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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Revealing the halide effect on the kinetics of the aerobic oxidation of Cu(i) to Cu(ii).
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In situ infrared (IR) and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopic investigations reveal that different halide ligands have distinct effects on the aerobic oxidation of Cu(i) to Cu(ii) in the presence of TMEDA (tetramethylethylenediamine). The iodide ligand gives the lowest rate and thus leads to the lowest catalytic reaction rate of aerobic oxidation of hydroquinone to benzoquinone. Further DFT calculations suggest that oxidation of CuI-TMEDA involves a side-on transition state, while oxidation of CuCl-TMEDA involves an end-on transition state which has a lower activation energy.
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Heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (Hspa5) is essential for pronephros formation by mediating retinoic acid signaling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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The heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (Hspa5) also known as binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip) or glucose regulated protein 78 (Grp78), belongs to the heat shock protein 70kDa family. As a multifunctional protein, it participates in protein folding, calcium homeostasis and serves as an essential regulator of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. It has also been implicated in signal transduction by acting as a receptor or co-receptor residing at the plasma membrane. Its function during embryonic development, however, remains largely elusive. In this study, we used morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MO) to knockdown Hspa5 activity in Xenopus embryos. In Hspa5 morphants, pronephros formation was strongly inhibited with the reduction of pronephric marker genes lhx1, pax2 and atp1b1. Pronephros tissue is induced in vitro by treating animal caps with all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) and activin. Depletion of Hspa5 in animal caps, however, blocked the induction of pronephros as well as reduced the expression of RA-responsive genes, suggesting that knockdown of Hspa5 attenuated RA signaling. Knockdown of Hspa5 in animal caps resulted in decreased expression of lhx1, a transcription factor directly regulated by RA signaling and essential for pronephros specification. Co-injection of Hspa5MO with lhx1 mRNA partially rescues the phenotype induced by Hspa5MO. These results suggest that the RA-lhx1 signaling cascade is involved in Hspa5MO induced pronephros malformation. This study shows that Hspa5, a key regulator of the unfolded protein response, plays an essential role in pronephros formation, which is mediated in part through RA signaling during early embryonic development.
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Lignans from the bark of Zanthoxylum simulans.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Investigation on the EtOAc extract of the bark of Zanthoxylum simulans led to the isolation of four new lignans including zanthoxylumin A (1), zanthoxylumin B (2), ( - )-magnolin (3), and ( - )-pinoresinol-di-3,3-dimethylallyl ether (4). Their structures were established by comprehensive analysis of the spectral data, especially 1D and 2D NMR spectra.
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Bayesian modeling and prediction of accrual in multi-regional clinical trials.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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In multi-regional trials, the underlying overall and region-specific accrual rates often do not hold constant over time and different regions could have different start-up times, which combined with initial jump in accrual within each region often leads to a discontinuous overall accrual rate, and these issues associated with multi-regional trials have not been adequately investigated. In this paper, we clarify the implication of the multi-regional nature on modeling and prediction of accrual in clinical trials and investigate a Bayesian approach for accrual modeling and prediction, which models region-specific accrual using a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and allows the underlying Poisson rate in each region to vary over time. The proposed approach can accommodate staggered start-up times and different initial accrual rates across regions/centers. Our numerical studies show that the proposed method improves accuracy and precision of accrual prediction compared to existing methods including the nonhomogeneous Poisson process model that does not model region-specific accrual.
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Association Between Preoperative Aspirin-Dosing Strategy and Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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To determine whether preoperative aspirin-acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-timing or dose independently affects 30-day all-cause mortality.
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Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid as an adjuvant treatment to prevent acute cellular rejection after liver transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Acute cellular rejection (ACR) after liver transplantation (LT) is one of the most common problems faced by transplant recipients in spite of advances in immunosuppressive therapy. Recently, clinical trials reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) reduced the incidence of ACR significantly. However, others have shown contradictory conclusion. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy of UDCA in reducing ACR after LT.
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The role of tiopronin for the prevention of chemotherapy-related liver toxicity in advanced colorectal cancer patients treated with mFOLFOX7: a prospective analysis.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Aims and background. Chemotherapy-related hepatotoxicity is a limitation for the continuation of chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). This prospective study determined the efficacy of tiopronin infusion in chemotherapy-induced hepatoxicity. Methods and study design. One hundred and fifty patients having advanced CRC treated with first-line palliative chemotherapy were included, of whom 86 were treated with mFOLFOX7 plus supplementation of tiopronin and 64 were treated with the same regimen without tiopronin. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), gamma-glutamyl transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin (ALB) were recorded before treatment and during every therapy cycle. In addition, course discontinuations, dose reductions, and chemotherapy efficacy were evaluated. Results. The age and gender of the two groups were comparable (P >0.05). The proportions of abnormal mean ALT (P = 0.042), AST (P = 0.045), TBIL (P = 0.044) and ALB (P = 0.043) were significantly lower in the tiopronin group than the control group. Course discontinuations (P = 0.002), dose reductions (P = 0.005) and efficacy (P = 0.012) were significantly different between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hepatoprotective drug played an important role in clinical outcome (OR = 6.837; 95% CI, 1.845 to 25.333; P = 0.004). Conclusions. Tiopronin tends to decrease the incidence of chemotherapy-induced hepatoxicity, enhance patients' tolerance to mFOLFOX7 treatment, and even benefit the efficacy of chemotherapy.
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Endostatin Combined with Platinum-Based Chemo-radiotherapy for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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This retrospective study was conducted to determine whether endostatin improves the efficacy and safety of platinum-based chemotherapy administered via both intravenous and arterial infusions for stage III/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Seventy one patients with confirmed pathological or cytological diagnosis of NSCLC from January 2008 to March 2013 were enrolled for the study. Patients received three different therapeutic regimens until disease progression or an intolerable toxicity was evidenced. Group C received chemotherapy administered by intravenous injection and subsequent radiotherapy. Group IC received chemotherapy by intravenous injection and arterial infusion plus radiotherapy. Group IC + E patients were treated with chemotherapy plus Endostatin injected arterially and intravenously and subsequent radiotherapy. Group IC + E showed a progression-free survival (PFS) of 12 months as compared to 7 months of group C, a significant increase indeed (p = 0.037). Likewise, the overall survival time higher in Group IC + E and Group IC was compared to Group C (p = 0.001; p = 0.004, respectively). The adverse or toxic side effects exhibited by Group IC + E were not significantly different from either Group IC or Group C. Endostatin administered in combination with chemotherapeutic agents via both intravenous injection and arterial infusion enhanced the PFS and OS in advanced NSCLC without increasing the risk of toxicity.
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Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance.
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Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Is Regulated by the IRE1?-XBP1 Branch of the Unfolded Protein Response and Counteracts Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Hepatic Steatosis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) and represents a critical mechanism that underlies metabolic dysfunctions. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a hormone that is predominantly secreted by the liver, exerts a broad range of effects upon the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Although increased circulating levels of FGF21 have been documented in animal models and human subjects with obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the functional interconnections between metabolic ER stress and FGF21 are incompletely understood. Here, we report that increased ER stress along with the simultaneous elevation of FGF21 expression were associated with the occurrence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease both in diet-induced obese mice and human patients. Intraperitoneal administration of the ER stressor tunicamycin in mice resulted in hepatic steatosis, accompanied by activation of the three canonical UPR branches and increased the expression of FGF21. Furthermore, the IRE1?-XBP1 pathway of the UPR could directly activate the transcriptional expression of Fgf21. Administration of recombinant FGF21 in mice alleviated tunicamycin-induced liver steatosis, in parallel with reduced eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP signaling. Taken together, these results suggest that FGF21 is an integral physiological component of the cellular UPR program, which exerts beneficial feedback effects upon lipid metabolism through counteracting ER stress.
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Etiology, clinical features and management of acute recurrent pancreatitis.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To study the etiology and clinical features of acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and to determine its optimal management and outcomes.
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A heroin addiction severity-associated intronic single nucleotide polymorphism modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing of the ? opioid receptor gene OPRM1 via hnRNPH interactions.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OPRM1 gene have been associated with vulnerability to opioid dependence. The current study identifies an association of an intronic SNP (rs9479757) with the severity of heroin addiction among Han-Chinese male heroin addicts. Individual SNP analysis and haplotype-based analysis with additional SNPs in the OPRM1 locus showed that mild heroin addiction was associated with the AG genotype, whereas severe heroin addiction was associated with the GG genotype. In vitro studies such as electrophoretic mobility shift assay, minigene, siRNA, and antisense morpholino oligonucleotide studies have identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNPH) as the major binding partner for the G-containing SNP site. The G-to-A transition weakens hnRNPH binding and facilitates exon 2 skipping, leading to altered expressions of OPRM1 splice-variant mRNAs and hMOR-1 proteins. Similar changes in splicing and hMOR-1 proteins were observed in human postmortem prefrontal cortex with the AG genotype of this SNP when compared with the GG genotype. Interestingly, the altered splicing led to an increase in hMOR-1 protein levels despite decreased hMOR-1 mRNA levels, which is likely contributed by a concurrent increase in single transmembrane domain variants that have a chaperone-like function on MOR-1 protein stability. Our studies delineate the role of this SNP as a modifier of OPRM1 alternative splicing via hnRNPH interactions, and suggest a functional link between an SNP-containing splicing modifier and the severity of heroin addiction.
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"Old" metal oxide affinity chromatography as "novel" strategy for specific capture of cis-diol-containing compounds.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC) materials have been extensively used for extraction of phosphate compounds in the past decade. Actually, some of these materials also possess adsorption affinity towards cis-diol-containing compounds, which was seldom explored in separation field so far. Here we present the proof-of-concept study to evaluate the feasibility of expanding MOAC for specific capture of cis-diol biomolecules. Benefitting from the high commercialisation of the metal oxide materials, such MOAC strategy possesses several advantages, like synthesis-free, low cost and high expandability. Firstly, the recognition of adenosine against 2'-deoxyadenosine was performed using zirconium oxide and cerium oxide, two typical commercial MOAC materials. The results showed that efficient adsorption and elution could be achieved easily by pH switching from basic to acidic. The isotherm curves demonstrated the adsorption process fitted well with Freundlich isotherm model and was spontaneous at room temperature (?G(0)<0) with an exothermic nature (?H(0)<0). Afterwards, the highly efficient and selective enrichment of various model cis-diol biomolecules, including ribonucleosides, glycopeptides and glycoproteins, was achieved using this MOAC strategy. Finally, the endogenous ribonucleosides and modified ribonucleosides were successfully purified from human urine sample, which demonstrated the potential application of MOAC materials in the enrichment of target compounds from complex biological samples. Besides the excellent performance of extraction for cis-diol-containing compounds, equally important is that these materials are commercially available with low cost, which makes the MOAC a promising strategy for the study of cis-diol biomolecules in metabolomics and proteomics.
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Selective histology of cholecystectomy specimens-is it justified?
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare but the most common malignancy of biliary tract with a dismal prognosis. The early diagnosis and surgical treatment of GBC offers the only chance of long-term survival. Despite advances in radiological imaging, early diagnosis of GBC is still rarely achieved without histopathology. In our hospital, routine histologic examination of all resected gallbladder specimens has been standard practice. This study seeks to define whether selective histologic examination for gallbladder specimens based on preoperative imaging or intraoperative findings is justified.
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Structure-kinetic relationship study of organozinc reagents.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Phenylzinc reagents prepared from various zinc halides show distinct kinetic features in the palladium-catalyzed Negishi-type oxidative coupling reaction, in which the phenylzinc reagent prepared from ZnI2 gives the highest rate. In situ infrared and X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that the higher reaction rate was observed for longer Zn-C bond distances.
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Characterization and biological evaluation of six new dimeric lignans with an unusual ?,?-unsaturated ketone motif from Zanthoxylum simulans.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Investigation of the bark of Zanthoxylum simulans afforded six new dimeric lignans zanthpodocarpins C-H (1-6) bearing an unusual ?,?-unsaturated ketone group. The new structures of 1-6 were determined by using detailed spectroscopic analysis. All of the isolated compounds were examined for their inhibitory effects against rat joint synovial cell and splenocyte proliferation. Compounds 1-6 showed potent anti-inflammatory activities with IC50 values ranging from 18.6 to 36.1?M, and 13.8 to 74.3?M.
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Hypertonic saline alleviates cerebral edema by inhibiting microglia-derived TNF-? and IL-1?-induced Na-K-Cl Cotransporter up-regulation.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Hypertonic saline (HS) has been successfully used clinically for treatment of various forms of cerebral edema. Up-regulated expression of Na-K-Cl Cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) and inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) has been demonstrated to be closely associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral edema resulting from a variety of brain injuries. This study aimed to explore if alleviation of cerebral edema by 10% HS might be effected through down-regulation of inflammatory mediator expression in the microglia, and thus result in decreased NKCC1 expression in astrocytes in the cerebral cortex bordering the ischemic core.
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Concentrated microalgae cultivation in treated sewage by membrane photobioreactor operated in batch flow mode.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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This study investigated the microalgae biomass production and nutrients removal efficiency from treated sewage by newly developed membrane photobioreactor in which Chlorella vulgaris was cultured in batch flow mode. Its performance was compared with conventional photobioreactor. The results show that the volumetric microalgae productivity was 39.93 and 10.36 mg L(-1)d(-1) in membrane photobioreactor and conventional photobioreactor, respectively. The nutrients removal rate in membrane photobioreactor was 4.13 mg N L(-1)d(-1) and 0.43 mg P L(-1)d(-1), which was obviously higher than that in conventional photobioreactor (0.59 mg N L(-1)d(-1) and 0.08 mg P L(-1)d(-1)). The better performance of membrane photobioreactor was due to the submerged membrane module in the reactor which acted as a solid-liquid separator and thereby enabled the reactor to operate with higher supply flow rate of cultivation medium. Moreover, in the outflow stage of the membrane photobioreactor, the microalgae culture liquor in the reactor could be further concentrated.
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Aberrant DNA methylation of the PDGF gene in homocysteine?mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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It is well established that homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (AS), which is characterized by vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying AS in VSMCs is yet to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of aberrant DNA methylation of the platelet?derived growth factor (PDGF) gene in Hcy?mediated VSMC proliferation and its underlying mechanism. Cultured human VSMCs were treated with varying concentrations of Hcy. VSMC proliferation, PDGF mRNA and protein expression and PDGF promoter demethylation showed a dose?dependent increase with Hcy concentration, suggesting an association among them. Cell cycle analysis revealed a decreased proportion of VSMCs in G0/G1 and an increased proportion in S phase, indicating that VSMC proliferation was increased under Hcy treatment. Furthermore, S?adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) levels were observed to increase and those of S?adenosylmethionine (SAM) were observed to decrease. The consequent decrease in the ratio of SAM/SAH may partially explain the hypomethylation of PDGF with Hcy treatment. Folate treatment exhibited an antagonistic effect against Hcy?induced VSMC proliferation, aberrant PDGF methylation and PDGF expression. These data suggest that Hcy may stimulate VSMC proliferation through the PDGF signaling pathway by affecting the epigenetic regulation of PDGF through the demethylation of its promoter region. These findings may provide novel insight into the molecular association between aberrant PDGF gene demethylation and the proliferation of VSMCs in Hcy?associated AS.
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The effect of lycopene on the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway in prostate cancer.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Prostate cancer is common in men with very high mortality which is one of leading causes of cancer-related deaths in men. The main treatment approaches for metastasized prostate cancer are androgen deprivation and chemotherapeutic agents. Although there are initial responses to castration, the resistance to the treatment will eventually occur, leading to castration-resistant prostate cancer. The common chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer are docetaxel and taxane but outcomes of using these drugs have not been satisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to find better treatment approaches for prostate cancer and to search for compounds that are effective in prostate cancer prevention. Lycopene extracted from tomato and other fruits or plants such as Gac, watermelon, pink grapefruit, pink guava, red carrot and papaya has been shown to be effective on prostate cancer prevention and treatment. The advantage of the application of lycopene for its anti-prostate cancer activity is that lycopene can reach much higher concentration in prostate tissue than other tissues. In this review, the effect of lycopene on PI3K/Akt pathway is summarised, which could be one of major mechanisms for anti-cancer activity of lycopene.
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Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion of macaques triggers a strong innate immune response.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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To investigate inflammatory injury in the intestinal mucosa after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IIR) with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immunity.
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Distinct structural neural patterns of trait physical and social anhedonia: Evidence from cortical thickness, subcortical volumes and inter-regional correlations.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Anhedonia is an enduring trait accounting for the reduced capacity to experience pleasure. Few studies have investigated the brain structural features associated with trait anhedonia. In this study, the relationships between cortical thickness, volume of subcortical structures and scores on the Chapman physical and social anhedonia scales were examined in a non-clinical sample (n=72, 35 males). FreeSurfer was used to examine the cortical thickness and the volume of six identified subcortical structures related to trait anhedonia. We found that the cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and the volume of the pallidum in the left hemisphere were correlated with anhedonia scores in both physical and social aspects. Specifically, positive correlations were found between levels of social anhedonia and the thickness of the postcentral and the inferior parietal gyri. Cortico-subcortical inter-correlations between these clusters were also observed. Our findings revealed distinct correlation patterns of neural substrates with trait physical and social anhedonia in a non-clinical sample. These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathologies underlying the anhedonia phenotype in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders.
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In situ detection of salicylic acid binding sites in plant tissues.
Luminescence
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The determination of hormone-binding sites in plants is essential in understanding the mechanisms behind hormone function. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone that regulates responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to label SA-binding sites in plant tissues, a quantum dots (QDs) probe functionalized with a SA moiety was successfully synthesized by coupling CdSe QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) to 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (PAS), using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyllaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as the coupling agent. The probe was then characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, as well as UV/vis and fluorescence spectrophotometry. The results confirmed the successful conjugation of PAS to CdSe QDs and revealed that the conjugates maintained the properties of the original QDs, with small core diameters and adequate dispersal in solution. The PAS-CdSe QDs were used to detect SA-binding sites in mung bean and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings in vitro and in vivo. The PAS-CdSe QDs were effectively transported into plant tissues and specifically bound to SA receptors in vivo. In addition, the effects of the PAS-CdSe QDs on cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in the tips of A. thaliana seedlings were investigated. Both SA and PAS-CdSe QDs had similar effects on the trend in cytosolic-free Ca(2+) concentrations, suggesting that the PAS-CdSe QDs maintained the bioactivity of SA. To summarize, PAS-CdSe QDs have high potential as a fluorescent probe for the in vitro/in vivo labeling and imaging of SA receptors in plants. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Ultrasensitive detection of mercury with a novel one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip based on gold nanoparticle-labeled ssDNA recognition and enhancement probes.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A novel one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip (SA-LFS) is described for direct ultrasensitive and on-site detection of Hg(2+) based on the specific recognition system of thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as labeling tags. The signal was also amplified by hybridization induced dual labeling of AuNPs, which increased signal intensity of test line on strips. The presence of both probes on the LFS enabled both sensing and signal amplification to be achieved in a single step. The resulting SA-LFS is capable of rapid and ultrasensitive detection of Hg(2+) with LODs of 0.005 ppb and 0.0015 ppb by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. At least 40-fold improvement in sensitivity of the traditional LFS was achieved through this signal amplification process. The successful application of the method to the determination of Hg(2+) in water sample is reported. The proposed signal amplification process may also be applicable to other LFS-based methods.
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Playing hide and seek: how glycosylation of the influenza virus hemagglutinin can modulate the immune response to infection.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The viral HA is the major target recognized by neutralizing antibodies and glycans have been proposed to shield antigenic sites on HA, thereby promoting virus survival in the face of widespread vaccination and/or infection. However, addition of glycans can also interfere with the receptor binding properties of HA and this must be compensated for by additional mutations, creating a fitness barrier to accumulation of glycosylation sites. In addition, glycans on HA are also recognized by phylogenetically ancient lectins of the innate immune system and the benefit provided by evasion of humoral immunity is balanced by attenuation of infection. Therefore, a fine balance must exist regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to offset competing pressures associated with recognition by innate defenses, evasion of humoral immunity and maintenance of virus fitness. In this review, we examine HA glycosylation patterns of IAV associated with pandemic and seasonal influenza and discuss recent advancements in our understanding of interactions between IAV glycans and components of innate and adaptive immunity.
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Modulation of alternative splicing by expression of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, catalyzed by small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), plays an important role in proteome complexity and the modulation of cellular functions. snRNP polypeptide N (SmN), is tissue-specifically expressed, where it replaces snRNP polypeptide B (SmB)/B' in the Sm core assembly of snRNPs. Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbation of snRNPs leads to alternative splicing, but whether SmN modulates functions of the splicing machinery remains unclear. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of SmN increased utilization of the proximal 5' splice site on an adenovirus early gene 1A reporter. To evaluate the molecular mechanisms underlying SmN-dependent alternative splicing, we generated a HeLa cell line with an inducible expression system for SmN. Upon SmN induction, SmB/B' expression decreased dramatically, despite only small changes in the level and splicing pattern of SNRPB mRNA. In addition, SmN was incorporated into the U2 snRNP but not into the U1 snRNP after induction. Sedimentation analysis revealed a decrease in the level of mature U2 snRNP. This result suggests that SmN incorporation into the Sm core may impede processing, decreasing the level of functional U2 snRNP. We also found that the inclusion frequencies of alternatively spliced exons in the bridging integrator 1 and exocyst complex component 7 (EXOC7) genes were modulated by SmN expression. An enhanced GFP-EXOC7 reporter was used to confirm that SmN increases the inclusion frequency of EXOC7 exon 7. Taken together, our findings indicate that SmN expression reduces the level of mature U2 snRNP, leading to alternative splicing.
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Polyetheretherketone/nano-fluorohydroxyapatite composite with antimicrobial activity and osseointegration properties.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Lack of antibacterial activity and binding ability to natural bone tissue has significantly limited polyetheretherketone (PEEK) for many challenging dental implant applications. Here, we have developed a polyetheretherketone/nano-fluorohydroxyapatite (PEEK/nano-FHA) biocomposite with enhanced antibacterial activity and osseointegration through blending method. Smooth and rough surfaces of PEEK/nano-FHA biocomposites were also prepared. Our results showed that in vitro initial cell adhesion and proliferation on the nano-FHA reinforced PEEK composite were improved. In addition, higher alkaline phosphatase activity and cell mineralization were also detected in cells cultured on PEEK/nano-FHA biocomposites, especially for rough PEEK/nano-FHA surfaces. More importantly, the as-prepared PEEK/nano-FHA biocomposite could effectively prevent the proliferation and biofilm formation of bacterial. For in vivo test, the newly formed bone volume of PEEK/nano-FHA group was higher than that of bare PEEK group based on 3D microcomputed tomography and 2D histomorphometric analysis. These reports demonstrate that the developed PEEK/nano-FHA biocomposite has increased biocompatibility and antibacterial activity in vitro, and promoted osseointegration in vivo, which suggests that it holds potential to be applied as dental implant material in dental tissue engineering applications.
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1H-Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic analysis of brain in mice with nicotine treatment.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from cigarette smoke and therefore induces a number of chronic illnesses with the widespread use of tobacco products. Studies have shown a few cerebral metabolites modified by nicotine; however, endogenous metabolic profiling in brain has not been well explored.
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Dynamic sensory cues shape song structure in Drosophila.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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The generation of acoustic communication signals is widespread across the animal kingdom, and males of many species, including Drosophilidae, produce patterned courtship songs to increase their chance of success with a female. For some animals, song structure can vary considerably from one rendition to the next; neural noise within pattern generating circuits is widely assumed to be the primary source of such variability, and statistical models that incorporate neural noise are successful at reproducing the full variation present in natural songs. In direct contrast, here we demonstrate that much of the pattern variability in Drosophila courtship song can be explained by taking into account the dynamic sensory experience of the male. In particular, using a quantitative behavioural assay combined with computational modelling, we find that males use fast modulations in visual and self-motion signals to pattern their songs, a relationship that we show is evolutionarily conserved. Using neural circuit manipulations, we also identify the pathways involved in song patterning choices and show that females are sensitive to song features. Our data not only demonstrate that Drosophila song production is not a fixed action pattern, but establish Drosophila as a valuable new model for studies of rapid decision-making under both social and naturalistic conditions.
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Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: Suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF).
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Direct observation of reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by terminal alkynes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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X-ray absorption spectroscopy and in situ electron paramagnetic resonance evidence were provided for the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) species by alkynes in the presence of tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), in which TMEDA plays dual roles as both ligand and base. The structures of the starting Cu(II) species and the obtained Cu(I) species were determined as (TMEDA)CuCl2 and [(TMEDA)CuCl]2 dimer, respectively.
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Cyclosporine A induces connective tissue growth factor expression in human gingival fibroblasts: Suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth (GO). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) acts as a cofactor with TGF-? to induce the maximal profibrotic effects of TGF-?. We investigated the effects of CsA on CCN2 expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and the potential chemopreventive agent for CsA-induced GO.
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Effects of Bile Acids and the Bile Acid Receptor FXR Agonist on the Respiratory Rhythm in the In Vitro Brainstem Medulla Slice of Neonatal Sprague-Dawley Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy is always accompanied by adverse fetal outcomes such as malfunctions of respiration. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in the homeostasis of bile acids. Thus, we are determined to explore the effects of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and five bile acids on respiratory rhythm generation and modulation of neonatal rats. Spontaneous periodic respiratory-related rhythmical discharge activity (RRDA) was recorded from hypoglossal nerves during the perfusion of modified Krebs solution. Group 1-6 was each given GW4064 and five bile acids of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), cholic acid (CA) as well as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at different concentrations to identify their specific functions on respiratory rhythm modulations. Group 7 was applied to receive FXR blocker Z-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone with the above bile acids separately to explore the role of FXR in the respiratory rhythm modulation. Group 8 was given dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as controls. Apart from UDCA, CDCA, DCA LCA and CA all exerted effects on RRDA recorded from hypoglossal nerves in a concentration-dependent manner. Respiratory cycle (RC), Inspiratory time (TI), Expiratory Time (TE) and Integral Amplitude (IA) were influenced and such effects could be reversed by Z-guggulsterone. FXR may contribute to the effects on the modulation of respiratory rhythm exerted by bile acids.
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NK cell phenotypic modulation in lung cancer environment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nature killer (NK) cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunotherapy. But it indicated that tumor cells impacted possibly on NK cell normal functions through some molecules mechanisms in tumor microenvironment.
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Prevalence and clinical relevance of T-helper cells, Th17 and Th1, in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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An immune imbalance in the cytokine profile exerts a profound influence on the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The present study evaluated the immune status of T helper (Th) 17 and Th1 cells in patients with HBV-related and non-HBV-related HCC.
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Spatial covariance reconstructive (SCORE) super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a powerful tool to resolve structural information that is not accessible to traditional diffraction-limited imaging techniques such as confocal microscopy. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) are promising super-resolution techniques due to their relative ease of implementation and instrumentation on standard microscopes. However, the application of STORM is critically limited by its long sampling time. Several recent works have been focused on improving the STORM imaging speed by making use of the information from emitters with overlapping point spread functions (PSF). In this work, we present a fast and efficient algorithm that takes into account the blinking statistics of independent fluorescence emitters. We achieve sub-diffraction lateral resolution of 100 nm from 5 to 7 seconds of imaging. Our method is insensitive to background and can be applied to different types of fluorescence sources, including but not limited to the organic dyes and quantum dots that we demonstrate in this work.
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Antibiotic-decorated titanium with enhanced antibacterial activity through adhesive polydopamine for dental/bone implant.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Implant-associated infections, which are normally induced by microbial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, practical approaches to prevent implant-associated infections are in great demand. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we have developed a novel antibiotic-decorated titanium (Ti) material with enhanced antibacterial activity. In this study, Ti substrate was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine followed by immobilization of the antibiotic cefotaxime sodium (CS) onto the polydopamine-coated Ti through catechol chemistry. Contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of CS grafted on the Ti surface. Our results demonstrated that the antibiotic-grafted Ti substrate showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. In addition, the antibiotic-grafted Ti could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive). Moreover, the inhibition of biofilm formation on the antibiotic-decorated Ti indicated that the grafted CS could maintain its long-term antibacterial activity. This modified Ti substrate with enhanced antibacterial activity holds great potential as implant material for applications in dental and bone graft substitutes.
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Mechanisms of metabonomic for a gateway drug: nicotine priming enhances behavioral response to cocaine with modification in energy metabolism and neurotransmitter level.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nicotine, one of the most commonly used drugs, has become a major concern because tobacco serves as a gateway drug and is linked to illicit drug abuse, such as cocaine and marijuana. However, previous studies mainly focused on certain genes or neurotransmitters which have already been known to participate in drug addiction, lacking endogenous metabolic profiling in a global view. To further explore the mechanism by which nicotine modifies the response to cocaine, we developed two conditioned place preference (CPP) models in mice. In threshold dose model, mice were pretreated with nicotine, followed by cocaine treatment at the dose of 2 mg/kg, a threshold dose of cocaine to induce CPP in mice. In high-dose model, mice were only treated with 20 mg/kg cocaine, which induced a significant CPP. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance based on metabonomics was used to investigate metabolic profiles of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum. We found that nicotine pretreatment dramatically increased CPP induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, which was similar to 20 mg/kg cocaine-induced CPP. Interestingly, metabolic profiles showed considerable overlap between these two models. These overlapped metabolites mainly included neurotransmitters as well as the molecules participating in energy homeostasis and cellular metabolism. Our results show that the reinforcing effect of nicotine on behavioral response to cocaine may attribute to the modification of some specific metabolites in NAc and striatum, thus creating a favorable metabolic environment for enhancing conditioned rewarding effect of cocaine. Our findings provide an insight into the effect of cigarette smoking on cocaine dependence and the underlying mechanism.
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A Single Amino Acid Substitution in the Hemagglutinin of H3N2 Subtype Influenza A Viruses Is Associated with Resistance to the Long Pentraxin PTX3 and Enhanced Virulence in Mice.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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The long pentraxin, pentraxin 3 (PTX3), can play beneficial or detrimental roles during infection and disease by modulating various aspects of the immune system. There is growing evidence to suggest that PTX3 can mediate antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies demonstrated that PTX3 and the short pentraxin serum amyloid P express sialic acids that are recognized by the hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of certain influenza A viruses (IAV), resulting in virus neutralization and anti-IAV activity. In this study, we demonstrate that specificity of both HA and the viral neuraminidase for particular sialic acid linkages determines the susceptibility of H1N1, H3N2, and H7N9 strains to the antiviral activities of PTX3 and serum amyloid P. Selection of H3N2 virus mutants resistant to PTX3 allowed for identification of amino acid residues in the vicinity of the receptor-binding pocket of HA that are critical determinants of sensitivity to PTX3; this was supported by sequence analysis of a range of H3N2 strains that were sensitive or resistant to PTX3. In a mouse model of infection, the enhanced virulence of PTX3-resistant mutants was associated with increased virus replication and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the airways, leading to pulmonary inflammation and lung injury. Together, these studies identify determinants in the viral HA that can be associated with sensitivity to the antiviral activities of PTX3 and highlight its importance in the control of IAV infection.
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In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering.
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Efficacy and safety of Changfu peritoneal dialysis solution: a multi-center prospective randomized controlled trial.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
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A multi-center large scale study is needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of domestic peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions. Some researchers believe that 6 L/d is enough for adequate dialysis, but there is no multi-center prospective study on Chinese population to confirm this. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of domestic PD solution (Changfu) and its difference between 6 L and 8 L dosage.
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[Effect of oxymatrine on JAK2/STAT3 signaling in renal tissues of tats with septic shock].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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To explore the effect of oxymatrine (OMT) on JAK2/STAT3 signaling in renal tissues of rats with septic shock.
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Diagnostic efficacy of PET and PET/CT for recurrent lung cancer: a meta-analysis.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world, and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although there are no conclusive data to support the survival benefits of early detection or early treatment for recurrence, an early and accurate diagnosis of recurrence is critical to optimize therapy.
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[Risk factors and therapy strategies of acute pulmonary edema in critically ill patients with multiple trauma].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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To analyze the risk factors and therapy strategies of acute pulmonary edema (APE) in critically ill patients with multiple trauma.
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[Influence of substrate concentration on PHA production using fermented sugar cane as substrate].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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PHA was a kind of biodegradable polymer produced by mixed microorganisms. In recent years, 3-stage PHA synthesis process (including substrate hydrolysis, culture selection, and PHA synthesis) was commonly used for PHA production. In this kind of process, culture selection is the key stage, which directly affects the PHA production efficiency. In order to deal with sludge bulking occurred in the culture selection system, this paper analyzes the influence of substrate concentration on culture selection efficiency as well as operation stability. Under different influent substrate concentrations of 560 mg x L(-1), 1 120 mg x L(-1) and 1 680 mg x L(-1), we confirmed that influent substrate concentration (COD) of 1 120 mg x L(-1) is the most suitable parameter for the bacteria enriching process after a long period of time under short SRT. After 94 days of cultivation, we achieved 50% of PHA content, 0.7145 COD/COD of PHA conversion rate and 0.191 2 mg x (mg x h)(-1) of specific PHA storage rate at the end of batch tests with nutrient starvation. The study also confirmed that glycogen level in cells has a close relationship with its PHA synthesis ability, which shows its potential to predict the enrichment efficiency.
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Atg24-assisted mitophagy in the foot cells is necessary for proper asexual differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Macroautophagy-mediated glycogen catabolism is required for asexual differentiation in the blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the function(s) of selective subtypes of autophagy has not been studied therein. Here, we report that mitophagy, selective autophagic delivery of mitochondria to the vacuoles for degradation, occurs during early stages of Magnaporthe conidiation. Specifically, mitophagy was evident in the foot cells while being undetectable in aerial hyphae and/or conidiophores. We show that loss of MoAtg24, a sorting nexin related to yeast Snx4, disrupts mitophagy and consequently leads to highly reduced conidiation, suggesting that mitophagy in the foot cells plays an important role during asexual development in Magnaporthe. Ectopic expression of yeast ScATG32 partially suppressed the conidiation initiation defects associated with MoATG24 deletion. MoAtg24 was neither required for pexophagy nor for macroautophagy, or for MoAtg8 localization per se, but directly associated with and likely recruited mitochondria to the autophagic structures during mitophagy. Lastly, MoAtg24 was also required for oxidative stress response in Magnaporthe.
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Cycle stability of the electrochemical capacitors patterned with vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in an LiPF6-based electrolyte.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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The miniature ultracapacitors, with interdigitated electrodes of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) and an inter-electrode gap of 20 ?m, have been prepared in the LiPF6 organic electrolyte with and without PVdF-HFP gel. PVdF-HFP between two opposing electrodes enhances the device reliability, but lessens its power performance because of the extra diffusion resistance. Also noteworthy are the gel influences on the cycle stability. When the applied voltage is 2.0 or 2.5 V, both the LiPF6 and the gel capacitors exhibit excellent stability, typified by a retention ratio of ?95% after 10,000 cycles. Their coulombic efficiencies quickly rise up, and hold steady at 100%. Nonetheless, when the applied voltage is 3.5 or 4.0 V, the cycle stability deteriorates, since the negative electrode potential descends below 0.9 V (vs. Li), leading to electrolyte decomposition and SEI formation. For the LiPF6 capacitor, its retention ratio could be around 60% after 10,000 cycles and the coulombic efficiency of 100% is difficult to reach throughout its cycle life. On the other hand, the gel capacitor cycles energy with a much higher retention ratio, >80% after 10,000 cycles, and a better coulombic efficiency, even though electrolyte decomposition still occurs. We attribute the superior stability of the gel capacitor to its extra diffusion resistance which slows down the performance deterioration.
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Poly[diaqua[?4-4-(isonicotinamido)phthalato]nickel(II)] displaying an sra topology.
Acta Crystallogr C
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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In the title compound, [Ni(C14H8N2O5)(H2O)2]n, the Ni(II) cation is six-coordinate with a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry and the 4-(isonicotinamido)phthalate ligand links the Ni(II) centres into a three-dimensional structure with sra topology. The structure is also stabilized by N-H···O hydrogen bonding between the uncoordinated amide groups of the ligand and extensive O-H···O hydrogen bonding between the two coordinated water molecules. The magnetic and thermal stability properties of the title compound are also discussed.
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate stimulated connective tissue growth factor expression in human buccal fibroblasts: Inhibition by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been associated with the pathogenesis of various fibrotic diseases, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). The chemical constituents of areca nut along with the mechanical trauma cause OSF. The coarse fibers of areca nut injure the mucosa and hence sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is released at the wounded sites. Recent studies have shown that S1P is involved in wound healing and the development of fibrosis. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of S1P on CCN2 expression in human buccal fibroblasts (HBFs) and identify the potential targets for drug intervention or chemoprevention of OSF.
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The recent establishment of North American H10 lineage influenza viruses in Australian wild waterfowl and the evolution of Australian avian influenza viruses.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Influenza A H10N7 virus with a hemagglutinin gene of North American origin was detected in Australian chickens and poultry abattoir workers in New South Wales, Australia, in 2010 and in chickens in Queensland, Australia, on a mixed chicken and domestic duck farm in 2012. We investigated their genomic origins by sequencing full and partial genomes of H10 viruses isolated from wild aquatic birds and poultry in Australia and analyzed them with all available avian influenza virus sequences from Oceania and representative viruses from North America and Eurasia. Our analysis showed that the H10N7 viruses isolated from poultry were similar to those that have been circulating since 2009 in Australian aquatic birds and that their initial transmission into Australia occurred during 2007 and 2008. The H10 viruses that appear to have developed endemicity in Australian wild aquatic birds were derived from several viruses circulating in waterfowl along various flyways. Their hemagglutinin gene was derived from aquatic birds in the western states of the United States, whereas the neuraminidase was closely related to that from viruses previously detected in waterfowl in Japan. The remaining genes were derived from Eurasian avian influenza virus lineages. Our analysis of virological data spanning 40 years in Oceania indicates that the long-term evolutionary dynamics of avian influenza viruses in Australia may be determined by climatic changes. The introduction and long-term persistence of avian influenza virus lineages were observed during periods with increased rainfall, whereas bottlenecks and extinction were observed during phases of widespread decreases in rainfall. These results extend our understanding of factors affecting the dynamics of avian influenza and provide important considerations for surveillance and disease control strategies.
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Poly[[tetra-aqua-tetra-kis-[?3-5-(pyridine-4-carboxamido)-isophthalato]nickel(II)diterbium(III)] tetra-hydrate].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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In the title compound, {[NiTb2(C14H8N2O5)4(H2O)4]·4H2O} n , the Tb(III) ion is coordinated by one water mol-ecule and seven O atoms from four 5-(pyridine-4-carboxamido)-isophthalate (L) ligands in a distorted square-anti-prismatic arrangement, while the Ni(II) ion, lying on an inversion center, is six-coordinated in an octa-hedral geometry by two pyridine N atoms, two carboxyl-ate O atoms and two water mol-ecules. One L ligand bridges two Tb(III) ions and one Ni(II) ion through two carboxyl-ate groups and one pyridine N atom. The other L ligand bridges two Tb(III) ions and one Ni(II) ion through two carboxyl-ate groups, while the uncoordinating pyridine N atom is hydrogen bonded to an adjacent coordinating water mol-ecule. Extensive O-H?O, N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonds play an important role in stabilizing the crystal structure.
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Peptide-decorated polyvinyl alcohol/hyaluronan nanofibers for human induced pluripotent stem cell culture.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Realization of the full potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in clinical applications requires development of well-defined conditions for their growth and differentiation. A novel fully defined polyvinyl alcohol/hyaluronan (PVA/HA) polysaccharide nanofiber was developed for hiPSCs culture in commercially available xeno-free, chemically defined medium. Vitronectin peptide (VP) was immobilized to PVA/HA nanofibers through NHS/EDC chemistry. The hiPSCs successfully grew and proliferated on the VP-decorated PVA/HA nanofibers, similar to those on Matrigel™. Such well-defined, xeno-free and safe nanofiber substrate that supports culture of hiPSCs will not only help to accelerate the translational perspectives of hiPSCs, but also provide a platform to investigate the cell-nanofiber interaction mechanisms that regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation.
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EBV-miR-BART1 is involved in regulating metabolism-associated genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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EBV-miR-BART1 has been found to be highly expressed in some cancers including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but its exact roles in the pathogenesis of NPC remain unclear. Here, we did RNA deep sequencing to compare the gene expression profile between EBV-miR-BART1-expressing CNE1 cells and the control cells to determine the possible effects of EBV-miR-BART1 in NPC. Gene expression profiling analysis unexpectedly showed a significant number of up- and down-modulated metabolism-associated genes, such as G6PD, SAT1, ASS1, PAST1, FUT1, SGPL1, DHRS3, B4GALT1, PHGDH, IDH2, PISD, UGT8, LDHB and GALNT1, in EBV-miR-BART1-expressing NPC cells, which were next confirmed by RT-qPCR. Moreover, of these metabolism-genes, PSAT1 and PHGDH expression levels were significantly upregulated and most of other genes were obviously up-expressed in NPC specimens compared with chronic nasopharyngitis (CNP) tissues. Collectively, we for the first time found the effects of EBV-miR-BART1 on the expression of mechanism-associated genes in NPC, suggesting a novel role of EBV-miR-BART1 in cancer metabolism, which remains to be fully elucidated.
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[Clinical value of extravascular lung water and preload parameters in weaning of mechanical ventilation in patients with septic shock].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To investigate the values of extravascular lung water and preload parameters of weaning from mechanical ventilation on patients with septic shock.
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Peptide decorated nano-hydroxyapatite with enhanced bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation via polydopamine coating.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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To be better used as implant materials in bone graft substitutes, bioactivity and osteogenesis of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) need to be further enhanced. Inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, here we developed a novel bone forming peptide decorated nano-HA material. In this study, nano-HA was coated by one-step pH-induced polymerization of dopamine, and then the peptide was grafted onto polydopamine (pDA) coated nano-HA (HA-pDA) through catechol chemistry. Our results demonstrated that the peptide-conjugated nano-HA crystals could induce the adhesion and proliferation of MG-63 cells. Moreover, the highly alkaline phosphatase activity of the functionalized nano-HA indicated that the grafted peptide could maintain its biological activity after immobilization onto the surface of HA-pDA, especially at the concentration of 100?g/mL. These modified nano-HA crystals with better bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials in bone repairing, bone regeneration and bio-implant coating applications.
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The use of pyrosequencer-generated sequence-signatures to identify the influenza B-lineage and the subclade of the B/Yamataga-lineage viruses from currently circulating human influenza B viruses.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Influenza B viruses belong to two antigenically and genetically distinct lineages which co-circulate in varying proportions in many countries.
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One-step signal amplified lateral flow strip biosensor for ultrasensitive and on-site detection of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous samples.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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A one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip (LFS) biosensor has been developed for ultrasensitive and on-site visual detection of bisphenol A (BPA). This signal amplified LFS was based on the dual labeling using different-sized gold nanoparticles (Duo-LFS). This Duo-LFS could achieve BPA detection with 0.5 ng/mL as the visual sensitivity by naked eye observation and with 0.076 ng/mL as the limit of detection (LOD) for semi-quantitative detection by software analysis, which is at least 10-fold improvement of the sensitivity of traditional LFS based methods. This one-step signal amplified lateral flow strip biosensor and related signal enhancement method could be adopted as a potential generous technique for all LFS-based detection methods.
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Biomimetic synthesis and biocompatibility evaluation of carbonated apatites template-mediated by heparin.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Biomimetic synthesis of carbonated apatites with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the broadening application of apatites for bone tissue engineering. Most researchers were interested in collagen or gelatin-based templates for synthesis of apatite minerals. Inspired by recent findings about the important role of polysaccharides in bone biomineralization, here we reported that heparin, a mucopolysaccharide, was used to synthesize carbonated apatites in vitro. The results indicated that the Ca/P ratio, carbon content, crystallinity and morphology of the apatites varied depending on the heparin concentration and the initial pH value. The morphology of apatite changed from flake-shaped to needle-shaped, and the degree of crystallinity decreased with the increasing of heparin concentration. Biocompatibility of the apatites was tested by proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results suggested that carbonated apatites synthesized in the presence of heparin were more favorable to the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells compared with traditional method. In summary, the heparin concentration and the initial pH value play a key role in the chemical constitution and morphology, as well as biological properties of apatites. These biocompatible nano-apatite crystals hold great potential to be applied as bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks triethylene glycol dimethacrylate-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by suppressing extracellular signal-regulated kinase in human dental pulp and embryonic palatal mesenchymal cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Methacrylate resin-based materials could release components into adjacent environment even after polymerization. The major components leached include triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). TEGDMA has been shown to induce the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). However, the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aims of this study were to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying TEGDMA-induced COX-2 in 2 oral cell types, the primary culture of human dental pulp (HDP) cells and the human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) pre-osteoblasts, and to propose potential strategy to prevent or ameliorate the TEGDMA-induced inflammation in oral tissues.
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Addition of glycosylation to influenza A virus hemagglutinin modulates antibody-mediated recognition of H1N1 2009 pandemic viruses.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Seasonal influenza A viruses (IAV) originate from pandemic IAV and have undergone changes in antigenic structure, including addition of glycans to the viral hemagglutinin (HA). Glycans on the head of HA promote virus survival by shielding antigenic sites, but highly glycosylated seasonal IAV are inactivated by soluble lectins of the innate immune system. In 2009, human strains of pandemic H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm] expressed a single glycosylation site (Asn(104)) on the head of HA. Since then, variants with additional glycosylation sites have been detected, and the location of these sites has been distinct to those of recent seasonal H1N1 strains. We have compared wild-type and reverse-engineered A(H1N1)pdm IAV with differing potential glycosylation sites on HA for sensitivity to collectins and to neutralizing Abs. Addition of a glycan (Asn(136)) to A(H1N1)pdm HA was associated with resistance to neutralizing Abs but did not increase sensitivity to collectins. Moreover, variants expressing Asn(136) showed enhanced growth in A(H1N1)pdm-vaccinated mice, consistent with evasion of Ab-mediated immunity in vivo. Thus, a fine balance exists regarding the optimal pattern of HA glycosylation to facilitate evasion of Ab-mediated immunity while maintaining resistance to lectin-mediated defenses of the innate immune system.
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Evaluation of protective efficacy conferred by a recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a fusion protein of Ag85A-ESAT-6.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2013
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BACKGROUND: We previously constructed a recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin (rBCG-AE) strain that could express a fused Ag85A-ESAT-6 protein. That study suggested that the rBCG-AE strain was able to induce a higher titer of antibody and elicit a more long-lived and stronger Th1-type cellular immune responses than the parental BCG strain, the rBCG-A strain (i.e., expressing Ag85A), or the rBCG-E strain (i.e., expressing ESAT-6). METHODS: In the current study, we further investigated the strains protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv infection in BALB/c mice through evaluating organ bacterial loads, lung histopathology, lung immunohistochemistry, and net weight gain or loss by using conventional BCG, rBCG-A, and rBCG-E as the controls. RESULTS: From the 3rd to 9th weeks after the challenge infection, the bacterial counts were significantly lower in tissues (e.g., spleen and lung tissues) in the mice immunized with rBCG-AE than in the control group, but were higher than the counts in the BCG group. The pathological damage in the lung tissues of the rBCG-AE group gradually improved from the 6th to 9th weeks after being infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, but the score of pathological changes in the rBCG-AE group was obviously higher than the score in the BCG group. There was no difference in the percentage of IFN-? and iNOS positive cells in the lung tissues of the rBCG-AE and BCG groups. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that rBCG-AE can not promote protective efficacy against M. tuberculosis H37Rv infection, compared to the BCG vaccine.
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Generation of gene disruptions by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in Xenopus tropicalis embryos.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are novel engineered DNA nucleases, and have been proven to be effective for gene specific targeting in various species. Recently we reported gene disruptions in Xenopus embryos by using TALENs. Here we summarize the protocol that is used in our studies for gene disruption. This protocol covers selection of TALEN targeting sites, TALEN assembly with a modified Golden Gate method, and injection of TALEN mRNAs into Xenopus tropicalis embryos. We also provide details for detection of somatic and germ line transmitted mutations. And finally, we briefly describe establishment of knockout Xenopus lines. This protocol will facilitate broader applications of TALENs in studies of Xenopus biology.
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Efficient multiple object tracking using mutually repulsive active membranes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila) and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus). Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than 5 x 10(-6) per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus.
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Relationship between pancreaticobiliary maljunction and gallbladder carcinoma: meta-analysis.
HBPD INT
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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Reports on the relationship between pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) and gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) are conflicting. The frequency of PBM in GBC patients and the clinical features of GBC patients with PBM vary in different studies.
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Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2011
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use.
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Enhancement of specific cellular immune response induced by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored BCR/ABL and mIL-12.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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bcr/abl fusion gene is thought to be a promising target for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients to enhance immune response after attaining complete remission. In this study, we sought to enhance cellular immunity by co-expression of BCR/ABL and murine IL-12 gene on the tumor cell surface as a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-form. The successfully constructed plasmid pBudCE4.1-BCR/ABL-GPI-mIL12 resulted in high levels of splenocyte proliferative responses, significant levels of IL-2 and IFN?, and strong cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses in vitro. In a murine transplant model, the vaccinated mice showed decreased infiltration of leukemia cells and reduced expression of BCR/ABL transcripts and protein in bone marrow cells. Results of the present study indicated that this novel immunization strategy is useful in enhancing immune protection in mice, which would provide new insights into the development of effective vaccines for treating CML.
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[Study on HPLC fingerprint of Alpinia officinarum].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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To establish the chromatography fingerprint of Alpinia officinarum by HPLC.
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[The effect of small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 modification on the formation of Lewy body-like inclusions in cytoplasm and apoptosis of HEK293 cell induced by overexpression and mutation of alpha-synuclein].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
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To investigate the effect of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO-1) modification on the formation of Lewy body like inclusions in cytoplasm and apoptosis of HEK293 cell induced by overexpression and mutation of alpha-synuclein.
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Poly[[tetra-aqua-tetra-kis-[?(3)-5-(pyridine-4-carboxamido)-isophthalato]-cobalt(II)-diholmium(III)] tetra-hydrate].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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In the centrosymmetric polymeric title compound, {[CoHo(2)(C(14)H(8)N(2)O(5))(4)(H(2)O)(4)]·4H(2)O}(n), the Ho(III) ion is coordinated by one water mol-ecule and four 5-(pyridine-4-carboxamido)-isophthalate (L) ligands in a distorted square-anti-prismatic arrangement. The Co(II) ion, located on an inversion center, is coordinated by two pyridine N atoms, two carboxyl-ate O atoms and two water mol-ecules in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. One L ligand bridges two Ho ions and one Co ion through two carboxyl-ate groups and one pyridine N atom. The other L ligand bridges two Ho ions and one Co ion through two carboxyl-ate groups, while the uncoordinated pyridine N atom accepts a hydrogen bond from an adjacent coordinated water mol-ecule. Extensive O-H?O, N-H?O and O-H?N hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.