargo within the axon.
Related JoVE Video
miR-21 promotes the differentiation of hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism during cell differentiation remains poorly understood. This study isolated neural crest stem cells from human hair follicles and induced them to differentiate into Schwann cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that microRNA (miR)-21 expression was gradually increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells. After transfection with the miR-21 agonist (agomir-21), the differentiation capacity of neural crest stem cells was enhanced. By contrast, after transfection with the miR-21 antagonist (antagomir-21), the differentiation capacity was attenuated. Further study results showed that SOX-2 was an effective target of miR-21. Without compromising SOX2 mRNA expression, miR-21 can down-regulate SOX protein expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of miR-21 mRNA. Knocking out the SOX2 gene from the neural crest stem cells significantly reversed the antagomir-21 inhibition of neural crest stem cells differentiating into Schwann cells. The results suggest that miR-21 expression was increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells and miR-21 promoted the differentiation through down-regulating SOX protein expression by binding to the 3'-UTR of SOX2 mRNA.
Related JoVE Video
Recent advances in cell membrane chromatography for traditional Chinese medicines analysis.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been used for preventative care for thousands of years. The active components are the basis for the pharmacodynamics of TCMs, and they can be an important source of lead compounds. As a bioaffinity chromatography technique, cell membrane chromatography (CMC) has been developed for almost 20 years since 1996. It has been proven to be a useful method for studying drug-receptor interactions and screening active components from medicinal herbs. In our review in 2007 (Drug Discov. Ther., 1 (2007) 104-107), the preparation, identification, evaluation, and preliminary applications of CMC stationary phases were presented. In this article, we briefly review some of the latest progress and applications about CMC including instrument development, research on drug-receptor interactions, screening active components from TCMs, and quality control of TCMs.
Related JoVE Video
Lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) promotes craniofacial bone regeneration through Runx2.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold±0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold±0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p<0.001) when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker inhibits human chronic myeloid leukemia cell K562 growth by inducing G2-M phase cell cycle arrest and targeting EGFR signaling pathway and in S180 tumor-bearing mice.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker is not only used as a food to enhance immunity, but is used as a traditional Chinese medicine and is known as the "preferred drug to regulate blood flow". Previous studies have reported its potential biological activities including anticoagulation, antithrombotic, liver protective effect and antitumor effects. Our results indicated that E. sinensis Walker 70% ethanol extract exhibited anti-tumor effects on S180 (murine sarcoma cell line) cells implanted mice. It effectively inhibited K562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line) cells proliferation and induced G(2)-M phase arrest accompanying through up-regulation of cyclin B1, cdc2 and down-regulation of cyclin D1, cyclin E1, cdc25c and p53. In addition, it inhibited EGF secretion and EGFR kinase activity. Western blotting analysis indicated that it also inhibited the phosphorylation EGFR and activation of its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK. These results suggested that the antitumor mechanism of E. sinensis Walker involved altering the cell cycle and inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation in the EGFR signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Eupolyphaga sinensis walker displays inhibition on hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating cell growth and metastasis signaling.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor growth and metastasis are responsible for most cancer patients' deaths. Here, we report that eupolyphaga sinensis walker has an essential role in resisting hepatocellular carcinoma growth and metastasis. Compared with proliferation, colony formation, transwell assay and transplantable tumor in nude mouse in vitro and vivo, eupolyphaga sinensis walker extract (ESWE) showed good inhibition on the SMMC-7721 cell growth and metastasis. Using genome-wide microarray analysis, we found the down-regulated growth and metastasis factors, and selected down-regulated genes were confirmed by real-time PCR. Knockdown of a checkpoint PKC? by siRNA significantly attenuated tumor inhibition and metastasis effects of ESWE. Moreover, our results indicate ESWE inhibits HCC growth by not only downregulating the signaling of PKC?, Akt, m-TOR, Erk1/2, MEK-2, Raf and JNK-1, but also increasing cyclin D1 protein levels and decreasing amount of cyclin E, cyclin B1 and cdc2 of the cycle proteins. At the same time, ESWE reduced MMP2, MMP9 and CXCR4, PLG, NF?B and P53 activities. Overall, our studies demonstrate that ESWE is a key factor in growth and metastasis signaling inhibitor targeting the PKC, AKT, MAPK signaling and related metastasis signaling, having potential in cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
AxonQuant: A Microfluidic Chamber Culture-Coupled Algorithm That Allows High-Throughput Quantification of Axonal Damage.
Neurosignals
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Published methods for imaging and quantitatively analyzing morphological changes in neuronal axons have serious limitations because of their small sample sizes, and their time-consuming and nonobjective nature. Here we present an improved microfluidic chamber design suitable for fast and high-throughput imaging of neuronal axons. We developed the AxonQuant algorithm, which is suitable for automatic processing of axonal imaging data. This microfluidic chamber-coupled algorithm allows calculation of an 'axonal continuity index' that quantitatively measures axonal health status in a manner independent of neuronal or axonal density. This method allows quantitative analysis of axonal morphology in an automatic and nonbiased manner. Our method will facilitate large-scale high-throughput screening for genes or therapeutic compounds for neurodegenerative diseases involving axonal damage. When combined with imaging technologies utilizing different gene markers, this method will provide new insights into the mechanistic basis for axon degeneration. Our microfluidic chamber culture-coupled AxonQuant algorithm will be widely useful for studying axonal biology and neurodegenerative disorders. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of dedifferentiated male mouse adipose stromal vascular fraction cells to primordial germ cell-like cells.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The adipose stromal vascular fraction (SVF) contains abundant mesenchymal stem cell populations that have a limited ability to self-renew and differentiate. Male mouse adipose SVF cells were dedifferentiated by reprogramming factors (c-Myc, Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4) to form embryonic stem cell-like cells (ESCLCs), which upgraded their limited differentiation potential. The ESCLCs were induced to differentiate toward epiblast-like cells (EpiLCs) and primordial germ cell-like cells (PGCLCs) by culturing in media supplied with activin A and BMP-4, respectively. The derived ESCLCs possess embryonic stem cell features and can automatically form embryonic bodies. After culture in EpiLC induction medium for 2-3 days, ESCLCs formed flattened epithelial structures that were different from their original water drop-like colonies, and the expression of pluripotency-related genes decreased. When the cells that had been cultured in EpiLC induction medium for 2 days were isolated and cultured in PGCLC induction medium for 4-6 days, they formed typical water drop-like colonies again. Moreover, expression of the pluripotency-related genes and the primordial germ cell (PGC) specification-related genes increased. During progression from ESCLCs toward EpiLCs and PGCLCs, the levels of histone methylases H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 kept changing, which resembled those seen in PGC specification. The derived PGCLCs expressed SSEA-1, Blimp-1, and Stella. Furthermore, methylation of Igf2r and Snrpn was retained, but H19 and Kcnq1ot1 methylation levels were slightly reduced compared to non-PGCLCs, suggesting that the derived PGCLCs may have initiated the process of imprint erasure.
Related JoVE Video
Ethanol supports macrophage recruitment and reinforces invasion and migration of lewis lung carcinoma.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation plays a critical role in cancer progression, and our data suggested that ethanol (EtOH) could promote the progression of breast cancer via increased monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Thus, we investigated the effects of EtOH on lung cancer growth and metastasis to explore whether immunosuppression had a role.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput and high-sensitivity quantitative analysis of serum unsaturated fatty acids by chip-based nanoelectrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: early stage diagnostic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) coupled with chip-based direct-infusion nanoelectrospray ionization source (CBDInanoESI) in a negative ion mode is first employed to evaluate the effect of serum and its corresponding supernatant matrixes on the recoveries of serum free fatty acids (FFAs) based on spike-and-recovery experimental strategy by adding analytes along with analog internal standard (IS). The recoveries between serum (69.8-115.6%) and the supernatant (73.6-99.0%) matrixes are almost identical. Multiple point internal standard calibration curves between the concentration ratios of individual fatty acids to ISs, (C(17:1) as IS of C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), or C(18:1) or C(21:0) as IS of C(20:4) or C(22:6)) versus their corresponding intensity ratios were constructed for C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), C(18:1), C(20:4) and C(22:6), respectively, with correlation coefficients of greater than 0.99, lower limits of detection between 0.3 and 1.8 nM, and intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviations <18%), along with the linear dynamic range of three orders of magnitude. Sequentially, this advanced analytical platform was applied to perform simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple targets, e.g., serum supernatant unsaturated FFAs from 361 participants including 95 patients with pancreatic cancer (PC), 61 patients with pancreatitis and 205 healthy controls. Experimental results indicate that the levels of C(18:1), C(18:2), C(18:3), C(20:4) and C(22:6), as well as the level ratios of C(18:2)/C(18:1) and C(18:3)/C(18:1) of the PC patients were significantly decreased compared with those of healthy controls and the patients with pancreatitis (p < 0.01). It is worth noting that the ratio of C(18:2)/C(18:1), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (C(18:2), C(18:3), C(20:4), and C(22:6)), panel a (C(16:1), C(18:3), C(18:2), C(20:4) and C(22:6)) and panel b (C(18:2)/C(18:1) and C(18:3)/C(18:1)) performed excellent diagnostic ability, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ?0.869, sensitivity of ?85.7%, and specificity of ?86.7% for differentiating the early stage PC from non-cancer subjects, which are greatly higher than those of clinically used serum biomarker CA 19-9. More importantly, this platform can also provide a fast and easy way to quantify the levels of FFAs in less than 30 s per sample.
Related JoVE Video
Piezoelectric ultrasonic bone surgery system in the extraction surgery of supernumerary teeth.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The anterior maxillary region is a common site for supernumerary teeth. The aim of this study was to compare the use of piezoelectric ultrasonic bone surgery for the extraction of supernumerary teeth and the use of traditional method using bone chisels.
Related JoVE Video
Antioxidant effect of imperatorin from Angelica dahurica in hypertension via inhibiting NADPH oxidase activation and MAPK pathway.
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Imperatorin (IMP) is an active furocoumarin in the traditional Chinese medicine Angelica dahurica and has been demonstrated to have vasodilatory activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of IMP on blood pressure (BP) and antioxidant effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and human embryonic kidney 293 cells. SHR were administered IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) or tempol (18 mg/kg/d) daily by gavage for 12 weeks. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, proteinuria levels, and superoxide dismutase activity were evaluated with commercial kits. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits of the renal cortical tissues were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Twenty-four hour urinary 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2? was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Systolic BP and diastolic BP were significantly reduced by treatment with IMP (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg/d) in SHR. Meanwhile, we found that renal cortical superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in IMP-treated groups. Renal cortical and urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances' levels, the 24-hour urinary excretion of 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2?, and proteinuria in the IMP-treated group, were lower than SHR group. After that, we found the messenger RNA expressions and protein levels of NADPH oxidase subunits were markedly reduced after IMP treated in SHR. IMP also reduced the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in renal cortical in SHR. In addition, H2O2-induced ROS production in human embryonic kidney 293 cells was markedly attenuated by IMP. H2O2-induced activation of MAPK, protein kinase B, and expression of NADPH oxidase were also attenuated by pretreatment of IMP. In summary, IMP showed antihypertensive effect via prevention of renal injury not only by reducing NADPH oxidase but also by inhibiting of MAPK pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of Cry1Ab protein in a marker-free transgenic Bt rice line and its efficacy in controlling a target pest, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).
Environ. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A marker-free Bt transgenic rice line, mfb-MH86, was recently developed in China, which contains a cry1Ab gene driven by a ubiquitin promoter. This Bt gene confers resistance to a range of lepidopteran species, including the striped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker). The expression of Cry1Ab protein in mfb-MH86 leaves, stems and leaf sheaths (hereinafter referred to as stems), and roots was evaluated throughout the rice-growing season using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, mfb-MH86 resistance to C. suppressalis, a major pest of rice, was evaluated in a laboratory bioassay with field-collected rice stems. Cry1Ab protein levels of mfb-MH86 were highest in leaves (9.71-34.09 ?g/g dry weight [DW]), intermediate in stems (7.66-18.51 ?g/g DW), and lowest in roots (1.95-13.40 ?g/g DW). In all tissues, Cry1Ab levels in mfb-MH86 were higher in seedling and tillering stages than in subsequent growth stages. In the laboratory bioassay, mortality of C. suppressalis after 6 d of feeding on mfb-MH86 stems was 100% throughout the rice-growing season; mortality of C. suppressalis when feeding on stems of the nontransformed isoline, MH86, ranged from 15.0 to 38.3%. The results indicate that Cry1Ab protein levels in mfb-MH86 stems are sufficient to protect plants against C. suppressalis throughout the rice-growing season. Although our results are promising, further comprehensive evaluations of mfb-MH86, including field surveys, will be needed before commercial use.
Related JoVE Video
Chinese medicinal formula Guanxin Shutong capsule protects the heart against oxidative stress and apoptosis induced by ischemic myocardial injury in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Guanxin Shutong capsule (GXSTC) is a Chinese medicinal formula that has been used clinically for the treatment of chest pain, depression, palpitation and cardiovascular diseases in China for almost 10 years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective mechanisms against oxidative stress and apoptosis that GXSTC exhibits in the hearts of rats with myocardial ischemia (MI). Infarct size and the levels of marker enzymes, including serum creatine kinase-isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), as well as the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase (NOS) in the heart were measured by biochemical analysis assays. Levels of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CATA), and glutathione (GSH), and the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA), were also determined. Following a 6-week period of ischemia, myocardial apoptosis, as well as the protein and mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase, was evaluated. Myocardial NADPH oxidase activity was measured by protein expression of p47phox and gp91phox using western blot analysis and mRNA expression of p22phox, p47phox, p67phox and gp91phox using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that daily oral treatment of the rats with GXSTC reduced infarct size, myocardial apoptosis, the levels of serum MDA, LDH, CK-MB and GOT and heart GOT, and increased the activities of total SOD, CATA, NOS and the levels of NO and GSH compared with those in vehicle-treated MI model rats. Administration of GXSTC for 6 weeks also reduced the mRNA expression of the NADPH oxidase subunits p47phox and gp91phox protein, as well as the expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins. By contrast, Bcl-2 protein expression increased. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that GXSTC attenuates myocardial injury via antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.
Related JoVE Video
Multifunctional hydroxyapatite/Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb3+,Er3+ composite fibers for drug delivery and dual modal imaging.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Porous hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite fibers functionalized with up-conversion (UC) luminescent and magnetic Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) nanocrystals (NCs) have been fabricated via electrospinning. After transferring hydrophobic oleic acid-capped Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NCs into aqueous solution, these water-dispersible NCs were dispersed into precursor electrospun solution containing CTAB. Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@HAp composite fibers were fabricated by the high temperature treatment of the electrospun Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+) NCs decorated precursor fibers. The biocompatibility test on MC 3T3-E1 cells using MTT assay shows that the HAp composite fibers have negligible cytotoxity, which reveals the HAp composite fibers could be a drug carrier for drug delivery. Because the contrast brightening is enhanced at increased concentrations of Gd(3+), the HAp composite fibers can serve as T1 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. In addition, the composites uptaken by MC 3T3-E1 cells present the UC luminescent emission of Er(3+) under the excitation of a 980 nm near-infrared laser. The above findings reveal Na(Y/Gd)F4:Yb(3+),Er(3+)@HAp composite fibers have potential applications in drug storage/release and magnetic resonance/UC luminescence imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite on growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function of broiler chickens.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of zinc-bearing zeolite clinoptilolite (Zn-ZCP) on performance, growth performance, nutrient retention, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal function in broiler chickens. A total of 180 1-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were randomly divided into three groups with six replicates of ten birds for a 21-day feeding period. Birds were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (29.1 mg of Zn per kilogram of diet) without supplemental zinc (control) or the same diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg zinc from ZnSO4 or Zn-ZCP. Zn-ZCP and ZnSO4 treatments had lower feed: gain ratio than that of control group (P < 0.05). Addition of Zn-ZCP increased (P < 0.05) the apparent retention of organic matter and ether extract during 14-17 days, and increased (P < 0.05) pancreatic lipase activity at 14 and 21 days as well as amylase activity at 21 days. Addition of Zn-ZCP increased the villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio at the duodenal (P < 0.05) and jejunal (P < 0.05) of broilers at 14 days. Broilers fed the diet supplemented with 80 mg/kg Zn from Zn-ZCP had higher villus heights and villus height to crypt depth ratio of duodenum (P < 0.05) and jejunum (P < 0.05) than those fed with control diet on day 21. Zn-ZCP treatment increased (P < 0.05) IgG and sIgA concentrations in jejunum at 21 days. The results indicated that Zn-ZCP supplementation which might have modified the release of Zn further down in the intestinal tract with the controlled-release characteristic, modulated digestive enzyme activities and intestinal structure and function, increased nutrient retention, and improved feed efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical characteristics and prognostic significance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atrial fibrillation: results from a multicenter atrial fibrillation registry study.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are 2 common morbidities and often coexist. Studies have shown that COPD is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but the characteristics in patients with COPD and AF, as well as the impact of COPD on the outcomes of AF were lacking. The aim of present study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and to evaluate the association of COPD with 1-year outcomes in patients with AF.
Related JoVE Video
FOXO transcription factors: their clinical significance and regulation.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Members of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO) have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli.
Related JoVE Video
A novel tissue model for angiogenesis: evaluation of inhibitors or promoters in tissue level.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel tissue model for angiogenesis (TMA) is established for effective evaluation of angiogenesis inhibitors or promoters in vitro. Lung tissues were cultured in fibrinogen "sandwich" structure which resembled the formation of neovessels in vivo. The cells and capillary-like structures grew from the lung tissues were identified as endothelial cells and neovessels. Both immunohistochemisty and western blot results indicated that autocrine VEGF bound to the KDR and induced KDR autophosphorylation that could induce the proliferation of endothelial cells and their migration as well as the formation of microvessels on the lung tissue edge. With addition of the TMA, the murine VEGF and cultured medium produced by A549 tumor cells apparently promoted the increase of neovessels. Sorafenib as a tumor angiogenesis inhibitor and Tongxinluo as an angiogenesis promoter were both used to evaluate the TMA performance and they exhibited a good effect on neovessels in the TMA. The model established imitated angiogenesis in vivo and could well serve as an effective method in evaluating the angiogenesis inhibitors or promoters, and could also be practical for screening small molecules that affect blood vessel formation.
Related JoVE Video
Imaging investigation of intracranial arterial dissecting aneurysms by using 3 T high-resolution MRI and DSA: from the interventional neuroradiologists' view.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate vessel wall imaging features combined with the luminal shapes of intracranial dissecting aneurysms (IDAs) by using 3 Tesla (3T) high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA).
Related JoVE Video
Retreatment and outcomes of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms after stent assisted coiling: a single center experience.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The retreatment of recurrent intracranial vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) after stent assisted coiling (SAC) has not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategies and outcomes for retreatment of recurrent VADAs after SAC.
Related JoVE Video
Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Suppresses Expression of Prostaglandin E Receptor Subtype EP3 in Human THP-1 Macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
EP3, one of four prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors, is significantly lower in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal arteries and is localized predominantly in macrophages of the plaque shoulder region. However, mechanisms behind this EP3 expression pattern are still unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanism of EP3 expression in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 macrophages with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) treatment. We found that oxLDL decreased EP3 expression, in a dose-dependent manner, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, oxLDL inhibited nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-dependent transcription of the EP3 gene by the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?). Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed decreased binding of NF-?B to the EP3 promoter with oxLDL and PPAR-? agonist treatment. Our results show that oxLDL suppresses EP3 expression by activation of PPAR-? and subsequent inhibition of NF-?B in macrophages. These results suggest that down-regulation of EP3 expression by oxLDL is associated with impairment of EP3-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, and that EP3 receptor activity may exert a beneficial effect on atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
Serum unsaturated free Fatty acids: potential biomarkers for early detection and disease progression monitoring of non-small cell lung cancer.
J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung cancer (LC) is the deadliest cancer, with earlier stage patients having a better opportunity of long-term survival. The goal of this study is to screen less-invasive and efficient biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell LC (NSCLC).
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and associated ventricular arrhythmias by a p21 activated kinase 1 bioactive peptide.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease and thus inhibiting such hypertrophy is beneficial. In the present study, we explored the effect of a bioactive peptide (PAP) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertrophy and associated ventricular arrhythmias in in vitro and in vivo models. PAP enhances p21 activated kinase 1 (Pak1) activity by increasing the level of phosphorylated Pak1 in cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). Such PAP-induced Pak1 activation is associated with a significant reduction of Ang II-induced hypertrophy in NRVMs and C57BL/6 mice, in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Furthermore, PAP antagonizes ventricular arrhythmias associated with Ang II-induced hypertrophy in mice. Its antiarrhythmic effect is likely to be involved in multiple mechanisms to affect both substrate and trigger of ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Thus our results suggest that Pak1 activation achieved by specific bioactive peptide represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac hypertrophy and associated ventricular arrhythmias.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated Serum Levels of Circulating Immunoinflammation-Related Protein Complexes Are Associated with Cancer.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disease-specific immune response-related protein complexes in the bloodstream are associated with disease status. We used proteomic technologies to screen novel circulating immunoinflammation-related protein complexes (IIRPCs) and to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. The discovery study included 96 gastric cancer patients and 83 healthy controls and was designed to isolate and identify the IIRPCs. Then an independent validation study including 1366 patients with lung, colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, or thyroid cancer, 141 patients with other types of cancer, 376 patients with benign lung, colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, or thyroid diseases, and 3707 healthy controls was performed. We observed seven major patterns of the IIRPCs and confirmed the IIRPCs as personalized biomarkers of cancers. The levels of the IIRPCs were significantly increased in cancer patients compared with controls and benign patients (p < 0.0001). Each of the IIRPCs (a2 to a4, a6, a7, and b3 to b5) shows excellent discriminating power for lung, colorectal, pancreatic, and gastric cancer, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) from 0.95 to 0.99 (95% CIs 0.91-1.00), and for thyroid cancer, with the AUCs from 0.87 to 0.96 (95% CIs 0.80-0.98). The IIRPCs can be used as a novel type of broad-spectrum and supramolecular biomarker for personalized cancer diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
An Integrated Virtual Screening Approach for VEGFR-2 Inhibitors.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In recent years, various virtual screening (VS) tools have been developed, and many successful screening campaigns have been showcased. However, whether by conventional molecular docking or pharmacophore screening, the selection of virtual hits is based on the ranking of compounds by scoring functions or fit values, which remains the bottleneck of VS due to insufficient accuracy. As the limitations of individual methods persist, a comprehensive comparison and integration of different methods may provide insights into selecting suitable methods for VS. Here, we evaluated the performance of molecular docking, fingerprint-based 2D similarity and multicomplex pharmacophore in an individual and a combined manner, through a retrospective VS study on VEGFR-2 inhibitors. An integrated two-layer workflow was developed and validated through VS of VEGFR-2 inhibitors against the DUD-E database, which demonstrated improved VS performance through a ligand-based method ECFP_4, followed by molecular docking, and then a strict multicomplex pharmacophore. Through a retrospective comparison with six published papers, this integrated approach outperformed 43 out of 45 methods, indicating a great effectiveness. This kind of integrated VS approach can be extended to other targets for the screening and discovery of inhibitors.
Related JoVE Video
Laser operation of diode-pumped Er,Yb co-doped YAG ceramics at 1.6 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
1.6 ?m eye-safe emission of a diode pumped Er,Yb co-doped YAG ceramic laser is firstly demonstrated. Operation of the ceramic laser under different ceramic sample lengths, co-doping concentrations and control temperatures were experimentally investigated. A maximum output power of 222 mW was achieved at an absorbed pump power of 8.1 W, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 2.74%. Laser emission at 1.05 ?m for transition of the Yb(3+) ions was also studied on the same ceramic samples. The results clearly show the existence of resonantly energy transfer from the Yb(3+) ions to Er(3+) ions.
Related JoVE Video
Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and short-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prognostic value of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the long-term outcomes of patients after myocardial infarction has been well established. The correlation between DM, including newly diagnosed DM, and short-term outcomes needs to be validated.
Related JoVE Video
Biphenyl derivatives incorporating urea unit as novel VEGFR-2 inhibitors: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of novel biphenyl urea derivates were synthesized and investigated for their potential to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). In particular, A7, B3 and B4 displayed significant enzymatic inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 4.06, 4.55 and 5.26nM. Compound A7 exhibited potent antiproliferative activity on several cell lines. SAR study suggested that the introduction of methyl at ortho-position of the biphenyl urea and tertiary amine moiety could improve VEGFR-2 inhibitory activity and antitumor effects. Molecular docking indicated that the urea moiety formed four hydrogen bonds with DFG residue. These biphenyl ureas could serve as promising lead compounds for further optimization.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of hierarchical micro/nano-textured titanium surface features on osteoblast-specific gene expression.
Implant Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the influence of hierarchical hybrid micro/nano-textured titanium surface features on osteoblast differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Potentiation of paclitaxel activity by curcumin in human breast cancer cell by modulating apoptosis and inhibiting EGFR signaling.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been suggested that combined effect of natural products may improve the treatment effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. Here, we examined the combined anticancer activities of compounds of three natural origin including baicalein, curcumin, and resveratrol with chemotherapy drug paclitaxel respectively, which showed that combination of paclitaxel with curcumin exhibited synergistic growth inhibition and induced significant apoptosis in MCF-7 cell lines. Treatment of MCF-7 cell lines with paclitaxel and curcumin induced the apoptosis of regulatory protein Bcl-2 but decreased Bax expression. In addition, simultaneous treatment with paclitaxel and curcumin strongly inhibited paclitaxel-induced activities of EGFR signaling. Furthermore, the combination of paclitaxel and curcumin exerted increased anti-tumor efficacy on mouse models. Overall, our data described the promising therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of combining paclitaxel with curcumin in treating breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Origin of highly stable conductivity of H plasma exposed ZnO films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
H was intentionally incorporated into as-deposited ZnO films by plasma exposure treatment. The resistivity of ZnO films was reduced to the order of 10(-3) ? cm after H plasma treatment, and high conductive stability was identified using a post-annealing process. To find an explanation for the stable conductivity, first-principle calculation was performed. Results predicted that H atoms trapped in oxygen vacancies (V(O)) have the lowest formation energy. By reducing oxygen vacancies in as-deposited films by adding O2 into the working atmosphere, we further testified that H in V(O) is the origin of highly stable conductivity of ZnO films. Our study provided a solution to the problem of how to incorporate H into the V(O) position to produce highly stable H doped ZnO films.
Related JoVE Video
Bio-Inspired Hierarchical Polymer Fiber-Carbon Nanotube Adhesives.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hierarchical pillar arrays consisting of micrometer-sized polymer setae covered by carbon nanotubes are engineered to deliver the role of spatulae, mimicking the fibrillar adhesive surfaces of geckos. These biomimetic structures conform well and achieve better attachment to rough surfaces, providing a new platform for a variety of applications.
Related JoVE Video
Puerarin protected the brain from cerebral ischemia injury via astrocyte apoptosis inhibition.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Puerarin is extensively attractive because of its superior neuroprotective effects in stroke prevention. This paper focused on the protective effect of puerarin both in vivo and in vitro. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was operated on male Sprague-Dawley rat for 2 h, different doses of puerarin (2.62, 7.86 and 23.59 mg/kg) or vehicle were gavaged 1 h after reperfusion. Rats were sacrificed after 24 h or 7 days treatment of puerarin/vehicle. In 7.86 and 23.59 mg/kg groups, infarct volume was reduced (P < 0.05) when puerarin was given once; 7 days puerarin intervention further reduced the infarct volume (P < 0.05) compared with vehicle-treated animal. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was also raised in day 4 in 7.86 and 23.59 mg/kg groups and in all groups in day 7 compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). The number of Nissl body, cleaved caspase-3 and GFAP positive cells increased observably after stroke in dose-dependence in rats. In our in vitro study, we have found that puerarin inhibited the pro-apoptosis factor and upregulated the BDNF secret of astrocytes after OGD-R. This indicated that the repairing effect of puerarin was associated with the astrocyte protection.
Related JoVE Video
Graphenized pencil lead fiber: Facile preparation and application in solid-phase microextraction.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Graphenized pencil lead fiber was facilely prepared by in situ chemical exfoliation of graphite in pencil lead fiber to few-layered graphene sheets via a one-pot, one-step pressurized oxidation reaction for the first time. This new fiber was characterized and demonstrated to be a highly efficient but low-cost solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber. The extraction performance of the fiber was evaluated with four bisphenol analogs [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol AF (BPAF), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] as model analytes in direct SPME mode. Unlike commercially available fibers, the graphenized pencil lead fiber showed an excellent chemical stability in highly saline, acidic, alkaline and organic conditions due to its coating-free configuration. The fiber also showed a very long lifespan. Furthermore, high extraction efficiency and good selectivity for the analytes with a wide polarity range could be obtained due to the exceptional properties of graphene. The detection limits (LODs) for the analytes were in the range of 1.1-25ng/L. The fiber was successfully applied in the analysis of tap water and effluent samples from a waste water treatment plant with spike recoveries ranging from 68.5 to 105.1%. Therefore, the graphenized pencil lead fiber provides a high performance, cheap, robust, and reliable tool for SPME.
Related JoVE Video
Leptomeningeal Cells Transduce Peripheral Macrophages Inflammatory Signal to Microglia in Reponse to Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report here that the leptomeningeal cells transduce inflammatory signals from peripheral macrophages to brain-resident microglia in response to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) LPS. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, TNF- ? , and inducible NO synthase was mainly detected in the gingival macrophages of chronic periodontitis patients. In in vitro studies, P.g. LPS induced the secretion of TNF- ? and IL-1 ? from THP-1 human monocyte-like cell line and RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Surprisingly, the mean mRNA levels of TNF- ? and IL-1 ? in leptomeningeal cells after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were significantly higher than those after treatment with P.g. LPS alone. Furthermore, the mean mRNA levels of TNF- ? and IL-1 ? in microglia after treatment with the conditioned medium from P.g. LPS-stimulated leptomeningeal cells were significantly higher than those after P.g. LPS alone. These observations suggest that leptomeninges serve as an important route for transducing inflammatory signals from macrophages to microglia by secretion of proinflammatory mediators during chronic periodontitis. Moreover, propolis significantly reduced the P.g. LPS-induced TNF- ? and IL-1 ? production by leptomeningeal cells through inhibiting the nuclear factor- ? B signaling pathway. Together with the inhibitory effect on microglial activation, propolis may be beneficial in preventing neuroinflammation during chronic periodontitis.
Related JoVE Video
Methionine improves the performance and breast muscle growth of broilers with lower hatching weight by altering the expression of genes associated with the insulin-like growth factor-I signalling pathway.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to investigate the responses of broilers with different hatching weights (HW) to dietary methionine (Met). A total of 192 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks with different HW (heavy: 48·3 (sem 0·1) g and light: 41·7 (sem 0·1) g) were allocated to a 2 (HW) × 2 (Met) factorial arrangement with six replicates of eight chicks. Control starter (1-21 d) and finisher (22-42 d) diets contained 0·50 and 0·43 % Met, respectively. Corresponding values for a high-Met treatment were 0·60 and 0·53 %. Light chicks had poorer (P< 0·05) growth performance and breast muscle weight and lower (P< 0·05) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration and mRNA level in breast muscle than heavy chicks when both were fed the control diets. High-Met diets improved performance and promoted breast muscle growth and IGF-I concentration in light chicks (P< 0·05). Increased IGF-I and target of rapamycin (TOR) mRNA levels as well as decreased eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), atrogin-1 and forkhead box O 4 (FOXO4) mRNA levels were induced by high-Met diets in light chicks (P< 0·05). In conclusion, the Met requirement of broilers might depend on their HW and Met levels used in the control diets in the present study were adequate for heavy chicks but inadequate for light chicks, resulting in poorer performance and breast muscle growth, which were improved by increasing dietary Met supply presumably through alterations in IGF-I synthesis and gene expression of the TOR/4EBP1 and FOXO4/atrogin-1 pathway.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.