Sexual dimorphism in asthma links the estrogen and allergic immune responses. The function of estrogen was classically believed to be mediated through its nuclear receptors, i.e., estrogen receptors (ERs). However, recent studies established the important roles of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) as a novel membrane receptor for estrogen. To date, the role of GPER in allergic inflammation is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether GPER might affect the functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here, we demonstrated that GPER was expressed in purified human peripheral blood eosinophils both at the mRNA and protein levels. Although GPER agonist G-1 did not induce eosinophil chemotaxis or chemokinesis, preincubation with G-1 enhanced eotaxin (CCL11)-directed eosinophil chemotaxis. G-1 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and caspase-3 activities. The anti-apoptotic effect was not affected by the cAMP-phospodiesterase inhibitor rolipram or phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors. In contrast to resting eosinophils, G-1 induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activities when eosinophils were co-stimulated with IL-5. No effect of G-1 was observed on eosinophil degranulation in terms of release of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN). The current study indicates the functional capacities of GPER on human eosinophils and also provides the previously unrecognized mechanisms of interaction between estrogen and allergic inflammation.
Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation caused by activation of immune cells including Th2 lymphocytes and eosinophils. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) ? deficient asthmatic mice did not develop lung eosinophilia, although the detailed mechanisms are not well known. A CC chemokine eotaxin (CCL11) plays a prominent role in developing eosinophilic inflammation through CCR3. In this study, we tested the roles of PI3K? in eotaxin-induced eosinophil functions using a pharmacological inhibitor.
Growing evidence has shown an association between obesity and asthma. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, is known to have anti-inflammatory effects with reduced concentrations in obese subjects. Recent findings raised the intriguing possibility that adiponectin might play a role in allergic inflammation, although the mechanistic basis for their relationship remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adiponectin might affect functions of eosinophils, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma.
It has been pointed out that obesity is a risk factor for, and is involved in the exacerbation of asthma. Mounting evidence about adipose tissue-derived proteins (adipokines) gave rise to the current understanding of obesity as a systemic inflammatory disorder. In this review, we summarized the involvement of leptin, focusing on eosinophil functions. Several studies have indicated that leptin can restrain eosinophil apoptosis, enhance migration, increase adhesion molecules and induce cytokine production. Since leptin also acts on a variety of immune cells related to allergic response, increased leptin in obese individuals potentially explains the mechanism by which obesity leads to an exacerbation of asthma. Further studies targeting adipokines will delineate the association between obesity and eosinophil-associated diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.