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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Coupled States in Dinitrofluorene: Relationships between Ground State and Excited State Mixed Valence.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The electronic absorption spectrum of 9,9-dimethyl-2,7-dinitrofluorene radical anion in HMPA displays both a NIR intervalence charge transfer and a visible excited state mixed valence transition. These transitions contain a similar vibronic progression resulting from molecular orbitals that are common to both transitions. Vibrational frequency and intensity data are acquired from the resonance Raman spectrum and used to calculate a best-fit for the absorption spectrum. The normal coordinate distortions are analyzed in terms of the electronic changes for both transitions to explain their similarity. The Raman scattering intensity decreases at lower excitation wavelength as a result of Raman deenhancement caused by interference between neighboring excited states.
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Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ?59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.
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dbSNO 2.0: a resource for exploring structural environment, functional and disease association and regulatory network of protein S-nitrosylation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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Given the increasing number of proteins reported to be regulated by S-nitrosylation (SNO), it is considered to act, in a manner analogous to phosphorylation, as a pleiotropic regulator that elicits dual effects to regulate diverse pathophysiological processes by altering protein function, stability, and conformation change in various cancers and human disorders. Due to its importance in regulating protein functions and cell signaling, dbSNO (http://dbSNO.mbc.nctu.edu.tw) is extended as a resource for exploring structural environment of SNO substrate sites and regulatory networks of S-nitrosylated proteins. An increasing interest in the structural environment of PTM substrate sites motivated us to map all manually curated SNO peptides (4165 SNO sites within 2277 proteins) to PDB protein entries by sequence identity, which provides the information of spatial amino acid composition, solvent-accessible surface area, spatially neighboring amino acids, and side chain orientation for 298 substrate cysteine residues. Additionally, the annotations of protein molecular functions, biological processes, functional domains and human diseases are integrated to explore the functional and disease associations for S-nitrosoproteome. In this update, users are allowed to search a group of interested proteins/genes and the system reconstructs the SNO regulatory network based on the information of metabolic pathways and protein-protein interactions. Most importantly, an endogenous yet pathophysiological S-nitrosoproteomic dataset from colorectal cancer patients was adopted to demonstrate that dbSNO could discover potential SNO proteins involving in the regulation of NO signaling for cancer pathways.
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Nocturnal bruxism in a patient with behçet disease and posttraumatic stress disorder successfully treated with gabapentin.
Clin Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Bruxism is an involuntary movement, including teeth grinding and clenching, which occur primarily during sleep. Although Behçet disease and posttraumatic stress disorder both have a high prevalence of sleep problems, bruxism is extremely rare in these 2 disorders. Here, we report a rare case of concurrent Behçet disease and posttraumatic stress disorder, which presented with antidepressant-refractory sleep disturbance accompanied by teeth grinding, clenching, and snoring that was successfully treated with gabapentin.
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Clinical significance of pathological complete response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors after imatinib mesylate treatment - lessons learned.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Imatinib mesylate (IM) has substantial efficacy in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and pathological complete response (pCR) following IM treatment has been sporadically reported; however, its clinical significance for GIST needs to be clarified.
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Genetic Analysis of a Novel Tubulin Mutation That Redirects Synaptic Vesicle Targeting and Causes Neurite Degeneration in C. elegans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Neuronal cargos are differentially targeted to either axons or dendrites, and this polarized cargo targeting critically depends on the interaction between microtubules and molecular motors. From a forward mutagenesis screen, we identified a gain-of-function mutation in the C. elegans ?-tubulin gene mec-12 that triggered synaptic vesicle mistargeting, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration in the touch receptor neurons. This missense mutation replaced an absolutely conserved glycine in the H12 helix with glutamic acid, resulting in increased negative charges at the C-terminus of ?-tubulin. Synaptic vesicle mistargeting in the mutant neurons was suppressed by reducing dynein function, suggesting that aberrantly high dynein activity mistargeted synaptic vesicles. We demonstrated that dynein showed preference towards binding mutant microtubules over wild-type in microtubule sedimentation assay. By contrast, neurite swelling and neurodegeneration were independent of dynein and could be ameliorated by genetic paralysis of the animal. This suggests that mutant microtubules render the neurons susceptible to recurrent mechanical stress induced by muscle activity, which is consistent with the observation that microtubule network was disorganized under electron microscopy. Our work provides insights into how microtubule-dynein interaction instructs synaptic vesicle targeting and the importance of microtubule in the maintenance of neuronal structures against constant mechanical stress.
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Cyclosporine-A Enhances Gingival ß-catenin Stability via Wnt Signaling.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Background: Cyclosporine-A (CsA) increases ß-catenin mRNA and protein expression. The present study demonstrates that Wingless-Int (Wnt)/ß-catenin signaling inhibits ß-catenin degradation in the gingiva. Methods: Forty 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two study groups after healing from right maxillary molars extractions. The rats in the experimental group were fed 30 mg/kg CsA daily, whereas the control rats were fed mineral oil for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and the gingivae were obtained. The gingival morphology after CsA treatment was evaluated by histology, and the genes related to Wnt/ß-catenin signaling were initially screened by microarray. PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the mRNA and protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), cyclin D1, E-cadherin, ß-catenin, disheveled (Dvl)-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), Axin-1, and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Phosphoserine and ubiquitinylated ß-catenin were detected after immunoprecipitation. Results: In rats treated with CsA, overgrowth of gingivae were observed and altered expression of genes related to Wnt/?-catenin signaling was detected by the microarray. The gingival mRNA and protein expression profiles for genes associated with Wnt/?-catenin signaling further confirmed the effect of CsA: ?-catenin and Dvl-1 expression increased, but APC and Axin1 expression decreased. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry showed decreases in ß-catenin serine phosphorylation (33/37) and ubiquitinylation in the gingivae of CsA-treated rats. Conclusion: CsA-enhanced gingival ?-catenin stability may be involved in gene up-regulation or ?-catenin degradation via the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway.
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Synthesis and molecular properties of tricyclic biselenophene-based derivatives with nitrogen, silicon, germanium, vinylidene, and ethylene bridges.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A new class of biselenophene-based materials including an sp(3)-silicon-bridged diselenosilole (DSS), an sp(3)-germanium-bridged diselenogermole (DSG), and an sp(3)-nitrogen-bridged diselenopyrrole (DSP) as well as an sp(2)-vinylidene-bridged dicyanodiselenofulvene (CDSF), a diacetylenediselenofulvene (ADSF), and a dioctylethylene-bridged benzodiselenophene (BDS) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The bridging moieties play an important role in determining the optical and electrochemical properties. The six brominated derivatives are ready to construct various biselenophene-based conjugated materials with tunable properties for organic photovoltaics and field effect transistors.
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The systemic immune response to trauma: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Improvements in the control of haemorrhage after trauma have resulted in the survival of many people who would otherwise have died from the initial loss of blood. However, the danger is not over once bleeding has been arrested and blood pressure restored. Two-thirds of patients who die following major trauma now do so as a result of causes other than exsanguination. Trauma evokes a systemic reaction that includes an acute, non-specific, immune response associated, paradoxically, with reduced resistance to infection. The result is damage to multiple organs caused by the initial cascade of inflammation aggravated by subsequent sepsis to which the body has become susceptible. This Series examines the biological mechanisms and clinical implications of the cascade of events caused by large-scale trauma that leads to multiorgan failure and death, despite the stemming of blood loss. Furthermore, the stark and robust epidemiological finding--namely, that age has a profound influence on the chances of surviving trauma irrespective of the nature and severity of the injury--will be explored. Advances in our understanding of the inflammatory response to trauma, the impact of ageing on this response, and how this information has led to new and emerging treatments aimed at combating immune dysregulation and reduced immunity after injury will also be discussed.
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Magnetic mesocrystal-assisted magnetoresistance in manganite.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Mesocrystal, a new class of crystals as compared to conventional and well-known single crystals and polycrystalline systems, has captured significant attention in the past decade. Recent studies have been focused on the advance of synthesis mechanisms as well as the potential on device applications. In order to create further opportunities upon functional mesocrystals, we fabricated a self-assembled nanocomposite composed of magnetic CoFe2O4 mesocrystal in Sr-doped manganites. This combination exhibits intriguing structural and magnetic tunabilities. Furthermore, the antiferromagnetic coupling of the mesocrystal and matrix has induced an additional magnetic perturbation to spin-polarized electrons, resulting in a significantly enhanced magnetoresistance in the nanocomposite. Our work demonstrates a new thought toward the enhancement of intrinsic functionalities assisted by mesocrystals and advanced design of novel mesocrystal-embedded nanocomposites.
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Compact Bis-Adduct Fullerenes and Additive-Assisted Morphological Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano or methylthienylmethano scaffolds as well as C60 or C70 core structures. Through the extrinsic additive treatment, these bis-adduct fullerene materials with compact architectures show promise for high-performance polymer solar cells.
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Fractioned dose regimen of sunitinib for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a pharmacokinetic and treatment efficacy study.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Sunitinib has shown benefit in patients with imatinib (IM)-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). However, its advantages are somewhat diminished because of associated toxicities. Herein, we clarify the efficacy and safety of fractioned dose regimen of sunitinib by a pharmacokinetic and efficacy study.
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The impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.
J Headache Pain
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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No study has simultaneously investigated the impacts of migraine and anxiety disorders on painful physical symptoms (PPS) among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The study aimed to investigate this issue.
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VEGF-D as a Marker in the Aid of Malignant Metastatic Pleural Effusion Diagnosis.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The sensitivity in cytology diagnosis of malignant metastatic pleural effusion (MMPE) is insufficient nowadays due to the similarity of the reactive mesothelial cells and malignant cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the key factors in tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the value of VEGF and its homologs in the aid of MMPE diagnosis.
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Imatinib escalation or sunitinib treatment after first-line imatinib in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor patients.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Imatinib mesylate (IM) is effective in metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients; however, disease progression eventually occurs due to IM resistance or intolerance. Treatment options include IM escalation or a direct shift to sunitinib, but comparison of these strategies is required.
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TD-19, an erlotinib derivative, induces epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type nonsmall-cell lung cancer apoptosis through CIP2A-mediated pathway.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Some patients with nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations still respond to gefitinib and erlotinib, suggesting that there may be a mechanism(s) other than the EGFR pathway that mediates the tumoricidal effects. In the current study, we tested the efficacy of TD-19, a novel compound chemically modified from erlotinib, which has more potent apoptotic effects than erlotinib in EGFR wild-type NSCLC cell lines. TD-19 induced significant cell death and apoptosis in H358, H441, H460, and A549 cells, as evidenced by increased caspase-3 activity and cleavage of procaspase-9 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The apoptotic effect of TD-19 in H460 cells, which were resistant to erlotinib, was associated with downregulation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), increased protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity, and decreased AKT phosphorylation, but minimal effects on EGFR phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIP2A partially protected the H460 cells from TD-19-induced apoptosis. Okadaic acid, a known PP2A inhibitor, significantly reduced TD-19-induced apoptosis, while forskolin, which increased PP2A activity, increased the apoptotic effect of TD-19. TD-19 inhibited the growth of H460 xenograft tumors by ?80%. We conclude that TD-19 exerted tumoricidal effects on NSCLC cells. TD-19 provides proof that the CIP2A pathway may be a novel target for the treatment of EGFR wild-type NSCLC.
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Prognostic influences of lymph node ratio in major cancers of Taiwan: a longitudinal study from a single cancer center.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The utility of lymph node ratio (LNR) in predicting outcomes has been reported previously. In current study, we further subgroup by LNR in subjects with lymph nodes metastasis of colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer.
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Surgical outcomes of total colonic aganglionosis in children: A 26-year experience in a single institute.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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There is a lack of consensus regarding the treatment of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) with respect to perioperative morbidity, mortality, complications, and functional outcomes. The aim of this study was to review the results of surgical TCA treatment over a 26-year period and characterize the outcomes.
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Clinical and the prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma patients with ROS1 fusion in comparison with other driver mutations in East Asian populations.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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The prevalence, demographic features, and clinical outcomes of lung adenocarcinoma patients with novel ROS1 oncogenic rearrangement in East Asian populations are not clear. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma in patients with ROS1 fusion compared with other driver mutations.
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Scientific hypotheses can be tested by comparing the effects of one treatment over many diseases in a systematic review.
J Clin Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To describe the use of systematic reviews or overviews (systematic reviews of systematic reviews) to synthesize quantitative evidence of intervention effects across multiple indications (multiple-indication reviews) and to highlight issues pertaining to such reviews.
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Acquired macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum after a human bite.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Syphilis is a systemic disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum that is usually acquired through sexual exposure.
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Post-mastectomy radiotherapy benefits subgroups of breast cancer patients with T1-2 tumor and 1-3 axillary lymph node(s) metastasis.
Radiol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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To determine the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with T1-2 and N1 disease.
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Interactions that influence the binding of synthetic heparan sulfate based disaccharides to fibroblast growth factor-2.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear sulfated polysaccharide that mediates protein activities at the cell-extracellular interface. Its interactions with proteins depend on the complex patterns of sulfonations and sugar residues. Previously, we synthesized all 48 potential disaccharides found in HS and used them for affinity screening and X-ray structural analysis with fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF1). Herein, we evaluated the affinities of the same sugars against FGF2 and determined the crystal structures of FGF2 in complex with three disaccharides carrying N-sulfonated glucosamine and 2-O-sulfonated iduronic acid as basic backbones. The crystal structures show that water molecules mediate different interactions between the 3-O-sulfonate group and Lys125. Moreover, the 6-O-sulfonate group forms intermolecular interactions with another FGF2 unit apart from the main binding site. These findings suggest that the water-mediated interactions and the intermolecular interactions influence the binding affinity of different disaccharides with FGF2, correlating with their respective dissociation constants in solution.
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Identification of aurora kinase A as an unfavorable prognostic factor and potential treatment target for metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Although imatinib mesylate (IM) has revolutionized the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), drug resistance remains a challenge. Previous studies have shown that the expression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) predicts recurrence in patients with primary, surgically resected GISTs. The current study aimed to evaluate the significance of AURKA expression as an unfavorable prognostic marker for advanced GISTs, and provide evidence that AURKA could be a potential therapeutic target in GISTs. The prognostic significance of the expression of AURKA, along with other clinicopathological factors, was analyzed in a cohort of 99 IM-treated patients with advanced GISTs. The potential use of an inhibitor of AURKA as a therapeutic agent against GISTs was also tested in GIST cell lines. Among 99 enrolled patients, poor performance status, large tumor size, drug response, and AURKA overexpression were independent prognostic factors for poor progression-free survival (PFS). For overall survival (OS), only large tumor size and AURKA overexpression were identified as independent unfavorable factors. In an in vitro study, MLN8237, an AURKA inhibitor, inhibited growth of both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GIST cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity with IM in GIST cells. The inhibitory effect of MLN8237 in GIST cells could be attributed to the induction of G2/M arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. Our study shows that AURKA expression independently predicted poor PFS and OS in patients with advanced GISTs who were treated with IM. An AURKA inhibitor may have potential as a therapeutic agent for both IM-sensitive and IM-resistant GISTs.
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Triggers of suicide ideation and protective factors of actually executing suicide among first onset cases in older psychiatric outpatients: a qualitative study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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BackgroundSuicide is a global issue among the elderly, but few studies have explored the experiences of suicide ideation in older Asian psychiatric outpatients.MethodOlder psychiatric outpatients (N¿=¿24) were recruited by convenience from one medical centre and one regional hospital in northern Taiwan. Participants were recruited if they met these inclusion criteria: 1) ¿65 years old, 2) without severe cognitive deficit, 3) outpatients in the psychiatric clinics at the selected hospitals, and 4) self-reported first episode of suicidal ideation within the previous year. Data were collected in individual interviews using a semi-structured guide and analysed by content analysis.ResultsSuicide ideation was triggered by illness and physical discomfort, conflicts with family members/friends, illness of family members, death of family members/friends, and loneliness. Participants¿ reasons for not executing suicide were family members¿ and friends¿ support, receiving treatment, finding a way to shift their attention, fear of increasing pressure on one¿s children, religious beliefs, and not knowing how to execute suicide.ConclusionUnderstanding these identified triggers of suicide ideation may help psychiatrists open a channel for conversation with their elderly clients and more readily make their diagnosis. Understanding these identified protective factors against executing suicide can help psychiatrists not only treat depression, but also enhance protective factors for their clients.
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Altered activation of the antagonist muscle during practice compromises motor learning in older adults.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Aging impairs the activation of muscle; however, it remains unclear whether it contributes to deficits in motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered activation of antagonistic muscles in older adults during practice inhibits their ability to transfer a motor task ipsilaterally. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 yr; 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 yr; 10 men, 10 women) participated. Half of the subjects practiced 100 trials of a rapid goal-directed task with ankle dorsiflexion and were tested 1 day later with elbow flexion (transfer). The rest did not perform any ankle practice and only performed the task with elbow flexion. The goal-directed task consisted of rapid movement (180 ms) to match a spatiotemporal target. For each limb, we recorded the EMG burst activity of the primary agonist and antagonist muscles. The rate of improvement during task acquisition (practice) was similar for young and older adults (P > 0.3). In contrast, only young adults were able to transfer the task to the upper limb. Specifically, young adults who practiced ankle dorsiflexion exhibited ?30% (P < 0.05) lower movement error and ?60% (P < 0.05) lower antagonist EMG burst activity compared with older adults who received equal practice and young adults who did not receive any ankle dorsiflexion practice. These results provide novel evidence that the deficient motor learning in older adults may be related to a differential activation of the antagonist muscle, which compromises their ability to acquire the task during practice.
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Accurate method to estimate insulin resistance from multiple regression models using data of metabolic syndrome and oral glucose tolerance test.
J Diabetes Investig
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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How to measure insulin resistance (IR) accurately and conveniently is a critical issue for both clinical practice and research. In the present study, we tried to modify the ?-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance test (BIGTT) in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) components.
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Neuromuscular control of goal-directed ankle movements differs for healthy children and adults.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The purpose was to compare neuromuscular control of rapid ankle goal-directed movements in healthy preadolescent children and young adults.
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Thermal decomposition dynamics and severity of microalgae residues in torrefaction.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To figure out the torrefaction characteristics and weight loss dynamics of microalgae residues, the thermogravimetric analyses of two microalgae (Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 and Chlorella sorokiniana CY1) residues are carried out. A parameter of torrefaction severity index (TSI) in the range of 0-1, in terms of weight loss ratio between a certain operation and a reference operation, is defined to indicate the degree of biomass thermal degradation due to torrefaction. The TSI profiles of the two residues are similar to each other; therefore, the parameter may be used to describe the torrefaction extents of various biomass materials. The curvature of TSI profile along light torrefaction is slight, elucidating its slight impact on biomass thermal degradation. The sharp curvature along severe torrefaction in the initial pretreatment period reveals that biomass upgraded with high temperature and short duration is more effective than using low temperature with long duration.
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Medical device procurement in low- and middle-income settings: protocol for a systematic review.
Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Medical device procurement processes for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are a poorly understood and researched topic. To support LMIC policy formulation in this area, international public health organizations and research institutions issue a large body of predominantly grey literature including guidelines, manuals and recommendations. We propose to undertake a systematic review to identify and explore the medical device procurement methodologies suggested within this and further literature. Procurement facilitators and barriers will be identified, and methodologies for medical device prioritization under resource constraints will be discussed.
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Antagonizing STAT3 dimerization with a rhodium(III) complex.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Kinetically inert metal complexes have arisen as promising alternatives to existing platinum and ruthenium chemotherapeutics. Reported herein, to our knowledge, is the first example of a substitutionally inert, Group?9 organometallic compound as a direct inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription?3 (STAT3) dimerization. From a series of cyclometalated rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes, a rhodium(III) complex emerged as a potent inhibitor of STAT3 that targeted the SH2 domain and inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and dimerization. Significantly, the complex exhibited potent anti-tumor activities in an in?vivo mouse xenograft model of melanoma. This study demonstrates that rhodium complexes may be developed as effective STAT3 inhibitors with potent anti-tumor activity.
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Objective Palliative Prognostic Score Among Patients With Advanced Cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The accurate prediction of survival is one of the key factors in the decision-making process for patients with advanced illnesses.
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Monitoring of sulfur dioxide emission resulting from biogas utilization on commercial pig farms in Taiwan.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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The objective of this work tends to promote methane content in biogas and evaluate sulfur dioxide emission from direct biogas combustion without desulfurization. Analytical results of biogas combustion showed that combustion of un-desulfurized biogas exhausted more than 92 % of SO2 (P?
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Intra-arterial chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cisplatin is effective for advanced hepatocellular cell carcinoma.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a fatal disease even in the era of targeted therapies. Intra-arterial chemotherapy (IACT) can provide therapeutic benefits for patients with locally advanced HCC who are not eligible for local therapies or are refractory to targeted therapies. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze the effect of IACT with cisplatin and doxorubicin on advanced HCC.
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Spontaneous Arterial Calcification: A Possible Etiology for Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in a Patient on Maintenance Hemodialysis.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Spontaneous splenic rupture (SSR) is a rare condition in contrast to traumatic splenic hematoma, and vascular abnormality has rarely mentioned as an etiology in SSR with patients who had chronic kidney disease. We reported a 80-year-old female whose SSR might be related to splenic arterial calcification. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know.
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Fas/Fas ligand mediates keratinocyte death in sunitinib-induced hand-foot skin reaction.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Sunitinib, a multitargeted receptor Y kinase inhibitor (TKI) used for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), is notorious for cutaneous adverse effects, such as hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR). To explore the underlying mechanism of HFSR, we enrolled 53 sunitinib-treated GIST patients, including 23 HFSR cases, and 30 tolerant controls. Among the 29 biomarkers examined, soluble FasL (sFasL) showed significant increase in the plasma, blister fluids, and skin lesions of HFSR patients. The plasma levels of sFasL were significantly correlated with those of sunitinib in HFSR patients. In addition to FasL, augmented expression of Fas and active caspase 3 was also detected in the epidermis of HFSR patients. The increased FasL caused keratinocyte death, as the use of anti-FasL antibody specifically blocked cell apoptosis. Oral administration of sunitinib to mice increased skin susceptibility to mechanical injuries in a dose/time-dependent manner. The administration of sunitinib (40?mg?kg(-1) per day) for 4 weeks to mice caused the maximally affected skin area with an erosion-to-ulceration response to tape-stripping. The skin biopsies of mice administered sunitinib exhibited increased expression of Fas and FasL in the apoptotic keratinocytes in the epidermis. Our data revealed that Fas/FasL interaction mediates keratinocyte death in sunitinib-induced HFSR.
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Effects of Free Carriers on Piezoelectric Nanogenerators and Piezotronic Devices Made of GaN Nanowire Arrays.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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This study investigates the role of carrier concentration in semiconducting piezoelectric single-nanowire nanogenerators (SNWNGs) and piezotronic devices. Unintentionally doped and Si-doped GaN nanowire arrays with various carrier concentrations, ranging from 10(17) (unintentionally doped) to 10(19) cm(-3) (heavily doped), are synthesized. For SNWNGs, the output current of individual nanowires starts from a negligible level and rises to the maximum of ?50 nA at a doping concentration of 5.63 × 10(18) cm(-3) and then falls off with further increase in carrier concentration, due to the competition between the reduction of inner resistance and the screening effect on piezoelectric potential. For piezotronic applications, the force sensitivity based on the change of the Schottky barrier height works best for unintentionally doped nanowires, reaching 26.20 ± 1.82 meV nN(-1) and then decreasing with carrier concentration. Although both types of devices share the same Schottky diode, they involve different characteristics in that the slope of the current-voltage characteristics governs SNWNG devices, while the turn-on voltage determines piezotronic devices. It is demonstrated that free carriers in piezotronic materials can influence the slope and turn-on voltage of the diode characteristics concurrently when subjected to strain. This work offers a design guideline for the optimum doping concentration in semiconductors for obtaining the best performance in piezotronic devices and SNWNGs.
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HIV-1 genital shedding is suppressed in the setting of high genital antiretroviral drug concentrations throughout the menstrual cycle.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
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Right and left amygdalae activation in patients with major depression receiving antidepressant treatment, as revealed by fMRI.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response.
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Aging and limb alter the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for young and older adults with the upper and lower limbs. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 years) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 years) attempted to accurately match the displacement of their limb to a spatiotemporal target during ankle dorsiflexion or elbow flexion movements. We quantified neuromuscular control by examining the movement endpoint accuracy and variability, and the antagonistic muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG). Our results indicate that older adults exhibit impaired endpoint accuracy with both limbs due to greater time variability. In addition, older adults exhibit greater EMG burst and lower EMG burst variability as well as lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles. The impaired accuracy of older adults during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas their impaired accuracy during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. The upper limb exhibited greater movement control than the lower limb, and different neuromuscular parameters were related to the accuracy and consistency for each limb. Greater endpoint error during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas greater endpoint error during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. These findings indicate that the age-associated impairments in movement control are associated with altered activation of the involved antagonistic muscles. In addition, independent of age, the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for the upper and lower limbs.
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Fixed-bed biosorption of cadmium using immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N cells on loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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A continuous fixed-bed biosorption process was established for cadmium (Cd) removal by Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N (isolated from southern Taiwan) cells immobilized onto loofa sponge. This immobilized-cell biosorption process allows better recovery and reusability of the microalgal biomass. The growth of microalgae on the matrix support with appropriate nutrient supplementation could enhance the overall metal removal activity. Major operating parameters (e.g., feeding flow rate, cycle number of medium replacement, and particle diameter of the sponge) were studied for treatability evaluation. The most promising cell growth on the sponge support was obtained at a flow rate of 0.284 bed volume (BV)/min, sponge particle diameter of 1 cm, and with one cycle of medium replacement. The performance of fixed-bed biosorption (adsorption capacity of 38.4 mg, breakthrough time at 15.5 h) was achieved at a flow rate of 5 ml/min with an influent concentration of 7.5 mg Cd/l.
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A novel rat model simulating biliary atresia after a kasai operation.
J Invest Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The mechanisms of liver fibrosis in biliary atresia (BA) after a Kasai operation deserve studying to improve the clinical outcomes. This study aimed to create a rat model simulating BA after a Kasai operation.
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Gender disparities in optimal lipid control among patients with coronary artery disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Coronary heart disease(CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide in both men and women. Hypercholesterolemia is a major factor contributing to the incidence of CHD. Many lipid-lowering trials have shown statins to be effective medications for the primary and secondary prevention of CHD. Some studies have suggested that statins are as or more effective in women than in men. However, there is a substantial gender gap in lipid goal attainment with respect to primary care guidelines, as reported in observational studies. In this article, we attempt to explain gender differences in lipid control in individuals with or at risk of CHD in order to improve awareness of and narrow gaps in gender disparities in lipid management.
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Comprehensive care improves physical recovery of hip-fractured elderly Taiwanese patients with poor nutritional status.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The effects of nutritional management among other intervention components have not been examined for hip-fractured elderly persons with poor nutritional status. Accordingly, this study explored the intervention effects of an in-home program using a comprehensive care model that included a nutrition-management component on recovery of hip-fractured older persons with poor nutritional status at hospital discharge.
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Acute kidney injury due to anti-tuberculosis drugs: a five-year experience in an aging population.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Patients on anti-tuberculosis treatment may develop acute kidney injury (AKI), but little is known about the renal outcome and prognostic factors, especially in an aging population. This study aimed to calculate the incidence of AKI due to anti-TB drugs and analyze the outcomes and predictors of renal recovery.
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DRD3 variation associates with early-onset heroin dependence, but not specific personality traits.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Dopamine D3 receptor-mediated pathways are involved in the mechanism of addiction, and genetic factors play a role in the vulnerability to heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether the corresponding gene, DRD3, is associated with the development of heroin dependence and specific personality traits in HD patients. Eight polymorphisms in DRD3 were analyzed in 1067 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (566 heroin dependence patients and 501 controls). All participants were screened using the same assessment tool and all patients met the criteria for heroin dependence. A Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality traits in 276 heroin dependence patients. In addition, heroin dependence patients were divided into 4 clinical subgroups based on age-of-onset and family history of substance abuse, to reduce the clinical heterogeneity. The rs6280 and rs9825563 variants showed association with the development of early-onset heroin dependence. The GTA haplotype frequency in the block (rs324029, rs6280, rs9825563) was significantly associated with early-onset heroin dependence (p=0.003). However, these significant associations were weaker after Bonferroni's correction. In addition, these DRD3 polymorphisms did not influence novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores in HD patients. DRD3 is possibly a genetic factor in the development of early-onset heroin dependence, but is not associated with specific personality traits in these patients among the Han Chinese population.
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The Impact of SYNTAX Score of Non-Infarct-Related Artery on Long- Term Outcome among Patients with Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We investigated the impact of the severity of stenosis in a non-infarct-related artery (IRA) on the long-term prognosis of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Validity and clinical utilization of the Chinese version of the Gotland Male Depression Scale at a men's health polyclinic.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Symptoms of depression in males, such as aggression and irritability, are different from those in females. However, there are no adequate scales for detecting possible diagnoses in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to assess whether the Chinese version of the Gotland Male Depression Scale (CV-GMDS) could identify male depression as effectively as the English version.
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Neuronal Activity Stimulated by Liquid Substrates Injection at Zusanli (ST36) Acupoint: The Possible Mechanism of Aquapuncture.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aquapuncture is a modified acupuncture technique and it is generally accepted that it has a greater therapeutic effect than acupuncture because of the combination of the acupoint stimulation and the pharmacological effect of the drugs. However, to date, the mechanisms underlying the effects of aquapuncture remain unclear. We hypothesized that both the change in the local spatial configuration and the substrate stimulation of aquapuncture would activate neuronal signaling. Thus, bee venom, normal saline, and vitamins B1 and B12 were injected into a Zusanli (ST36) acupoint as substrate of aquapuncture, whereas a dry needle was inserted into ST36 as a control. After aquapuncture, activated neurons expressing Fos protein were mainly observed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in lumbar segments L3-5, with the distribution nearly identical among all groups. However, the bee venom injection induced significantly more Fos-expressing neurons than the other substrates. Based on these data, we suggest that changes in the spatial configuration of the acupoint activate neuronal signaling and that bee venom may further strengthen this neuronal activity. In conclusion, the mechanisms for the effects of aquapuncture appear to be the spatial configuration changes occurring within the acupoint and the ability of injected substrates to stimulate neuronal activity.
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Reducing Regioisomers of Fullerene-Bisadducts by Tether-Directed Remote Functionalization: Investigation of Electronically and Sterically Isomeric Effects on Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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C60 bis-adduct containing a mixture of regio-isomers with different LUMO energy levels and steric geometries could greatly affect the morphological and bulk properties. To investigate the regio-isomer effect on solar cell performance, we have successfully designed and synthesized a regio-selective 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct (S-APM-CBA) by "tether-directed remote functionalization" strategy and a random 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct denoted as R-APM-CBA by traditional cyclopropanation. The dramatic reduction in the number of regio-isomers in S-APM-CBA is confirmed by the (1)H NMR and HPLC measurements and theoretical calculation. Compared to the R-APM-CBA-based device with a Jsc of 6.63 mA/cm(2), an FF of 44.3% and a PCE of 2.46%, the device using S-APM-CBA yielded a much lower Jsc of 1.48 mA/cm(2), an FF of 32.2%, and a PCE of 0.38%. Consistently, the electron-only device using S-AMP-CBA exhibited lower electron mobility than the R-AMP-CBA-based device. These results imply that the electronic shallow-trap effect ascribed to the LUMO energy variations turned out to be insignificant in the AMP-CBA system. The lower efficiency and mobility of S-AMP-CBA might due to the assumption that the most probable trans-4-III isomer in S-AMP-CBA prevents the intermolecular facial contact of fullerenes, thereby hindering the electron transporting. Furthermore, the nanomorphology of S-AMP-CBA and R-AMP-CBA active layers could be different because of their different three-dimensional structures. This research demonstrated that steric effect of regio-isomers in a given C60 bis-adduct is more crucial than electronic shallow-trap effect.
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Changes of Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, ?-Oryzanol, and ?-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in the Germinated Brown Rice of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Cultivars.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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This study examined the changes of tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), ?-oryzanol (GO), and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in germinated brown rice (GBR) of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars under different germination conditions. Results showed that the Toc and T3 contents in GBR were significantly different between treatments in both rice cultivars. The pigmented GBR possessed higher total vitamin E, total Toc, total T3, and GO contents than the nonpigmented GBR; however, its level of GABA was lower. The order of the three highest vitamin E homologues in pigmented and nonpigmented GBR was ?-T3 > ?-Toc > ?-Toc and ?-Toc > ?-T3 > ?-T3, respectively; ?-Toc, ?-T3, ?-Toc, and ?-T3 were present in only small amounts (?1.0 mg/kg) in GBR of both cultivars. Although both cultivars showed an increase in GABA contents with increasing germination time, the GABA content in nonpigmented GBR was higher.
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Etiology of genital ulcer disease and association with HIV infection in Malawi.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The World Health Organization recommends the use of syndromic management for patients presenting with genital ulcer disease (GUD) in developing countries. However, effective treatment guidelines depend on a current country-specific GUD etiological profile, which may change over time.
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Improved CCT uniformity of white LED using remote phosphor with patterned sapphire substrate.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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The light distribution of a light-emitting diode (LED), using remote phosphor with a patterned sapphire substrate, is evaluated in this study. Three kinds of substrates of the remote phosphors, including planar sapphire (PS), partially patterned sapphire (PPS), and fully patterned sapphire (FPS) are prepared. The LED with the remote phosphor of FPS delivers much better uniformity of the correlated color temperature (CCT) in a far-field pattern than the CCT obtained in the cases of PS and PPS. The results are majorly attributed to the improvement in the scattering ability of the blue light in the FPS; thereby increasing the excitation of the phosphor particles in comparison to the ability of the device assembled with the remote phosphor of PS or PPS.
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MRI surveillance following treatment of extremity soft tissue sarcoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Local recurrence (LR) following limb-sparing surgery and radiation therapy (RT) for extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is rare. The current study investigates the utility of surveillance nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of asymptomatic LRs.
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Neuronal aging: learning from C. elegans.
J Mol Signal
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The heterogeneity and multigenetic nature of nervous system aging make modeling of it a formidable task in mammalian species. The powerful genetics, simple anatomy and short life span of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans offer unique advantages in unraveling the molecular genetic network that regulates the integrity of neuronal structures and functions during aging. In this review, we first summarize recent breakthroughs in the morphological and functional characterization of C. elegans neuronal aging. Age-associated morphological changes include age-dependent neurite branching, axon beading or swelling, axon defasciculation, progressive distortion of the neuronal soma, and early decline in presynaptic release function. We then discuss genetic pathways that modulate the speed of neuronal aging concordant with alteration in life span, such as insulin signaling, as well as cell-autonomous factors that promote neuronal integrity during senescence, including membrane activity and JNK/MAPK signaling. As a robust genetic model for aging, insights from C. elegans neuronal aging studies will contribute to our mechanistic understanding of human brain aging.
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Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): systematic review and meta-analysis.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder associated with several adverse health outcomes. Given the close association between OSA and obesity, lifestyle and dietary interventions are commonly recommended to patients, but the evidence for their impact on OSA has not been systematically examined.
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Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300?mol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion.
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Facile fabrication of dextran-based fluorescent nanogels as potential glucose sensors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Glucose-responsive nanogels based on dextran and poly(3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid) (PAAPBA) were fabricated by a facile self-assembly assisted (SAA) strategy. Further introduction of the fluorescent agent 2-[4-(3-hydroxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)phenoxy]ethylacrylamide (3HF-AM) allowed visualization of this glucose sensitivity, thus ensuring their potential use as glucose sensors.
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Effects of Areca Nut Extract on Lipopolysaccharides-Enhanced Adhesion and Migration of Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: Areca chewers have a higher prevalence of periodontitis than non-chewers. Cell adhesion and movement (migration) are important for the leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation sites. This study investigated the effects of areca nut extract (ANE) on the adhesion and migration abilities of human immune cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The combined effects of nicotine and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also analyzed. Methods: Purified PBMC obtained from healthy adults were treated with ANE, nicotine and/or LPS. Cell adhesion ability was examined using fibronectin-coated microslides, Lius stain and light microscopy. Cell migration ability was evaluated using the transwell system followed by staining and fluorescence microscopy. Statistical difference was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: When compared to the media-treated control samples, PBMC treated with ANE for 4 hours showed a significant reduction of the adherent cells on the microslides. Interestingly, LPS treatment increased cell adhesion which could be reduced by simultaneous ANE plus nicotine treatment. The chemotactic migration of PBMC was reduced by ANE treatment for 1, 4 or 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner. LPS treatment increased PBMC migration which could be reduced by simultaneous treatment with ANE or with ANE plus nicotine. Conclusions: ANE reduced the adhesion and migration abilities of PBMC. ANE, with or without nicotine, also attenuated the migration of LPS-stimulated PBMC. The results implicated that the immune cell functions were impaired in areca chewers which might increase the host susceptibility to oral and periodontal infection.
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Development of lipid productivities under different CO2 conditions of marine microalgae Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Biodiesel production from microalgae has become a popular research topic. In this study, Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 isolated from the southern coast of Taiwan was selected for a detailed study on cell growth and lipid accumulation under marine salinity (3.5% sea salt). Proper CO2 was supplied as the improvement of lipid productivity. Under the optimal condition, the highest lipid productivity was 169.1mg/L/d, which was significantly higher than those reported in current studies for marine green algae. To date, only very few studies have reported a marine algae strain with both high cell growth and lipid productivity. This study demonstrated that a newly isolated marine green alga Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 would be a feasible oil producer due to its high biomass production and lipid productivity under marine salinity.
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The effectiveness of light/dark exposure to treat insomnia in female nurses undertaking shift work during the evening/night shift.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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The present study investigated whether bright light exposure during the first half of the evening/night shift combined with light attenuation in the morning is effective in improving sleep problems in nurses undertaking rotating shift work who suffer from clinical insomnia.
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The "Aging Males Symptoms" (AMS) Scale assesses depression and anxiety.
Aging Male
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Emotional distress may be associated with severe aging symptoms. This study aimed to investigate aging symptoms in male psychiatric outpatients and their relationship with anxiety and depression.
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Pathway-based screening strategy for multitarget inhibitors of diverse proteins in metabolic pathways.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Many virtual screening methods have been developed for identifying single-target inhibitors based on the strategy of "one-disease, one-target, one-drug". The hit rates of these methods are often low because they cannot capture the features that play key roles in the biological functions of the target protein. Furthermore, single-target inhibitors are often susceptible to drug resistance and are ineffective for complex diseases such as cancers. Therefore, a new strategy is required for enriching the hit rate and identifying multitarget inhibitors. To address these issues, we propose the pathway-based screening strategy (called PathSiMMap) to derive binding mechanisms for increasing the hit rate and discovering multitarget inhibitors using site-moiety maps. This strategy simultaneously screens multiple target proteins in the same pathway; these proteins bind intermediates with common substructures. These proteins possess similar conserved binding environments (pathway anchors) when the product of one protein is the substrate of the next protein in the pathway despite their low sequence identity and structure similarity. We successfully discovered two multitarget inhibitors with IC50 of <10 µM for shikimate dehydrogenase and shikimate kinase in the shikimate pathway of Helicobacter pylori. Furthermore, we found two selective inhibitors (IC50 of <10 µM) for shikimate dehydrogenase using the specific anchors derived by our method. Our experimental results reveal that this strategy can enhance the hit rates and the pathway anchors are highly conserved and important for biological functions. We believe that our strategy provides a great value for elucidating protein binding mechanisms and discovering multitarget inhibitors.
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Reaction-based and single fluorescent emitter decorated ratiometric nanoprobe to detect hydrogen peroxide.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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A novel reaction-based cross-linked polymeric nanoprobe with a self-calibrating ratiometric fluorescence readout to selectively detect H2O2 is reported. The polymeric nanoprobe is fabricated by using hydrophobic H2O2-reactive boronic ester groups, crosslinker units, and environmentally sensitive 3-hydroxyflavone fluorophores through a miniemulsion polymerization. On treatment with H2O2, the boronic esters in the polymer are cleaved to form hydrophilic alcohols and subsequently lead to a hydrophobic-hydrophilic transition. Covalently linked 3-hydroxyflavones manifest the change in polarity as a ratiometric transition from green to blue, accompanied by a 500-fold increase in volume. Furthermore, this nanoprobe has been used for ratiometric sensing of glucose by monitoring the H2O2 generated during the oxidation of glucose by glucose oxidase, and thus successfully distinguished between normal and pathological levels of glucose.
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Engineering strategies for enhancing the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from an isolated microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Microalgae have emerged as promising resources for highly unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, an indigenous microalga identified as Nannochloropsis oceanica CY2 was grown photoautotrophically to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3). Specific engineering strategies were employed to stimulate EPA accumulation in the microalgal cells. The results show that BG-11 was the most effective medium to grow N. oceanica CY2, giving an EPA content and biomass concentration of 2.38% (per dry cell weight) and 1.53 g/l. The EPA content nearly doubled when using the optimal nitrogen source (NaNO3) at a concentration of 1.50 g/l. The illumination system also markedly affected the EPA content for the photoautotrophic microalga. When the microalgal culture was illuminated with a red LED, an impressively high EPA content of 5.5% was obtained. Finally, using semi-batch cultures operations with LED-blue illumination, the EPA content of N. oceanica CY2 was stably maintained at 5.0%.
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A bidirectional approach for portal vein stent placement in a child with complete portal vein occlusion after living donor liver transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Delayed PV complications are not rare in pediatric liver transplantation. Although PTPV offers a treatment and minimizes surgical revision, in case of complete PV thrombosis (PVT), the failure rate of PTPV is high. Herein, we report a successful technique of PTPV in a case of complete PVT with a stent placement using a bidirectional approach in a child with living donor liver transplantation.
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Histone demethylase RBP2 promotes lung tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The retinoblastoma binding protein RBP2 (KDM5A) is a histone demethylase that promotes gastric cancer cell growth and is enriched in drug-resistant lung cancer cells. In tumor-prone mice lacking the tumor suppressor gene RB or MEN1, genetic ablation of RBP2 can suppress tumor initiation, but the pathogenic breadth and mechanistic aspects of this effect relative to human tumors have not been defined. Here, we approached this question in the context of lung cancer. RBP2 was overexpressed in human lung cancer tissues where its depletion impaired cell proliferation, motility, migration, invasion, and metastasis. RBP2 oncogenicity relied on its demethylase and DNA-binding activities. RBP2 upregulated expression of cyclins D1 and E1 while suppressing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 (CDKN1B), each contributing to RBP2-mediated cell proliferation. Expression microarray analyses revealed that RBP2 promoted expression of integrin-?1 (ITGB1), which is implicated in lung cancer metastasis. Mechanistic investigations established that RBP2 bound directly to the p27, cyclin D1, and ITGB1 promoters and that exogenous expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E1, or ITGB1 was sufficient to rescue proliferation or migration/invasion, respectively. Taken together, our results establish an oncogenic role for RBP2 in lung tumorigenesis and progression and uncover novel RBP2 targets mediating this role.
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Areca nut extracts increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1? in human immune cells via oxidative stress.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Areca nut has been identified as a carcinogen. Inflammation reveals a strong link with tumourigenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of areca nut on the expression of the key pro-inflammatory mediators involved in malignancy, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1? and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), by human immune cells. The role of oxidative stress was also examined.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.