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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Androgens and androgen receptor signaling in prostate tumorigenesis.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are necessary for prostate development and homeostasis. AR signaling also drives the growth of nearly all prostate cancer cells. The role of androgens and AR signaling has been well characterized in metastatic prostate cancer, where it has been shown that prostate cancer cells are exquisitely adept at maintaining functional AR signaling to drive cancer growth. As androgens and AR signaling are so intimately involved in prostate development and the proliferation of advanced prostate cancer, it stands to reason that androgens and AR are also involved in prostate cancer initiation and the early stages of cancer growth, yet little is known of this process. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge concerning the role of androgens and AR signaling in prostate tissue, from development to metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and use that information to suggest potential roles for androgens and AR in prostate cancer initiation.
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Reference intervals for total bilirubin, ALT, AST and creatinine in healthy Chinese elderly.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to establish the reference intervals (RIs) of total bilirubin (TBIL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatinine (CREA) for apparently healthy elderly (Han ethnicity) in Shuyang, China.
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Proton transfer-mediated GPCR activation.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play essential roles in signal transduction from the environment into the cell. While many structural features have been elucidated in great detail, a common functional mechanism on how the ligand-binding signal is converted into a conformational change on the cytoplasmic face resulting in subsequent activation of downstream effectors remain to be established. Based on available structural and functional data of the activation process in class-A GPCRs, we propose here that a change in protonation status, together with proton transfer via conserved structural elements located in the transmembrane region, are the key elements essential for signal transduction across the membrane.
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An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics.
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Increased prediction of right nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery using preoperative computed tomography with intraoperative neuromonitoring identification.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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A nonrecurrent laryngeal nerve (NRLN) is a rare but potentially serious anatomical variant. Although the incidence is reported to be 0.3% to 1.3%, it carries a much higher risk of palsy during thyroid surgery. The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) for preoperative identification and intraoperative neuromonitoring identification (IONM) of NRLN in thyroid cancer patients.
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The role of a nanoparticle monolayer on the flow of polymer melts in nanochannels.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Understanding and controlling the flow properties of polymer melts at the nanoscale is of great relevance in fundamental research and in a variety of applications. In the present study we have analysed experimentally the flow behaviour of polymers in nanochannels of varying roughness, produced by gold nanoparticle absorption. The experimental results show that nanochannel roughness has a significant influence on surface energy and on the flow behaviour of polymer melts. These results provide fundamental information on the preparation of one-dimensional polymer nanochannels applicable in both micro- and nano-injection technology.
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[Wuling capsule played an assistant role in primary prevention of post-stroke depression: a clinical research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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To observe the primary prevention role of Wuling Capsule (WC) on poststroke depression (PSD) patients.
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Poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanotubes with tunable aspect ratios and charge transport properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RR-P3HT) nanotubes (200 nm in diameter) with tunable aspect ratios from 25 to 300 were prepared using a polymer melt wetting technique. Aspect-ratio tunability was achieved by controlling the wetting behavior of RR-P3HT melts in a template. The crystallinity and chain orientation of RR-P3HT were studied by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized photoluminescence spectroscopy. Results suggest that RR-P3HT chains in the lamellar structure prefer to be perpendicular to the axis of the RR-P3HT nanotubes, forming a face-on conformation in the RR-P3HT nanotubes that leads to increased carrier mobility of RR-P3HT. Field-effect transistors were fabricated based on a single RR-P3HT nanotube and showed a carrier mobility of 0.14 ± 0.02 cm(2)/V·s.
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The role of chemoattractant receptors in shaping the tumor microenvironment.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Chemoattractant receptors are a family of seven transmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) initially found to mediate the chemotaxis and activation of immune cells. During the past decades, the functions of these GPCRs have been discovered to not only regulate leukocyte trafficking and promote immune responses, but also play important roles in homeostasis, development, angiogenesis, and tumor progression. Accumulating evidence indicates that chemoattractant GPCRs and their ligands promote the progression of malignant tumors based on their capacity to orchestrate the infiltration of the tumor microenvironment by immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesenchymal cells. This facilitates the interaction of tumor cells with host cells, tumor cells with tumor cells, and host cells with host cells to provide a basis for the expansion of established tumors and development of distant metastasis. In addition, many malignant tumors of the nonhematopoietic origin express multiple chemoattractant GPCRs that increase the invasiveness and metastasis of tumor cells. Therefore, GPCRs and their ligands constitute targets for the development of novel antitumor therapeutics.
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Transarterial embolization with or without chemotherapy for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and transarterial embolization (TAE) are commonly used as first-line treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and have been shown to improve overall survival (OS). However, there remain concerns regarding whether the benefit of the prolonged survival achieved with TACE is superior to the maximum cytotoxic effect of the associated chemotherapeutics. This systematic review aims to compare the efficiency of TACE and TAE based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, the Science Citation Index, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched through the end of April 2014. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Meta-analysis of the RCTs was conducted to estimate the mortality and survival rate between the TACE and TAE groups. The analysis included five RCTs involving 582 patients. For all-cause mortality, TACE did not result in a statistically significant reduced incidence of adverse events than TAE with a pooled RR of 1.21 (95 % CI?=?0.74-1.98, P?=?0.16). In addition, 6-, 9-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month OS of the TACE group were not significantly higher than that of the TAE group (all P?>?0.05). Interestingly, TACE resulted in a significantly higher rate of advanced events. The efficacy of TACE is not superior to TAE in advanced HCC patients. Moreover, TACE was associated with an increased rate of adverse events than TAE. Improved strategies are needed to reduce the risk of post-TACE complications.
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Hypermethylation of the CpG-island near the C9orf72 G4C2-repeat expansion in FTLD patients.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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The G4C2-repeat expansion in C9orf72 is a common cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). C9orf72 transcription is reduced in expansion carriers implicating haploinsufficiency as one of the disease mechanisms. Indeed, our recent ALS study revealed that the expansion was associated with hypermethylation of the CpG-island (5'of the repeat) in DNA samples obtained from different tissues (blood, brain and spinal cord). However, the link between FTLD and methylation of the CpG-island is unknown. Hence, we investigated the methylation profile of the same CpG-island by bisulfite sequencing of DNA obtained from blood of 34 FTLD expansion carriers, 166 FTLD non-carriers and 103 controls. Methylation level was significantly higher in FTLD expansion carriers than non-carriers (P = 7.8E-13). Our results were confirmed by two methods (HhaI-assay and sequencing of cloned bisulfite PCR products). Hypermethylation occurred only in carriers of an allele with >50 repeats, and was not detected in non-carriers or individuals with an intermediate allele (22-43 repeats). As expected, the position/number of methylated CpGs was concordant between the sense and anti-sense DNA strand, suggesting that it is a stable epigenetic modification. Analysis of the combined ALS and FTLD datasets (82 expansion carriers) revealed that the degree of methylation of the entire CpG-island or contribution of specific CpGs (n = 26) is similar in both syndromes, with a trend towards a higher proportion of ALS patients with a high methylation level (P = 0.09). In conclusion, we demonstrated that hypermethylation of the CpG-island 5'of the G4C2-repeat is expansion-specific, but not syndrome-specific (ALS versus FTLD).
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Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex response to intermedin microinjection into paraventricular nucleus is mediated by nitric oxide and ?-amino butyric acid in hypertensive rats.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and involves in the regulation of cardiovascular function in both peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus is an important site in the control of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which participates in sympathetic over-excitation of hypertension. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IMD in the PVN is involved in the inhibition of CSAR and its related mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham-operation (Sham). Acute experiments were carried out four weeks later under anesthesia. The CSAR was evaluated with the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to the epicardial application of capsaicin. The RSNA and MAP were recorded in sinoaortic-denervated, cervical-vagotomized and anesthetized rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD (25?pmol) caused greater decrease in the CSAR in 2K1C rats than in Sham rats, which was prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin (AM) receptor antagonist AM22-52, non-selective nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME or ?-amino butyric acid (GABA)B receptor blocker CGP-35348. PVN pretreatment with CGRP receptor antagonist CGRP8-37 or GABA(A) receptor blocker gabazine had no significant effect on the CSAR response to IMD. AM22-52, L-NAME and CGP-35348 in the PVN could increase CSAR in Sham and 2K1C rats. These data indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits CSAR via AM receptor, and both NO and GABA in the PVN involve in the effect of IMD on CSAR in Sham and renovascular hypertensive rats.
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Controlled Assembly of Silver Nanoparticles Monolayer on 3D Polymer Nanotubes and their Applications.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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A novel 3-Dimensional polymer nanotube structure decorated with silver metal nanoparticle monolayer is prepared by polymer melts wetting technique. This unique structure shows enhanced SERS performance with high sensitivity and reproducibility.
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[Surgical treatment for adjacent spinal segment degeneration after anterior cervical fusion].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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To explore the surgical method and its effects of adjacent spinal segment degeneration after anterior cervical fusion.
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Endoscopic management of early-stage chronic pancreatitis based on M-ANNHEIM classification system: a prospective study.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the M-ANNHEIM classification system to categorize patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP).
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Transneuronal tracing of central autonomic regions involved in cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in rats.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Stimulation of cardiac afferents (CA) increased sympathetic outflow and blood pressure. The goal of the current study is to determine the central autonomic nuclei involved in the regulation of cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) which has been proved in previously functional studies. Neuroanatomical method and pseudorabies virus (PRV) transynaptic retrograde trace technique will be performed to investigate the relationship between kidney and heart and the temporal order of the most PRV-labeled neurons in the central nervous system. Recombinant PRV expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) was injected into the left kidney of rats as a specific trans-synaptic retrograde tracer in neurons. After 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9 days, brain, spinal cord and heart were collected for immunofluorescence staining. The temporal order of PRV labeled neurons was found in the ipsilateral intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of T8-T12 spinal segments on day 3; bilateral rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) on day 4; and left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum of the heart on day 9. In rats with renal denervation, no PRV-infected neurons or cardiomyocytes were found after PRV injection. In conclusion, PRV trans-synaptic retrograde trace confirms that CA, NTS, PVN, RVLM, IML and renal nerves do exist to be involved in the regulation of CSAR and there is a close relationship between heart and kidney. CA is mainly located in the left ventricular wall, right ventricular wall and ventricular septum.
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Dynamic trapping and two-dimensional transport of swimming microorganisms using a rotating magnetic microrobot.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Manipulation of microorganisms with intrinsic motility is a challenging yet important task for many biological and biomedical applications. Currently, such a task has only been accomplished using optical tweezers, while at the risk of averse heating and photodamage of the biological samples. Here, we proposed a new micro-robotic approach for fluidic trapping and two-dimensional transportation of motile microorganisms near a solid surface in fluids. We demonstrated selective trapping and transportation of individual freely swimming multi-flagellated bacteria over a distance of 30 ?m (7.5 body length of the carrier) on a surface, using the rotational flows locally induced by a rotating magnetic microparticle. Only a weak uniform magnetic field (<3 mT) was applied to actuate the microparticle. The microparticle can translate on a glass substrate by rotating at a speed of up to 100 ?m s(-1), while providing a fluidic force of a few to tens of pico-Newtons.
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Is there a role of surgery in patients with recurrent or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours responding to imatinib: a prospective randomised trial in China.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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For advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) patients who are responding to imatinib mesylate, the role of surgery has not been formally demonstrated. This multicenter randomised controlled trial was designed to assess whether surgery to treat residual disease for patients with recurrent/metastatic GISTs responding to imatinib mesylate (IM) improved progression free survival (PFS) compared with IM treatment alone.
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C-type natriuretic peptide inhibiting vascular calcification might involve decreasing bone morphogenic protein 2 and osteopontin levels.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Vascular calcification (VC) is highly associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Paracrine/autocrine factors such as vasoactive peptides are involved in VC development. Here, we investigated the expression of the novel peptide C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in the vasculature, tested its ability to prevent VC in vivo and in vitro, and examined the mechanism involved. Rat aortic VC was induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN). CNP (500 ng/kg/h) was administered by mini-osmotic pump. Calcification was examined by von Kossa staining; CNP and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) contents were detected by radioimmunoassay, and mRNA and protein levels were examined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in aortas and calcified vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VDN-treated rat aortas showed higher CNP content and decreased expression of its receptor natriuretic peptide receptor B, along with increased vascular calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Low CNP levels were accompanied by increased vascular calcium deposition and ALP activity in VDN-treated rats when compared to vehicle treatment, which was further confirmed in cultured VSMCs. Administration of CNP greatly reduced VC in VDN-treated aortas compared with controls, which was confirmed in calcified VSMCs. The decrease in alpha-actin expression was ameliorated by CNP in vitro. Moreover, protein expression levels of osteopontin (OPN) were significantly up-regulated in calcified aortas, and CNP increased OPN expression in calcified aortas. Furthermore, CNP downregulated OPN and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) expression in calcified aortas and VSMCs. Modulation of OPN and BMP-2 expression by CNP and the beneficial effects of CNP on calcified VSMCs were blocked significantly by protein kinase G inhibitor H7. Impaired local endogenous CNP and its receptor system may be associated with increased mineralization in vivo in rat aortas with VC, and administration of CNP inhibits VC development in vivo and in vitro, at least in part, via a cGMP/PKG pathway.
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? C1772T polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis including 18,334 subjects.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Studies on HIF 1? C1772T (P582S) polymorphism revealed a genetic susceptibility to malignant tumors, however, the results were conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis utilizing 29 eligible case-control studies to analyze the data concerning the association between the HIF-1? C1772T polymorphism and cancer risks. There was statistical association between the HIF-1? CT/TT genotype and cancer risk (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.06-1.54, P(heterogeneity) < .00001). The stability of these observations was confirmed by a one-way sensitivity analysis. Our findings suggested that CT/TT genotype was associated with increased risks of prostate cancer. Besides, the HIF-1? C1772T polymorphism most likely contributes to susceptibility to malignant tumors, especially in American population.
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[Rosiglitazone inhibits human HepG2 cell proliferation via PI3K/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To investigate the effects of rosiglitazone (ROZ) on proliferation and cell cycle of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and explore the underlying mechanisms by detecting the related proteins.
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Energy-band engineering for tunable memory characteristics through controlled doping of reduced graphene oxide.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Tunable memory characteristics are used in multioperational mode circuits where memory cells with various functionalities are needed in one combined device. It is always a challenge to obtain control over threshold voltage for multimode operation. On this regard, we use a strategy of shifting the work function of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in a controlled manner through doping gold chloride (AuCl3) and obtained a gradient increase of rGO work function. By inserting doped rGO as floating gate, a controlled threshold voltage (Vth) shift has been achieved in both p- and n-type low voltage flexible memory devices with large memory window (up to 4 times for p-type and 8 times for n-type memory devices) in comparison with pristine rGO floating gate memory devices. By proper energy band engineering, we demonstrated a flexible floating gate memory device with larger memory window and controlled threshold voltage shifts.
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Hepatic effect of NAC on sevear acute pancteatise of rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To analyze the hepatic protection of n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).
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Influencing factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents in patients with stroke history following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To analyse risk factors for early acute cerebrovascular accidents following off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) in patients with stroke history, and to propose preventive measures to reduce the incidence of these events.
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Remote ischemic postconditioning protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To investigate the protective effects of remote ischemic postconditioning (RIP) against limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced gastric mucosal injury.
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Estimating the effective Reynolds number in implicit large-eddy simulation.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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In implicit large-eddy simulation (ILES), energy-containing large scales are resolved, and physics capturing numerics are used to spatially filter out unresolved scales and to implicitly model subgrid scale effects. From an applied perspective, it is highly desirable to estimate a characteristic Reynolds number (Re)-and therefore a relevant effective viscosity-so that the impact of resolution on predicted flow quantities and their macroscopic convergence can usefully be characterized. We argue in favor of obtaining robust Re estimates away from the smallest scales of the simulated flow-where numerically controlled dissipation takes place and propose a theoretical basis and framework to determine such measures. ILES examples include forced turbulence as a steady flow case, the Taylor-Green vortex to address transition and decaying turbulence, and simulations of a laser-driven reshock experiment illustrating a fairly complex turbulence problem of current practical interest.
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Concurrent three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and chemotherapy for postoperative recurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a phase 2 single-institution study.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy plus concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence of mediastinal lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer patients.
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Biomechanical evaluation with finite element analysis of the reconstruction of femoral tumor defects by using a double-barrel free vascularized fibular graft combined with a locking plate.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The repair of large distal femoral tumor defects can be challenging for orthopedic surgeons. The combination of a double-barrel free vascularized fibular graft (DFVFG) with a locking plate is a viable option. However, the biomechanical influence of the fibular bone length on the locking plate attachment is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the stability of the distal femoral defect after reconstruction with fibular grafts of different lengths. A three-dimensional model of a healthy volunteer was developed using computed tomography images. A locking plate and bicortical screws were constructed and registered with CAD. Four models were defined (6 cm, 8 cm, 10 cm, and 12 cm bone grafts). The models were imported into finite element analysis software. Boundary-constrained and load conditions were applied. The model stress distribution and displacement were statistically analyzed. The Von Mises stress distributions were similar between the 6 cm, 8 cm, and 10 cm bone grafts and locking plate within each of those bone defect models (P > 0.05), while the Von Mises stress distribution was significantly higher in the 12 cm model than the other 3 lengths for both the bone graft and locking plate (P < 0.05). Significantly greater Von Mises stress was observed at the 12 cm bone graft and locking plate than with the shorter bone grafts. Therefore, we recommend that, to avoid complications, the bone graft should not exceed 12 cm when using FVFG in combination with a locking plate while treating a distal femoral tumor defect.
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Intermedin in the paraventricular nucleus attenuates cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex in chronic heart failure rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family together with adrenomedullin (AM) and amylin. It has a wide distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) especially in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) is enhanced in chronic heart failure (CHF) rats. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of IMD in the PVN on CSAR and its related mechanisms in CHF rats.
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Intermedin in Paraventricular Nucleus Attenuates Sympathetic Activity and Blood Pressure via Nitric Oxide in Hypertensive Rats.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Intermedin (IMD) is a member of calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide family, which shares the receptor system consisting of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). This study investigated the effects of IMD in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure and its downstream mechanism in hypertension. Rats were subjected to 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) surgery to induce renovascular hypertension or sham operation. Acute experiments were performed 4 weeks later under anesthesia. IMD mRNA and protein were downregulated in 2K1C rats. Bilateral PVN microinjection of IMD caused greater decreases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats than in sham-operated rats, which were prevented by pretreatment with adrenomedullin receptor antagonist AM22-52 or nonselective nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and attenuated by selective neuronal NO synthase inhibitor N(?)-propyl-l-arginine hydrochloride or endothelial NO synthase inhibitor N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-l-ornithine dihydrochloride. AM22-52 increased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2K1C rats but not in sham-operated rats, whereas calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide 8-37 had no significant effect. CRLR and RAMP3 mRNA, as well as CRLR, RAMP2, and RAMP3 protein expressions, in the PVN were increased in 2K1C rats. Microinjection of IMD into the PVN increased the NO metabolites (NOx) level in the PVN in 2K1C rats, which was prevented by AM22-52. Chronic PVN infusion of IMD reduced, but AM22-52 increased, blood pressure in conscious 2K1C rats. These results indicate that IMD in the PVN inhibits sympathetic activity and attenuates hypertension in 2K1C rats, which are mediated by adrenomedullin receptors (CRLR/RAMP2 or CRLR/RAMP3) and its downstream NO.
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Childhood Obesity Prevention Interventions in Childcare Settings: Systematic Review of Randomized and Nonrandomized Controlled Trials.
Am J Health Promot
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Abstract Objective . Childcare settings are an opportune location for early intervention programs seeking to prevent childhood obesity. This article reports on a systematic review of controlled trials of obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings. Data Source . The review was limited to English language articles published in PubMed, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) between January 2000 and April 2012. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria . Inclusion criteria: childhood obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings using controlled designs that reported adiposity and behavior outcomes. Exclusion criteria: no interventions, non-childcare settings, clinical weight loss programs, non-English publications. Data Extraction . Publications were identified by key word search. Two authors reviewed eligible studies to extract study information and study results. Data Synthesis . Qualitative synthesis was conducted, including tabulation of information and a narrative summary. Results . Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria. Seven studies reported improvements in adiposity. Six of the 13 interventions with dietary components reported improved intake or eating behaviors. Eight of the 12 interventions with physical activity components reported improved activity levels or physical fitness. Conclusion . Evidence was mixed for all outcomes. Results should be interpreted cautiously given the high variability in study designs and interventions. Further research needs long-term follow-up, multistrategy interventions that include changes in the nutrition and physical activity environment, reporting of cost data, and consideration of sustainability.
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Prognostic role of microRNA-100 in various carcinomas: evidence from six studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA) exhibit altered expression levels in cancers, and they may be considered as valuable prognostic biomarkers for patients with cancers. We performed this meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the role of miRNA-100 expression on the overall survival rate by calculating the pooled hazard ratio (HR) for overall survival (OS), which compared the high and low expression levels of miR-100 in patients of the available studies. Finally, a total of six studies dealing with various carcinomas were involved for this meta-analysis. The results indicated that lower expression of miR-100 in cancerous tissue could significantly predict poorer survival in various carcinomas with the pooled HR of 2.19 (95 % CI 1.49-3.24, P?=?0.0007). In conclusion, the findings from this present meta-analysis suggest that miR-100 expression is associated with OS in cancer patients and could be a useful clinical prognostic factor for those patients.
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A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the proximal promoter region of the apolipoprotein M gene is associated with dyslipidaemia but not increased coronary artery diseases in Chinese populations.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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Backgrounds: It has been reported that rs940494 and rs805296 SNPs of apolipoprotein M (apoM) gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Han Chinese. However, a recent study demonstrated that rs805297 polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced total high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients. But the relationship between rs805297 SNP and CAD has not been explored. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether the rs805297 mutant allele is implicated in CAD and links to changes in blood lipid levels in these patients.
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[The research on the identification of some polygonatum crude drugs by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The common peak ratio and variant peak ratio were calculated by FTIR spectroscopy of six medicinal plants of polygonatum. The index sequence of common peak ratio and variant peak ratio of six medicinal plants was established and the FTIR spectroscopy was analyzed by cluster analysis, which indicated the sibship of the six medicinal plants, polygonati rhizoma, polygonati odorati rhizoma and their adulterant such as Polygonatum filipes Merr., Polygonatum macropodium Turcz. and Polygonatum humile Fisch Ex Maxim. could be identified by comparing second derivative spectrum of the samples. FTIR with good characteristics such as simple and rapid procedures, nondestructive testing, small amount of sample required, good reproducibility and specificity of fingerprint, provides a new method for identification of polygonati rhizoma, polygonati odorati rhizoma and their adulterant.
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Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus) skins.
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Intermedin1-53 attenuates vascular smooth muscle cell calcification by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress via cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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We previously reported that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis participated in vascular calcification. Importantly, a novel paracrine/autocrine peptide intermedin1-53 (IMD1-53) in the vasculature inhibited vascular calcification in rats. But the mechanisms needed to be fully elucidated. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) calcification was induced by CaCl2 and ?-glycerophosphate. Tunicamycin (Tm) or dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to induce ER stress. We found that IMD1-53 (10(-7)mol/L) treatment significantly alleviated the protein expression of ER stress hallmarks activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), ATF6, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and GRP94 induced by Tm or DTT. ER stress occurred in early and late calcification of VSMCs but was inhibited by IMD1-53. These inhibitory effects of IMD1-53 were abolished by treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89. Pretreatment with IMD1-53 decreased the number of apoptotic VSMCs and downregulated protein expression of cleaved caspase 12 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in calcified VSMCs. Concurrently, IMD1-53 restored the loss of VSMC lineage markers and ameliorated calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity in calcified VSMCs as well. The observation was further verified by Alizarin Red S staining, which showed that IMD1-53 reduced positive red nodules among calcified VSMCs. In conclusion, IMD1-53 attenuated VSMC calcification by inhibiting ER stress through cAMP/PKA signalling.
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Integration-free methods for generating induced pluripotent stem cells.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from mouse or human fibroblasts by exogenous expression of four factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, and hold great potential for transplantation therapies and regenerative medicine. However, use of retroviral vectors during iPS cell generation has limited the techniques clinical application due to the potential risks resulting from genome integration of transgenes, including insertional mutations and altered differentiation potentials of the target cells, which may lead to pathologies such as tumorigenesis. Here we review recent progress in generating safer transgene-free or integration-free iPS cells, including the use of non-integrating vectors, excision of vectors after integration, DNA-free delivery of factors and chemical induction of pluripotency.
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Reliability and validity of the quality of life-Alzheimer disease Chinese version.
J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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To evaluate the psychometric properties of the quality of life-Alzheimer disease (QOL-AD) Chinese version in patients with dementia in mainland, China and to compare patient and caregiver reports of patient QOL.
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Combination of the FGFR4 inhibitor PD173074 and 5-fluorouracil reduces proliferation and promotes apoptosis in gastric cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Our previous findings revealed that FGFR4 may be a novel therapeutic target for gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a combination of PD173074 (PD) and 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cell lines and the relevant mechanisms involved. MKN45, a gastric cancer cell line, was treated with each single agent alone or a combination of FGF19, PD and 5-Fu. Then, a series of functional assays were performed using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of signaling pathway and downstream-related molecules in the MKN45 cells following the different treatments. As the concentration of PD and 5-Fu increased, the cell viability gradually decreased; the viability of the combination group was less than the viability following single administration. Western blot analysis showed that FGFR4 expression was weak in the 5-Fu-treated groups when compared with the control. PD markedly increased the apoptosis rate of MKN45 cells when compared to the control; the apoptosis rate in the cells treated with the combination of PD and 5-Fu was higher than that in the cells following single treatment. Furthermore, PD reduced the expression of p-ERK and Bcl-xl and increased caspase-3 expression. Inhibition of the activity of FGFR4 may be the main mechanisms of PD effect while 5-Fu reduced FGFR4 expression. Furthermore, the effects of the combination of 5-Fu and PD in inhibiting proliferation, increasing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle were superior to these effects following the single agent treatments, suggesting that the two drugs applied in combination may contribute to the effective treatment of gastric cancer.
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Solution processed molecular floating gate for flexible flash memories.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Solution processed fullerene (C60) molecular floating gate layer has been employed in low voltage nonvolatile memory device on flexible substrates. We systematically studied the charge trapping mechanism of the fullerene floating gate for both p-type pentacene and n-type copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) semiconductor in a transistor based flash memory architecture. The devices based on pentacene as semiconductor exhibited both hole and electron trapping ability, whereas devices with F16CuPc trapped electrons alone due to abundant electron density. All the devices exhibited large memory window, long charge retention time, good endurance property and excellent flexibility. The obtained results have great potential for application in large area flexible electronic devices.
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Prognostic factors influencing event-free survival and treatments in desmoid-type fibromatosis: analysis from a large institution.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2013
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Prognostic factors and optimal management of desmoid tumors have been discussed for decades. The authors present the results of a large series of patients with desmoid tumors treated at a single institution to investigate the prognostic factors influencing event-free survival (EFS) and suitable treatments for these rare tumors.
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Artificial antigen synthesis and the development of polyclonal antibody-based immunoassay for citreoviridin determination.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Citreoviridin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium citreonigrum is a common contaminant of wide range of agri-products and detrimental to human and animal health. Therefore it is important to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay for citreoviridin detection. In this study, polyclonal antibody against citreoviridin was developed. For the preparation of citreoviridin-bovine serum albumin conjugate (CIT-BSA), hydroxyl groups on adjacent carbon atoms were oxidized by sodium periodate, so the product with reactive aldehyde residues was suitable for coupling with amine. Anti-citreoviridin polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing mice with CIT-BSA conjugate. The specificity and sensitivity of the polyclonal antibody was determined by indirect competitive ELISA. Results showed that the IC50 value of the polyclonal antibody was 0.56 ?g/mL and no cross-reactivity was found between antiserum and other mycotoxins used in the experiment. The citreoviridin recovery rates by this polyclonal antibody were calculated through rice powder spiked by artificial citreoviridin. The recovery rates ranged were found from 70.5 ± 0.08 % to 94.7 ± 0.09 % for inter-assay, and from 77.5 ± 0.04 % to 95.4 ± 0.18 % for intra-assay, which indicated that this polyclonal antibody could detect trace amount of CIT from the tested samples. Consequently, this study provided a specific and sensitive anti-citreoviridin polyclonal antibody, which made the determination of citreoviridin easier, quicker, and more accurate.
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A meta-analysis: neoadjuvant chemotherapy versus primary surgery in ovarian carcinoma FIGO stageIII and IV.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The purpose of the current study is to analyze the existing data comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with primary debulking surgery (PDS) in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma.
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Hepatic RIG-I Predicts Survival and Interferon-? Therapeutic Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), biomarkers for prediction of prognosis and response to immunotherapy such as interferon-? (IFN-?) would be very useful in the clinic. We found that expression of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I), an IFN-stimulated gene, was significantly downregulated in human HCC tissues. Patients with low RIG-I expression had shorter survival and poorer response to IFN-? therapy, suggesting that RIG-I is a useful prognosis and IFN-? response predictor for HCC patients. Mechanistically, RIG-I enhances IFN-? response by amplifying IFN-? effector signaling via strengthening STAT1 activation. Furthermore, we found that RIG-I deficiency promotes HCC carcinogenesis and that hepatic RIG-I expression is lower in men than in women. RIG-I may therefore be a tumor suppressor in HCC and contribute to HCC gender disparity.
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A 3N rule for the electronic properties of doped graphene.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Doping a graphene sheet with different atoms is a promising method for tuning its electronic properties. We report a first-principle investigation on the electronic properties of N, B, S, Al, Si or P doped graphene. It is revealed that the doped graphene can show an interesting physical regularity, which can be described by a simple 3N rule: a doped graphene has a zero gap or a neglectable gap at the Dirac point when its primitive cell is 3N × 3N (N is an integer), otherwise there is a gap tunable by the dopant concentration. This unique 3N rule provides a useful guideline for the design of doped graphene for electronic applications.
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A low voltage programmable unipolar inverter with a gold nanoparticle monolayer on plastic.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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A programmable low voltage unipolar inverter with saturated-load configuration has been demonstrated on a plastic substrate. A self-assembled monolayer of gold (Au) nanoparticles was inserted into the dielectric layer acting as a charge trapping layer. The inverter operated well with supply voltages of < - 5 V and the switching voltage was tuned in a wide range under low program/erase bias. The retention and endurance test at ambient conditions confirmed the reliability of the inverter. Furthermore, the programmable behavior was maintained well at various bending states, demonstrating the adequate flexibility of our devices.
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Nonvolatile multilevel data storage memory device from controlled ambipolar charge trapping mechanism.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The capability of storing multi-bit information is one of the most important challenges in memory technologies. An ambipolar polymer which intrinsically has the ability to transport electrons and holes as a semiconducting layer provides an opportunity for the charge trapping layer to trap both electrons and holes efficiently. Here, we achieved large memory window and distinct multilevel data storage by utilizing the phenomena of ambipolar charge trapping mechanism. As fabricated flexible memory devices display five well-defined data levels with good endurance and retention properties showing potential application in printed electronics.
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Reflectance speckle of retinal nerve fiber layer reveals axonal activity.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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This study investigated the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) reflectance speckle and tested the hypothesis that temporal change of RNFL speckle reveals axonal dynamic activity.
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Towards the development of flexible non-volatile memories.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Flexible non-volatile memories have attracted tremendous attentions for data storage for future electronics application. From device perspective, the advantages of flexible memory devices include thin, lightweight, printable, foldable and stretchable. The flash memories, resistive random access memories (RRAM) and ferroelectric random access memory/ferroelectric field-effect transistor memories (FeRAM/FeFET) are considered as promising candidates for next generation non-volatile memory device. Here, we review the general background knowledge on device structure, working principle, materials, challenges and recent progress with the emphasis on the flexibility of above three categories of non-volatile memories.
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Intermedin enhances sympathetic outflow via receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in nucleus tractus solitarii of rats.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Direct administration of intermedin (IMD) into the brain elicits cardiovascular effects different from the systemic administration. Nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is an important region for the cardiovascular regulation. The present study was designed to determine the effect of IMD on modulating the sympathetic outflow and its related molecular mechanism in the NTS. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded in anesthetized rats. Site-specific microinjection of IMD (20pmol) bilaterally into the NTS significantly increased RSNA and MAP. IMD-evoked increases of RSNA and MAP were almost abolished by pretreatment with receptor antagonist ADM22-52, an adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitor SQ22536, or a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMP. However, pretreatment with another receptor antagonist calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)8-37 did not suppress the increases of RSNA and MAP induced by IMD. Furthermore, IMD increased the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level, which was inhibited by ADM22-52 pretreatment in the NTS. These results suggest that IMD participates in the sympathetic nerve activity and central regulation of the cardiovascular system and a receptor-mediated cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is involved in IMD-induced effects in the NTS.
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Angiotensin-(1-7) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla modulates enhanced cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertensive rats.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Enhancement of the cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex (CSAR) contributes to sympathetic excitation in hypertension. The aim of the present study was to determine whether angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) modulated the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation, and the signaling pathways that mediated these effects in the 2-kidney, 1-clip renovascular hypertension model. Cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex was evaluated using renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure responses to epicardial capsaicin application in anesthetized sinoaortic-denervated and cervical-vagotomized rats. RVLM microinjection of Ang-(1-7) induced greater increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure, and greater enhancement in CSAR in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats than in sham-operated rats, which was blocked by Mas receptor antagonist A-779, adenylyl cyclase inhibitors SQ22536 and MDL-12,330A, and protein kinase A inhibitors rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothionate and H-89. Mas receptor expression in RVLM was increased in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats. Treatment with A-779, SQ22536, MDL-12,330A, rp-adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphorothionate, or H-89 in RVLM inhibited CSAR and decreased renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure in 2-kidney, 1-clip rats, whereas cAMP analogue dibutyryl-cAMP had the opposite effects. Ang-(1-7) in RVLM increased, whereas A-779 decreased the cAMP level and the epicardial capsaicin application-induced increases in the cAMP level in RVLM. These results indicate that Ang-(1-7) in the RVLM enhances the CSAR and increases the sympathetic outflow and blood pressure via Mas receptor activation. The increased endogenous Ang-(1-7) and Mas receptor activity in RVLM contributes to the enhanced CSAR and sympathetic activation in renovascular hypertension, and the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway is involved in these Ang-(1-7)-mediated effects in the RVLM.
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Salusin-? in paraventricular nucleus increases blood pressure and sympathetic outflow via vasopressin in hypertensive rats.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Salusin-? is a bioactive peptide with peripheral hypotensive, mitogenic and pro-atherosclerotic effects. The present study was designed to determine the roles of salusin-? in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and its relationship with arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hypertension and sympathetic activation.
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The strain and thermal induced tunable charging phenomenon in low power flexible memory arrays with a gold nanoparticle monolayer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The strain and temperature dependent memory effect of organic memory transistors on plastic substrates has been investigated under ambient conditions. The gold (Au) nanoparticle monolayer was prepared and embedded in an atomic layer deposited aluminum oxide (Al(2)O(3)) as the charge trapping layer. The devices exhibited low operation voltage, reliable memory characteristics and long data retention time. Experimental analysis of the programming and erasing behavior at various bending states showed the relationship between strain and charging capacity. Thermal-induced effects on these memory devices have also been analyzed. The mobility shows ~200% rise and the memory window increases from 1.48 V to 1.8 V when the temperature rises from 20 °C to 80 °C due to thermally activated transport. The retention capability of the devices decreases with the increased working temperature. Our findings provide a better understanding of flexible organic memory transistors under various operating temperatures and validate their applications in various areas such as temperature sensors, temperature memory or advanced electronic circuits. Furthermore, the low temperature processing procedures of the key elements (Au nanoparticle monolayer and Al(2)O(3) dielectric layer) could be potentially integrated with large area flexible electronics.
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Extraction, purification and characterisation of chondroitin sulfate in Chinese sturgeon cartilage.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), a rare species, is an important fishery resource in China. To save this species from overfishing, damming and pollution, artificial propagation has been developed rapidly in recent years. However, the cartilage from Chinese sturgeon, which contains an abundance of chondroitin sulfate (CS), is currently discarded as solid waste after consumption of the fish. The aim of this study was to investigate the extraction, purification and characterisation of CS from Chinese sturgeon cartilage.
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Multi-state Markov model in outcome of mild cognitive impairments among community elderly residents in Mainland China.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Although knowledge of established risk factors for Alzheimers disease (AD) can logically contribute to the search for predictors of the progression of cognitive impairment, it has not yet been firmly established where in the cognitive impairment process these risk factors exert their effects and how to predict quantitatively for the progression of mild cognitive impairments (MCI) to AD. This study aimed to determine whether known risk factors increased the risk of progression from MCI to AD and to make prediction based on transition probabilities.
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Melanocortin 4 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus modulate the adipose afferent reflex in rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus is an important central component in modulating adipose afferent reflex (AAR). Melanocortin receptors (MC3/4Rs) expressions are found in the hypothalamic PVN. This study was designed to determine the roles of MC3/4Rs in the PVN in modulating the AAR and its downstream signaling pathway in normal rats.
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Low systemic testosterone levels induce androgen maintenance in benign rat prostate tissue.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Prostate cancer (PC) is both an age- and an androgen-dependent disease. Paradoxically, systemic levels of androgens decline with age as the risk of PC rises. While there is no correlation between systemic androgen levels and the risk of PC, systemic androgen levels do not reflect the levels of androgens in prostate tissue. In metastatic PC, changes in the androgen biosynthesis pathway during hormone therapy result in increased levels of androgens in cancer tissue and contribute to continued androgen receptor (AR) signaling. It is possible that similar changes occur in normal prostate tissue as androgen levels decline with age and that this contributes to tumorigenesis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the rat prostate is able to maintain functional levels of androgens despite low serum testosterone levels. Rats were castrated and implanted with capsules to achieve castrate, normal, sub-physiological, and supra-physiological levels of testosterone. After 6 weeks of treatment, LC-MS/MS was used to quantify the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and prostate tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to quantify the expression of genes involved in the androgen/AR signaling axis. Despite significantly different levels of testosterone and DHT being present in the serum, testosterone and DHT concentrations in prostate tissue from different testosterone-treatment groups were very similar. Furthermore, the expression of androgen-regulated genes in the prostate was similar among all the testosterone-treatment groups, demonstrating that the rat prostate can maintain a functional level of androgens despite low serum testosterone levels. Low-testosterone treatment resulted in significant alterations in the expression of androgen biosynthesis genes, which may be related to maintaining functional androgen levels.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligands retard cultured vascular smooth muscle cells calcification induced by high glucose.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and its ligands have profound effects on glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular diseases, and bone metabolism. To explore the pathophysiological roles of PPAR? in diabetes with concomitant vascular calcification, we investigated changes in PPAR? expression and the effect of the PPAR? ligands troglitazone and rosiglitazone on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification induced by high glucose (HG, 25 mmol/L). Compared with low glucose, HG-induced VSMC calcification, and PPAR? mRNA, protein level was decreased. Troglitazone and rosiglitazone treatment markedly attenuated the VSMC calcification, whereas PPAR? antagonist GW9662 abolished the effect of rosiglitazone on calcification. Pretreatment of VSMCs with rosiglitazone, but not troglitazone, restored the loss of lineage marker expression: the protein levels of ?-actin and SM-22? were increased 52 % (P < 0.05) and 53.1% (P < 0.01), respectively, as compared with HG alone. Troglitazone and rosiglitazone reversed the change in bone-related protein expression induced by HG: decreased the mRNA levels of osteocalcin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and core binding factor ? 1 (Cbf?-1) by 26.9% (P > 0.05), 50.0 % (P < 0.01), and 24.4% (P < 0.05), and 48.4% (P < 0.05), 41.4% (P < 0.01) and 56.2% (P < 0.05), respectively, and increased that of matrix Gla protein (MGP) 84.2% (P < 0.01) and 70.0%, respectively (P < 0.05), as compared with HG alone. GW9662 abolished the effect of rosiglitazone on Cbf?-1 and MGP expression. PPAR? ligands can inhibit VSMCs calcification induced by high glucose.
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Identification of HBsAg-specific antibodies from a mammalian cell displayed full-length human antibody library of healthy immunized donor.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) is important in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Aiming to develop recombinant monoclonal antibodies as an alternative to HBIG, we report the successful identification of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific antibodies from a full-length human antibody library displayed on mammalian cell surface. Using total RNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a natively immunized donor as template, the antibody repertoire was amplified. Combining four-way ligation and the Flp recombinase-mediated integration (Flp-In) system, we constructed a mammalian cell-based, fully human, full-length antibody display library in which each cell displayed only one kind of antibody molecule. By screening the cell library using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), eight cell clones that displayed HBsAg-specific antibodies on cell surfaces were identified. DNA sequence analysis of the antibody genes revealed three unique antibodies. FACS data indicated that fluorescent strength of expression (FSE), fluorescent strength of binding (FSB) and relative binding ability (RBA) were all different among them. These results demonstrated that by using our antibody mammalian display and screening platform, we can successfully identify antigen-specific antibodies from an immunized full-length antibody library. Therefore, this platform is very useful for the development of therapeutic antibodies.
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Functional variant in methionine synthase reductase intron-1 significantly increases the risk of congenital heart disease in the Han Chinese population.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
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Homocysteine is known to be an independent risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD). Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is essential for the adequate remethylation of homocysteine, which is the dominant pathway for homocysteine removal during early embryonic development.
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Use of the metabolomics approach to characterize Chinese medicinal material Huangqi.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Integration of the genetic and metabolic fingerprinting can provide a new approach to differentiate similar Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) materials. Two leguminous plants, Mojia Huangqi and Menggu Huangqi, are important medical herbs and share great similarities in morphology, chemical constituent, and genomic DNA sequence. The taxonomy of Mojia Huangqi and Menggu Huangqi has been debated for more than 50?years and discrimination of TCM materials directly affects the pharmacological and clinical effects. AFLP based genetic fingerprinting and GC-TOF/MS-based metabolic fingerprinting were used to successfully discriminate the two species. The results of AFLP supported the opinion that Menggu Huangqi was a variant of Mojia Huangqi. The metabolic fingerprinting showed growth locations have greater impacts on the metabolite composition and quantity than the genotypes (cultivated versus wild) in Menggu Huangqi. The difference of some soluble sugars, fatty acids, proline, and polyamine reflected plant adaptation to different growth environments. Using multivariate and univariate statistical analysis, three AFLP markers and eight metabolites were identified as candidate DNA and metabolic markers to distinguish the two herb materials. The correlation network between AFLP markers and metabolites revealed a complex correlation network, which indicated the special metabolic pathways and the regulation networks of Huangqi.
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[Current situation of negative-pressure wound therapy].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used to help wound healing since early 1970s, and it has been used increasingly for treating a wide variety of wounds since the early 1990s and started to popularize in China near the mid 1990s. This technique is different from conventional dressing change, as it controls local humidity, alleviates edema, and improves local circulation all by negative pressure. The method generally involves the application of a dressing on the wound surface, connecting the dressing to a vacuum pump through a tube, and then sealing the wound with adhesive films. Most of the clinicians in China believe that NPWT is helpful in accelerating wound healing, though as yet there is no strong evidence to support it. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more research to further clarify the mechanism and therapeutic effect of NPWT.
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[Application of vacuum sealing drainage in treating large avulsion injuries of limbs].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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To investigate the therapeutic effectes of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) technique and reattachment of avulsed skin in treating avulsion injuries of limbs.
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Highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids status of Canadian Inuit: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008.
Int J Circumpolar Health
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Previous studies suggest that dietary patterns and the extent of reliance upon traditional food vary among Inuit communities. Inuit traditional foods are an important source of nutrients such as highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFA n-3), whose beneficial effects include protection against ischemic heart disease. Dietary transition is occurring with younger generations consuming less traditional foods and more market foods with low nutrient density. Utilizing erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition as an indicator of body HUFA n-3 status, which reflects dietary intake levels of traditional Inuit foods, we explored the regional and age variability of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (HUFA n-3) in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey.
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MicroRNA-148a suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating ROCK1 in gastric cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been documented playing a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study, we investigate the role of miR-148a in gastric cancer metastasis.
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[Construction of rheumatoid arthritis-specific full-length fully human mammalian display antibody libraries].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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To construct a rheumatoid arthritis-specific full-length fully human mammalian display antibody libraries.
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[Basic pathogenesis of asthenia of healthy energy and blood stasis in liver cirrhosis studied by serum proteomics].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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To study the basic pathogenesis of "asthenia of healthy energy and blood stasis" in liver cirrhosis studied by Chinese syndromes and serum proteomics.
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Is iron status associated with highly unsaturated fatty acid status among Canadian Arctic Inuit?
Food Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Impaired fatty acid synthesis was noted in iron deficient animal models. Human data, however, are scarce. Although Canadian Inuit have a traditional diet rich in heme iron and long chain n-3 fatty acids, recent literature has also indicated the presence of prevalent iron deficiency. We aimed to explore whether the presence of iron deficiency would affect fatty acid status and an estimate of the activity of desaturase 5 (?5), which is crucial in the biosynthesis of highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids among Canadian Inuit. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was utilized as an indicator of fatty acid status and serum ferritin and circulating hemoglobin level were measured as the indicators of iron status. Data analyzed were collected among 1511 Canadian Inuit adult participants in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008. Only 13.7% of survey participants had iron deficiency; however, serum ferritin showed a moderate positive association with highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids after adjusting for age, waist and C-reactive protein (r = 0.172, P < .0001). Serum ferritin correlated significantly with ?5 after further adjusting for highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acids (r = 0.126, P < .0001). Although the current study only demonstrated a weak link between ferritin and ?5, the latter association underscores a possible health risk caused by a nutrient interaction related to reduced iron intake and decreased highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis. Future studies are recommended to evaluate iron status in relation to highly unsaturated n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis and status among indigenous people undergoing rapid dietary transitions.
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Defining a high-risk subgroup of pathological T2N0 gastric cancer by prognostic risk stratification for adjuvant therapy.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Adjuvant therapy is not usually recommended in AJCC T2N0M0 gastric cancer, yet sometimes is indicated for high-risk patients. The purpose of this study is to stratify the risk of pathological T2N0 gastric cancer after gastrectomy based on clinicopathological factors so as to predict prognosis and guide treatment.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.