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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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REFERENCE VALUES FOR LEPTIN, CORTISOL, INSULIN AND GLUCOSE, AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH ADIPOSITY: THE HELENA STUDY.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Adequate concentrations of leptin, cortisol, and insulin are important for a suitable metabolism and development during adolescence. These hormones jointly with glucose play a major role in fat metabolism and development of childhood obesity. Our main objective was to quantify biomarkers as leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose status in European adolescents to contribute to establish reference ranges.
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Influences on adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations in women and children: insights from six European studies.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Across Europe, poor health behaviours are associated with increased risks of non-communicable diseases. There is particular concern about young women, children and families, not least as health behaviours operating before and during pregnancy and in early postnatal life may have profound long-term consequences for children's health. Using findings drawn from 7 European countries, we aimed to identify barriers to the implementation and uptake of dietary and physical activity recommendations, and to consider how best to achieve changes in mothers' behaviours and thereby improve the adoption of health recommendations. Six studies across the 7 countries were used for this narrative synthesis of findings. Key Messages: A woman's education has a strong influence on her own and her children's health behaviours. Women's diets vary across ethnic groups and according to number of children, but psychological factors, such as self-efficacy and sense of control, which may be amenable to modification, are powerful, too, particularly in women with lower educational attainment. Maternal influences on children's behaviours are strong. Differences exist in infant feeding across countries, and there are apparent urban/rural differences in children's diets and physical activity.
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Agreement between parent and child report on parental practices regarding dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours: the ENERGY cross-sectional survey.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Parents and their parenting practices play an important role in shaping their children's environment and energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). Measurement of parenting practices can be parent- or child-informed, however not much is known about agreement between parent and child perspectives. This study aimed to assess agreement between parent and child reports on parental practices regarding EBRBs across different countries in Europe and to identify correlates of agreement.
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The school nutrition environment and its association with soft drink intakes in seven countries across Europe - the ENERGY project.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The school is an important setting for promoting healthy eating especially at the transition from childhood to adolescence. This study contributes to the literature by describing practices within physical, political and sociocultural aspects of the school nutrition environment in seven countries across Europe based on questionnaires to the school management, and exploring their associations with soft drink consumption reported on questionnaires by 10-12 year olds. Several of the commonly self-reported practices could be supportive of a healthy diet (time to eat, access to water, restriction on marketing), but some practices were underutilized (i.e. discussion with stakeholders, healthy foods at events). Only a few associations of practices with the pupils? soft drink consumption were found.
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The role of family-related factors in the effects of the UP4FUN school-based family-focused intervention targeting screen time in 10- to 12-year-old children: the ENERGY project.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Screen-related behaviours are highly prevalent in schoolchildren. Considering the adverse health effects and the relation of obesity and screen time in childhood, efforts to affect screen use in children are warranted. Parents have been identified as an important influence on children's screen time and therefore should be involved in prevention programmes. The aim was to examine the mediating role of family-related factors on the effects of the school-based family-focused UP4FUN intervention aimed at screen time in 10- to 12-year-old European children (n child-parent dyads = 1940).
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Dietary lipid intake only partially influences variance in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in adolescents: impact of other dietary factors.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study aimed to assess the correlation between food and fatty acid (FA) intake and the serum phospholipid (PL) FA status in European adolescents and explored the percentage of variation in serum PL FA that could be attributed to dietary habits. Participants included 528 adolescents recruited in the HELENA Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, self-administered, non-consecutive 24-h recalls. PL FA concentrations were measured in fasting venous serum samples. Reduced rank regressions were applied to examine the combined effect of food intakes. Results indicated that the variance in serum PL FA in adolescents, that could be explained by diet varied from 7.0% for MUFA to 14.2% for n-3FA. The variance in the long-chain n-3FA was mainly explained by fish intake but also by coffee and tea consumption. In conclusion this study indicated that dietary intake influences the serum PL FA status to a limited amount but that also other factors interfere. However, dietary intake is important as it is among those factors that could be modified. Furthermore, the results suggest that the overall dietary habits should be considered instead of only the consumption of single foods or nutrients, as the medium of the food or concomitant intake of foods and nutrients might interact and as such influence absorption or metabolism.
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Physical Activity Modifies the Associations between Genetic Variants and Blood Pressure in European Adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We hypothesized that physical activity and sedentary behavior could modify the associations between known genetic variants blood pressure-associated genes in European adolescents. Meeting current physical activity recommendations (?60 minutes/day) was able attenuate the deleterious effect of the NOS3 rs3918227 polymorphism on systolic blood pressure in European adolescents.
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Breastfeeding Shows a Protective Trend toward Adolescents with Higher Abdominal Adiposity.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition.
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Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits.
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Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups.
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Parents and friends both matter: simultaneous and interactive influences of parents and friends on European schoolchildren's energy balance-related behaviours - the ENERGY cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children's energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe.
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Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.
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Health inequalities in urban adolescents: role of physical activity, diet, and genetics.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Coordinated European projects relying on standardized methods are needed to identify health inequalities across Europe. This study aimed to compare fitness, fatness, and cardiometabolic risk between urban adolescents from the south and center-north of Europe and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and other factors might explain these differences.
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Moderators of the effectiveness of a web-based tailored intervention promoting physical activity in adolescents: the HELENA Activ-O-Meter.
J Sch Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The aim of this study was to examine the moderation effects of sex, age, and psychosocial determinants (intention, social support, and modeling) of physical activity (PA) in the relationship between an Internet-based computer-tailored intervention program (Activ-O-Meter) and modes of PA and commuting.
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The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers' energy balance-related behaviours - including physical activity (PA) - by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers' objectively measured PA levels.
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Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.
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Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries.
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Differences in beliefs and home environments regarding energy balance behaviors according to parental education and ethnicity among schoolchildren in Europe: the ENERGY cross sectional study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To explore differences in personal and home environmental factors that are regarded as determinants of energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) according to parental education and ethnic background among 10-12 year old schoolchildren across Europe.
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Fortification of vitamin A in a phytosterol enriched milk maintains plasma beta-carotene levels.
J Food Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The aim of the current study was to investigate if the supplementation of vitamin A via a phytosterol enriched low-fat milk could prevent the reduction of plasma beta-carotene concentrations than often occurs after plant sterols' or stanols' intake. A sample of 108 hypercholesterolaemic adults (40-60 years old) was randomized to an enriched milk group that contained among other nutrients phytosterols (0.5 g/100 ml) and vitamin A (111 ?g/100 ml) (EMG: n?=?40), a placebo plain milk group (PMG: n?=?37), and a control group (CG: n?=?31) following their usual diet; the EMG and the PMG consumed 500 ml milk per day and in order to ensure compliance with the intervention scheme, attended health and nutrition counselling sessions biweekly over a 3-month period. Dietary intake of vitamin A significantly increased in the EMG compared to the PMG and the CG (P?
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Dietary patterns and breakfast consumption in relation to insulin resistance in children. The Healthy Growth Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Insulin resistance is a significant cross-point for the manifestation of several chronic diseases in children and adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship of certain dietary patterns and breakfast consumption habits with insulin resistance in children.
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Dietary fat quality impacts genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in a cross-sectional study of Greek preadolescents.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The type and the amount of dietary fat have a significant influence on the metabolic pathways involved in the development of obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unknown to what extent this modulation is achieved through DNA methylation. We assessed the effects of cholesterol intake, the proportion of energy intake derived from fat, the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA), the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) to SFA, and the ratio of MUFA+PUFA to SFA on genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal-weight and obese children. We determined the genome-wide methylation profile in the blood of 69 Greek preadolescents (?10 years old) as well as their dietary intake for two consecutive weekdays and one weekend day. The methylation levels of one CpG island shore and four sites were significantly correlated with total fat intake. The methylation levels of 2 islands, 11 island shores and 16 sites were significantly correlated with PUFA/SFA; of 9 islands, 26 island shores and 158 sites with MUFA/SFA; and of 10 islands, 40 island shores and 130 sites with (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. We found significant gene enrichment in 34 pathways for PUFA/SFA, including the leptin pathway, and a significant enrichment in 5 pathways for (MUFA+PUFA)/SFA. Our results suggest that specific changes in DNA methylation may have an important role in the mechanisms involved in the physiological responses to different types of dietary fat.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.139.
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Energy Balance Related Behaviour: Personal, Home- and Friend-Related Factors among Schoolchildren in Europe Studied in the ENERGY-Project.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To design interventions that target energy balance-related behaviours, knowledge of primary schoolchildren's perceptions regarding soft drink intake, fruit juice intake, breakfast consumption, TV viewing and physical activity (PA) is essential. The current study describes personal beliefs and attitudes, home- and friend-related variables regarding these behaviours across Europe.
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CDKAL1-related single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with insulin resistance in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Five novel loci recently found to be associated with body mass in two GWAS of East Asian populations were evaluated in two cohorts of Swedish and Greek children and adolescents. These loci are located within, or in the proximity of: CDKAL1, PCSK1, GP2, PAX6 and KLF9. No association with body mass has previously been reported for these loci in GWAS performed on European populations. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the strongest association at each loci in the East Asian GWAS were genotyped in two cohorts, one obesity case control cohort of Swedish children and adolescents consisting of 496 cases and 520 controls and one cross-sectional cohort of 2293 nine-to-thirteen year old Greek children and adolescents. SNPs were surveyed for association with body mass and other phenotypic traits commonly associated with obesity, including adipose tissue distribution, insulin resistance and daily caloric intake. No association with body mass was found in either cohort. However, among the Greek children, association with insulin resistance could be observed for the two CDKAL1-related SNPs: rs9356744 (??=?0.018, p?=?0.014) and rs2206734 (??=?0.024, p?=?0.001). CDKAL1-related variants have previously been associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin response. This study reports association of CDKAL1-related SNPs with insulin resistance, a clinical marker related to type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional cohort of Greek children and adolescents of European descent.
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Breastfeeding and wheeze prevalence in pre-schoolers and pre-adolescents: the Genesis and Healthy Growth studies.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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To date, extensive research has been undertaken on a potential link of breastfeeding (BF) to wheezing illnesses. Nevertheless, an association remains to be established, partly due to age-dependent discrepancies and different definitions of exposures/outcomes across studies. We thus investigated the relation of diverse infantile feeding patterns with wheeze/asthma prevalence in two cohorts of children of different ages (preschool and preadolescent).
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Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.
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Impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns in free living conditions among adolescents measured using a uniaxial accelerometer: The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
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Influencing factors of sedentary behavior in European preschool settings: an exploration through focus groups with teachers.
J Sch Health
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Sedentary behavior refers to activities involving sitting down and reclining (eg, watching TV, using the computer) and has been associated with different health outcomes. In preschool, children are sedentary for 50% to 80% of the time, in the classroom as well as during recess. Because of the absence of qualitative studies examining influencing factors of preschoolers sedentary behavior in preschool settings, this study explored teachers opinions on potentially influencing factors of this behavior.
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The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established.
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Parental education associations with childrens body composition: mediation effects of energy balance-related behaviors within the ENERGY-project.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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It is well known that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is considerably higher among youth from lower socio-economic families, but there is little information about the role of some energy balance-related behaviors in the association between socio-economic status and childhood overweight and obesity. The objective of this paper was to assess the possible mediation role of energy balance-related behaviors in the association between parental education and childrens body composition.
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Estimation of abdominal fat mass: validity of abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis and a new model based on anthropometry compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Since abdominal adiposity has been associated with increased risk for chronic diseases, valid and low cost methods to estimate it are needed for clinical and research purposes. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method, a model that estimates abdominal fat mass percentage (AFM%) in white postmenopausal women based on simple and easy-to-apply anthropometric measurements. An additional aim was to validate an abdominal bioelectrical impedance analyzer (ViScan) for estimating waist circumference (WC) and AFM% in this group.
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Psychosocial Determinants and Perceived Environmental Barriers as Mediators of the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Tailored Intervention Promoting Physical Activity in Adolescents: the HELENA Activ-O-Meter.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine if psychosocial determinants (attitudes, self-efficacy, social support from a sports partner) and perceived environmental barriers (PEB) of physical activity (PA) mediated the effect of a 3-month internet-based intervention on PA in European adolescents. METHODS: A random sample of 536 adolescents (51% boys) aged 12-17 years were randomly assigned to intervention or control condition. Questionnaires were used to assess different PA behaviours, psychosocial determinants and PEB at baseline and at 3-months follow-up. Mediating effects were assessed with the bootstrapping method. RESULTS: PEB regarding neighbourhood safety mediated the effect of the intervention on all PA indices. PEB regarding sports facilities availability at neighbourhood and PEB regarding sport-related facilities availability at school mediated the effect of the intervention on moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and moderate PA (in leisure time and at school, respectively). Social support from a sports partner suppressed the effect of the intervention on vigorous PA and MVPA. No other factor had a mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: All PEB measures appear to mediate PA behaviours of different intensities and in different contexts. Interventions promoting PA in adolescents should also focus on improving the targeted PEB as mediators of engagement in PA to bring the desired effects in actual behaviours.
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Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10--12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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BACKGROUND: To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10--12 years across Europe. METHODS: 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. RESULTS: The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality.
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Dietary and lifestyle quality indices with/without physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Emerging data indicate that higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) are common among children and adolescents and are related to cardiometabolic risk; therefore, IR requires consideration early in life. In addition, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the role of dietary nutrients on IR. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in European adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years. A total of 637 participants with valid homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index data and who completed at least a 2 d 24 h dietary recall were included in the study (60% of the total HELENA-CSS sample). There were two dietary indices calculated, with the only difference between them being the inclusion or not of physical activity (PA). Markers of IR such as HOMA and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) were calculated. Pubertal status, BMI and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were measured as potential confounders. The dietary index including PA was inversely associated with HOMA and directly with the QUICKI in females, but not in males, after adjusting for pubertal status, centre, BMI and CRF. In conclusion, the present study indicates that considering PA as part of the dietary index is of relevance as the resulted index is inversely related to IR independently of potential confounders including CRF. Overall, these findings suggest that intervention studies aimed at preventing IR in young people should focus on increasing the quality of the diet and also on including an optimal PA level in healthy adolescents.
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Identification of lifestyle patterns associated with obesity and fat mass in children: the Healthy Growth Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children. DESIGN: Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns. SETTING: Primary schools from four regions in Greece. SUBJECTS: A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9-13 years). RESULTS: Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4 %, 45·2 % and 32·2 % less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4 % less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0 %, 26·3 % and 29·5 % less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The current study identified three lifestyle patterns (i.e. one pattern comprising higher dairy consumption with a more adequate breakfast; a second pattern characterized by increased consumption of high-fibre foods; and a third pattern combining higher physical activity levels with more frequent meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.
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Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
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Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents and teachers opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on childrens current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes.
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The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sec
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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OBJECTIVE: The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing at breakfast by three frequency questions and parents were categorized into: (i) breakfast skippers; (ii) breakfast with TV (TV watchers at breakfast); and (iii) breakfast without TV (breakfast eaters who do not watch TV during breakfast). Self-reported weight and height were used to categorize weight status as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with weight status as the dependent variable and breakfast habits as predictors, adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education. SETTING: The survey was conducted in 2010 in 199 primary schools across eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Parents (n 6512) of 10-12-year-olds responded to the questionnaire. RESULTS: In the total study sample, with breakfast without TV as the reference group and adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education, the OR of being respectively overweight or obese (compared with normal weight) was 1·2 (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4) or 1·8 (95 % CI 1·5, 2·3) for breakfast skippers. The OR of being respectively underweight or obese was 0·5 (95 % CI 0·2, 0·9) or 1·4 (95 % CI 1·1, 1·8) for breakfast with TV. CONCLUSIONS: Breakfast skippers were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese, and those eating breakfast while watching TV were significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be underweight.
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Nutrient intake of European adolescents: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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OBJECTIVE: An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI). DESIGN: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. SETTING: Eight cities in Europe. SUBJECTS: The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. RESULTS: The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55 % of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100). CONCLUSIONS: The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.
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Circulating leptin and adiponectin and their relation to glucose metabolism in children with Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Crohns disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) result in metabolic consequences. We assessed circulating leptin and adiponectin concentrations and examined their relations to glucose metabolism in children with CD and UC.
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Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
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Longer sleep--slimmer kids: the ENERGY-project.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Few studies have differentiated between weekday and weekend day sleep duration in their association with indicators of weight status in children. Therefore, we examined the association of week and weekend day sleep duration with indicators of body composition in 10-12 year old European school children.
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Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Nutrition has been proposed as a potential environmental factor affecting the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the present study, the impact of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) on the presence and severity of NAFLD was explored.
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Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different bodys components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
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Daily Variations in Weather and the Relationship with Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in European 10-12yr olds: The ENERGY-Project.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to examine the association of daily variations in rainfall and temperature with sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) in European children. METHODS: Children were included from five countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland) as part of the ENERGY- project. We used cross-sectional data from 722 children aged 10-12 years (47% boys). ST and PA were measured by accelerometers for six consecutive days, including weekend days. Weather data was collected from online national weather reports. Multilevel regression models were used for data analyses. RESULTS: Maximum temperature was positively associated with light PA (b=3.1 min/day; 95% CI=2.4; 3.8), moderate-to-vigorous PA (b=0.6 min/day; 95% CI=0.4; 0.8) and average PA (b=4.1 counts per minute (cpm); 95% CI=1.6; 6.5, quadratic relationship). Rainfall was inversely and quadratically associated with light PA (b=-1.3 min/day; 95% CI=-1.9; -0.6), moderate-to-vigorous PA (b=-0.6 min/day; 95% CI=-0.8; -0.3) and average PA (b=-1.6 cpm; 95% CI=-2.2; -0.9). Maximum temperature was not significantly associated with ST (b=-0.2 min/day; 95% CI=-1.0; 0.6), while rainfall was positively associated with ST (b=0.9 min/day; 95% CI=0.6, 1.3). CONCLUSION: The present study shows that temperature and rainfall are significantly associated with PA and ST in 10-12 years European children.
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Female sex, small size at birth and low family income increase the likelihood of insulin resistance in late childhood: the Healthy Growth Study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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To identify among a wide range of perinatal indices, as well as certain family sociodemographic and parental characteristics, those independently associated with insulin resistance (IR) in late childhood.
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Direct and indirect associations between the family physical activity environment and sports participation among 10-12 year-old European children: testing the EnRG framework in the ENERGY project.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Sport participation makes an important contribution to childrens overall physical activity. Understanding influences on sports participation is important and the family environment is considered key, however few studies have explored the mechanisms by which the family environment influences childrens sport participation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether attitude, perceived behavioural control, health belief and enjoyment mediate associations between the family environment and 10-12 year-old childrens sports participation.
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More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.
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Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation based on perinatal factors and family sociodemographic characteristics: CORE index.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The aim of this study was to develop an index that estimates late childhood obesity risk based on certain perinatal and family sociodemographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional with retrospectively collected data from a representative sample of 2,294 primary schoolchildren, aged 9-13 years, in four counties from north, west, central, and south Greece. Mothers prepregnancy weight status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal educational level, and infant weight gain in the first 6 months of life were combined with childrens gender for the development of the Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE) index. The score of the CORE index ranged from 0 to 11 units and each unit was associated with an obesity risk probability (range, 4-40 %). Cutoff point analysis revealed that a score ? 5 units best discriminated obese from non-obese children. On the basis of this cutoff point, the sensitivity of the CORE index was 54 % and the corresponding specificity 65 %.
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Clustering of energy balance-related behaviors and parental education in European children: the ENERGY-project.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Recent research and literature reviews show that, among schoolchildren, some specific energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) are relevant for overweight and obesity prevention. It is also well known that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is considerably higher among schoolchildren from lower socio-economic backgrounds. This study examines whether sugared drinks intake, physical activity, screen time and usual sleep duration cluster in reliable and meaningful ways among European children, and whether the identified clusters could be characterized by parental education.
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Associations between Family-Related Factors, Breakfast Consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-Year-Old European Children: The Cross-Sectional ENERGY-Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To investigate associations of family-related factors with childrens breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether childrens breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and childrens BMI-z-score.
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Can ethnic background differences in childrens body composition be explained by differences in energy balance-related behaviors? A mediation analysis within the energy-project.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs) than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported.
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Association of total body and visceral fat mass with iron deficiency in preadolescents: the Healthy Growth Study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of obesity, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass with body Fe status in a representative sample of 1493 schoolchildren aged 9-13 years. Anthropometric, body composition, biochemical, clinical (Tanner stage, age of menarche) and dietary intake data were collected. Fe deficiency (ID) was defined as transferrin saturation (TS) < 16 %; and Fe-deficiency anaemia (IDA) as ID with Hb < 120 g/l. Obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat mass had significantly higher levels of serum ferritin (P ? 0.05) compared to their normal-weight peers and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. Similarly, obese boys and girls and those in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass had significantly lower levels of TS (P ? 0.05) compared to normal-weight children and those in the corresponding lowest quartiles. The prevalence of ID and IDA was significantly higher in boys and girls in the highest quartiles of percentage body fat than in peers in the lowest quartile. Higher quartiles of percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were the main significant predictors of ID in boys, after controlling for other important confounders, with OR of 2.48 (95 % CI, 1.26, 4.88) and 2.12 (95 % CI, 1.07, 4.19), respectively. Similar significant associations were observed for girls. In conclusion, percentage body fat and visceral fat mass were positively associated with ID in both sexes of preadolescents. These associations might be attributed to the chronic inflammation induced by excess adiposity.
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European adolescents level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.
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Association of TMEM18 variants with BMI and waist circumference in children and correlation of mRNA expression in the PFC with body weight in rats.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have shown a strong association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the near vicinity of the TMEM18 gene. The effects of the TMEM18-associated variants are more readily observed in children. TMEM18 encodes a 3TM protein, which locates to the nuclear membrane. The functional context of TMEM18 and the effects of its associated variants are as of yet undetermined. To further explore the effects of near-TMEM18 variants, we have genotyped two TMEM18-associated SNPs, rs6548238 and rs4854344, in a cohort of 2352 Greek children (Healthy Growth Study). Included in this study are data on anthropomorphic traits body weight, BMI z-score and waist circumference. Also included are dietary energy and macronutrient intake as measured via 24-h recall interviews. Major alleles of rs6548238 and rs4854344 were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (odds ratio = 1.489 (1.161-1.910) and 1.494 (1.165-1.917), respectively), and positively correlated to body weight (P = 0.017, P = 0.010) and waist circumference (P = 0.003, P = 0.003). An association to energy and macronutrient intake was not observed in this cohort. We also correlated food intake and body weight in a food choice model in rats to Tmem18 expression in central regions involved in feeding behavior. We observed a strong positive correlation between TMEM18 expression and body weight in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) (r = 0.5694, P = 0.0003) indicating a potential role for TMEM18 in higher functions related to feeding involving the PFC.
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Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents--the HELENA study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents.
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Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time.
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European adolescents level of perceived stress and its relationship with body adiposity--the HELENA Study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2011
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Since stress is hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of obesity, the present study examined the current perception of stress in European adolescents and the association between adolescent perceived stress and their adiposity.
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Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ? 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.
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